DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Scherneck, H.G.
2003-01-01
Crustal deformations caused by surface load due to ocean tides are strongly dependent on the surface load closest to the observing site. In order to correctly model this ocean loading effect near irregular coastal areas, a high-resolution coastline is required. A test is carried out using two GPS...
Conservative management of displaced horizontal root fracture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev Kunhappan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of teeth are the main cause of emergency treatment in dental practice. Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Horizontal root fractures are more frequently observed in the maxillary anterior region of young male patients and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions. Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root followed by apical and coronal third. The present case report describes a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture located at the middle third of a maxillary left-central incisor treated endodontically after approximating fracture segment with the help of orthodontic appliance. After 6 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with normal periodontal health.
Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Yangyang; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Zhenglin; You, Zewei; Ma, Yuan
2018-01-01
The traditional measurement method for the horizontal displacement of deep soil usually uses an inclinometer for piecewise measurement and then generates an artificial reading, which takes a long time and often contains errors; in addition, the anti-jamming and long-term stability of the inclinometer is poor. In this paper, a technique for monitoring horizontal displacement based on distributed optical fibres is introduced. The relationship between the strain and the deflection was described by a theoretical model, and the strain distribution of the inclinometer tube was measured by the cables laid on its surface so that the deflection of the inclinometer tube could be calculated by the difference algorithm and regarded as the horizontal displacement of deep soil. The horizontal displacement monitoring technology of deep soil based on distributed optical fibre sensors developed in this paper not only overcame the shortcomings of traditional inclinometer technology to realize automatic real-time monitoring but also allowed for distributed measurement. The experiment was similar to the expected engineering situations, and the deflection calculated from the strain was compared with an inclinometer. The results demonstrated that the relative error between the distributed optical fibre sensors and the inclinometer was less than 8.0%, and the results also verified both the feasibility of using distributed optical fibre to monitor the horizontal displacement of soil as well as the rationality of the theoretical model and difference algorithm. The application of distributed optical fibre in monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep soil in the engineering of foundation pits and slopes can more accurately evaluate the safety of engineering during construction.
Reliability of buildings in service limit state for maximum horizontal displacements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. G. B. Corelhano
Full Text Available Brazilian design code ABNT NBR6118:2003 - Design of Concrete Structures - Procedures - [1] proposes the use of simplified models for the consideration of non-linear material behavior in the evaluation of horizontal displacements in buildings. These models penalize stiffness of columns and beams, representing the effects of concrete cracking and avoiding costly physical non-linear analyses. The objectives of the present paper are to investigate the accuracy and uncertainty of these simplified models, as well as to evaluate the reliabilities of structures designed following ABNT NBR6118:2003[1&] in the service limit state for horizontal displacements. Model error statistics are obtained from 42 representative plane frames. The reliabilities of three typical (4, 8 and 12 floor buildings are evaluated, using the simplified models and a rigorous, physical and geometrical non-linear analysis. Results show that the 70/70 (column/beam stiffness reduction model is more accurate and less conservative than the 80/40 model. Results also show that ABNT NBR6118:2003 [1] design criteria for horizontal displacement limit states (masonry damage according to ACI 435.3R-68(1984 [10] are conservative, and result in reliability indexes which are larger than those recommended in EUROCODE [2] for irreversible service limit states.
Liu, Peng; Xie, Shulin; Zhang, Lixiao; Zhou, Guangyi; Zhao, Xuefeng
2018-03-01
A certain level of horizontal displacement will occur during excavation or subsequent construction of deep foundation pit. If the support is improper and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is too large, it will cause collapse and even affect the buildings around the foundation pit, which will endanger people's life and property. Therefore, the horizontal displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit becomes more and more important. At present, the electronic total station is often used to monitor the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit, but this monitoring method is expensive, prone to accidental errors, and can not be used for real-time monitoring. Therefore, a method of monitoring the horizontal displacement of deep foundation pit by using laser projection sensing technique is proposed in this paper. The horizontal displacement of the foundation pit is replaced by the displacement of the laser spot emitted by the laser, and the horizontal displacement of the foundation pit can be obtained by identifying the displacement of the laser spot projected on the screen. A series of experiments show that the accuracy of this monitoring method meets the engineering requirements and greatly reduces the cost, which provides a new technology for the displacement monitoring of deep foundation pit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahi, A.; Bahrami, M.; Rastegar, J.
2002-01-01
The tip displacement variance of an articulated robotic manipulator to simultaneous horizontal and vertical stochastic base excitation is studied. The dynamic equations for an n-links manipulator subjected to both horizontal and vertical stochastic excitations are derived by Lagrangian method and decoupled for small displacement of joints. The dynamic response covariance of the manipulator links is computed in the coordinate frame attached to the base and then the principal variance of tip displacement is determined. Finally, simulation for a two-link planner robotic manipulator under base excitation is developed. Then sensitivity of the principal variance of tip displacement and tip velocity to manipulator configuration, damping, excitation parameters and manipulator links length are investigated
Estimating Horizontal Displacement between DEMs by Means of Particle Image Velocimetry Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan F. Reinoso
2015-12-01
Full Text Available To date, digital terrain model (DTM accuracy has been studied almost exclusively by computing its height variable. However, the largely ignored horizontal component bears a great influence on the positional accuracy of certain linear features, e.g., in hydrological features. In an effort to fill this gap, we propose a means of measurement different from the geomatic approach, involving fluid mechanics (water and air flows or aerodynamics. The particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm is proposed as an estimator of horizontal differences between digital elevation models (DEM in grid format. After applying a scale factor to the displacement estimated by the PIV algorithm, the mean error predicted is around one-seventh of the cell size of the DEM with the greatest spatial resolution, and around one-nineteenth of the cell size of the DEM with the least spatial resolution. Our methodology allows all kinds of DTMs to be compared once they are transformed into DEM format, while also allowing comparison of data from diverse capture methods, i.e., LiDAR versus photogrammetric data sources.
Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Haas, Rüdiger
We show the influence of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1 (PMU) on the daily and subdaily timescale. So called ‘virtual PMU variations’ due to modelling errors of ocean tide loading are predicted for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks. This leads to errors of subdaily determination of PMU. The predicted effects are confirmed by the analysis of geodetic VLBI observations.
Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin
2015-07-10
We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Wen-Juan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available When utilizing the p-y curve to simulate the nonlinear characteristics of soil surrounding pile in layered foundations, due to having not taken into account the soil mass’s longitudinal continuity, the calculation deviation of horizontal displacement increases with the growth of a load. This paper adopted the layered elasticity system theory to consider the soil mass’s longitudinal continuity, as well as utilizing the research method for layered isotropic bodies, assuming that the horizontal resistance is evenly distributed around the perimeter of the pile's cross-section. Then an appropriate transfer matrix method of horizontal displacement coefficient for the soil surrounding pile in layered foundations was established. According to the calculation principle of finite element equivalent load, the horizontal displacement coefficient matrix was deduced as well as providing a corrected formula for the horizontal displacement of soil surrounding pile through the p-y curve method when the external load was increased. Following the established model, a program was created which was used for calculating and analyzing the horizontal displacement coefficient matrix of three-layered soil in order to verify this method’s validity and rationale. Where there is a relatively large discrepancy in the soil layers’ properties, this paper’s method is able to reflect the influence on the layered soil’s actual distributional difference as well as the nearby soil layers’ interaction.
Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement
Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.
2015-01-01
We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...
Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.
Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A
2015-03-10
We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Challenges in horizontal model integration.
Kolczyk, Katrin; Conradi, Carsten
2016-03-11
Systems Biology has motivated dynamic models of important intracellular processes at the pathway level, for example, in signal transduction and cell cycle control. To answer important biomedical questions, however, one has to go beyond the study of isolated pathways towards the joint study of interacting signaling pathways or the joint study of signal transduction and cell cycle control. Thereby the reuse of established models is preferable, as it will generally reduce the modeling effort and increase the acceptance of the combined model in the field. Obtaining a combined model can be challenging, especially if the submodels are large and/or come from different working groups (as is generally the case, when models stored in established repositories are used). To support this task, we describe a semi-automatic workflow based on established software tools. In particular, two frequent challenges are described: identification of the overlap and subsequent (re)parameterization of the integrated model. The reparameterization step is crucial, if the goal is to obtain a model that can reproduce the data explained by the individual models. For demonstration purposes we apply our workflow to integrate two signaling pathways (EGF and NGF) from the BioModels Database.
An ion displacement membrame model.
Hladky, S B; Harris, J D
1967-09-01
The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.
Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y
2013-01-01
Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)
Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1995-12-31
In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.
Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...
Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovtcharova, I [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1996-12-31
In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.
Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...
Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)
1995-12-31
In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.
Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ylijoki, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C; Porkholm, K [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)
1996-12-31
In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.
The Process of Horizontal Differentiation: Two Models.
Daft, Richard L.; Bradshaw, Patricia J.
1980-01-01
Explores the process of horizontal differentiation by examining events leading to the establishment of 30 new departments in five universities. Two types of horizontal differentiation processes--administrative and academic--were observed and each was associated with different organizational conditions. (Author/IRT)
Pamungkas, S. S.; Koesuma, S.; Legowo, Budi
2018-03-01
Sumatra Island is an area that has high tectonic activities. This is because the island of Sumatra is located in two major plates of the world, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasia plate. The subduction zone causes Sumatra to deform from time to time. The deformation of Sumatra Island can be observed by continuous recording coordinates using the GPS Station. Continous-GPS (C-GPS) in Sumatra Island is named Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), one of them named UMLH. The UMLH GPS station used to observe the displacement in the Aceh City of Sumatra Island, is located in Ujung Muloh. The changes of GPS coordinate recording data can represent the deformation pattern that occurred in Sumatra. On April 11, 2012, according to USGS data, there had been an earthquake in the city of Aceh about 8.6 at coordinates of 2.433°N, 93.072°E. The purpose of this research is to analyze the horizontal displacement due to the occurrence of the earthquake. Data processing is carried out using software GAMIT/GLOBK. The magnitude of the displacement of Sumatra Island before the earthquake, during the earthquake, and after the quake on component X were respectively: 0.04 mm/day, 56.63 mm/day, and 8.28 mm/day; while on component Y were respectively: 0.03 mm/day, 23.78 mm/day, and 1.22 mm/day. The direction of displacement was 253.8° towards Southwest with the assumption that 0° was in the North.
Rochcongar, Goulven; Emily, Sébastien; Lebel, Benoit; Pineau, Vincent; Burdin, Gilles; Hulet, Christophe
2012-09-01
Surgical versus orthopedic treatments of acromioclavicular disjunction are still debated. The aim of this study was to measure horizontal and vertical acromion's displacement after cutting the ligament using standard X-ray and an opto-electronic system on cadaver. Ten cadaveric shoulders were studied. A sequential ligament's section was operated by arthroscopy. The sequence of cutting was chosen to fit with Rockwood's grade. The displacement of the acromion was measured on standard X-ray and with an opto-electronic system allowing measuring of the horizontal displacement. Statistical comparisons were performed using a paired Student's t test with significance set at p acromioclavicular ligament. The contact surface between the acromion and the clavicle decreases statistically after sectioning the acromioclavicular ligament and the coracoclavicular ligament with no effect of sectioning the delto-trapezius muscles. Those results are superposing with those dealing with the anterior translation. The measure concerning the acromioclavicular distance and the coracoclavicular distance are superposing with those of Rockwood. However, there is a significant horizontal translation after cutting the acromioclavicular ligament. Taking into account this displacement, it may be interesting to choose either surgical or orthopedic treatment. There is a correlation between anatomical damage and importance of instability. Horizontal instability is misevaluated in clinical practice.
Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nanying Shentu
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.
Condensation of steam in horizontal pipes: model development and validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szijarto, R.
2015-01-01
This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich presents the development and validation of a model for the condensation of steam in horizontal pipes. Condensation models were introduced and developed particularly for the application in the emergency cooling system of a Gen-III+ boiling water reactor. Such an emergency cooling system consists of slightly inclined horizontal pipes, which are immersed in a cold water tank. The pipes are connected to the reactor pressure vessel. They are responsible for a fast depressurization of the reactor core in the case of accident. Condensation in horizontal pipes was investigated with both one-dimensional system codes (RELAP5) and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS FLUENT). The performance of the RELAP5 code was not sufficient for transient condensation processes. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed and implemented. Four models were tested on the LAOKOON facility, which analysed direct contact condensation in a horizontal duct
Should tsunami models use a nonzero initial condition for horizontal velocity?
Nava, G.; Lotto, G. C.; Dunham, E. M.
2017-12-01
Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require two initial conditions: one on sea surface height and another on depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). We run several full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor, using both idealized structures and a more realistic Tohoku structure. Substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean, but almost all momentum is carried away in the form of ocean acoustic waves. We compare tsunami propagation in each full-physics simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial conditions. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves (from ocean acoustic and seismic waves) at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami
Two-dimensional horizontal model seismic test and analysis for HTGR core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikushima, Takeshi; Honma, Toshiaki.
1988-05-01
The resistance against earthquakes of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core with block-type fuels is not fully ascertained yet. Seismic studies must be made if such a reactor plant is to be installed in areas with frequent earthquakes. The paper presented the test results of seismic behavior of a half scale two-dimensional horizontal slice core model and analysis. The following is a summary of the more important results. (1) When the core is subjected to the single axis excitation and simultaneous two-axis excitations to the core across-corners, it has elliptical motion. The core stays lumped motion at the low excitation frequencies. (2) When the load is placed on side fixed reflector blocks from outside to the core center, the core displacement and reflector impact reaction force decrease. (3) The maximum displacement occurs at simultaneous two-axis excitations. The maximum displacement occurs at the single axis excitation to the core across-flats. (4) The results of two-dimensional horizontal slice core model was compared with the results of two-dimensional vertical one. It is clarified that the seismic response of actual core can be predicted from the results of two-dimensional vertical slice core model. (5) The maximum reflector impact reaction force for seismic waves was below 60 percent of that for sinusoidal waves. (6) Vibration behavior and impact response are in good agreement between test and analysis. (author)
Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.
Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melikhov, V I; Melikhov, O I; Nigmatulin, B I [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1996-12-31
A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.
Influence of horizontal resolution and ensemble size on model performance
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dalton, A
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS), Potchefstroom, 1-2 October 2014 Influence of horizontal resolution and ensemble size on model performance Amaris Dalton*¹, Willem A. Landman ¹ʾ² ¹Departmen of Geography, Geo...
Models for prediction of global solar radiation on horizontal surface ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The estimation of global solar radiation continues to play a fundamental role in solar engineering systems and applications. This paper compares various models for estimating the average monthly global solar radiation on horizontal surface for Akure, Nigeria, using solar radiation and sunshine duration data covering years ...
Cosmological implication of massive neutrinos in a horizontal model context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, C.
1985-04-01
An extended version of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model for the eletroweak interactions is studied in detail. It has an extra global horizontal symmetry, which allows the appearance of neutrino mass terms. The constraints imposed by the standard cosmological model were used to determine the allowed range of variations of the free parameters of this model. As applications, the solar neutrinos problem and the formation of large scale structures in the universe is studied. (Author) [pt
Modelling magnetic forces during asymmetric vertical displacement events at JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riccardo, V.; Walker, S.; Noll, P.
2000-01-01
Asymmetric vertical disruption events (AVDEs) are fortunately rare, but can induce large lateral forces which can cause significant mechanical damage to tokamaks. In this paper we present a simple model which allows the lateral forces generated during such a disruption to be estimated as a function of relatively easily obtained electromagnetic parameters: the asymmetries in the vertical current moment. This model is validated by using it to predict the displacement history of the JET tokamak caused by a number of major AVDEs. It is shown that the predicted forces and displacements agree well with quantities measured during these disruptions. One conclusion from the model is that the maximum sideways displacement scales with the product of the plasma current and the toroidal field, and this recipe is now used at JET to assess a priori the hazards of performing high current and high field pulses when they are known to be likely to disrupt. (author)
Modelling studies of horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 with Cathare
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karppinen, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1995-12-31
To perform thermal-hydraulic studies applied to nuclear power plants equipped with VVER, a program of qualification and assessment of the CATHARE computer code is in progress at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN). In this paper studies of modelling horizontal steam generator of VVER-1000 with the CATHARE computer code are presented. Steady state results are compared with measured data from the fifth unit of Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. (orig.). 10 refs.
Modelling studies of horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 with Cathare
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karppinen, I [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1996-12-31
To perform thermal-hydraulic studies applied to nuclear power plants equipped with VVER, a program of qualification and assessment of the CATHARE computer code is in progress at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN). In this paper studies of modelling horizontal steam generator of VVER-1000 with the CATHARE computer code are presented. Steady state results are compared with measured data from the fifth unit of Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. (orig.). 10 refs.
A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, G., E-mail: guillaume.martin@cea.fr [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Devynck, F.; Krack, M. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Maillard, S. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)
2014-05-01
The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO{sub 2}. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO{sub 2}. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.
A droplet entrainment model for horizontal segregated flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Höhne, Thomas, E-mail: T.Hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) – Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hänsch, Susann [Imperial College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-05-15
Highlights: • We further developed the flow morphology detection model AIAD. • An advanced droplet entrainment model was introduced. • The new approach is applied against HAWAC experiments. - Abstract: One limitation in simulating horizontal segregated flows is that there is no treatment of droplet formation mechanisms at wavy surfaces. For self-generating waves and slugs, the interfacial momentum exchange and the turbulence parameters have to be modeled correctly. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of droplet entrainment for heat and mass transfer processes is of great importance in the chemical and nuclear industry. The development of general computational fluid dynamics models is an essential precondition for the application of CFD codes to the modeling of flow related phenomena. The new formulation for the interfacial drag at the free surface and turbulence parameters within the algebraic interfacial area density model (AIAD) represents one step toward a more physical description of free surface flows including less empiricism. The AIAD approach allows the use of different physical models depending on the local fluid morphology inside a macro-scale multi-fluid framework. A further step of improving the modeling of free interfaces lies within the consideration of droplet entrainment mechanisms. In this paper a new sub-grid entrainment model is proposed, which assumes that due to liquid turbulence the interface gets rough and wavy leading to the formation of droplets. Therefore, the droplet entrainment model requires the consideration of an additional droplet phase, which is described with an own set of balance equations in the spirit of the particle model. Two local key factors determine the rate of droplet entrainment: the liquid turbulent kinetic energy as well as the outward velocity gradient of the liquid relative to the interface motion. The new droplet entrainment approach is included into CFD simulations for attempting to reproduce existing
Computational fluid dynamics modelling of displacement natural ventilation.
Ji, Yingchun
2005-01-01
Natural ventilation is widely recognised as contributing towards low-energy building design. The requirement to reduce energy usage in new buildings has rejuvenated interest in natural ventilation. This thesis deals with computer modelling of natural displacement ventilation driven either by buoyancy or buoyancy combined with wind forces. Two benchmarks have been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to evaluate the accuracy with which CFD is able to mo...
Comparative assessment of condensation models for horizontal tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffrath, A.; Kruessenberg, A.K.; Lischke, W.; Gocht, U.; Fjodorow, A.
1999-01-01
The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role e.g. for the determination of the operation mode of horizontal steam generators of VVER reactors or passive safety systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Two different approaches (HOTKON and KONWAR) for modeling this process have been undertaken by Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) and University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (HTWS) and implemented into the 1D-thermohydraulic code ATHLET, which is developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal transients in light water reactors. Although the improvements of the condensation models are developed for different applications (VVER steam generators - emergency condenser of the SWR1000) with strongly different operation conditions (e.g. the temperature difference over the tube wall in HORUS is up to 30 K and in NOKO up to 250 K, the heat flux density in HORUS is up to 40 kW/m 2 and in NOKO up to 1 GW/m 2 ) both models are now compared and assessed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf FZR e.V. Therefore, post test calculations of selected HORUS experiments were performed with ATHLET/KONWAR and compared to existing ATHLET and ATHLET/HOTKON calculations of HTWS. It can be seen that the calculations with the extension KONWAR as well as HOTKON improve significantly the agreement between computational and experimental data. (orig.) [de
Numerical modelling of fracture displacements due to thermal load from a KBS-3 repository
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hakami, Eva; Olofsson, Stig-Olof [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2002-01-01
The objective of the project has been to estimate the largest shear displacements that could be expected on a pre-existing fracture located in the repository area, due to the heat release from the deposited waste. Two-dimensional numerical analyses using the 'Universal Distinct Element Code' (UDEC) have been performed. The UDEC models represent a vertical cross section of a KBS-3 type repository with a large planar fracture intersecting a deposition hole at the repository centre. The extension, dip and mechanical properties of the fracture were changed in different models to evaluate the influence of these parameters on fracture shear displacements. The fracture was modelled using a Coulomb slip criterion with no cohesion and no dilation. The rock mass surrounding the fracture was modelled as a homogeneous, isotropic and elastic material, with a Young's modulus of 40 GPa. The initial heat release per unit repository area was assumed to be 8W/m{sup 2} (total power/total repository area). The shear displacements occur due to the thermal expansion of the rock surrounding the heat generating canisters. The rock mass is almost free to expand vertically, but is constrained horizontally, which gives a temperature-induced addition of shear stresses in the plane of the fracture. The shear movement of the fracture therefore follows the temperature development in the surrounding rock and the maximum shear displacement develops about 200 years after the waste deposition. Altogether, twenty cases are analysed. The maximum shear displacement, which occurs at the fracture centre, amounts to 0.2-13.8 cm depending on the fracture parameters. Among the analysed cases, the largest shear values, about 13 cm, was calculated for the cases with about 700 m long fractures with a shear stiffness of 0.005 GPa/m. Also, for large fractures with a higher shear stiffness of 5 GPa/m, but with a low friction angle (15 deg), the shear displacement reaches similar magnitudes, about
A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paasse, T.
1996-12-01
The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs
Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model
Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni
2017-09-01
This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.
Optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiong; CHEN Yan; YE Zhiquan
2007-01-01
This paper presents an optimization model for rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines. The model refers to the wind speed distribution function on the specific wind site, with an objective to satisfy the maximum annual energy output. To speed up the search process and guarantee a global optimal result, the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) is used to carry out the search process.Compared with the simple genetic algorithm, ECGA runs much faster and can get more accurate results with a much smaller population size and fewer function evaluations. Using the developed optimization program, blades of a 1.3 MW stall-regulated wind turbine are designed. Compared with the existing blades, the designed blades have obviously better aerodynamic performance.
Stratification of bubbly horizontal flows: modeling and experimental validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottin, M.
2010-01-01
Hot films and optical probes enabled the acquisition of measurements in bubbly flows at 5, 20 and 40 diameters from the inlet of the vein on the METERO facility which test section is a horizontal circular pipe of 100 mm inner diameter. The distribution of the different phases, the existence of coalescence and sedimentation mechanisms, the influence of the liquid and gas flow rates, the radial and axial evolutions are analyzed thanks to fast camera videos and numerous and varied experimental results (void fraction, bubbles sizes, interfacial area, mean and fluctuating velocities and turbulent kinetic energy of the liquid phase). Some models, based on the idea that the flow reaches an equilibrium state sufficiently far from the inlet of the pipe, were developed to simulate mean interfacial area and turbulent kinetic energy transports in bubbly flows. (author)
Goit, Chandra Shekhar; Saitoh, Masato
2013-03-01
Horizontal impedance functions of inclined single piles are measured experimentally for model soil-pile systems with both the effects of local soil nonlinearity and resonant characteristics. Two practical pile inclinations of 5° and 10° in addition to a vertical pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to lateral harmonic pile head loadings for a wide range of frequencies are considered. Results obtained with low-to-high amplitude of lateral loadings on model soil-pile systems encased in a laminar shear box show that the local nonlinearities have a profound impact on the horizontal impedance functions of piles. Horizontal impedance functions of inclined piles are found to be smaller than the vertical pile and the values decrease as the angle of pile inclination increases. Distinct values of horizontal impedance functions are obtained for the `positive' and `negative' cycles of harmonic loadings, leading to asymmetric force-displacement relationships for the inclined piles. Validation of these experimental results is carried out through three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses, and the results from the numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental data. Sensitivity analyses conducted on the numerical models suggest that the consideration of local nonlinearity at the vicinity of the soil-pile interface influence the response of the soil-pile systems.
Business models for horizontal collaboration : a practical case study with reusable crates
Brandi, Teresa
2012-01-01
This project is centered in the topic of horizontal collaboration. The first part focuses on finding business models for horizontal collaboration. The second part is a practical case study at Kuehne + Nagel. Horizontal collaboration consists of two or more independent companies that plan and execute
Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nanying Shentu
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor.
INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jumel, Stephanie E-mail: stephanie.jumel@edf.fr; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@edf.fr
2004-07-01
REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades
Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean
2004-07-01
REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean
2004-01-01
REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirhan, Haydar
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Impacts of multicollinearity on solar radiation estimation models are discussed. • Accuracy of existing empirical models for Turkey is evaluated. • A new non-linear model for the estimation of average daily horizontal global solar radiation is proposed. • Estimation and prediction performance of the proposed and existing models are compared. - Abstract: Due to the considerable decrease in energy resources and increasing energy demand, solar energy is an appealing field of investment and research. There are various modelling strategies and particular models for the estimation of the amount of solar radiation reaching at a particular point over the Earth. In this article, global solar radiation estimation models are taken into account. To emphasize severity of multicollinearity problem in solar radiation estimation models, some of the models developed for Turkey are revisited. It is observed that these models have been identified as accurate under certain multicollinearity structures, and when the multicollinearity is eliminated, the accuracy of these models is controversial. Thus, a reliable model that does not suffer from multicollinearity and gives precise estimates of global solar radiation for the whole region of Turkey is necessary. A new nonlinear model for the estimation of average daily horizontal solar radiation is proposed making use of the genetic programming technique. There is no multicollinearity problem in the new model, and its estimation accuracy is better than the revisited models in terms of numerous statistical performance measures. According to the proposed model, temperature, precipitation, altitude, longitude, and monthly average daily extraterrestrial horizontal solar radiation have significant effect on the average daily global horizontal solar radiation. Relative humidity and soil temperature are not included in the model due to their high correlation with precipitation and temperature, respectively. While altitude has
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Y.W.; Demarque, P.; Zinn, R.
1987-01-01
The variation of horizontal-branch (HB) luminosities with metal abundances is analyzed on the basis of HB models synthesized from theoretical HB evolutionary tracks. The focus is on the Oosterhoff effect, as related to period shifts in globular-cluster RR Lyr variables. The construction of the models and the Oosterhoff period groups is explained in detail, and the implications for globular-cluster ages are considered. The ratio of Delta M(bol) (RR) to Delta Fe/H for the HB is calculated as 0.24, slightly steeper than that found by Sandage (1981 and 1982). 35 references
A statistical model for horizontal mass flux of erodible soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babiker, A.G.A.G.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.
1986-11-01
It is shown that the mass flux of erodible soil transported horizontally by a statistically distributed wind flow has a statistical distribution. Explicit expression for the probability density function, p.d.f., of the flux is derived for the case in which the wind speed has a Weibull distribution. The statistical distribution for a mass flux characterized by a generalized Bagnold formula is found to be Weibull for the case of zero threshold speed. Analytic and numerical values for the average horizontal mass flux of soil are obtained for various values of wind parameters, by evaluating the first moment of the flux density function. (author)
The model coupling fluid flow in reservoir with flow in horizontal wellbore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Xiangping; Jiang, Zhixiang [RIPED-TEXACO Horizontal Well Technology Laboratory (United States)
1998-12-31
Three-dimensional pressure distributions of oil flow in a reservoir with horizontal well were derived, and a new formula to calculate pressure drop along the horizontal wellbore was developed based on the principle of conservation of matter and momentum. The formula considers the effect of influx into the horizontal wellbore from the reservoir on pressure drop in the wellbore. A mathematical model to couple fluid flow in the reservoir with flow in the horizontal wellbore is presented. Model results and experimental data showed good correspondence. Results showed the influence of pressure drop on well performance. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.
A finite element model for analyzing horizontal well BHA behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akgun, F. [Petroleum Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)
2004-04-01
Horizontal wells are proven to be better producers because they can be extended for a long distance in the pay zone. Engineers have the technical means to forecast the well productivity for a given horizontal length. However, experiences have shown that the actual production rate is often significantly less than that of forecasted. There are a number of reasons for the discrepancy of predicted to actual production rates in horizontal wells. However, it is a difficult task, if not impossible, to identify the real reason why a horizontal well is not producing what was forecasted. Often, the source of problem lies in the drilling of horizontal section such as permeability reduction in the pay zone due to mud invasion or snaky well patterns created during drilling. Although drillers aim to drill a constant inclination hole once in the pay zone, the more frequent outcome is a sinusoidal wellbore trajectory. Logging while drilling (LWD) and real time measurement of resistivity at bit help drill in the pay zone by constant monitoring of borehole trajectory and formation boundaries. Rotary steerable tools (RTS) allow spontaneous intervention to drilling direction and inclination if run with LWD tools. Nevertheless, there are still many cases where LWD cannot be deployed due to technical difficulties. One such case was noticed in the Middle East where LWD sensors were worn out completely during 1 h run time due to extreme formation abrasiveness. In the absence of LWD and RTS, it becomes a challenging task to drill a constant inclination borehole which will be addressed in this paper. The two factors, which play an important role in wellbore tortuosity, are the inclination and side force at bit. A constant inclination horizontal well can only be drilled if the bit face is maintained perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of bottom hole assembly (BHA) while keeping the side force nil at the bit. This approach assumes that there exists no formation force at bit. Hence, an
A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Pil'gunov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.
2017-01-01
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es
The ins and outs of modelling vertical displacement events
Pfefferle, David
2017-10-01
Of the many reasons a plasma discharge disrupts, Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) lead to the most severe forces and stresses on the vacuum vessel and Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). After loss of positional control, the plasma column drifts across the vacuum vessel and comes in contact with the first wall, at which point the stored magnetic and thermal energy is abruptly released. The vessel forces have been extensively modelled in 2D but, with the constraint of axisymmetry, the fundamental 3D effects that lead to toroidal peaking, sideways forces, field-line stochastisation and halo current rotation have been vastly overlooked. In this work, we present the main results of an intense VDE modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 and share our experience with the multi-domain and highly non-linear physics encountered. At the culmination of code development by the M3D-C1 group over the last decade, highlighted by the inclusion of a finite-thickness resistive vacuum vessel within the computational domain, a series of fully 3D non-linear simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of so-called NSTX frozen VDEs, where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase, the evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed and investigated in detail. The sensitivity of the current quench to parameter changes is assessed via 2D non-linear runs. The growth of individual toroidal modes is monitored via linear-complex runs. The intricate evolution of the plasma, which is decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D non-linear runs. The location, amplitude and rotation of normal currents and wall forces are analysed and compared with experimental traces.
Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina
Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly
2011-01-01
The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morshedi, C.
1982-01-01
The response of a layered poroelastic halfspace to a progressing normally distributed load applied at the surface is evaluated for the case in which the constant velocity of the moving load is less than that of the elastic waves in each layer. It is assumed that a steady state exists with respect to the coordinate axes attached to a moving load. A three-dimensional problem for Biot's consolidated equations is then solved by taking Fourier transforms in the horizontal directions to evaluate stresses and displacements at any point in the medium. The analysis is illustrated by numerical examples using an algorithm based on one previously developed to calculate the response to a static load for axisymmetric poroelastic layers. To reduce the amount of computation, attention is restricted to a two-dimensional problem in which the load extends infinitely in the transverse direction. Results are presented for two and three-layered pavement models composed of concrete and gravel over a clay subbase responding to moving traffic, but the method is applicable to any number of layers. The effect of varying the velocity of the load and layer properties is observed
Horizontal stratified flow model for the 1-D module of WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2: modeling and validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, J.; Frepoli, C.; Ohkawa, K., E-mail: liaoj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, LOCA Integrated Services I, Cranberry Twp, Pennsylvania (United States)
2011-07-01
For a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe, the individual phases may separate by gravity. This horizontal stratification significantly impacts the interfacial drag, interfacial heat transfer and wall drag of the two phase flow. For a PWR small break LOCA, the horizontal stratification in cold legs is a highly important phenomenon during loop seal clearance, boiloff and recovery periods. The low interfacial drag in the stratified flow directly controls the time period for the loop clearance and the level of residual water in the loop seal. Horizontal stratification in hot legs also impacts the natural circulation stage of a small break LOCA. In addition, the offtake phenomenon and cold leg condensation phenomenon are also affected by the occurrence of horizontal stratification in the cold legs. In the 1-D module of the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 computer code, a horizontal stratification criterion was developed by combining the Taitel-Dukler model and the Wallis-Dobson model, which approximates the viscous Kelvin-Helmholtz neutral stability boundary. The objective of this paper is to present the horizontal stratification model implemented in the code and its assessment against relevant data. The adequacy of the horizontal stratification transition criterion is confirmed by examining the code-predicted flow regime in a horizontal pipe with the measured data in the flow regime map. The void fractions (or liquid level) for the horizontal stratified flow in cold leg or hot leg are predicted with a reasonable accuracy. (author)
A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...
ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR LATHE TOOL DISPLACEMENTS CALCULUS IN THE MANUFACTURING P ROCESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catălin ROŞU
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analytical model for lathe tools displacements calculus in the manufacturing process. We will present step by step the methodology for the displacements calculus and in the end we will insert these relations in a program for automatic calculus and we extract the conclusions. There is taken into account only the effects of the bending moments (because these insert the highest displacements. The simplifying assumptions and the calculus relations for the displacements (linea r and angular ones are presented in an original way.
Displacement of the pelvis during human walking : experimental data and model predictions
Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL
1997-01-01
Displacements of the pelvis during treadmill walking were studied in dependence of walking speed, stride frequency and stride length. Displacement curves per stride cycle were described by means of harmonic analysis. Simple mechanical, or geometrical models of the body's center of mass (COM)
A model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.C.
1984-01-01
The intensity of the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation at any time on a horizontal surface are each expressed as fractions of the intensity of the extraterrestrial radiation. Using these and assuming a random distribution of the bright sunshine hours and not too wide variations in the values of the transmission coefficients, a number of relations for estimating the global and the diffuse irradiation are derived. Two of the relations derived are already known empirically. The formulation lends more confidence in the use of the already empirically known relations providing them a theoretical basis, and affords more flexibility to the estimation techniques by supplying new equations. The study identifies three independent basic parameters and the constants appearing in the various equations as simple functions of these three basic parameters. Experimental data for the diffuse irradiation, the global irradiation and the bright sunshine duration for Macerata (Italy), Salisbury and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) is found to show good correlation for the linear equations, and the nature and the interrelationships of the constants are found to be as predicted by the theory
Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atluri, S.N.; Kathiresan, K.; Kobayashi, A.S.
1975-01-01
This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent
Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.
2014-04-01
In map production and generalization, it is inevitable to arise some spatial conflicts, but the detection and resolution of these spatial conflicts still requires manual operation. It is become a bottleneck hindering the development of automated cartographic generalization. Displacement is the most useful contextual operator that is often used for resolving the conflicts arising between two or more map objects. Automated generalization researches have reported many approaches of displacement including sequential approaches and optimization approaches. As an excellent optimization approach on the basis of energy minimization principles, elastic beams model has been used in resolving displacement problem of roads and buildings for several times. However, to realize a complete displacement solution, techniques of conflict detection and spatial context analysis should be also take into consideration. So we proposed a complete solution of displacement based on the combined use of elastic beams model and constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in this paper. The solution designed as a cyclic and iterative process containing two phases: detection phase and displacement phase. In detection phase, CDT of map is use to detect proximity conflicts, identify spatial relationships and structures, and construct auxiliary structure, so as to support the displacement phase on the basis of elastic beams. In addition, for the improvements of displacement algorithm, a method for adaptive parameters setting and a new iterative strategy are put forward. Finally, we implemented our solution on a testing map generalization platform, and successfully tested it against 2 hand-generated test datasets of roads and buildings respectively.
Horizontal crash testing and analysis of model flatrols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowler, H.J.; Soanes, T.P.T.
1985-01-01
To assess the behaviour of a full scale flask and flatrol during a proposed demonstration impact into a tunnel abutment, a mathematical modelling technique was developed and validated. The work was performed at quarter scale and comprised of both scale model tests and mathematical analysis in one and two dimensions. Good agreement between model test results of the 26.8m/s (60 mph) abutment impacts and the mathematical analysis, validated the modelling techniques. The modelling method may be used with confidence to predict the outcome of the proposed full scale demonstration. (author)
A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales
Patzek, Tadeusz; Saputra, Wardana; Kirati, Wissem
2017-01-01
and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model
Horizontal circulation and jumps in Hamiltonian wave models
Gagarina, Elena; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bokhove, Onno
2013-01-01
We are interested in the numerical modeling of wave-current interactions around surf zones at beaches. Any model that aims to predict the onset of wave breaking at the breaker line needs to capture both the nonlinearity of the wave and its dispersion. We have therefore formulated the Hamiltonian
A water wave model with horizontal circulation and accurate dispersion
Cotter, C.; Bokhove, Onno
We describe a new water wave model which is variational, and combines a depth-averaged vertical (component of) vorticity with depth-dependent potential flow. The model facilitates the further restriction of the vertical profile of the velocity potential to n-th order polynomials or a finite element
Variational data assimilation problem for the thermodynamics model with displaced pole
Parmuzin, Eugene; Agosgkov, Valery; Zakharova, Natalia
2017-04-01
The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. The development of computational algorithms for the solution of data assimilation problems in geophysical hydrodynamics is important in the contemporary computation and informational science to improve the quality of long-term prediction by using the hydrodynamics sea model. These problems are applied to close and solve in practice the appropriate inverse problems of the geophysical hydrodynamics. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area with displaced pole were formulated and studied [1]. We assume, that the unique function which is obtained by observation data processing is the function and we permit that the function is known only on a part of considering area (for example, on a part of the Baltic Sea). Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model [2] with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables is uniform on latitude (0.2 degree) and varies on longitude from 0.04 to 0.0004 degree . The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project №16-01-00548) and project №14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: [1] Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., Zakharova N.B., Zalesny V.B., Shutyaev V.P., Gusev A.V. Variational assimilation of observation data in the mathematical model of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra Aristizabal, Jose Julian; Grosso Vargas, Jorge Luis
2005-01-01
Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as segregated in-situ combustion processes, which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Split-production Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate horizontal producers and gravity drainage phenomena. When applied to thick reservoirs a process of this nature could be reasonably modeled under concepts of conventional in-situ combustion and Crestal Gas injection, especially for heavy oils mobile at reservoir conditions. A process of this nature has been studied through an analytic model conceived for the particular conditions of the Castilla field, a homogeneous thick anticline structure containing high mobility heavy oil, which seems to be an excellent candidate for the application of these technologies
Can chemical transport models improve global horizontal irradiance forecasts?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brabec, Marek; Konár, Ondřej; Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Pelikán, Emil; Eben, Kryštof
2014-01-01
Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-404 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : renewable energy * mathematical modeling Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology
Zhang, Yongquan; Tang, Huiming; Li, Changdong; Lu, Guiying; Cai, Yi; Zhang, Junrong; Tan, Fulin
2018-01-14
The physical model test of landslides is important for studying landslide structural damage, and parameter measurement is key in this process. To meet the measurement requirements for deep displacement in landslide physical models, an automatic flexible inclinometer probe with good coupling and large deformation capacity was designed. The flexible inclinometer probe consists of several gravity acceleration sensing units that are protected and positioned by silicon encapsulation, all the units are connected to a 485-comunication bus. By sensing the two-axis tilt angle, the direction and magnitude of the displacement for a measurement unit can be calculated, then the overall displacement is accumulated according to all units, integrated from bottom to top in turn. In the conversion from angle to displacement, two spline interpolation methods are introduced to correct and resample the data; one is to interpolate the displacement after conversion, and the other is to interpolate the angle before conversion; compared with the result read from checkered paper, the latter is proved to have a better effect, with an additional condition that the displacement curve move up half the length of the unit. The flexible inclinometer is verified with respect to its principle and arrangement by a laboratory physical model test, and the test results are highly consistent with the actual deformation of the landslide model.
Generic vortex modelling for horizontal-axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, D.H.
2002-07-01
This paper describes a generic free-wake calculation of wind turbine wakes. The expanding, helical, tip vortices are represented by a sequence of straight segments, the blades are modelled as lines of constant bound vorticity, and the hub vortices lie along the axis of rotation. It is shown that this model is consistent with the one-dimensional analysis that leads to the Lanchester-Betz limit, in that the velocity in the far-wake is uniform with radius. Particular attention is paid to turbines operating above the Lanchester-Betz limit. It is shown that the usual relationship between the velocity through the blades and in the far-wake breaks down when there is significant wake expansion, and an empirical modification to that relation is presented. For highly expanding wakes, the dynamics of the turbine depend sensitively on the behaviour of the tip vortices. (author)
A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter
2014-01-01
The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.
A numerical model for the thermal history of rocks based on confined horizontal fission tracks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Peter Klint; Hansen, Kirsten; Kunzendorf, Helmar
1992-01-01
A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities, and the ur......A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities...
The Displacement Effect of Labour-Market Programs: Estimates from the MONASH Model
Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer
2005-01-01
A key question concerning labour-market programs is the extent to which they generate jobs for their target group at the expense of others. This effect is measured by displacement percentages. We describe a version of the MONASH model designed to quantify the effects of labour-market programs. Our simulation results suggests that: (1) labour-market programs can generate significant long-run increases in employment; (2) displacement percentages depend on how a labour-market program affects the...
Experimental validation of a numerical model of two-phase displacement in porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genty, A.
1996-01-01
Burial in geological layers appears to be an interesting solution to dispose of radioactive wastes. This thesis analyzes and simulates the behaviour of gas produced by waste barrels corrosion. The released contaminated gas drains the water initially present in the host rock and yields a water-gas two phase flow. A literature survey of two phase flow shows that fluid interfaces may display instabilities for definite flow characteristics. When the displacement is stable a smooth interface proceeds through the porous medium. When the interface shows fingering, the displacement is said to be 'viscous-unstable', and when the front is jagged the displacement is called 'capillary' displacement. A dimensional analysis of classical equations governing two phase flow in porous media is combined with a classification of dominant forces to define an original map of flow regimes that includes gravitational forces. The map is based on three dimensionless numbers and predicts a priori the flow type. For typical data describing a radioactive waste repository a 'viscous-unstable' displacement is predicted by the map. We simulate water-gas displacement with a numerical model previously developed; this code, based on the Muskat model, uses the mixed-hybrid finite elements technique and is therefore well adapted for tracking moving interfaces. Fluxes are well conserved, however instabilities cannot be simulated. We assume that there is always a scale to be found where instabilities can be averaged and we try to validate the model with experimental two phase flows. We performed laboratory water-gas flow experiments for a variety of flow conditions. The observed displacement types are consistent with the map of flow regimes. Good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained when precise parameters of the displacements are available, in particular relative permeability curves. We conclude that our model allows a first approach of migration of gas near a radioactive waste repository
Modeling a horizontal wiggler in an electron storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helm, R.H.
1979-02-01
The effects of a wiggler on the beam parameters depend on several integrals involving the machine functions and the field distribution in the wiggler. It is shown that these integrals are separable into sums of products of terms containing only the initial values of the machine functions, and terms containing integrals over the wiggler fields. The field-dependent integrals may be determined by numerical integrations based on measured field distribution. In typical wiggler designs, the energy and excitation dependencies of the integrals may be modeled mathematically by simple power series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei Bosiakov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Rapid maxillary expansion is employed for the treatment of cross-bite and deficiency of transversal dimension of the maxilla in patients with and without cleft of palate and lip. For this procedure, generally, different orthodontic appliances and devices generating significant transversal forces are used. The aim of this study is the finite-element analysis of stresses and displacements of the skull without palate cleft and the skull with unilateral and bilateral cleft after activation of the Hyrax orthodontic device. Two different constructions of the orthodontic device Hyrax with different positions of the screw relative palate are considered. In the first case, the screw is in the occlusal horizontal plane, and in the other, the screw is located near the palate. Activation of the orthodontic device corresponds to the rotation of the screw on one-quarter turn. It is established that the screw position significantly affects the distributions of stresses in skull and displacements of the cranium without palate cleft and with unilateral or bilateral palate cleft. Stresses in the bone structures of the craniums without cleft and with cleft are transferred from the maxilla to the pterygoid plate and pharyngeal tubercle if the screw displaces from the occlusal plane to the palate. Depending on the construction of the orthodontic appliance, the maxilla halves in the transversal plane are unfolded or the whole skull is entirely rotated in the sagittal plane. The stresses patterns and displacements of the skull with bilateral palate cleft are almost unchanged after activation of the orthodontic devices with different positions of the screw, only magnitudes of stresses and displacements are changed. The obtained results can be used for design of orthodontic appliances with the Hyrax screw, as well as for planning of osteotomies during the surgical assistance of the rapid maxillary expansion.
Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2013-01-01
When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due to the time it takes for the rain cell to travel from the rain gauge to the catchment. Since this time displacement is not present for system measurements the data assimilation scheme might already have updated the model to include the impact from the particular rain cell when the rain data is forced upon the model, which therefore will end up including the same rain twice in the model run. This paper compares forecast accuracy of updated models when using time displaced rain input to that of rain input with constant biases. This is done using a simple time-area model and historic rain series that are either displaced in time or affected with a bias. The results show that for a 10 minute forecast, time displacements of 5 and 10 minutes compare to biases of 60 and 100%, respectively, independent of the catchments time of concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boucher, M; Marrast, j
1969-11-01
The absence of suitable structures in some regions has led Gaz de France to investigate the storage of natural gas in horizontal layers. Research aimed at completing work done in this field by Soviet researchers has been carried out at the Institut Francais du Petrole using physical and numerical models together with computing. This research included an examination of storage stability, of how the effective volume of gas evolved during different cycles, of how the gas bubble migrates under the effect of a slight dip, and of the influence of instabilities. The possibility of storing gas in horizontal or sub-horizontal layers was thus justified from a theoretical viewpoint. When the time comes to make a decision concerning the creation of such a storage area, it is the economic factor that will be preponderant. The effective volume of recoverable gas has turned out to depend to a large extent on the thickness of the layer. (12 refs.)
Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models
Taleghani, B. K.
2000-01-01
The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.
A two-layer model for buoyant inertial displacement flows in inclined pipes
Etrati, Ali; Frigaard, Ian A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the inertial flows found in buoyant miscible displacements using a two-layer model. From displacement flow experiments in inclined pipes, it has been observed that for significant ranges of Fr and Re cos β/Fr, a two-layer, stratified flow develops with the heavier fluid moving at the bottom of the pipe. Due to significant inertial effects, thin-film/lubrication models developed for laminar, viscous flows are not effective for predicting these flows. Here we develop a displacement model that addresses this shortcoming. The complete model for the displacement flow consists of mass and momentum equations for each fluid, resulting in a set of four non-linear equations. By integrating over each layer and eliminating the pressure gradient, we reduce the system to two equations for the area and mean velocity of the heavy fluid layer. The wall and interfacial stresses appear as source terms in the reduced system. The final system of equations is solved numerically using a robust, shock-capturing scheme. The equations are stabilized to remove non-physical instabilities. A linear stability analysis is able to predict the onset of instabilities at the interface and together with numerical solution, is used to study displacement effectiveness over different parametric regimes. Backflow and instability onset predictions are made for different viscosity ratios.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhanghua Lian
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady
Modeling and verifying non-linearities in heterodyne displacement interferometry
Cosijns, S.J.A.G.; Haitjema, H.; Schellekens, P.H.J.
2002-01-01
The non-linearities in a heterodyne laser interferometer system occurring from the phase measurement system of the interferometer andfrom non-ideal polarization effects of the optics are modeled into one analytical expression which includes the initial polarization state ofthe laser source, the
A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal shale gas wells with multiple weak planes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since collapse of horizontal wellbore through long brittle shale interval is a major problem, the occurrence characteristics of weak planes were analyzed according to outcrop, core, and SEM and FMI data of shale rocks. A strength analysis method was developed for shale rocks with multiple weak planes based on weak-plane strength theory. An analysis was also conducted of the strength characteristics of shale rocks with uniform distribution of multiple weak planes. A collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells in shale formation with multiple weak planes was established, which takes into consideration the occurrence of each weak plane, wellbore stress condition, borehole azimuth, and in-situ stress azimuth. Finally, a case study of a horizontal shale gas well in southern Sichuan Basin was conducted. The results show that the intersection angle between the shale bedding plane and the structural fracture is generally large (nearly orthogonal; with the increase of weak plane number, the strength of rock mass declines sharply and is more heavily influenced by weak planes; when there are more than four weak planes, the rock strength tends to be isotropic and the whole strength of rock mass is greatly weakened, significantly increasing the risk of wellbore collapse. With the increase of weak plane number, the drilling fluid density (collapse pressure to keep borehole stability goes up gradually. For instance, the collapse pressure is 1.04 g/cm3 when there are no weak planes, and 1.55 g/cm3 when there is one weak plane, and 1.84 g/cm3 when there are two weak planes. The collapse pressure prediction model for horizontal wells proposed in this paper presented results in better agreement with those in actual situation. This model, more accurate and practical than traditional models, can effectively improve the accuracy of wellbore collapse pressure prediction of horizontal shale gas wells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjun Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, D.; Musielak, Z.E.
2007-01-01
All attempts to generalize the three-dimensional Lorenz model by selecting higher-order Fourier modes can be divided into three categories, namely: vertical, horizontal and vertical-horizontal mode truncations. The previous study showed that the first method allowed only construction of a nine-dimensional system when the selected modes were energy-conserving. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that a five-dimensional model is the lowest-order generalized Lorenz model that can be constructed by the second method and that its route to chaos is the same as that observed in the original Lorenz model. It is shown that the onset of chaos in both systems is determined by a number of modes that describe the vertical temperature difference in a convection roll. In addition, a simple rule that allows selecting modes that conserve energy for each method is derived
Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa
Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.
2012-01-01
We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.
Seol, Hyon-Woo; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Shin-Koo
2015-01-01
To analyze the axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection after cyclic loading. Three groups of external abutments (Ext group), an internal tapered one-piece-type abutment (Int-1 group), and an internal tapered two-piece-type abutment (Int-2 group) were prepared. Cyclic loading was applied to implant-abutment assemblies at 150 N with a frequency of 3 Hz. The amount of axial displacement, the Periotest values (PTVs), and the removal torque values(RTVs) were measured. Both a repeated measures analysis of variance and pattern analysis based on the linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface of the implant-abutment connection. The mean axial displacements after 1,000,000 cycles were 0.6 μm in the Ext group, 3.7 μm in the Int-1 group, and 9.0 μm in the Int-2 group. Pattern analysis revealed a breakpoint at 171 cycles. The Ext group showed no declining pattern, and the Int-1 group showed no declining pattern after the breakpoint (171 cycles). However, the Int-2 group experienced continuous axial displacement. After cyclic loading, the PTV decreased in the Int-2 group, and the RTV decreased in all groups. SEM imaging revealed surface wear in all groups. Axial displacement and surface wear occurred in all groups. The PTVs remained stable, but the RTVs decreased after cyclic loading. Based on linear mixed model analysis, the Ext and Int-1 groups' axial displacements plateaued after little cyclic loading. The Int-2 group's rate of axial displacement slowed after 100,000 cycles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau
2015-01-01
DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...... various constraints. Interlinked spatial, technical, and biological dynamics of vessels and stocks in the scenarios result in stable profits, which compensate for the additional costs from effort displacement and release pressure on the fish stocks. The effort is further redirected away from sensitive...
Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulombe, Sylvain
2003-01-01
A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f -tilde1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. oxide-contaminated cathode surface). Through an appropriate choice of the local probabilistic displacement rules, the model is able to correctly represent the dynamic behaviours of the type-A cathode spot, including the FPS for the arc elongation (i.e. voltage) and the arc erosion trace formation. The model illustrates that the cathode spot displacements between re-strikes can be seen as a diffusion process with a diffusion constant which depends on the surface structure. A physical interpretation for the jumping probability associated with the re-strike event is given in terms of the electron emission processes across dielectric contaminants present on the cathode surface
Displacement field in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) subsidence area: Observation and modeling
Fernandez, J.; Camacho, A. G.; Luzon, F.; Prieto, J. F.; Escayo, J.; Rodríguez-Velasco, G.; Tiampo, K. F.; Palano, M.; Velasco, J.; Abajo, T.; Perez, E.; Gomez, I.; Herrero, T.; Bru, G.; Aguirre, J.; Mateos, H.
2017-12-01
The Lorca area, Alto Guadalentín Basin, located in southern Spain, is affected by the highest subsidence rates measured in Europe (about 10 cm/yr) produced by a long-term aquifer exploitation (González and Fernández, 2011). This subsidence has been studied using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) using images from different satellites (ERS and ENVISAT radar data spanning the 1992 - 2007 period; ALOS PALSAR data for the period 2007-2010; and COSMO-SkyMed data for the period 2011-2012). González et al. (2012) found a relationship between the crust unloading produced by the groundwater overexploitation and the stress change on the regional active tectonic faults in relation with the May 2008 Lorca earthquake. The InSAR results have been compared with measurements acquired by two permanent GNSS stations located in the study area, and with geological and hydrogeological data collected and analyzed in order to assess aquifer system compressibility and groundwater level changes in the past 50 years. All the previous studies of the area were based on satellite radar interferometry using just ascending or descending acquisitions, without any combination among them, to obtain vertical and horizontal (E-W) components. However, it is important to obtain the 3D motion field in order to perform a correct interpretation of the observations, as well as to carry out an advanced numerical model of the aquifer evolution, to be consider for sustainable management plans of groundwater resources and hazard assessments. To solve this problem, we defined a GNSS network, and various surveys have been carried out, from November 2015, showing the regional 3D displacement field associated to the exploitation of the aquifer. GNSS and InSAR results has been compared, obtaining a good agreement. We present the results obtained from both techniques, the comparison between them, and interpretation results using different inversion techniques. REFERENCESGonzález, P.J., Fernández, J., 2011
Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2004-08-01
The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)
Framework for non-coherent interface models at finite displacement jumps and finite strains
Ottosen, Niels Saabye; Ristinmaa, Matti; Mosler, Jörn
2016-05-01
This paper deals with a novel constitutive framework suitable for non-coherent interfaces, such as cracks, undergoing large deformations in a geometrically exact setting. For this type of interface, the displacement field shows a jump across the interface. Within the engineering community, so-called cohesive zone models are frequently applied in order to describe non-coherent interfaces. However, for existing models to comply with the restrictions imposed by (a) thermodynamical consistency (e.g., the second law of thermodynamics), (b) balance equations (in particular, balance of angular momentum) and (c) material frame indifference, these models are essentially fiber models, i.e. models where the traction vector is collinear with the displacement jump. This constraints the ability to model shear and, in addition, anisotropic effects are excluded. A novel, extended constitutive framework which is consistent with the above mentioned fundamental physical principles is elaborated in this paper. In addition to the classical tractions associated with a cohesive zone model, the main idea is to consider additional tractions related to membrane-like forces and out-of-plane shear forces acting within the interface. For zero displacement jump, i.e. coherent interfaces, this framework degenerates to existing formulations presented in the literature. For hyperelasticity, the Helmholtz energy of the proposed novel framework depends on the displacement jump as well as on the tangent vectors of the interface with respect to the current configuration - or equivalently - the Helmholtz energy depends on the displacement jump and the surface deformation gradient. It turns out that by defining the Helmholtz energy in terms of the invariants of these variables, all above-mentioned fundamental physical principles are automatically fulfilled. Extensions of the novel framework necessary for material degradation (damage) and plasticity are also covered.
Numerical modelling of cuttings transport in horizontal wells using conventional drilling fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y.; Bjorndalen, E.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2004-07-01
Some of the problems associated with poor wellbore cleaning include high drag or torque, slower rate of penetration, formation fractures and difficulty in wellbore steering. Some of the factors that affect cuttings transport include drilling fluid velocity, inclination angle, drilling fluid viscosity and drilling rate. The general practice is to stop drilling when necessary to clean boreholes with viscous pills, pipe rotation or drilling fluid circulation. It is important to predict when drilling should be stopped for remedial wellbore cleaning. This can be accomplished with a transient cuttings transport model which can improve drilling hydraulics, particularly in long horizontal well sections and extended reach (ERD) wells. This paper presents a newly developed 1-dimensional transient mechanistic model of cuttings transport with conventional (incompressible) drilling fluids in horizontal wells. The numerically solved model predicts the height of cutting beds as a function of different drilling operational parameters such as fluid flow rate and rheological characteristics, drilling rates, wellbore geometry and drillpipe eccentricity. Sensitivity analysis has demonstrated the effects of these parameters on the efficiency of solids transport. The proposed model can be used in the creation of computer programs designed to optimize drilling fluid rheology and flow rates for horizontal well drilling. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.
Impact of time displaced precipitation estimates for on-line updated models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2012-01-01
When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements the requirements to the precipitation estimates change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time where the rain intensity hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Borup, Morten
2013-01-01
When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due...
Neoliberalism in Historical Light: How Business Models Displaced Science Education Goals in Two Eras
Hayes, Kathryn N.
2016-01-01
Although a growing body of work addresses the current role of neoliberalism in displacing democratic equality as a goal of public education, attempts to parse such impacts rarely draw from historical accounts. At least one tenet of neoliberalism--the application of business models to public institutions--was also pervasive at the turn of the 20th…
Simulation Modeling of Non-Homogeneous Mixture in the Horizontal Drum Mixer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Vladimirovich Ostroukh
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a simulation model of the diffusion mixing of solids, based on the theory of probability and stochastic diffusion model of imperfect processes of solid particles. It is assumed that the particles have different sizes and density. Model of the program implemented in the AnyLogic SoftWare. Developed a simulation model to evaluate the differences between the intense mixing processes in time and assess their impact on the course of other processes in a horizontal drum mixer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann
2003-01-01
The goal of this brief report is to express the model equations for an incompressible flow which is horizontally homogeneous. It is intended as a computationally inexpensive starting point of a more complete solution for neutral atmospheric flow overcomplex terrain. This idea was set forth...... by Ayotte and Taylor (1995) and in the work of Beljaars et al. (1987). Unlike the previous models, the present work uses general orthogonal coordinates. Strong conservation form of the model equations is employedto allow a robust and consistent numerical procedure. An invariant tensor form of the model...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Miethe, Tanja
or to the alteration of individual fishing patterns. We demonstrate that integrating the spatial activity of vessels and local fish stock abundance dynamics allow for interactions and more realistic predictions of fishermen behaviour, revenues and stock abundance......We previously developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model (IBM) evaluating the bio-economic efficiency of fishing vessel movements between regions according to the catching and targeting of different species based on the most recent high resolution spatial fishery data. The main purpose...... was to test the effects of alternative fishing effort allocation scenarios related to fuel consumption, energy efficiency (value per litre of fuel), sustainable fish stock harvesting, and profitability of the fisheries. The assumption here was constant underlying resource availability. Now, an advanced...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud
This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14....... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asep Mohamad Ishaq Shiddiq
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In deviated and horizontal drilling, hole-cleaning issues are a common and complex problem. This study explored the effect of various parameters in drilling operations and how they affect the flow rate required for effective cutting transport. Three models, developed following an empirical approach, were employed: Rudi-Shindu’s model, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s model. Rudi-Shindu’s model needs iteration in the calculation. Firstly, the three models were compared using a sensitivity analysis of drilling parameters affecting cutting transport. The result shows that the models have similar trends but different values for minimum flow velocity. Analysis was conducted to examine the feasibility of using Rudi-Shindu’s, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s models. The result showed that Hopkins’ model is limited by cutting size and revolution per minute (RPM. The minimum flow rate from Tobenna’s model is affected only by well inclination, drilling fluid weight and drilling fluid rheological property. Meanwhile, Rudi-Shindu’s model is limited by inclinations above 45°. The study showed that the investigated models are not suitable for horizontal wells because they do not include the effect of lateral section.
Majorana neutrino transition magnetic moment in a variant of Zee model with horizontal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, Jyoti; Dev, S.
1992-01-01
A SU(2) H symmetric variant of Zee model of lepton flavour violation is presented and is shown to lead to neutrino transition magnetic moment of the order required to explain the solar neutrino deficit and the possible anticorrelation of solar neutrino flux with sunspot activity via VVO mechanism. The use of horizontal symmetry leads to totally degenerate neutrino states which may be combined to form a ZKM Dirac neutrino with naturally small mass. (author). 22 refs., 1 fig
Natural R parity conservation with horizontal symmetries: A four generation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, Z.; Nardi, E.
1995-01-01
In most supersymmetric models the stability of the proton is ensured by invoking R parity. A necessary ingredient to enforce R parity is the possibility of distinguishing the lepton superfields from the Higgs ones. This is generally achieved either by assuming different charges under some matter parity, or by assigning the superfields to different representations of a unified gauge group. We want to put forward the idea that the replica of the fermion generations, which constitute an intrinsic difference between the fermions and the Higgs superfields, can give a clue to understanding R parity as an accidental symmetry. More ambitiously, we suggest a possible relation between proton stability and the actual number of fermion generations. We carry out our investigation in the framework of non-Abelian horizontal gauge symmetries. We identify SU(4) H as the only acceptable horizontal gauge group which can naturally ensure the absence of R-parity-violating operators, without conflicting with other theoretical and phenomenological constraints. We analyze a version of the supersymmetric standard model equipped with a gauged horizontal SU(4) H , in which R parity is accidental. The model predicts four families of fermions, it allows for the dynamical generation of a realistic hierarchy of fermion masses without any ad hoc choice of small Yukawa couplings; it ensures in a natural way the heaviness of all the fourth family fermions (including the neutrino), and it predicts a lower limit for the τ-neutrino mass of a few eV. The scale of the breaking of the horizontal symmetry can be constrained rather precisely in a narrow window around ∼10 11 GeV. Some interesting astrophysical and cosmological implications of the model are addressed as well
Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions
Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.
Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto
2013-11-01
We investigate, through a combination of scale model experiments and numerical simulations, the evolution of the flow field around the rotor and in the wake of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Understanding the dynamics of this flow field is the key to optimizing the energy conversion of single devices and the arrangement of turbines in commercially viable arrays. This work presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results from two different case studies of scaled horizontal axis MHK turbines (45:1 scale). In the first case study, we investigate the effect of Reynolds number (Re = 40,000 to 100,000) and Tip Speed Ratio (TSR = 5 to 12) variation on the performance and wake structure of a single turbine. In the second case, we study the effect of the turbine downstream spacing (5d to 14d) on the performance and wake development in a coaxial configuration of two turbines. These results provide insights into the dynamics of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, and by extension to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines in close proximity to each other, and highlight the capabilities and limitations of the numerical models. Once validated at laboratory scale, the numerical model can be used to address other aspects of MHK turbines at full scale. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farahmand F
2000-08-01
Full Text Available Computer model of the patellofemoral joint was developed and the effects on the anterior displacement of the tibial tuberosity were investigated. The input geometrical and verification data for the model were obtained form an experimental study on a cadaver knee, mounted in an instron machine. The computer program found the configuration of the patellofemoral joint which satified both the geometrical and force equilibrium conditions, simultaneously, using a trial graphical approach.verification of the model was achieved by determining the patellar sagittal plane motion and patellofemoral contact locations and comparing the results with the experimental results of the same specimen and published data. Simulation of the anterior displacement of the tibial tuberosity by the model showed that the location of contact area migrates distally on the femur and proximally on the patella following operation. The contact force of the patellofemoral joint decreased significantly by 70% at full extension, 30% at 30 degrees flexion and around 15% at higher flexion angles for a 1 cm anterior displacement of the tibial tuberosity and nearly doubled for a 2cm anterior displacement. The change of the effective moment are of the quadriceps was not considerable. The results suggest that the major effect of the Maquet operation on the contact force appears in extension and mid-flexion rather than deep flexion amgles. Further displacement of the tuberosity enhances the reduction of the contact force, however, the total reduction is less than what was predicted by Maquet. The change of the contact location relieves pain in short term but causes hyperpressure in the proximal retropatellar surface which might be detrimental in long term
Vertical and horizontal integration of knowledge and skills - a working model.
Snyman, W D; Kroon, J
2005-02-01
The new integrated outcomes-based curriculum for dentistry was introduced at the University of Pretoria in 1997. The first participants graduated at the end of 2001. Educational principles that underpin the new innovative dental curriculum include vertical and horizontal integration, problem-oriented learning, student-centred learning, a holistic attitude to patient care and the promotion of oral health. The aim of this research project was to develop and assay a model to facilitate vertical integration of knowledge and skills thereby justifying the above mentioned action. The learning methodology proposed for the specific outcome of the Odontology module, namely the diagnosis of dental caries and the design of a primary preventive programme, included problem-solving as the driving force for the facilitation of vertical and horizontal integration, and an instructional design for the integration of the basic knowledge and clinical skills into a single learning programme. The paper describes the methodology of problem-oriented learning as applied in this study together with the detail of the programme. The consensus of those teachers who represent the basic and clinical sciences and who participate in this learning programme is that this model is practical and can assist vertical as well as horizontal integration of knowledge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nihan Onder; Alberto Teyssedou; Danila Roubtsov
2005-01-01
velocity and the slug predominant frequency were obtained from the void fraction signals. The waves were filmed using a digital video camera and the frame images were used to extract their amplitudes. Even though, for co-current flows, the formation of slugs has been explained in terms of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion, we did not observe that the slugging phenomena were triggered by this type of instability. Thus, the objective of this paper is to provide a model that explain the formation of slugs in a CCF. The model is based on the Boussinesq nonlinear system of equations that are discretized by using leap-frog scheme and solved numerically. The results have been used to obtain the slug frequency and propagation velocity. We have calculated the slug frequency from the lag time between the instant a train of solitons are formed in the horizontal leg and the instant that two trains of solitons collide with each other to form a slug. The slug propagation velocity has been estimated by using a control volume approach, the average horizontal velocity given by the model and the velocity of gravitational waves. The predictions of the model were compared with the slug data; in general, a good agreement between the predictions and the data was found. (authors)
Probabilistic modelling of the high-pressure arc cathode spot displacement dynamic
Coulombe, S
2003-01-01
A probabilistic modelling approach for the study of the cathode spot displacement dynamic in high-pressure arc systems is developed in an attempt to interpret the observed voltage fluctuations. The general framework of the model allows to define simple, probabilistic displacement rules, the so-called cathode spot dynamic rules, for various possible surface states (un-arced metal, arced, contaminated) and to study the resulting dynamic of the cathode spot displacements over one or several arc passages. The displacements of the type-A cathode spot (macro-spot) in a magnetically rotating arc using concentric electrodes made up of either clean or contaminated metal surfaces is considered. Experimental observations for this system revealed a 1/f sup - sup t sup i sup l sup d sup e sup 1 signature in the frequency power spectrum (FPS) of the arc voltage for anchoring arc conditions on the cathode (e.g. clean metal surface), while it shows a 'white noise' signature for conditions favouring a smooth movement (e.g. ox...
Berckmans, Julie; Hamdi, Rafiq; De Troch, Rozemien; Giot, Olivier
2015-04-01
At the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI), climate simulations are performed with the regional climate model (RCM) ALARO, a version of the ALADIN model with improved physical parameterizations. In order to obtain high-resolution information of the regional climate, lateral bounary conditions (LBC) are prescribed from the global climate model (GCM) ARPEGE. Dynamical downscaling is commonly done in a continuous long-term simulation, with the initialisation of the model at the start and driven by the regularly updated LBCs of the GCM. Recently, more interest exists in the dynamical downscaling approach of frequent reinitializations of the climate simulations. For these experiments, the model is initialised daily and driven for 24 hours by the GCM. However, the surface is either initialised daily together with the atmosphere or free to evolve continuously. The surface scheme implemented in ALARO is SURFEX, which can be either run in coupled mode or in stand-alone mode. The regional climate is simulated on different domains, on a 20km horizontal resolution over Western-Europe and a 4km horizontal resolution over Belgium. Besides, SURFEX allows to perform a stand-alone or offline simulation on 1km horizontal resolution over Belgium. This research is in the framework of the project MASC: "Modelling and Assessing Surface Change Impacts on Belgian and Western European Climate", a 4-year project funded by the Belgian Federal Government. The overall aim of the project is to study the feedbacks between climate changes and land surface changes in order to improve regional climate model projections at the decennial scale over Belgium and Western Europe and thus to provide better climate projections and climate change evaluation tools to policy makers, stakeholders and the scientific community.
PV microgrid business models for energy-delivery services in camps for displaced peoples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Irene Feria Cerrada
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Energy services are essential for the protection of basic human rights and dignity. Since 2014, energy issues have been incorporated in United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees global protection strategies. Off-grid solar photovoltaics power solutions can now provide cost-effective clean electricity in camps comprised large populations of displaced peoples, internally displaced and/or refugees. Through microgrid modelling and risk analysis, we outline business models that could provide affordable and appropriate energy to displaced communities. Our proposed PV microgrid build-own-operate business models for camps of displaced populations consider providing household demands, institutional demands, and a combination of the two. We find that sustainable energy services can be provided to humanitarian agencies to power their compounds and community services such as health clinics and administrative centres. A fixed tariff of US$ 1 /kWh is viable provided: the local fuel prices are greater than US$ 0.6 /L at the point of use, and the capital costs of a backup or existing diesel generator are already covered. A fixed price tariff, mitigates running costs for humanitarian agencies. In addition, by leveraging the institutional energy demands, basic electricity services to up to 500 households for mobile phone charging and lighting could be provided for a monthly tariff of US$ 1.5 per household, which is favourable compared to the estimated of US$ 4 monthly cost of kerosene for a typical refugee household. The solutions we propose will reduce costs and improve the sustainability of humanitarian operations while achieving the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees goals by providing electricity to displaced persons for lighting and communications.
Gougui, Abdelmoumen; Djafour, Ahmed; Khelfaoui, Narimane; Boutelli, Halima
2018-05-01
In this paper a comparison between three models for predicting the total solar flux falling on a horizontal surface has been processed. Capderou, Perrin & Brichambaut and Hottel models used to estimate the global solar radiation, the models are identified and evaluated using MATLAB environment. The recorded data have been obtained from a small weather station installed at the LAGE laboratory of Ouargla University, Algeria. Solar radiation data have been recorded using four sample days, every 15thday of the month, (March, April, May and October). The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) have been also calculated so as that to test the reliability of the proposed models. A comparisons between the measured and the calculated values have been made. The results obtained in this study depict that Perrin & Brichambaut and Capderou models are more effective to estimate the total solar intensity on a horizontal surface for clear sky over Ouargla city (Latitude of 31° 95' N, Longitude of 5° 24' E, and Altitude of 0.141km above Mean Sea Level), these models dedicated from meteorological parameters, geographical location and number of days since the first January. Perrin & Brichambaut and Capderou models give the best tendency with a CC of 0.985-0.999 and 0.932-0.995 consecutively further, Hottel give's a CC of 0.617-0.942.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.
2015-01-01
A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation
Modeling of global horizontal irradiance in the United Arab Emirates with artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hejase, Hassan A.N.; Al-Shamisi, Maitha H.; Assi, Ali H.
2014-01-01
This paper employs ANN (Artificial Neural Network) models to estimate GHI (global horizontal irradiance) for three major cities in the UAE (United Arab Emirates), namely Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Al-Ain. City data are then used to develop a comprehensive global GHI model for other nearby locations in the UAE. The ANN models use MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) and RBF (Radial Basis Function) techniques with comprehensive training algorithms, architectures, and different combinations of inputs. The UAE models are tested and validated against individual city models and data available from the UAE Solar Atlas with good agreement as attested by the computed statistical error parameters. The optimal ANN model is MLP-based and requires four mean daily weather parameters; namely, maximum temperature, wind speed, sunshine hours, and relative humidity. The computed statistical error parameters for the optimal MLP-ANN model in relation to the measured three-cities mean data (referred to as UAE data) are MBE (mean bias error) = −0.0003 kWh/m 2 , RMSE = 0.179 kWh/m 2 , R 2 = 99%, NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe model Efficiency coefficient) = 99%, and t-statistic = 0.005 at 5% significance level. Results prove the suitability of the ANN models for estimating the monthly mean daily GHI in different locations of the UAE. - Highlights: • ANN prediction models for the GHI (global horizontal irradiance) in the UAE. • Models used to estimate the potential of global solar radiation for UAE cities. • Data from the UAE Solar Atlas are used to validate developed ANN models. • ANN models are more efficient than regression models in predicting GHI
Chenghua, Ou; Chaochun, Li; Siyuan, Huang; Sheng, James J.; Yuan, Xu
2017-12-01
As the platform-based horizontal well production mode has been widely applied in petroleum industry, building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using horizontal well stratigraphic correlation has become very important. Horizontal wells usually extend between the upper and bottom boundaries of the target formation, with limited penetration points. Using these limited penetration points to conduct well deviation correction means the formation depth information obtained is not accurate, which makes it hard to build a fine structure model. In order to solve this problem, a method of fine reservoir structure modeling, based on 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells, is proposed. This method can increase the accuracy when estimating the depth of the penetration points, and can also effectively predict the top and bottom interfaces in the horizontal penetrating section. Moreover, this method will greatly increase not only the number of points of depth data available, but also the accuracy of these data, which achieves the goal of building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using the stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells. Using this method, four 3D fine structure layer models have been successfully built of a specimen shale gas field with platform-based horizontal well production mode. The shale gas field is located to the east of Sichuan Basin, China; the successful application of the method has proven its feasibility and reliability.
Modelling and control of growing slugs in horizontal multiphase pipe flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steinar M. Elgsæter
2006-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the use of active control to restrict the length of growing slugs in horizontal pipelines is investigated. Specifically, the paper attempts to determine if such control can be attained with realistic measurements and actuators. Simulations in OLGA2000 show that a feedback controller can use measurements or estimates of slug length to control the growth of a slug in a horizontal pipeline by partially closing inlet or outlet chokes. A control-volume approach is used to develop a low-order model of inlet choke-slug growth dynamics based on mass- and impulse balances. The resulting model is a system of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations, which is suitable for observer-design. The tuned model is found to be in good agreement with experiments and OLGA2000-simulations. Linearizations of the model are found to be observable around realistic trajectories when rates and pressures at the inlet and outlet are measured. An extended Luenberger-observer is shown to give good estimates of slug length and -position in simulations even under model uncertainty.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Moo Hwan
2008-01-01
A theoretical model was developed to investigate a steam condensation with a noncondensable gas in a horizontal tube. The heat transfer through the vapor/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer consists of the sensible heat transfer and the latent heat transfer given up by the condensing vapor, and it must equal that from the condensate film to the tube wall. Therefore, the total heat transfer coefficient is given by the film, condensation and sensible heat transfer coefficients. The film heat transfer coefficients of the upper and lower portions of the tube were calculated separately from Rosson and Meyers (1965) correlation. The heat and mass transfer analogy was used to analyze the steam/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer. Here, the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in the gas phase were modified to incorporate the effects of condensate film roughness, suction, and developing flow. The predictions of the theoretical model for the experimental heat transfer coefficients at the top and bottom of the tube were reasonable. The calculated heat transfer coefficients at the top of the tube were higher than those at the bottom of it, as experimental results. As the temperature potential at the top of tube was lower than that at the bottom of it, the heat fluxes at the upper and lower portions of the tube were similar to each other. Generally speaking, however, the model predictions showed a good agreement with experimental data. The new empirical correlation proposed by Lee and Kim (2008) for the vertical tube was applied to the condensation of steam/noncondensable mixture in a horizontal tube. Nusselt theory and Chato correlation were used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients at top and bottom of the horizontal tube, respectively. The predictions of the new empirical correlation were good and very similar with the theoretical model. (author)
Li, Y.; McDougall, T. J.
2016-02-01
Coarse resolution ocean models lack knowledge of spatial correlations between variables on scales smaller than the grid scale. Some researchers have shown that these spatial correlations play a role in the poleward heat flux. In order to evaluate the poleward transport induced by the spatial correlations at a fixed horizontal position, an equation is obtained to calculate the approximate transport from velocity gradients. The equation involves two terms that can be added to the quasi-Stokes streamfunction (based on temporal correlations) to incorporate the contribution of spatial correlations. Moreover, these new terms do not need to be parameterized and is ready to be evaluated by using model data directly. In this study, data from a high resolution ocean model have been used to estimate the accuracy of this HRM approach for improving the horizontal property fluxes in coarse-resolution ocean models. A coarse grid is formed by sub-sampling and box-car averaging the fine grid scale. The transport calculated on the coarse grid is then compared to the transport on original high resolution grid scale accumulated over a corresponding number of grid boxes. The preliminary results have shown that the estimate on coarse resolution grids roughly match the corresponding transports on high resolution grids.
Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C
2012-01-01
In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)
Guerra Aristizábal, José-Julián; Grosso Vargas, Jorge-Luis
2005-01-01
Recently it has been proposed the incorporation of horizontal well technologies in thermal EOR processes like the in situ combustion process (ISC). This has taken to the conception of new recovery mechanisms named here as Segregated In-Situ Combustion processes which are conventional in-situ combustion process with a segregated flow component. Top/Down combustion, Combustion Override Splitproduction Horizontal-well and Toe-to-Heel Air Injection are three of these processes, which incorporate ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
2006-01-01
This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woehrer, W
1989-04-05
A mathematical model which describes ethanol formation in a horizontal tank reactor containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in small beads of calcium alignate has been developed. The design equations combine flow dynamics of the reactor as well as product formation kinetics. The model was verified for 11 continuous experiments, where dilution rate, feed glucose concentration and bead volume fraction were varied. The model predicts effluent ethanol concentration and CO/sub 2/ production rate within the experimental error. A simplification of the model is possible, when the feed glucose concentration does not exceed 150 kg/m/sup 3/. The simplification results in an analytical solution of the design equation and hence can easily be applied for design purposes as well as for optimization studies.
A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales
Patzek, Tadeusz
2017-10-18
Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling
Displacement monitoring and modelling of a high-speed railway bridge using C-band Sentinel-1 data
Huang, Qihuan; Crosetto, Michele; Monserrat, Oriol; Crippa, Bruno
2017-06-01
Bridge displacement monitoring is one of the key components of bridge structural health monitoring. Traditional methods, usually based on limited sets of sensors mounted on a given bridge, collect point-like deformation information and have the disadvantage of providing incomplete displacement information. In this paper, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) approach is used to monitor the displacements of the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River high-speed railway bridge. Twenty-nine (29) European Space Agency Sentinel-1A images, acquired from April 25, 2015 to August 5, 2016, were used in the PSI analysis. A total of 1828 measurement points were selected on the bridge. The results show a maximum longitudinal displacement of about 150 mm on each side of the bridge. The measured displacements showed a strong correlation with the environmental temperature at the time the images used were acquired, indicating that they were due to thermal expansion of the bridge. At each pier, a regression model based on the PSI-measured displacements was compared with a model based on in-situ measurements. The good agreement of these models demonstrates the capability of the PSI technique to monitor long-span railway bridge displacements. By comparing the modelled displacements and dozens of PSI measurements, we show how the performance of movable bearings can be evaluated. The high density of the PSI measurement points is advantageous for the health monitoring of the entire bridge.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei
2013-01-01
In this paper, the development of a nodal model that predicts vertical temperature distribution in a typical office room with floor heating and displacement ventilation (FHDV) is described. The vertical air flow distribution is first determined according to the principle of displacement ventilati...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.
Hashemi, Hoda Sadat; Boily, Mathieu; Martineau, Paul A.; Rivaz, Hassan
2017-03-01
Ultrasound elastography entails imaging mechanical properties of tissue and is therefore of significant clinical importance. In elastography, two frames of radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound data that are obtained while the tissue is undergoing deformation, and the time-delay estimate (TDE) between the two frames is used to infer mechanical properties of tissue. TDE is a critical step in elastography, and is challenging due to noise and signal decorrelation. This paper presents a novel and robust technique TDE using all samples of RF data simultaneously. We assume tissue deformation can be approximated by an affine transformation, and hence call our method ATME (Affine Transformation Model Elastography). The affine transformation model is utilized to obtain initial estimates of axial and lateral displacement fields. The affine transformation only has six degrees of freedom (DOF), and as such, can be efficiently estimated. A nonlinear cost function that incorporates similarity of RF data intensity and prior information of displacement continuity is formulated to fine-tune the initial affine deformation field. Optimization of this function involves searching for TDE of all samples of the RF data. The optimization problem is converted to a sparse linear system of equations, which can be solved in real-time. Results on simulation are presented for validation. We further collect RF data from in-vivo patellar tendon and medial collateral ligament (MCL), and show that ATME can be used to accurately track tissue displacement.
Mathematical models utilized in the retrieval of displacement information encoded in fringe patterns
Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano
2016-02-01
All the techniques that measure displacements, whether in the range of visible optics or any other form of field methods, require the presence of a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a wave form modulated (modified) by an input, deformation of the medium. A carrier is tagged to the medium under analysis and deforms with the medium. The wave form must be known both in the unmodulated and the modulated conditions. There are two basic mathematical models that can be utilized to decode the information contained in the carrier, phase modulation or frequency modulation, both are closely connected. Basic problems connected to the detection and recovery of displacement information that are common to all optical techniques will be analyzed in this paper, focusing on the general theory common to all the methods independently of the type of signal utilized. The aspects discussed are those that have practical impact in the process of data gathering and data processing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)
2003-07-01
This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)
A numerical model for the thermal history of rocks based on confined horizontal fission tracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, P.K.; Kunzendorf, Helmar; Hansen, Kirsten
1992-01-01
A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities, and the uranium content. The initial track length distribution is taken into account. A relation between the measured track length distribution and age is given which includes correction for partial annealing. The annealing model used is the fanning Arrhenius plot. It is shown that track length distributions measured in transmitted light are biased favouring short tracks compared with measurements in reflected light. Testing of the model is performed on apatites from a tuffaceous sandstone from Bornholm (Denmark) yielding an estimate of the thermal history for the period of about 280 Ma back in time. (author)
Near-wellbore modeling of a horizontal well with Computational Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Szanyi, Márton L.; Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Yan, Wei
2018-01-01
Dynamics (CFD) is capable of modeling the complex interaction between the creeping reservoir flow and turbulent well flow for single phases, while capturing both the completion geometry and formation damage. A series of single phase steady-state simulations are undertaken, using such fully coupled three...... dimensional numerical models, to predict the inflow to the well. The present study considers the applicability of CFD for near-wellbore modeling through benchmark cases with available analytical solutions. Moreover, single phase steady-state numerical investigations are performed on a specific perforated...... horizontal well producing from the Siri field, offshore Denmark. The performance of the well is investigated with an emphasis on the inflow profile and the productivity index for different formation damage scenarios. A considerable redistribution of the inflow profile were found when the filtrate invasion...
Coulomb displacement energies in relativistic and non-relativistic self-consistent models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcos, S.; Savushkin, L.N.; Giai, N. van.
1992-03-01
Coulomb displacement energies in mirror nuclei are comparatively analyzed in Dirac-Hartree and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock models. Using a non-linear effective Lagrangian fitted on ground state properties of finite nuclei, it is found that the predictions of relativistic models are lower than those of Hartree-Fock calculations with Skyrme force. The main sources of reduction are the kinetic energy and the Coulomb-nuclear interference potential. The discrepancy with the data is larger than in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock case. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karacan, C.O.; Goodman, G.V.R. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Off Mine Safety & Health Research
2011-01-15
Gob gas ventholes (GGV) are used to control methane emissions in longwall mines by capturing it within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. In order for GGVs to effectively capture more methane and less mine air, the length of the slotted sections and their proximity to top of the coal bed should be designed based on the potential gas sources and their locations, as well as the displacements in the overburden that will create potential flow paths for the gas. In this paper, an approach to determine the conditional probabilities of depth-displacement, depth-flow percentage, depth-formation and depth-gas content of the formations was developed using bivariate normal distributions. The flow percentage, displacement and formation data as a function of distance from coal bed used in this study were obtained from a series of borehole experiments contracted by the former US Bureau of Mines as part of a research project. Each of these parameters was tested for normality and was modeled using bivariate normal distributions to determine all tail probabilities. In addition, the probability of coal bed gas content as a function of depth was determined using the same techniques. The tail probabilities at various depths were used to calculate conditional probabilities for each of the parameters. The conditional probabilities predicted for various values of the critical parameters can be used with the measurements of flow and methane percentage at gob gas ventholes to optimize their performance.
Development of a model counter-rotating type horizontal-axis tidal turbine
Huang, B.; Yoshida, K.; Kanemoto, T.
2016-05-01
In the past decade, the tidal energies have caused worldwide concern as it can provide regular and predictable renewable energy resource for power generation. The majority of technologies for exploiting the tidal stream energy are based on the concept of the horizontal axis tidal turbine (HATT). A unique counter-rotating type HATT was proposed in the present work. The original blade profiles were designed according to the developed blade element momentum theory (BEMT). CFD simulations and experimental tests were adopted to the performance of the model counter-rotating type HATT. The experimental data provides an evidence of validation of the CFD model. Further optimization of the blade profiles was also carried out based on the CFD results.
Horizontal ground coupled heat pump: Thermal-economic modeling and optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (Iran)
2010-12-15
The modeling and optimizing processes of a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) with closed Horizontal Ground Heat eXchanger (HGHX) are presented in this paper. After thermal modeling of GCHP including HGHX, the optimum design parameters of the system were estimated by minimizing a defined objective function (total of investment and operation costs) subject to a list of constraints. This procedure was performed applying Genetic Algorithm technique. For given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator as well as inlet and outlet temperatures of the water source in cooling and heating modes were predicted. Then, for our case study, the design parameters as well as the configuration of HGHX were obtained. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, and soil type were discussed. (author)
Horizontal ground coupled heat pump: Thermal-economic modeling and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad
2010-01-01
The modeling and optimizing processes of a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) with closed Horizontal Ground Heat eXchanger (HGHX) are presented in this paper. After thermal modeling of GCHP including HGHX, the optimum design parameters of the system were estimated by minimizing a defined objective function (total of investment and operation costs) subject to a list of constraints. This procedure was performed applying Genetic Algorithm technique. For given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator as well as inlet and outlet temperatures of the water source in cooling and heating modes were predicted. Then, for our case study, the design parameters as well as the configuration of HGHX were obtained. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, and soil type were discussed.
Horizontal, anomalous U(1) symmetry for the more minimal supersymmetric standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, A.E.; Wright, D.
1997-01-01
We construct explicit examples with a horizontal, open-quotes anomalousclose quotes U(1) gauge group, which, in a supersymmetric extension of the standard model, reproduce qualitative features of the fermion spectrum and CKM matrix, and suppress FCNC and proton decay rates without the imposition of global symmetries. We review the motivation for such open-quotes moreclose quotes minimal supersymmetric standard models and their predictions for the sparticle spectrum. There is a mass hierarchy in the scalar sector which is the inverse of the fermion mass hierarchy. We show in detail why ΔS=2 FCNCs are greatly suppressed when compared with naive estimates for nondegenerate squarks. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Simulation of horizontal pipe two-phase slug flows using the two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega Malca, Arturo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
2005-07-01
Slug flow occurs in many engineering applications, mainly in the transport of hydrocarbon fluids in pipelines. The intermittency of slug flow causes severe unsteady loading on the pipelines carrying the fluids, which gives rise to design problems. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the onset and development of slug flow as well as slug characteristics. The present work consists in the simulation of two-phase flow in slug pattern through horizontal pipes using the two-fluid model in its transient and one-dimensional form. The advantage of this model is that the flow field is allowed to develop naturally from a given initial conditions as part of the transient calculation; the slug evolves automatically as a product of the computed flow development. Simulations are then carried out for a large number of flow conditions that lead a slug flow. (author)
Inelastic response of PCRV structure model with star-type support under horizontal loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeda, T.
1978-01-01
The report presents the test results of scaled models for prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) structure with star-shaped support under horizontal loads. A scale factor of 1 / 70 to a proto-type PCRV structure for large HTGR is used for both static and dynamic loading test models, while a 1 / 15 scaled model is used for static loading tests. The static behaviors such as a load-deflection envelope of the 1 / 70 model are predicted well by an inelastic analysis in consideration with appearance of concrete cracks and reinforcing bar yielding. It is also ascertained by the test results of the 1 / 15 model under static alternative loads that the same analysis procedure can be applicable to the evaluation of the elastic and inelastic behaviors of PCRV structure with support. Based on the static loading test results of both scaled models, a tri-linearized load-deflection envelope and an equivalent linearized mathematical model for hysteresis loop are assumed in a dynamic analysis. A dynamic response analysis of the 1 / 70 model subjected to earthquake-like base motion is conducted by the similar manner above-mentioned and the calculated results show a good correlation with the test results
New transient-flow modelling of a multiple-fractured horizontal well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Yong-Lu; Wang, Ben-Cheng; Nie, Ren-Shi; Wang, Dan-Ling
2014-01-01
A new transient-flow modelling of a multiple-fractured horizontal well is presented. Compared to conventional modelling, the new modelling considered more practical physical conditions, such as various inclined angles for different fractures, different fracture intervals, different fracture lengths and partially penetrating fractures to formation. A kind of new mathematical method, including a three-dimensional eigenvalue and orthogonal transform, was created to deduce the exact analytical solutions of pressure transients for constant-rate production in real space. In order to consider a wellbore storage coefficient and skin factor, we used a Laplace-transform approach to convert the exact analytical solutions to the solutions in Laplace space. Then the numerical solutions of pressure transients in real space were gained using a Stehfest numerical inversion. Standard type curves were plotted to describe the transient-flow characteristics. Flow regimes were clearly identified from type curves. Furthermore, the differences between the new modelling and the conventional modelling in pressure transients were especially compared and discussed. Finally, an example application to show the accordance of the new modelling with real conditions was implemented. Our new modelling is different from, but more practical than, conventional modelling. (paper)
Computing diffuse fraction of global horizontal solar radiation: A model comparison.
Dervishi, Sokol; Mahdavi, Ardeshir
2012-06-01
For simulation-based prediction of buildings' energy use or expected gains from building-integrated solar energy systems, information on both direct and diffuse component of solar radiation is necessary. Available measured data are, however, typically restricted to global horizontal irradiance. There have been thus many efforts in the past to develop algorithms for the derivation of the diffuse fraction of solar irradiance. In this context, the present paper compares eight models for estimating diffuse fraction of irradiance based on a database of measured irradiance from Vienna, Austria. These models generally involve mathematical formulations with multiple coefficients whose values are typically valid for a specific location. Subsequent to a first comparison of these eight models, three better performing models were selected for a more detailed analysis. Thereby, the coefficients of the models were modified to account for Vienna data. The results suggest that some models can provide relatively reliable estimations of the diffuse fractions of the global irradiance. The calibration procedure could only slightly improve the models' performance.
Non-linear hybrid control oriented modelling of a digital displacement machine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.
2017-01-01
Proper feedback control of digital fluid power machines (Pressure, flow, torque or speed control) requires a control oriented model, from where the system dynamics can be analyzed, stability can be proven and design criteria can be specified. The development of control oriented models for hydraulic...... Digital Displacement Machines (DDM) is complicated due to non-smooth machine behavior, where the dynamics comprises both analog, digital and non-linear elements. For a full stroke operated DDM the power throughput is altered in discrete levels based on the ratio of activated pressure chambers....... In this paper, a control oriented hybrid model is established, which combines the continuous non-linear pressure chamber dynamics and the discrete shaft position dependent activation of the pressure chambers. The hybrid machine model is further extended to describe the dynamics of a Digital Fluid Power...
Modelling of the Vajont rockslide displacements by delayed plasticity of interacting sliding blocks
Castellanza, riccardo; Hedge, Amarnath; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele
2015-04-01
In order to model complex sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements related to water table fluctuations it is convenient to: i) model the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the materials by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law; ii) assume the water table fluctuation as the main input to induce displacement acceleration; iii) consider, the 3D constrains by maintaining a level of simplicity such to allow the implementation into EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. In this work a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic model (Secondi et al. 2011), based on Perzyna's delayed plasticity theory is applied. The sliding mass is considered as a rigid block subject to its self weight, inertial forces and seepage forces varying with time. All non-linearities are lumped in a thin layer positioned between the rigid block and the stable bedrock. The mechanical response of this interface is assumed to be visco-plastic. The viscous nucleus is assumed to be of the exponential type, so that irreversible strains develop for both positive and negative values of the yield function; the sliding mass is discretized in blocks to cope with complex rockslide geometries; the friction angle is assumed to reduce with strain rate assuming a sort of strain - rate law (Dietrich-Ruina law). To validate the improvements introduced in this paper the simulation of the displacements of the Vajont rockslide from 1960 to the failure, occurred on October the 9th 1963, is perfomed. It will be shown that, in its modified version, the model satisfactorily fits the Vajont pre-collapse displacements triggered by the fluctuation of the Vajont lake level and the associated groundwater level. The model is able to follow the critical acceleration of the motion with a minimal change in friction properties.The discretization in interacting sliding blocks confirms its suitability to model the complex 3D rockslide behaviour. We are currently implementing a multi-block model capable to include
Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation
Khorsandi, Behrooz
There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.
Modeling horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the gut of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durvasula Ravi V
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Paratransgenesis is an approach to reducing arthropod vector competence using genetically modified symbionts. When applied to control of Chagas disease, the symbiont bacterium Rhodococcus rhodnii, resident in the gut lumen of the triatomine vector Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, is transformed to export cecropin A, an insect immune peptide. Cecropin A is active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. While proof of concept has been achieved in laboratory studies, a rigorous and comprehensive risk assessment is required prior to consideration of field release. An important part of this assessment involves estimating probability of transgene horizontal transfer to environmental organisms (HGT. This article presents a two-part risk assessment methodology: a theoretical model predicting HGT in the gut of R. prolixus from the genetically transformed symbiont R. rhodnii to a closely related non-target bacterium, Gordona rubropertinctus, in the absence of selection pressure, and a series of laboratory trials designed to test the model. Results The model predicted an HGT frequency of less than 1.14 × 10-16 per 100,000 generations at the 99% certainty level. The model was iterated twenty times, with the mean of the ten highest outputs evaluated at the 99% certainty level. Laboratory trials indicated no horizontal gene transfer, supporting the conclusions of the model. Conclusions The model treats HGT as a composite event, the probability of which is determined by the joint probability of three independent events: gene transfer through the modalities of transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Genes are represented in matrices and Monte Carlo method and Markov chain analysis are used to simulate and evaluate environmental conditions. The model is intended as a risk assessment instrument and predicts HGT frequency of less than 1.14 × 10-16 per 100,000 generations. With laboratory studies that
Gibson, Angus H.; Hogg, Andrew McC.; Kiss, Andrew E.; Shakespeare, Callum J.; Adcroft, Alistair
2017-11-01
We examine the separate contributions to spurious mixing from horizontal and vertical processes in an ALE ocean model, MOM6, using reference potential energy (RPE). The RPE is a global diagnostic which changes only due to mixing between density classes. We extend this diagnostic to a sub-timestep timescale in order to individually separate contributions to spurious mixing through horizontal (tracer advection) and vertical (regridding/remapping) processes within the model. We both evaluate the overall spurious mixing in MOM6 against previously published output from other models (MOM5, MITGCM and MPAS-O), and investigate impacts on the components of spurious mixing in MOM6 across a suite of test cases: a lock exchange, internal wave propagation, and a baroclinically-unstable eddying channel. The split RPE diagnostic demonstrates that the spurious mixing in a lock exchange test case is dominated by horizontal tracer advection, due to the spatial variability in the velocity field. In contrast, the vertical component of spurious mixing dominates in an internal waves test case. MOM6 performs well in this test case owing to its quasi-Lagrangian implementation of ALE. Finally, the effects of model resolution are examined in a baroclinic eddies test case. In particular, the vertical component of spurious mixing dominates as horizontal resolution increases, an important consideration as global models evolve towards higher horizontal resolutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ofei, T N; Irawan, S; Pao, W
2015-01-01
During oil and gas drilling operations, frictional pressure loss is experienced as the drilling fluid transports the drilled cuttings from the bottom-hole, through the annulus, to the surface. Estimation of these pressure losses is critical when designing the drilling hydraulic program. Two-phase frictional pressure loss in the annulus is very difficult to predict, and even more complex when there is drillpipe rotation. Accurate prediction will ensure that the correct equivalent circulating density (ECD) is applied in the wellbore to prevent formation fracture, especially in formations with narrow window between the pore pressure and fracture gradient. Few researchers have attempted to propose cuttings-liquid frictional pressure loss models, nevertheless, these models fail when they are applied to narrow wellbores such as in casing- while-drilling and slimhole applications. This study proposes improved cuttings-liquid frictional pressure loss models for narrow horizontal annuli with drillpipe rotation using Dimensional Analysis. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were considered. The proposed model constants were fitted by generated data from a full-scale simulation study using ANSYS-CFX. The models showed improvement over existing cuttings-liquid pressure loss correlations in literature. (paper)
A Linear Regression Model for Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surfaces at Warri, Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael S. Okundamiya
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The growing anxiety on the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment and the global emission reduction targets call for a more extensive use of renewable energy alternatives. Efficient solar energy utilization is an essential solution to the high atmospheric pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion. Global solar radiation (GSR data, which are useful for the design and evaluation of solar energy conversion system, are not measured at the forty-five meteorological stations in Nigeria. The dearth of the measured solar radiation data calls for accurate estimation. This study proposed a temperature-based linear regression, for predicting the monthly average daily GSR on horizontal surfaces, at Warri (latitude 5.020N and longitude 7.880E an oil city located in the south-south geopolitical zone, in Nigeria. The proposed model is analyzed based on five statistical indicators (coefficient of correlation, coefficient of determination, mean bias error, root mean square error, and t-statistic, and compared with the existing sunshine-based model for the same study. The results indicate that the proposed temperature-based linear regression model could replace the existing sunshine-based model for generating global solar radiation data. Keywords: air temperature; empirical model; global solar radiation; regression analysis; renewable energy; Warri
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zeng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Multistage fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs have become the main technology for shale gas exploration. However, the existing models have neglected the percolation mechanism in nanopores of organic matter and failed to consider the differences among the reservoir properties in different areas. On that account, in this study, a modified apparent permeability model was proposed describing gas flow in shale gas reservoirs by integrating bulk gas flow in nanopores and gas desorption from nanopores. The apparent permeability was introduced into the macroseepage model to establish a dynamic pressure analysis model for MFHWs dual-porosity formations. The Laplace transformation and the regular perturbation method were used to obtain an analytical solution. The influences of fracture half-length, fracture permeability, Langmuir volume, matrix radius, matrix permeability, and induced fracture permeability on pressure and production were discussed. Results show that fracture half-length, fracture permeability, and induced fracture permeability exert a significant influence on production. A larger Langmuir volume results in a smaller pressure and pressure derivative. An increase in matrix permeability increases the production rate. Besides, this model fits the actual field data relatively well. It has a reliable theoretical foundation and can preferably describe the dynamic changes of pressure in the exploration process.
Caro, Florian; Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Saad, Mazen Naufal B M
2013-01-01
Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.
Caro, Florian
2013-09-01
Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.
Kim, S-J; Kwon, Y-H; Hwang, C-J
2016-05-01
The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics between two types of self-ligating brackets and conventional metal brackets using finite element analysis of a vertically displaced canine model focusing on the desired force on the canine and undesirable forces on adjacent teeth. Three-dimensional finite element models of the maxillary dentition with 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm vertically displaced canines were constructed. Two different self-ligating brackets (In-Ovation C and Smart clip) and a conventional metal bracket (Micro-arch) were modeled. After a 0.016-inch NiTi (0.40 mm, round) wire was engaged, the displacement of each tooth was calculated using x-, y-, and z-coordinates, and the tensile and compressive stresses were calculated. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine differed little between the three brackets, but the intrusion and minimal compressive stress values of the adjacent teeth differed considerably and were highest in the Smart clip and least in the In-Ovation C. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine in the 3-mm displacement model was less than that in the 2-mm displacement model, and the intrusion and minimal compressive stress of the adjacent teeth increased with the degree of displacement. Self-ligating brackets were not superior to conventional brackets in leveling a vertically displaced canine. A continuous arch wire may not be recommended for leveling of severely displaced canines whether using self-ligating or conventional brackets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto
2014-11-01
The performance, turbulent wake evolution and interaction of multiple Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines (HAHT) is analyzed in a 45:1 scale model setup. We combine experimental measurements with different RANS-based computational simulations that model the turbines with sliding-mesh, rotating reference frame and blame element theory strategies. The influence of array spacing and Tip Speed Ratio on performance and wake velocity structure is investigated in three different array configurations: Two coaxial turbines at different downstream spacing (5d to 14d), Three coaxial turbines with 5d and 7d downstream spacing, and Three turbines with lateral offset (0.5d) and downstream spacing (5d & 7d). Comparison with experimental measurements provides insights into the dynamics of HAHT arrays, and by extension to closely packed HAWT arrays. The experimental validation process also highlights the influence of the closure model used (k- ω SST and k- ɛ) and the flow Reynolds number (Re=40,000 to 100,000) on the computational predictions of devices' performance and characteristics of the flow field inside the above-mentioned arrays, establishing the strengths and limitations of existing numerical models for use in industrially-relevant settings (computational cost and time). Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC).
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF WHEELSET OSCILLATIONS WITH INDEPENDENT WHEEL ROTATION IN THE HORIZONTAL PLANE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. V. Myamlin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The work is devoted to the study of horizontal oscillation and the assessment of the motion stability of a single wheelset with independent wheel rotation, and to the comparison of stability indicators of the typical wheelset and the wheelset with independent wheel rotation. This is connected with the necessity to increase traffic speed of rolling stock, improve road safety and comfort of passengers. Methodology. To achieve this purpose we used the methods of mathematical simulation of railway rolling stock dynamics, as well as the linear algebra methods to assess the stability of solutions of the linear homogeneous differential equations. Findings. To solve the set task the design model of a single wheelset with independent wheel rotation was created. The wheelset is not a single solid body; each of the wheelset axles has a surplus degree of freedom. Thus, we obtained the system with 4 degrees of freedom. The design model allowed to obtain the system of linear homogeneous differential equations describing the oscillations of the represented wheelset in a horizontal plane on a straight track section. On the basis of the computer modeling were calculated the eigenvalues of the differential equation system coefficients and the asymptotic stability analysis of the wheelset motion with independent wheel rotation. The increment and the frequency of fluctuations were compared with similar indicators for the standard wheelset. The authors also discussed non-oscillatory forms of the wheelset motion and the issues of wheelset self-centering on the track. Originality. The result of the work is the mathematical model of the sinuous movement of a single wheelset, in two-dimensional formulation, with independent wheel rotation and the estimate of the dynamic indices during its motion on a straight track section without any irregularities. There were also proposed the ways to ensure the self-centering on the track of the wheelset with independent
2010-07-01
...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal... Stationary Pre-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 2,237 KW (3,000 HP) and With a Displacement of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.
Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Ma, Yifang; Deng, Liansheng
2018-04-01
There are apparent seasonal variations in GPS height time series, and thermal expansion is considered to be one of the potential geophysical contributors. The displacements introduced by thermal expansion are usually derived without considering the annex height and underground part of the monument (e.g. located on roof or top of the buildings), which may bias the geophysical explanation of the seasonal oscillation. In this paper, the improved vertical displacements are derived by a refined thermal expansion model where the annex height and underground depth of the monument are taken into account, and then 560 IGS stations are adopted to validate the modeled thermal expansion (MTE) displacements. In order to evaluate the impact of thermal expansion on GPS heights, the MTE displacements of 80 IGS stations with less data discontinuities are selected to compare with their observed GPS vertical (OGV) displacements with the modeled surface loading (MSL) displacements removed in advance. Quantitative analysis results show the maximum annual and semiannual amplitudes of the MTE are 6.65 mm (NOVJ) and 0.51 mm (IISC), respectively, and the maximum peak-to-peak oscillation of the MTE displacements can be 19.4 mm. The average annual amplitude reductions are 0.75 mm and 1.05 mm respectively after removing the MTE and MSL displacements from the OGV, indicating the seasonal oscillation induced by thermal expansion is equivalent to >75% of the impact of surface loadings. However, there are rarely significant reductions for the semiannual amplitude. Given the result in this study that thermal expansion can explain 17.3% of the annual amplitude in GPS heights on average, it must be precisely modeled both in GPS precise data processing and GPS time series analysis, especially for those stations located in the middle and high latitudes with larger annual temperature oscillation, or stations with higher monument.
Jha, B.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation are important during production of hydrocarbons from oil and gas reservoirs. Effective design and implementation of enhanced recovery techniques such as miscible gas flooding and hydraulic fracturing requires modeling and simulation of these coupled proceses in geologic porous media. We develop a computational framework to model the coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation in heterogeneous fractured rock. We show that the hydrocarbon recovery efficiency during unstable displacement of a more viscous oil with a less viscous fluid in a fractured medium depends on the mechanical state of the medium, which evolves due to permeability alteration within and around fractures. We show that fully accounting for the coupling between the physical processes results in estimates of the recovery efficiency in agreement with observations in field and lab experiments.
Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)
2011-07-01
The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kryukov Igor Yu.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the development of the mathematical model, which describes thermal state and crystallization process of the rectangular cross-section blank while continious process of extraction from a horysontal continious casting machine (HCCM.The developed model took cue for the heat-transfer properties of non-iron metal teeming; its temperature on entry to the casting mold; cooling conditions of blank in the carbon molds in the presence of a copper water cooler. Besides, has been considered the asymmetry of heat interchange from blank`s head and drag at mold, coming out from fluid contraction and features of the horizontal casting mold. The developed mathematical model allows to determine alterations in crystallizing blank of the following factors with respect to time: temperature pattern of crystallizing blank under different technical working regimes of HCCM; boundaries of solid two-phase field and liquid two-phase filed; blank`s thickness variation under shrinkage of the ingot`s material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zempila, Melina-Maria; Taylor, Michael; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kazadzis, Stelios
2016-01-01
We report on the construction of generic models to calculate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and vice versa. Our study took place at stations of the Greek UV network (UVNET) and the Hellenic solar energy network (HNSE) with measurements from NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers and CM pyranometers, chosen due to their long (≈1 M record/site) high temporal resolution (≈1 min) record that captures a broad range of atmospheric environments and cloudiness conditions. The uncertainty of the PAR measurements is quantified to be ±6.5% while the uncertainty involved in GHI measurements is up to ≈±7% according to the manufacturer. We show how multi-linear regression and nonlinear neural network (NN) models, trained at a calibration site (Thessaloniki) can be made generic provided that the input–output time series are processed with multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA). Without M-SSA, both linear and nonlinear models perform well only locally. M-SSA with 50 time-lags is found to be sufficient for identification of trend, periodic and noise components in aerosol, cloud parameters and irradiance, and to construct regularized noise models of PAR from GHI irradiances. Reconstructed PAR and GHI time series capture ≈95% of the variance of the cross-validated target measurements and have median absolute percentage errors <2%. The intra-site median absolute error of M-SSA processed models were ≈8.2±1.7 W/m"2 for PAR and ≈9.2±4.2 W/m"2 for GHI. When applying the models trained at Thessaloniki to other stations, the average absolute mean bias between the model estimates and measured values was found to be ≈1.2 W/m"2 for PAR and ≈0.8 W/m"2 for GHI. For the models, percentage errors are well within the uncertainty of the measurements at all sites. Generic NN models were found to perform marginally better than their linear counterparts. - Highlights: • Generic linear regression and nonlinear neural network
Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships
De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico
2015-04-01
Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological
Akiyama, S.; Kawaji, K.; Fujihara, S.
2013-12-01
Since fault fracturing due to an earthquake can simultaneously cause ground motion and tsunami, it is appropriate to evaluate the ground motion and the tsunami by single fault model. However, several source models are used independently in the ground motion simulation or the tsunami simulation, because of difficulty in evaluating both phenomena simultaneously. Many source models for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are proposed from the inversion analyses of seismic observations or from those of tsunami observations. Most of these models show the similar features, which large amount of slip is located at the shallower part of fault area near the Japan Trench. This indicates that the ground motion and the tsunami can be evaluated by the single source model. Therefore, we examine the possibility of the tsunami prediction, using the fault model estimated from seismic observation records. In this study, we try to carry out the tsunami simulation using the displacement field of oceanic crustal movements, which is calculated from the ground motion simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We use two fault models by Yoshida et al. (2011), which are based on both the teleseismic body wave and on the strong ground motion records. Although there is the common feature in those fault models, the amount of slip near the Japan trench is lager in the fault model from the strong ground motion records than in that from the teleseismic body wave. First, the large-scale ground motion simulations applying those fault models used by the voxel type finite element method are performed for the whole eastern Japan. The synthetic waveforms computed from the simulations are generally consistent with the observation records of K-NET (Kinoshita (1998)) and KiK-net stations (Aoi et al. (2000)), deployed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Next, the tsunami simulations are performed by the finite
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Elsa; Lund, Hans; Furbo, Simon
2004-01-01
Measured solar radiation data are most commonly available as total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. When using solar radiation measured on horizontal to calculate the solar radiation on tilted surfaces and thereby the thermal performance of different applications such as buildings and solar...... heating systems, different solar radiation models can be used. The calculation of beam radiation from a horizontal surface to a tilted surface can be done exactly whereas different solar radiation models can calculate the sky diffuse radiation. The sky diffuse radiation can either be assumed evenly...... in the calculation. The weather data are measured at the solar radiation measurement station, SMS at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. In this study the weather data are combined with solar collector calculations based on solar collector test carried out at Solar Energy...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luigi, A.; Saputelli, B.; Carlas, M.; Canache, P.; Lopez, E. [DPVS Exploracion y Produccion (Venezuela)
1998-12-31
This study was designed to determine the activation energy ranges and frequency factor ranges in chemical reactions in heavy oils of the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, in order to account for the kinetics of physical changes that occur in the morphology of gas-oil dispersion. A non-equilibrium reaction model was used to model foamy oil behaviour observed at SDZ-182 horizontal well in the Zuata field. Results showed that activation energy for the first reaction ranged from 0 to 0.01 BTU/lb-mol and frequency factor from 0.001 to 1000 l/day. For the second reaction the activation energy was 50x10{sub 3} BTU/lb-mol and the frequency factor 2.75x10{sub 1}2 l/day. The second reaction was highly sensitive to the modifications in activation energy and frequency factor. However, both the activation energy and frequency factor were independent of variations for the first reaction. In the case of the activation energy, the results showed that the high sensitivity of this parameter reflected the impact that temperature has on the representation of foamy oil behaviour. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.
The modelling of condensation in horizontal tubes and the comparison with experimental data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryk Rafał
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role in determining the operation mode of passive safety systems of modern nuclear power plants. In this paper, two different approaches for modelling of this phenomenon are compared and verified against experimental data. The first approach is based on the flow regime map developed by Tandon. Depending on the regime, the heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to corresponding semi-empirical correlation. The second approach uses a general, fully empirical correlation proposed by Shah. Both models are developed with utilization of the object-oriented, equation-based Modelica language and the open-source Open-Modelica environment. The results are compared with data obtained during a large scale integral test, simulating a Loss of Coolant Accident scenario performed at the dedicated Integral Test Facility Karlstein (INKA which was built at the Components Testing Department of AREVA in Karlstein, Germany. The INKA facility was designed to test the performance of the passive safety systems of KERENA, the new AREVA boiling water reactor design. INKA represents the KERENA containment with a volume scaling of 1:24. Components heights and levels over the ground are in the full scale. The comparison of simulations results shows a good agreement.
Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.
1994-06-01
The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m 3 (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m 3 (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents
The three-zone composite productivity model for a multi-fractured horizontal shale gas well
Qi, Qian; Zhu, Weiyao
2018-02-01
Due to the nano-micro pore structures and the massive multi-stage multi-cluster hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the multi-scale seepage flows are much more complicated than in most other conventional reservoirs, and are crucial for the economic development of shale gas. In this study, a new multi-scale non-linear flow model was established and simplified, based on different diffusion and slip correction coefficients. Due to the fact that different flow laws existed between the fracture network and matrix zone, a three-zone composite model was proposed. Then, according to the conformal transformation combined with the law of equivalent percolation resistance, the productivity equation of a horizontal fractured well, with consideration given to diffusion, slip, desorption, and absorption, was built. Also, an analytic solution was derived, and the interference of the multi-cluster fractures was analyzed. The results indicated that the diffusion of the shale gas was mainly in the transition and Fick diffusion regions. The matrix permeability was found to be influenced by slippage and diffusion, which was determined by the pore pressure and diameter according to the Knudsen number. It was determined that, with the increased half-lengths of the fracture clusters, flow conductivity of the fractures, and permeability of the fracture network, the productivity of the fractured well also increased. Meanwhile, with the increased number of fractures, the distance between the fractures decreased, and the productivity slowly increased due to the mutual interfere of the fractures.
Assessment of fluid-to-fluid modelling of critical heat flux in horizontal 37-element bundle flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, S.K.
2006-01-01
Fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of critical heat flux (CHF) available in the literature were reviewed. The applicability of the fluid-to-fluid modelling laws was assessed using available data ranging from low to high mass fluxes in horizontal 37-element bundles simulating a CANDU fuel string. Correlations consisting of dimensionless similarity groups were derived using modelling fluid data (Freon-12) to predict water CHF data in horizontal 37-element bundles with uniform and non-uniform axial-heat flux distribution (AFD). The results showed that at mass fluxes higher than ∼4,000 kg/m 2 s (water equivalent value), the vertical fluid-to-fluid modelling laws of Ahmad (1973) and Katto (1979) predict water CHF in horizontal 37-element bundles with non-uniform AFD with average errors of 1.4% and 3.0% and RMS errors of 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively. The Francois and Berthoud (2003) fluid-to-fluid modelling law predicts CHF in non-uniformly heated 37-element bundles in the horizontal orientation with an average error of 0.6% and an RMS error of 10.4% over the available range of 2,000 to 6,200 kg/m 2 s. (author)
A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)
1997-12-01
Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the
Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-12-15
Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness
Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong
2007-01-01
Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness
An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)
2001-08-01
Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.
An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paasse, T.
2001-08-01
Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A s (m), the download factor and B s (y -1 ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity
A diffusive model for halo width growth during vertical displacement events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eidietis, N.W.; Humphreys, D.A.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic loads produced by halo currents during vertical displacement events (VDEs) impose stringent requirements on the strength of ITER in-vessel components. A predictive understanding of halo current evolution is essential for ensuring the robust design of these components. A significant factor determining that evolution is the plasma resistance, which is a function of three quantities: the resistivities of the core and halo regions, and the halo region width. A diffusive model of halo width growth during VDEs has been developed, which provides one part of a physics basis for predictive halo current simulations. The diffusive model was motivated by DIII-D observations that VDEs with cold post-thermal quench plasma and a current decay time much faster than the vertical motion (type I VDE) possess much wider halo region widths than warmer plasma VDEs, where the current decay is much slower than the vertical motion (type II). A 2D finite element code is used to model the diffusion of toroidal halo current during selected type I and type II DIII-D VDEs. The model assumes a core plasma region within the last closed flux surface (LCFS) diffusing current into a halo plasma filling the vessel outside the LCFS. LCFS motion and plasma temperature are prescribed from experimental observations. The halo width evolution produced by this model compares favourably with experimental measurements of type I and type II toroidal halo current width evolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, Ren-Shi; Guo, Jian-Chun; Jia, Yong-Lu; Zhu, Shui-Qiao; Rao, Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Guang
2011-01-01
The no-type curve with negative skin of a horizontal well has been found in the current research. Negative skin is very significant to transient well test and rate decline analysis. This paper first presents the negative skin problem where the type curves with negative skin of a horizontal well are oscillatory. In order to solve the problem, we propose a new model of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone composite reservoir. A new dimensionless definition of r D is introduced in the dimensionless mathematical modelling under different boundaries. The model is solved using the Laplace transform and separation of variables techniques. In Laplace space, the solutions for both constant rate production and constant wellbore pressure production are expressed in a unified formula. We provide graphs and thorough analysis of the new standard type curves for both well test and rate decline analysis; the characteristics of type curves are the reflections of horizontal well production in a multiple-zone reservoir. An important contribution of our paper is that our model removed the oscillation in type curves and thus solved the negative skin problem. We also show that the characteristics of type curves depend heavily on the properties of different zones, skin factor, well length, formation thickness, etc. Our research can be applied to a real case study
Analysis of Freight Trip Generation Model for Food and Beverage in Belo Horizonte (Brazil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leise Kelli de Oliveira
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Today, one of the main challenges faced in urban logistics is the distribution of goods. In Brazil, mid to large cities have experienced consequences of unplanned urban sprawl and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. The relationship between urban planning and transport stands out the attractiveness of some urban activities with direct impacts on the movement of people and goods and other component elements of urban space. The segment of bars and restaurants falls within this context, therefore is a vital activity responsible for significant percentage of jobs and revenue in a city. Altogether, foods & beverages commercial activities move daily large volumes of goods to meet the need of customers. This paper presents the results of a freight trip generation model developed for pubs and restaurants in Belo Horizonte (Brazil. Once performed the model determined the number of trips generated per day per establishment. In order to expand the discrete result to a continuous one, the results were geographically interpolated to a continuous surface and extrapolated within the city limits. The data for the freight trip generation model were obtained by survey. For this, we designed a structured questionnaire to obtain information about goods, frequency, operational time, place of performance of the loading/unloading of goods, establishment size and the number of employees. Besides these information, we investigated the acceptance of alternative practices in the delivery of goods, such as off-peak delivery. To accomplish the proposed models, we applied a simple linear regression, correlating the following variables: (i Number of trips versus area of the establishment; (ii Number of trips versus number of employees; (iii Number of trips versus operation day of the establishment. With the results of the linear regression for travel generations, conducted the data interpolation based on the standard deviation of the results to define the sample
Practical models to estimate horizontal irradiance in clear sky conditions: Preliminary results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salazar, German A.; Hernandez, Alejandro L.; Saravia, Luis R. [Department of Physics, School of Exact Sciences, National University of Salta, Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina); INENCO (Institute of Non Conventional Energy Research), Bolivia Avenue 5150, 4400 Salta Capital (Argentina)
2010-11-15
The Argentinean Northwest (ANW) is a high altitude region located alongside Los Andes Mountains. The ANW is also one of the most insolated regions in the world due to its altitude and particular climate. However, the characterization of the solar resource in the region is incomplete as there are no stations to measure solar radiation continuously and methodically. With irradiance data recently having been measured at three sites in the Salta Province, a study was carried out that resulted in a practical model to quickly and efficiently estimate the horizontal irradiance in high altitude sites in clear sky conditions. This model uses the altitude above sea level (A) as a variable and generates a representative clearness index as a result (k{sub t-R}) that is calculated for each site studied. This index k{sub t-R} is then used with the relative optical air mass and the extraterrestrial irradiance to estimate the instantaneous clearness index (k{sub t}). Subsequently, the index k{sub t-R} is corrected by introducing the atmospheric pressure in the definition of relative optical air mass proposed by Kasten. The results are satisfactory as errors in the irradiance estimations with respect to measured values do not exceed 5% for pressure corrected air masses AM{sub c} < 2. This model will be used in a feasibility study to locate sites for the installation of solar thermal power plants in the ANW. A prototype of a CLFR solar power plant is being built in the INENCO Campus, at the National University of Salta. (author)
EDF fragment relocation model based on the displacement of rigid bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callu, C.; Baron, D.; Ruck, J.M.
1997-01-01
In order to release the restricting conditions imposed to the reactor operations with regards to PCMI (Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction), the simulation of a fuel rod thermomechanical behavior has to be improved. The computer programming has to cope with the more and more sophisticated mathematical modellings induced by the complexity and the interdependence of the phenomena. Therefore EDF is developing a new code - CYRANO3 - since 1990 putting emphasis on its evolution capacities. Concerning more precisely the PCMI simulation, the pellet fragmentation and the fragments relocation is one of the major aspect one must account for. Thanks to recent analytical experiments, EDF developed a new modelling based on the displacement of rigid bodies and on the calculation of the interaction efforts between the fragments. This paper presents the basis of the model, its introduction within the CYRANO3 code and its calibration on a specific analytical experiment. The modelling is then tested against PWR fuel rods deformations from the EDF data base. The results are presented and discussed. (author)
Experimental measurements and finite element models of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuators.
Camargo, Gilberto; Ashford, Gevale; Naco, Eris; Usher, Tim
2004-03-01
Piezoelectric actuators have many applications including morphable wing technology and piezoelectric transformers. A Piezoelectric ceramic is a material that will move when a voltage is applied and conversely produces a charge when a pressure is applied. In our study, we examine THUNDER (Thin Layer Unimorph Ferroelectric Driver and Sensor) actuators (Thunder TM is a trademark of FACE International Corporation.) Thunder actuators are constructed by bonding thin PZT piezoelectric ceramics to metal sheets. We will present physical measurements of piezoelectric actuators, as well as measurements of the displacements due to applied voltages. In our studies we used a laser micrometer to measure the dimensional characteristics of four sizes of THUNDER actuators including TH-8R, TH-9R, TH-10R, and finally the TH-11R. We also developed computer models using a commercial fine element modeling package (FEM) known as ANSYS6.0®. This software enables us to construct our models controlling such attributes as exact dimensions of the three layers of the piezoelectric actuator, the material properties of each element, the type of load that is to be applied as well as the manner in which the layers are bonded together. The computer model compares favorably with the experimental results. Acknowledgements: NASA Grant No. 0051-0078 Department of Defense (DoD) Control No.ISP02-EUG15
An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deierlein Andrea L
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days, anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh, and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg + 0.055*weight (kg2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh; R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirhan, Haydar; Kayhan Atilgan, Yasemin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Precise horizontal global solar radiation estimation models are proposed for Turkey. • Genetic programming technique is used to construct the models. • Robust coplot analysis is applied to reduce the impact of outlier observations. • Better estimation and prediction properties are observed for the models. - Abstract: Renewable energy sources have been attracting more and more attention of researchers due to the diminishing and harmful nature of fossil energy sources. Because of the importance of solar energy as a renewable energy source, an accurate determination of significant covariates and their relationships with the amount of global solar radiation reaching the Earth is a critical research problem. There are numerous meteorological and terrestrial covariates that can be used in the analysis of horizontal global solar radiation. Some of these covariates are highly correlated with each other. It is possible to find a large variety of linear or non-linear models to explain the amount of horizontal global solar radiation. However, models that explain the amount of global solar radiation with the smallest set of covariates should be obtained. In this study, use of the robust coplot technique to reduce the number of covariates before going forward with advanced modelling techniques is considered. After reducing the dimensionality of model space, yearly and monthly mean daily horizontal global solar radiation estimation models for Turkey are built by using the genetic programming technique. It is observed that application of robust coplot analysis is helpful for building precise models that explain the amount of global solar radiation with the minimum number of covariates without suffering from outlier observations and the multicollinearity problem. Consequently, over a dataset of Turkey, precise yearly and monthly mean daily global solar radiation estimation models are introduced using the model spaces obtained by robust coplot technique and
Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaria-Gomez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.
2016-01-01
In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS Combination Center estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm/yr. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila, Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences wrt these models larger than 10 mm/yr, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle (ULR6) solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm/yr at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.
Design and modelling of fast switching efficient seat valves for digital displacement pumps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2013-01-01
Digital Displacement Fluid Power Pumps/Motors are promising candidates for revolutionizing the efficiency of fluid power systems, which traditionally has suffered from poor efficiencies, especially at part load. The key to obtain efficient part load operation with digital displacement technology...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth
The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....
Rate-independent dissipation in phase-field modelling of displacive transformations
Tůma, K.; Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.
2018-05-01
In this paper, rate-independent dissipation is introduced into the phase-field framework for modelling of displacive transformations, such as martensitic phase transformation and twinning. The finite-strain phase-field model developed recently by the present authors is here extended beyond the limitations of purely viscous dissipation. The variational formulation, in which the evolution problem is formulated as a constrained minimization problem for a global rate-potential, is enhanced by including a mixed-type dissipation potential that combines viscous and rate-independent contributions. Effective computational treatment of the resulting incremental problem of non-smooth optimization is developed by employing the augmented Lagrangian method. It is demonstrated that a single Lagrange multiplier field suffices to handle the dissipation potential vertex and simultaneously to enforce physical constraints on the order parameter. In this way, the initially non-smooth problem of evolution is converted into a smooth stationarity problem. The model is implemented in a finite-element code and applied to solve two- and three-dimensional boundary value problems representative for shape memory alloys.
Respiratory compensation in projection imaging using a magnification and displacement model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, C.R.; King, K.F.; Ritchie, C.J.; Godwin, J.D.
1996-01-01
Respiratory motion during the collection of computed tomography (CT) projections generates structured artifacts and a loss of resolution that can render the scans unusable. This motion is problematic in scans of those patients who cannot suspend respiration, such as the very young or incubated patients. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm that can be used to reduce motion artifacts in CT scans caused by respiration. An approximate model for the effect of respiration is that the object cross section under interrogation experiences time-varying magnification and displacement along two axes. Using this model an exact filtered backprojection algorithm is derived for the case of parallel projections. The result is extended to generate an approximate reconstruction formula for fan-beam projections. Computer simulations and scans of phantoms on a commercial CT scanner validate the new reconstruction algorithms for parallel and fan-beam projections. Significant reduction in respiratory artifacts is demonstrated clinically when the motion model is satisfied. The method can be applied to projection data used in CT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature
Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection with a single Fabry-Perot cavity: A toy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.
2008-01-01
We propose a detuned Fabry-Perot cavity, pumped through both the mirrors, as a toy model of the gravitational-wave (GW) detector partially free from displacement noise of the test masses. It is demonstrated that the noise of cavity mirrors can be eliminated, but the one of lasers and detectors cannot. The isolation of the GW signal from displacement noise of the mirrors is achieved in a proper linear combination of the cavity output signals. The construction of such a linear combination is possible due to the difference between the reflected and transmitted output signals of detuned cavity. We demonstrate that in low-frequency region the obtained displacement-noise-free response signal is much stronger than the f gw 3 -limited sensitivity of displacement-noise-free interferometers recently proposed by S. Kawamura and Y. Chen. However, the loss of the resonant gain in the noise cancelation procedure results is the sensitivity limitation of our toy model by displacement noise of lasers and detectors
Pasquesi, Stephanie A; Margulies, Susan S
2018-01-01
Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain-skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head ( n = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain-skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model. In a finite element model of the sagittally transected neonatal porcine head, the brain-skull boundary condition was matched to the measured physical experiment data. Despite smaller sagittal plane displacements at the brain-skull boundary, the corresponding finite element boundary condition optimized for sagittal plane rotations is far less stiff than its axial counterpart, likely due to the prominent role of the boundary geometry in restricting interface movement. Finally, bridging veins were included in the finite element model. Varying the bridging vein mechanical behavior over a previously reported range had no influence on the brain-skull boundary displacements. This direction-specific sagittal plane boundary condition can be employed in finite element models of rapid sagittal head rotations.
Pasquesi, Stephanie A.; Margulies, Susan S.
2018-01-01
Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain–skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head (n = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain–skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model. In a finite element model of the sagittally transected neonatal porcine head, the brain–skull boundary condition was matched to the measured physical experiment data. Despite smaller sagittal plane displacements at the brain–skull boundary, the corresponding finite element boundary condition optimized for sagittal plane rotations is far less stiff than its axial counterpart, likely due to the prominent role of the boundary geometry in restricting interface movement. Finally, bridging veins were included in the finite element model. Varying the bridging vein mechanical behavior over a previously reported range had no influence on the brain–skull boundary displacements. This direction-specific sagittal plane boundary condition can be employed in finite element models of rapid sagittal head rotations. PMID:29515995
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beliaev, J.; Trunov, N.; Tschekin, I. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W. [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S. [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beliaev, J; Trunov, N; Tschekin, I [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)
1996-12-31
Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory Moreton
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The usage of planar sensors is widespread due to their non-contact nature and small size profiles, however only a few basic design types are generally considered. In order to develop planar coil designs we have performed extensive finite element modelling (FEM and experimentation to understand the performance of different planar sensor topologies when used in inductive sensing. We have applied this approach to develop a novel displacement sensor. Models of different topologies with varying pitch values have been analysed using the ANSYS Maxwell FEM package, furthermore the models incorporated a movable soft magnetic amorphous ribbon element. The different models used in the FEM were then constructed and experimentally tested with topologies that included mesh, meander, square coil, and circular coil configurations. The sensors were used to detect the displacement of the amorphous ribbon. A LabView program controlled both the displacement stage and the impedance analyser, the latter capturing the varying inductance values with ribbon displacement. There was good correlation between the FEM models and the experimental data confirming that the methodology described here offers an effective way for developing planar coil based sensors with improved performance.
Moreton, Gregory; Meydan, Turgut; Williams, Paul
2018-04-01
The usage of planar sensors is widespread due to their non-contact nature and small size profiles, however only a few basic design types are generally considered. In order to develop planar coil designs we have performed extensive finite element modelling (FEM) and experimentation to understand the performance of different planar sensor topologies when used in inductive sensing. We have applied this approach to develop a novel displacement sensor. Models of different topologies with varying pitch values have been analysed using the ANSYS Maxwell FEM package, furthermore the models incorporated a movable soft magnetic amorphous ribbon element. The different models used in the FEM were then constructed and experimentally tested with topologies that included mesh, meander, square coil, and circular coil configurations. The sensors were used to detect the displacement of the amorphous ribbon. A LabView program controlled both the displacement stage and the impedance analyser, the latter capturing the varying inductance values with ribbon displacement. There was good correlation between the FEM models and the experimental data confirming that the methodology described here offers an effective way for developing planar coil based sensors with improved performance.
Dynamics modeling and periodic control of horizontal-axis wind turbines
Stol, Karl Alexander
2001-07-01
The development of large multi-megawatt wind turbines has increased the need for active feedback control to meet multiple performance objectives. Power regulation is still of prime concern but there is an increasing interest in mitigating loads for these very large, dynamically soft and highly integrated power systems. This work explores the opportunities for utilizing state space modeling, modal analysis, and multi-objective controllers in advanced horizontal-axis wind turbines. A linear state-space representation of a generic, multiple degree-of-freedom wind turbine is developed to test various control methods and paradigms. The structural model, SymDyn, provides for limited flexibility in the tower, drive train and blades assuming a rigid component architecture with joint springs and dampers. Equations of motion are derived symbolically, verified by numerical simulation, and implemented in the Matlab with Simulink computational environment. AeroDyn, an industry-standard aerodynamics package for wind turbines, provides the aerodynamic load data through interfaced subroutines. Linearization of the structural model produces state equations with periodic coefficients due to the interaction of rotating and non-rotating components. Floquet theory is used to extract the necessary modal properties and several parametric studies identify the damping levels and dominant dynamic coupling influences. Two separate issues of control design are investigated: full-state feedback and state estimation. Periodic gains are developed using time-varying LQR techniques and many different time-invariant control designs are constructed, including a classical PID controller. Disturbance accommodating control (DAC) allows the estimation of wind speed for minimization of the disturbance effects on the system. Controllers are tested in simulation for multiple objectives using measurement of rotor position and rotor speed only and actuation of independent blade pitch. It is found that
Constructing a multi-sided business model for a smart horizontal IoT service platform
Berkers, F.; Roelands, M.; Bomhof, F.; Bachet, T.; Van Rijn, M.; Koers, W.
2013-01-01
In order to realize a viable business ecosystem in the Internet of Things (IoT), we investigated how a smart horizontal IoT service platform can bring value and economies of scale to all required ecosystem stakeholders. By means of an example application domain case, this paper constructs a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2013-12-15
Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shirali, M.; Strathe, A. B.; Mark, T.
2017-01-01
- and first-order Legendre polynomials of age on test, respectively. The fixed effect and random residual variance were estimated for each weekly FI trait. Residual feed intake (RFI) was derived from the conditional distribution of FI given the breeding values of ADG100 and LMP. The heritability of FI varied......A novel Horizontal model is presented for multitrait analysis of longitudinal traits through random regression analysis combined with single recorded traits. Weekly ADFI on test for Danish Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars were available from the national test station and were collected from 30...... to 100 kg BW. Single recorded production traits of ADG from birth to 30 kg BW (ADG30), ADG from 30 to 100 kg BW (ADG100), and lean meat percentage (LMP) were available from breeding herds or the national test station. The Horizontal model combined random regression analysis of feed intake (FI...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mewes, D.; Beckmann, H.
1989-01-01
Countercurrent flow of steam and water occurs in the horizontal and vertical lines of a PWR in case of a LOCA. In order to predict the emergency core cooling behaviour in case of a large or small break LOCA it is important to calculate the volumetric flow rate of water which will get to the reactor core. Theoretical and experimental results of countercurrent flow in horizontal and vertical channels given by publication and reports are critically reviewed for the purpose of a more physical understanding of the flow phenomena. The influence of geometry, pressure and other boundary conditions are emphasized. The existing models which are developed to calculate the onset of flooding are based on experimental results of small test facilities. The applicability of these models to large geometries and high pressures as well as the consideration of condensation and entrainment are investigated. (orig./HP) [de
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...
Westendorff, Stephanie; Kuang, Shenbing; Taghizadeh, Bahareh; Donchin, Opher; Gail, Alexander
2015-04-01
Different error signals can induce sensorimotor adaptation during visually guided reaching, possibly evoking different neural adaptation mechanisms. Here we investigate reach adaptation induced by visual target errors without perturbing the actual or sensed hand position. We analyzed the spatial generalization of adaptation to target error to compare it with other known generalization patterns and simulated our results with a neural network model trained to minimize target error independent of prediction errors. Subjects reached to different peripheral visual targets and had to adapt to a sudden fixed-amplitude displacement ("jump") consistently occurring for only one of the reach targets. Subjects simultaneously had to perform contralateral unperturbed saccades, which rendered the reach target jump unnoticeable. As a result, subjects adapted by gradually decreasing reach errors and showed negative aftereffects for the perturbed reach target. Reach errors generalized to unperturbed targets according to a translational rather than rotational generalization pattern, but locally, not globally. More importantly, reach errors generalized asymmetrically with a skewed generalization function in the direction of the target jump. Our neural network model reproduced the skewed generalization after adaptation to target jump without having been explicitly trained to produce a specific generalization pattern. Our combined psychophysical and simulation results suggest that target jump adaptation in reaching can be explained by gradual updating of spatial motor goal representations in sensorimotor association networks, independent of learning induced by a prediction-error about the hand position. The simulations make testable predictions about the underlying changes in the tuning of sensorimotor neurons during target jump adaptation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Fathelrahman, Eihab; Davies, Amalia; Davies, Stephen; Pritchett, James
2014-01-01
This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that c...
Courela, J.M.; Carvalho, R.; Lemos, R.; Fortes, C. J. E. M.; Leandro, J.
2015-01-01
Rubble-mound structures are commonly used for coastal and port protection and needs a properly design as well as inspection and maintenance during its lifetime. The design of such breakwaters usually requires a physical scale model to be tested under different irregular incident wave and tide conditions in order to evaluate its hydraulic and structural behaviour, namely the stability of the proposed design. Armour units displacement and fall analysis in physical models are then a ...
De Chant, L J
1999-10-01
An approximate analytical model for the pulsatile flow of an ideal Bingham plastic fluid in both a rigid and a periodically displaced tube has been developed using regular perturbation methods. Relationships are derived for the velocity field and dimensionless flow rate. The solution compares adequately with available experimentally measured oscillatory non-Newtonian fluid flow data. These solutions provide useful analytical models supporting experimental and computation studies of arterial blood flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wielstra Ben
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background If the geographical displacement of one species by another is accompanied by hybridization, mitochondrial DNA can introgress asymmetrically, from the outcompeted species into the invading species, over a large area. We explore this phenomenon using the two parapatric crested newt species, Triturus macedonicus and T. karelinii, distributed on the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, as a model. Results We first delimit a ca. 54,000 km2 area in which T. macedonicus contains T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA. This introgression zone bisects the range of T. karelinii, cutting off a T. karelinii enclave. The high similarity of introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes with those found in T. karelinii suggests a recent transfer across the species boundary. We then use ecological niche modeling to explore habitat suitability of the location of the present day introgression zone under current, mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This area was inhospitable during the Last Glacial Maximum for both species, but would have been habitable at the mid-Holocene. Since the mid-Holocene, habitat suitability generally increased for T. macedonicus, whereas it decreased for T. karelinii. Conclusion The presence of a T. karelinii enclave suggests that T. karelinii was the first to colonize the area where the present day introgression zone is positioned after the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, we propose T. karelinii was outcompeted by T. macedonicus, which captured T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA via introgressive hybridization in the process. Ecological niche modeling suggests that this replacement was likely facilitated by a shift in climate since the mid-Holocene. We suggest that the northwestern part of the current introgression zone was probably never inhabited by T. karelinii itself, and that T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA spread there through T. macedonicus exclusively. Considering the spatial distribution of the
Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.
2016-10-01
In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the International DORIS (Doppler Orbitography Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS combination centre estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time-series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm yr-1. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila and Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences with respect to these models larger than 10 mm yr-1, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm yr-1 at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule, the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time-series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.
Modelling of NSTX hot vertical displacement events using M 3 D -C 1
Pfefferlé, D.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Krebs, I.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2018-05-01
The main results of an intense vertical displacement event (VDE) modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 are presented. A pair of nonlinear 3D simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of a so-called NSTX frozen VDE where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase is solved assuming axisymmetry until the plasma contacts the first wall, at which point the intricate evolution of the plasma, decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D nonlinear simulations. The faster 2D nonlinear runs allow to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to parameter changes. In the limit of perfectly conducting wall, the expected linear relation between vertical growth rate and wall resistivity is recovered. For intermediate wall resistivities, the halo region contributes to slowing the plasma down, and the characteristic VDE time depends on the choice of halo temperature. The evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed in detail. The 3D simulations highlight a rich structure of toroidal modes, penetrating inwards from edge to core and cascading from high-n to low-n mode numbers. The break-up of flux-surfaces results in a progressive stochastisation of field-lines precipitating the thermalisation of the plasma with the wall. The plasma current then decays rapidly, inducing large currents in the halo region and the wall. Analysis of normal currents flowing in and out of the divertor plate reveals rich time-varying patterns.
Bahrami, Parviz A.
1996-01-01
Theoretical analysis and numerical computations are performed to set forth a new model of film condensation on a horizontal cylinder. The model is more general than the well-known Nusselt model of film condensation and is designed to encompass all essential features of the Nusselt model. It is shown that a single parameter, constructed explicitly and without specification of the cylinder wall temperature, determines the degree of departure from the Nusselt model, which assumes a known and uniform wall temperature. It is also known that the Nusselt model is reached for very small, as well as very large, values of this parameter. In both limiting cases the cylinder wall temperature assumes a uniform distribution and the Nusselt model is approached. The maximum deviations between the two models is rather small for cases which are representative of cylinder dimensions, materials and conditions encountered in practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momma, T.; Shirahama, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ogihara, M.
1995-01-01
Non-linear earthquake response analyses of a BWR MARK-II type nuclear reactor building are conducted by using a Sway Rocking model (SR model) proposed in Part 1 considering the interaction between horizontal and vertical motion. The results are compared with those of accurate mathematical model using the Green Function method. Horizontal response of the SR model agrees very well with that of the Green Function model. The floor response spectra of induced vertical motions by both methods are also corresponding well in periodic characteristics as well as peak-levels. From these results, it is confirmed that the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is applicable to non-linear response analyses considering basemat uplift. Based on the comparison of the induced vertical motions due to basemat uplift by both methods, an application limit of the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is set up at the ground contact ratio of about 50%. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, T.; Cook, N.G.W.
1979-12-01
Thermally induced displacements and stresses have been calculated by finite element analysis to guide the design, operation, and data interpretation of the in situ heating experiments in a granite formation at Stripa, Sweden. There are two full-scale tests with electrical heater canisters comparable in size and power to those envisaged for reprocessed high level waste canisters and a time-scaled test. To provide a simple theoretical basis for data analysis, linear thermoelasticity was assumed. Constant (temperature-independent) thermal and mechanical rock properties were used in the calculations. These properties were determined by conventional laboratory testing on small intact core specimens recovered from the Stripa test site. Two-dimensional axisymmetric models were used for the full-scale experiments, and three-dimensional models for the time-scaled experiment. Highest compressive axial and tangential stresses are expected at the wall of the heater borehole. For the 3.6 kW full-scale heated experiment, maximum compressive tangential stress was predicted to be below the unconfined compressive strength of Stripa granite, while for the 5 kW experiment, the maximum was approximately equal to the compressive strength before the concentric ring of eight 1 kW peripheral heaters was activated, but would exceed that soon afterwards. Three zones of tensile thermomechanical stresses will occur in each full-scale experiment. Maximum vertical displacements range from a fraction of a millimeter over most of the instrumented area of the time-scaled experiment to a few millimeters in the higher-power full-scale experiment. Radial displacements are typically half or less than vertical displacements. The predicted thermomechanical displacements and stresses have been stored in an on-site computer to facilitate instant graphic comparison with field data as the latter are collected
Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities
Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.
2013-01-01
Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…
Implications of horizontal symmetries on baryon number violation in supersymmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Hamo, V.; Nir, Y.
1994-08-01
The smallness of the quark and lepton parameters and the hierarchy between them could be the result of selection rules due to a horizontal symmetry broken by a small parameter. The same selection rules apply to baryon number violating terms. Consequently, the problem of baryon number violation in supersymmetry may be solved naturally, without invoking any especially-designed extra symmetry. This mechanism is efficient enough even for low-scale flavor physics. Proton decay is likely to be dominated by the modes K + ν-bar i or K o μ + (e + ), and may proceed at observable rates. (authors). 15 refs
Modelling the effect of electrode displacement on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
Ramaraju, Sriharsha; Roula, Mohammed A.; McCarthy, Peter W.
2018-02-01
Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers a low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas with the purpose of modulating underlying brain activity. Recent studies have reported inconsistencies in tDCS outcomes. The underlying assumption of many tDCS studies has been that replication of electrode montage equates to replicating stimulation conditions. It is possible however that anatomical difference between subjects, as well as inherent inaccuracies in montage placement, could affect current flow to targeted areas. The hypothesis that stimulation of a defined brain region will be stable under small displacements was tested. Approach. Initially, we compared the total simulated current flowing through ten specific brain areas for four commonly used tDCS montages: F3-Fp2, C3-Fp2, Fp1-F4, and P3-P4 using the software tool COMETS. The effect of a slight (~1 cm in each of four directions) anode displacement on the simulated regional current density for each of the four tDCS montages was then determined. Current flow was calculated and compared through ten segmented brain areas to determine the effect of montage type and displacement. The regional currents, as well as the localised current densities, were compared with the original electrode location, for each of these new positions. Main results. Recommendations for montages that maximise stimulation current for the ten brain regions are considered. We noted that the extent to which stimulation is affected by electrode displacement varies depending on both area and montage type. The F3-Fp2 montage was found to be the least stable with up to 38% change in average current density in the left frontal lobe while the Fp1-F4 montage was found to the most stable exhibiting only 1% change when electrodes were displaced. Significance. These results indicate that even relatively small changes in stimulation electrode placement appear to result in surprisingly large
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Moon Hyun; Park, Joo Wan; Nam, Ho Yun
1992-01-01
Improved analytical models have been proposed that can predict the lower and upper limits of the water hammer region for given flow conditions by incorporation of recent advances made in the understanding of phenomena associated with the condensation-induced water hammer into existing methods. Present models are applicable for steam-water counterflow in a long horizontal pipe geometry. Both lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region are expressed in terms of the 'critical inlet water flow rate' as a function of axial position. Water hammer region boundaries predicted by present and typical existing models are compared for particular flow conditions of the water hammer event occurred at San Onofre Unit 1 to assess the applicability of the models examined. The result shows that present models for lower and upper bounds of the water hammer region compare favorably with the best performing existing models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats
Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...
THERMOSS: a thermohydraulic model of flow stagnation in a horizontal fuel channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulshani, P.; Caplan, M.Z.; Spinks, N.J.
1984-01-01
Following a postulated inlet-side small break in the CANDU reactor, emergency coolant is injected to refull the horizontal fuel channels and remove the decay heat. As part of the accident analysis, the effects of loss of forced circulation during the accident are predicted. A break size exists for which, at the end of pump rundown, the break force balances the natural circulation force and the channel flow is reduced to near zero. The subcooled, stagnant channel condition is referred to as the standing-start condition. Subsequently, the channel coolant boils and stratifies. Eventually the steam flow from the channel heats up the endfitting to the saturation temperature and reaches the vertical feeder. The resulting buoyancy-induced flow then refills the channel. One dimensional, two-fluid conservation equations are solved in closed form to predict the duration of stagnation. In this calculation the channel water level is an important intermediate variable because it determines the amount of steam production
Novel SM-like Higgs decay into displaced heavy neutrino pairs in U(1){sup ′} models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Accomando, Elena [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rose, Luigi Delle; Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Olaiya, Emmanuel; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire H. [Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2017-04-13
We examine the observability of heavy neutrino (ν{sub h}) signatures of a U(1){sup ′} enlarged Standard Model (SM) encompassing three heavy Majorana neutrinos alongside the known light neutrino states at the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that heavy neutrinos can be rather long-lived particles producing distinctive displaced vertices that can be accessed in the CERN LHC detectors. We concentrate here on the gluon fusion production mechanism gg→H{sub 1,2}→ν{sub h}ν{sub h}, where H{sub 1} is the discovered SM-like Higgs and H{sub 2} is a heavier state, yielding displaced leptons following ν{sub h} decays into weak gauge bosons. Using data collected by the end of the LHC Run 2, these signatures would prove to be accessible with negligibly small background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro; Manzini, Riccardo; Mora, Cristina
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A multi-location model to estimate solar radiation components is proposed. ► Proposed model joins solar radiation data from several weather stations. ► Clearness index is correlated to the diffuse component through analytic functions. ► Third degree polynomial function best fits data for annual and seasonal scenarios. ► A quality control procedure and independent datasets strength model performances. - Abstract: Hourly and daily solar radiation data are crucial for the design of energy systems based on the solar source. Global irradiance, measured on the horizontal plane, is, generally, available from weather station databases. The direct and diffuse fractions are measured rarely and should be analytically calculated for many geographical locations. Aim of this paper is to present a multi-location model to estimate the expected profiles of the horizontal daily diffuse component of solar radiation. It focuses on the European (EU) geographical area joining data from 44 weather stations located in 11 countries. Data are collected by the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) between 2004 and 2007. Different analytic functions, correlating the daily diffuse fraction of solar radiation to the clearness index, are calculated and compared to outline the analytic expressions of the best fitting curves. The effect of seasonality on solar irradiance is considered developing summer and winter scenarios together with annual models. Similarities among the trends for the 4 years are, further, discussed. The most adopted statistical indices are used as key performance factors. Finally, data from three locations not included in the dataset considered for model development allow to test the proposed approach against an independent dataset. Obtained results show the effectiveness of adopting a multi-location approach to estimate solar radiation components on the horizontal surface instead of developing several single location models. This is due to the increase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyun Ho Shin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There are limited reports on the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on meniscus healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP on potential healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. A horizontal medial meniscus tear was created in both knees of nine skeletally mature adult rabbits. Left or right knees were randomly assigned to a L-PRP group, or a control group. 0.5 mL of L-PRP from 10 mL of each rabbit’s whole blood was prepared and injected into the horizontal tears in a L-PRP group. None was applied to the horizontal tears in a control group. The histological assessment of meniscus healing was performed at two, four, and six weeks after surgery. We found that there were no significant differences of quantitative histologic scoring between two groups at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery (p>0.05. This study failed to show the positive effect of single injection of L-PRP on enhancing healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. Single injection of L-PRP into horizontal meniscus tears may not effectively enhance healing of horizontal medial meniscus tears.
Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?
Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.
2017-08-01
Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaiganesh Venkataramani
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the hydraulics and flow characterization in a pressurized, horizontal gating system with multiple ingates attached to a plate mold, using transparent water models. Runners with two different aspect ratios (w/h = 0.5 and 2 and four different types of ingates (rectangular, convergent, divergent and venturi were examined for their influence on flow behavior. Flow behavior was visualized using a high speed camera capable of capturing images up to 10,000 frames per second. Real time experimentation with a few runner – ingate combinations were carried out to validate the usefulness of water models in predicting the filling behavior. Comparison of the approaches provided useful insights into the filling behavior in critical sections of the flow passages as well as the utility of water models towards understanding of the filling behavior during real time casting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diane Palmer
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Plane-of-array (PoA irradiation data is a requirement to simulate the energetic performance of photovoltaic devices (PVs. Normally, solar data is only available as global horizontal irradiation, for a limited number of locations, and typically in hourly time resolution. One approach to handling this restricted data is to enhance it initially by interpolation to the location of interest; next, it must be translated to PoA data by separately considering the diffuse and the beam components. There are many methods of interpolation. This research selects ordinary kriging as the best performing technique by studying mathematical properties, experimentation and leave-one-out-cross validation. Likewise, a number of different translation models has been developed, most of them parameterised for specific measurement setups and locations. The work presented identifies the optimum approach for the UK on a national scale. The global horizontal irradiation will be split into its constituent parts. Divers separation models were tried. The results of each separation algorithm were checked against measured data distributed across the UK. It became apparent that while there is little difference between procedures (14 Wh/m2 mean bias error (MBE, 12 Wh/m2 root mean square error (RMSE, the Ridley, Boland, Lauret equation (a universal split algorithm consistently performed well. The combined interpolation/separation RMSE is 86 Wh/m2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.
1994-01-01
Certain heavy rare earths, curium and americium were separated by the method of displacement complexing chromatography using DTPA solutions and solutions containing DTPA and citric acid as eluents. Separation factors of rare earths and curium (americium) were calculated. Imitators for curium and americium separation were suggested: thulium for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA, holmium-for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA in the presence of 0.025 mol/l citric acid; terbium can serve as the imitator in both cases. 5 refs., 5 figs
Lateral displacement and pile instability due to soil liquefaction using numerical model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdel-Salam Ahmed Mokhtar
2014-12-01
Extensive studies were performed to investigate the effects of soil submergence, pile diameter, earthquake magnitude and duration on pile lateral deformation and developed bending moment along pile shaft. Study results show that earthquake magnitude and time duration have a particular effect on the pore water pressure generation and hence pile lateral deformation and bending moments. They also show the benefits of using relatively large piles to control the lateral displacement. Recommendations are presented for designers to perform comprehensive analysis and avoid buckling and plastic hinge failures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tairone Paiva Leão
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Fractal mathematics has been used to characterize water and solute transport in porous media and also to characterize and simulate porous media properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the soil infiltration parameters sorptivity (S and time exponent (n and the parameters dimension (D and the Hurst exponent (H. For this purpose, ten horizontal columns with pure (either clay or loam and heterogeneous porous media (clay and loam distributed in layers in the column were simulated following the distribution of a deterministic Cantor Bar with fractal dimension H" 0.63. Horizontal water infiltration experiments were then simulated using Hydrus 2D software. The sorptivity (S and time exponent (n parameters of the Philip equation were estimated for each simulation, using the nonlinear regression procedure of the statistical software package SAS®. Sorptivity increased in the columns with the loam content, which was attributed to the relation of S with the capillary radius. The time exponent estimated by nonlinear regression was found to be less than the traditional value of 0.5. The fractal dimension estimated from the Hurst exponent was 17.5 % lower than the fractal dimension of the Cantor Bar used to generate the columns.A matemática fractal tem sido utilizada para caracterizar o transporte de água e solutos em meios porosos e também para simular características físicas e geométricas de meios porosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre os parâmetros de infiltração de água sortividade e expoente de tempo (n e os parâmetros dimensão fractal (D e expoente de Hurst (H. Para isso, dez colunas horizontais foram simuladas em computador, sendo preenchidas com material de textura franca ou argilosa, puros ou em combinações de camadas alternadas dos dois materiais, seguindo a distribuição de um Conjunto de Cantor determinístico com dimensão fractal 0,63. As simulações de movimento
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao Weifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khachaturyan, Armen G., E-mail: khach@jove.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2011-06-15
A phase field theory of proper displacive transformations is developed to address the microstructure evolution and its response to applied fields in decomposing and martensitic systems. The theory is based on the explicit equation for the non-equilibrium free energy function of the transformation strain obtained by a consistent separation of the total strain into transformation and elastic strains. The transformation strain is considered to be a relaxing long-range order parameter evolving in accordance with the system energetics rather than as a fixed material constant used in the conventional Eshelby theory of coherent inclusions. The elastic strain is defined as a coherency strain recovering the crystal lattice compatibility. The obtained free energy function of the transformation strain leads to the concepts of structural anisotropy and directional flexibility of low symmetry phases. The formulated vector model of displacive transformation makes apparent a similarity between proper displacive transformation and ferromagnetic/ferroelectric transformation and, in particular, a similarity between the structural anisotropy and magnetic/polar anisotropy of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric materials. It even predicts the feasibility of a glass-like structural state with unlimited directional flexibility of the transformation strain that is conceptually similar to a ferromagnetic glass. The thermodynamics of the equilibrium between low symmetry phases and the thermodynamic conditions leading to the formation of adaptive states are formulated.
The Peano-series solution for modeling shear horizontal waves in piezoelectric plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Ghozlen M.H.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The shear horizontal (SH wave devices have been widely used in electroacoustic. To improve their performance, the phase velocity dispersion and the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly in the design. Therefore, this work is to analyze exactly the Lamb waves polarized in the SH direction in homogeneous plate pie.zoelectric material (PZT-5H. An alternative method is proposed to solve the wave equation in such a structure without using the standard method based on the electromechanical partial waves. This method is based on an analytical solution, the matricant explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. Two types of configuration have been addressed, namely the open circuited and the short circuited. Results confirm that the SH wave provides a number of attractive properties for use in sensing and signal processing applications. It has been found that the phase velocity remains nearly constant for all values of h/λ (h is the plate thickness, λ the acoustic wavelength. Secondly the SH0 wave mode can provide very high electromechanical coupling. Graphical representations of electrical and mechanical amounts function of depth are made, they are in agreement with the continuity rules. The developed Peano technique is in agreement with the classical approach, and can be suitable with cylindrical geometry.
Droplet evaporation on a horizontal substrate under gravity field by mesoscopic modeling.
Xie, Chiyu; Zhang, Jianying; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2016-02-01
The evaporation of water drop deposited on a horizontal substrate is investigated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows with a large-density ratio. To account for the variation of evaporation flux distribution along the drop interface, a novel evaporation scheme is introduced into the LBM framework, and validated by comparison with experimental data. We aim at discovering the effect of gravity on the evaporating drop in detail, and various evaporation conditions are considered as well as different wetting properties of the substrates. An effective diameter is introduced as an indicator of the critical drop size under which gravity is negligible. Our results show that such critical diameter is much smaller than the capillary length, which has been widely accepted as the critical size in previous and current works. The critical diameter is found to be almost independent of the evaporation conditions and the surface wettability. A correlation between this critical diameter and the capillary length is also proposed for easy use in applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roman, D. C.
2003-12-01
A complete understanding of the initiation, evolution, and termination of volcanic eruptions requires reliable monitoring techniques to detect changes in the conduit system during periods of activity, as well as corresponding knowledge of conduit structure and of magma physical properties. Case studies of stress field orientation prior to, during, and after magmatic activity can be used to relate changes in stress field orientation to the state of the magmatic conduit system. These relationships may be tested through modeling of induced stresses. Here I present evidence from case studies and modeling that horizontal rotation of the axis of maximum compressive stress at an active volcano indicates pressurization of a magmatic conduit, and that this rotation, when observed, may also be indicative of the physical properties of the ascending magma. Changes in the local stress field orientation during the 1992 eruption sequence at Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska were analyzed by calculating and inverting subsets of over 150 fault-plane solutions. Local stress tensors for four time periods, corresponding approximately to changes in activity at the volcano, were calculated based on the misfit of individual fault-plane solutions to a regional stress tensor. Results indicate that for nine months prior to the eruption, local maximum compressive stress was oriented perpendicular to regional maximum compressive stress. A similar horizontal rotation was observed beginning in November of 1992, coincident with an episode of elevated earthquake and tremor activity indicating intrusion of magma into the conduit. During periods of quiescence the local stress field was similar to the regional stress field. Similar horizontal rotations have been observed at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand (Miller and Savage 2001, Gerst 2003), Usu Volcano, Japan (Fukuyama et al. 2001), Unzen Volcano, Japan (Umakoshi et al. 2001), and Mt. St. Helens Volcano, USA (Moran 1994) in conjunction with eruptive
Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue
2017-06-08
Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min ≤ Q r ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.
Stoeckl, Leonard; Stefan, Loeffler; Houben, Georg
2013-04-01
Freshwater lenses on islands and in inland areas are often the primary freshwater resource there. The fragile equilibrium between saline and fresh groundwater can be disrupted by excessive pumping, leading to an upward migration of the saline water underneath the well. Sand-box experiments were conducted to compare the upconing at vertical and horizontal wells pumping from a freshwater lens. Results were then compared to numerical simulations. To simulate the cross-section of an "infinite strip island", an acrylic box with a spacing of 5 cm was filled with coarse sand. After saturating the model with degassed saltwater from bottom to top, freshwater recharge was applied from above. By coloring the infiltrating freshwater with different tracer colors using uranine and indigotine we were able to visualize flow paths during pumping. A horizontal and a vertical well were placed at the left and right side of the symmetric island. Both had equal diameter, screen length, depth of placement, and distance to shore. Three increasing pumping rates were applied to each well successively and the electrical conductivity of the abstracted water was continuously measured using a through-flow cell. Results show that no saltwater entered the wells when pumping at the lowest rate. Still, slight saltwater upconing and a shift of the freshwater divide in the island were observed. At the second rate a clear saltwater breakthrough into the vertical well occurred, while the electrical conductivity remained nearly unchanged in the horizontal well. Applying the third (highest) abstraction rate to each of the wells saltwater entered both wells, exceeding drinking water standards in the vertical well. The described behavior indicates the advantage of horizontal over vertical wells on islands and in coastal zones prone to saltwater up-coning. Numerical simulations show similar patterns, even though deviations exist between the second and the third pumping rate, which are under and
Paul D. Grosman; Jochen A. G. Jaeger; Pascale M. Biron; Christian Dussault; Jean-Pierre Ouellet
2009-01-01
Between 1990 and 2002, more than 200 moose-vehicle collisions occurred each year in Quebec, including about 50/yr in the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve. One cause is the presence of roadside salt pools that attract moose near roads in the spring and summer. Using the computer simulation technique of agent-based modeling, this study investigated whether salt pool removal and displacement, i.e., a compensatory salt pool set up 100 to 1500 m away from the road shoulder, would reduce the number of ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben
2014-01-01
-centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...
Modeling the Impact of Deformation on Unstable Miscible Displacements in Porous Media
Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.
2014-12-01
Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The simultaneous flow of two or more fluids with different densities or viscosities through deformable media is ubiquitous in environmental, industrial, and biological processes, including the removal of non-aqueous phase liquids from underground water bodies, the geological storage of CO2, and current challenges in energy technologies, such as enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between viscous-driven flow instabilities (viscous fingering) and rock mechanics, and elucidate the structure of the displacement patterns as a function of viscosity contrast, injection rate and rock mechanical properties. Finally, we discuss the role of medium deformation on transport and mixing processes in porous media.
Modeling the Impact of Fracture Growth on Fluid Displacements in Deformable Porous Media
Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The flow of a fluid through a deformable porous media is present in manyenvironmental, industrial, and biological processes,such as the removal of pollutants from underground water bodies, enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, the injection of a fluid can generate or propagate fractures, which are preferential flow paths. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between injection and rock mechanics, and elucidate fracture propagation as a function of injection rate, initial crack topology and mechanical rock properties. Finally, we discuss the role of fracture growth on fluid displacements in porous media. Figure: An example of fracture (in red) propagated in a porous media (in blue)
Modeling of damage generation mechanisms in silicon at energies below the displacement threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Ivan; Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes
2006-01-01
We have used molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study the generation of damage in Si within the low-energy deposition regime. We have demonstrated that energy transfers below the displacement threshold can produce a significant amount of damage, usually neglected in traditional radiation damage calculations. The formation of amorphous pockets agrees with the thermal spike concept of local melting. However, we have found that the order-disorder transition is not instantaneous, but it requires some time to reach the appropriate kinetic-potential energy redistribution for melting. The competition between the rate of this energy redistribution and the energy diffusion to the surrounding atoms determines the amount of damage generated by a given deposited energy. Our findings explain the diverse damage morphology produced by ions of different masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra
2003-01-01
This research thesis concerns the modelling and experimentation of biphasic liquid/gas flows (water/air) while using the two-fluid model, a six-equation model. The author first addresses the modelling of interfacial magnitudes for a known topology (problem of two-fluid model closure, closure relationships for some variables, equation for a given configuration). She reports the development of an equation system for interfacial magnitudes. The next parts deal with experiments and report the study of stratified flows in the THALC experiment, and more particularly the study of the interfacial area concentration and of the liquid velocities in such flows. Results are discussed, as well as their consistency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souidi, A.; Becquart, C.S.; Domain, C.; Terentyev, D.; Malerba, L.; Calder, A.F.; Bacon, D.J.; Stoller, R.E.; Osetsky, Yu. N.; Hou, M.
2006-01-01
Groups of displacement cascades calculated independently with different simulation models and computer codes are compared on a statistical basis. The parameters used for this comparison are the number of Frenkel pairs (FP) produced, the percentages of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in clusters, the spatial extent and the aspect ratio of the vacancies and the SIAs formed in each cascade. One group of cascades was generated in the binary collision approximation (BCA) and all others by full molecular dynamics (MD). The MD results differ primarily due to the empirical interatomic potentials used and, to some extent, in code strategies. Cascades were generated in simulation boxes at different initial equilibrium temperatures. Only modest differences in the predicted numbers of FP are observed, but the other cascade parameters may differ by more than 100%. The consequences of these differences on long-term cluster growth in a radiation environment are examined by means of object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations. These were repeated with three different parameterizations of SIA and SIA cluster mobility. The differences encompassed low to high mobility, one- and three-dimensional migration of clusters, and complete immobility of large clusters. The OKMC evolution was followed until 0.1 dpa was reached. With the range of OKMC parameters used, cluster populations after 0.1 dpa differ by orders of magnitude. Using the groups of cascades from different sources induced no difference larger than a factor of 2 in the OKMC results. No correlation could be identified between the cascade parameters considered and the number densities of vacancies and SIAs predicted by OKMC to cluster in the long term. However, use of random point defect distributions instead of those obtained for displacement cascades as input for the OKMC modeling led to significantly different results. It is therefore suggested that although the displacement cascade characteristics considered
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romit Maulik
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper puts forth a simplified dynamic modeling strategy for the eddy viscosity coefficient parameterized in space and time. The eddy viscosity coefficient is dynamically adjusted to the local structure of the flow using two different nonlinear eddy viscosity functional forms to capture anisotropic dissipation mechanism, namely, (i the Smagorinsky model using the local strain rate field, and (ii the Leith model using the gradient of the vorticity field. The proposed models are applied to the one-layer and two-layer wind-driven quasigeostrophic ocean circulation problems, which are standard prototypes of more realistic ocean dynamics. Results show that both models capture the quasi-stationary ocean dynamics and provide the physical level of eddy viscosity distribution without using any a priori estimation. However, it is found that slightly less dissipative results can be obtained by using the dynamic Leith model. Two-layer numerical experiments also reveal that the proposed dynamic models automatically parameterize the subgrid-scale stress terms in each active layer. Furthermore, the proposed scale-aware models dynamically provide higher values of the eddy viscosity for smaller resolutions taking into account the local resolved flow information, and addressing the intimate relationship between the eddy viscosity coefficients and the numerical resolution employed by the quasigeostrophic models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Noriyuki; Sekine, Masataka; Kimura, Kozo; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tsuneo; Takeda, Toshikazu
1985-01-01
The Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center has performed a horizontal loading test by a whole model specimen simulating the inner concrete structure of a PWR type nuclear power plant in order to investigate restoring force characteristics of reactor buildings. This report describes the results of examination of applicability to the test results of analysis methods based on elastic theory. The analysis results of elastic stiffness, concrete cracking load, rebar yielding loads and ultimate strength were compared with the test results. According to this examination, it is recognized that even these analysis methods based on elastic theory are comparatively effective for analysis of an inner concrete structure of fairly complex configuration, although there are limits of the scope of applicability. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David I Forrester
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.
McKenna, Alice
One of the functions of graphite is as a moderator in several nuclear reactor designs, including the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR). In the reactor graphite is used to thermalise the neutrons produced in the fission reaction thus allowing a self-sustained reaction to occur. The graphite blocks, acting as the moderator, are constantly irradiated and consequently suffer damage. This thesis examines the types of damage caused using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and ab intio calculations. Neutron damage starts with a primary knock-on atom (PKA), which is travelling so fast that it creates damage through electronic and thermal excitation (this is addressed with thermal spike simulations). When the PKA has lost energy the subsequent cascade is based on ballistic atomic displacement. These two types of simulations were performed on single crystal graphite and other carbon structures such as diamond and amorphous carbon as a comparison. The thermal spike in single crystal graphite produced results which varied from no defects to a small number of permanent defects in the structure. It is only at the high energy range that more damage is seen but these energies are less likely to occur in the nuclear reactor. The thermal spike does not create damage but it is possible that it can heal damaged sections of the graphite, which can be demonstrated with the motion of the defects when a thermal spike is applied. The cascade simulations create more damage than the thermal spike even though less energy is applied to the system. A new damage function is found with a threshold region that varies with the square root of energy in excess of the energy threshold. This is further broken down in to contributions from primary and subsequent knock-on atoms. The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is found to be Ed=25eV at 300K. In both these types of simulation graphite acts very differently to the other carbon structures. There are two types of polycrystalline graphite structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barchanski, A; Gersem, H de; Gjonaj, E; Weiland, T
2005-01-01
We present a comparison of simulated low-frequency electromagnetic fields in the human body, calculated by means of the electro-quasistatic formulation. The geometrical data in these simulations were provided by an anatomically realistic, high-resolution human body model, while the dielectric properties of the various body tissues were modelled by the parametric Cole-Cole equation. The model was examined under two different excitation sources and various spatial resolutions in a frequency range from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. An analysis of the differences in the computed fields resulting from a neglect of the permittivity was carried out. On this basis, an estimation of the impact of the displacement current on the simulated low-frequency electromagnetic fields in the human body is obtained. (note)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iannetti Aldo
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The “full” cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.
Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix; Lammert, Andrea
2017-04-01
Large-eddy simulations have been performed since several decades, but due to computational limits most studies were restricted to small domains or idealised initial-/boundary conditions. Within the High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project realistic weather forecasting like LES simulations were performed with the newly developed ICON LES model for several days. The domain covers central Europe with a horizontal resolution down to 156 m. The setup consists of more than 3 billion grid cells, by what one 3D dump requires roughly 500 GB. A newly developed online evaluation toolbox was created to check instantaneously for realistic model simulations. The toolbox automatically combines model results with observations and generates several quicklooks for various variables. So far temperature-/humidity profiles, cloud cover, integrated water vapour, precipitation and many more are included. All kind of observations like aircraft observations, soundings or precipitation radar networks are used. For each dataset, a specific module is created, which allows for an easy handling and enhancement of the toolbox. Most of the observations are automatically downloaded from the Standardized Atmospheric Measurement Database (SAMD). The evaluation tool should support scientists at monitoring computational costly model simulations as well as to give a first overview about model's performance. The structure of the toolbox as well as the SAMD database are presented. Furthermore, the toolbox was applied on an ICON LES sensitivity study, where example results are shown.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dana, Scott [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Dam, Jeroen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2018-04-24
As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tested a small horizontal-axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-m multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. In particular, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, predicted by the aeroelastic model, and calculated using the simplified design equations. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads and a discussion about the simplified design equations is discussed.
THERMOSS: A thermohydraulic model of flow stagnation in a horizontal fuel channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulshani, P.; Caplan, M.Z.; Spinks, N.J.
1984-01-01
A model, called THERMOSS, is developed to compute the duration of stagnation in a CANDU reactor fuel channel with subcooled, stagnant initial conditions. The model solves, in closed form, the one dimensional, two-fluid conservation equations. In the computation of the duration of stagnation, the channel water level is an important intermediate variable because it determines the amount of steam production. A feature of the model is that water level is determined by a momentum balance between frictional pressure drop in the steam phase and hydrostatic head in the liquid phase. This is in contrast to an ealier model in which the level was determined from mass balance considerations. A satisfactory agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed channel water level and duration of stagnation is obtained. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longxin, M.; Baojun, X.; Shancheng, Z.; Guoqing, H. [CNPC America Ltd., Caracas (Venezuela)
2008-10-15
Horizontal well drilling with cold production were used to develop most of heavy oil fields in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt. This study interpreted the horizontal well logs of Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt in an effort to improve production from this highly porous and permeable reservoir. The reservoir is comprised primarily of non-consolidated sandstones. A porosity calculation formula for the horizontal well without porosity logs was established based on the study of horizontal well logging data of block M in the Orinoco heavy oil belt. A high quality 3-D simulation tool was used to separate the block into several different sections. A set of methods were presented in order to identify if the well track was approaching an adjacent formation, to estimate the distance between the well track and the adjacent formation, and to correct the deep resistivity of the horizontal section affected by the adjacent formation. A set of interpretation techniques were established, based on the combination of well logging data, seismic data and the oilfield development performance data. It was concluded that the development of the precise 3D geological model helped to establish a solid foundation for guiding the well position design and the drilling of the horizontal well. It also contributed to the reservoir numerical simulation and the effective development of the oil field. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.
Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Rahnema, K.; Bader, M.
2014-12-01
The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. In fact more than one thousand near field strong-motion stations across Japan (K-Net and Kik-Net) revealed complex ground motion patterns attributed to the source effects, allowing to capture detailed information of the rupture process. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds. This observation is consistent with the kinematic source model obtained from the inversion of strong motion data performed by Lee's et al (2011). In this model two rupture fronts separated by 40 seconds emanate close to the hypocenter and propagate towards the trench. This feature is clearly observed by stacking the slip-rate snapshots on fault points aligned in the EW direction passing through the hypocenter (Gabriel et al, 2012), suggesting slip reactivation during the main event. A repeating slip on large earthquakes may occur due to frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. Kanamori & Heaton (2002) argued that during faulting of large earthquakes the temperature rises high enough creating melting and further reduction of friction coefficient. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this slip reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan.The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youwei He
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Although technical advances in hydraulically fracturing and drilling enable commercial production from tight reservoirs, oil/gas recovery remains at a low level. Due to the technical and economic limitations of well-testing operations in tight reservoirs, rate-transient analysis (RTA has become a more attractive option. However, current RTA models hardly consider the effect of the non-uniform production on rate decline behaviors. In fact, PLT results demonstrate that production profile is non-uniform. To fill this gap, this paper presents an improved RTA model of multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs to investigate the effects of non-uniform properties of hydraulic fractures (production of fractures, fracture half-length, number of fractures, fracture conductivity, and vertical permeability on rate transient behaviors through the diagnostic type curves. Results indicate obvious differences on the rate decline curves among the type curves of uniform properties of fractures (UPF and non-uniform properties of fractures (NPF. The use of dimensionless production integral derivative curve magnifies the differences so that we can diagnose the phenomenon of non-uniform production. Therefore, it’s significant to incorporate the effects of NPF into the RDA models of MFHWs, and the model proposed in this paper enables us to better evaluate well performance based on long-term production data.
New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.
2014-01-01
Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)
1997-10-01
We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, J.P.; Weston, K.J.
2001-01-01
Urban ozone concentrations are determined by the balance between ozone destruction, chemical production and supply through advection and turbulent down-mixing from higher levels. At high latitudes, low levels of solar insolation and high horizontal advection speeds reduce the photochemical production and the spatial ozone concentration patterns are largely determined by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide and dry deposition to the surface. A Lagrangian column model has been developed to simulate the mean (monthly and annual) three-dimensional structure in ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations in the boundary-layer within and immediately around an urban area. The short-time-scale photochemical processes of ozone and NO x , as well as emissions and deposition to the ground, are simulated. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1x1km and high resolution in the vertical. It has been applied over a 100x100km domain containing the city of Edinburgh (at latitude 56 o N) to simulate the city-scale processes of pollutants. Results are presented, using averaged wind-flow frequencies and appropriate stability conditions, to show the extent of the depletion of ozone by city emissions. The long-term average spatial patterns in the surface ozone and NO x concentrations over the model domain are reproduced quantitatively. The model shows the average surface ozone concentrations in the urban area to be lower than the surrounding rural areas by typically 50% and that the areas experiencing a 20% ozone depletion are generally restricted to within the urban area. The depletion of the ozone concentration to less than 50% of the rural surface values extends only 20m vertically above the urban area. A series of monitoring sites for ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on a north-south transect through the city - from an urban, through a semi-rural, to a remote rural location - allows the comparison of modelled with observed data for the mean diurnal cycle of ozone
Assimilation of radar reflectivity into the LM COSMO model with a high horizontal resolution
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela
2006-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2006), s. 317-330 ISSN 1350-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * assimilation * radar reflectivity * NWP model * local storm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2006
Xu, Yadong; Serre, Marc L.; Reyes, Jeanette M.; Vizuete, William
2017-10-01
We have developed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework that integrates observations from a surface monitoring network and predictions from a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) to create improved exposure estimates that can be resolved into any spatial and temporal resolution. The flexibility of the framework allows for input of data in any choice of time scales and CTM predictions of any spatial resolution with varying associated degrees of estimation error and cost in terms of implementation and computation. This study quantifies the impact on exposure estimation error due to these choices by first comparing estimations errors when BME relied on ozone concentration data either as an hourly average, the daily maximum 8-h average (DM8A), or the daily 24-h average (D24A). Our analysis found that the use of DM8A and D24A data, although less computationally intensive, reduced estimation error more when compared to the use of hourly data. This was primarily due to the poorer CTM model performance in the hourly average predicted ozone. Our second analysis compared spatial variability and estimation errors when BME relied on CTM predictions with a grid cell resolution of 12 × 12 km2 versus a coarser resolution of 36 × 36 km2. Our analysis found that integrating the finer grid resolution CTM predictions not only reduced estimation error, but also increased the spatial variability in daily ozone estimates by 5 times. This improvement was due to the improved spatial gradients and model performance found in the finer resolved CTM simulation. The integration of observational and model predictions that is permitted in a BME framework continues to be a powerful approach for improving exposure estimates of ambient air pollution. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of also understanding model performance variability and its implications on exposure error.
Modeling the scooping phenomenon for the heat transfer in liquid–gas horizontal slug flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassani, Carlos L.; Pereira, Fernando H.G.; Barbuto, Fausto A.A.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A low computational tool for heat transfer prediction on slug flows is presented. • The scooping phenomenon is modeled on a stationary approach. • The scooping phenomenon improved in 8% the heat transfer results. - Abstract: The heat transfer between the deep sea waters and the oil and gas mixtures flowing through production lines is a common situation in the petroleum industry. The optimum prediction of the liquid–gas flow parameters along those lines, when the intermittent flow pattern known as slug flow is dominant, has extreme importance in facilities' design. The mixture temperature drop caused by the colder sea waters, which can be regarded as an infinite medium with constant temperature, directly affects physical properties of the fluids such as the viscosity and specific mass. Gas expansion may also occur due to pressure and temperature gradients, thus changing the flow hydrodynamics. Finally, the temperature gradient affects the thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases, favoring wax deposition and thus increasing pressure drops or even blocking the production line. With those issues in mind, the present work proposes a stationary model to predict the mixture temperature distribution and the two-phase flow heat transfer coefficient based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations applied to different unit cell regions. The main contribution of the present work is the modeling of the thermal scooping phenomenon, i.e., the heat transfer between two adjacent unit cells due to the mass flux known as scooping. The model was implemented as a structured Fortran95 code with an upwind difference scheme. The results were compared to experimental data and presented good agreement. The analysis showed that the inclusion of the scooping phenomenon into the model resulted in an averaged 8% improvement in the temperature gradient calculation and heat transfer coefficient prediction for the flowing mixture.
Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P.
2016-01-01
We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among
Xiao, Siyang; Zeng, Yongchao; Vavra, Eric D; He, Peng; Puerto, Maura; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L
2018-01-23
Foam flooding in porous media is of increasing interest due to its numerous applications such as enhanced oil recovery, aquifer remediation, and hydraulic fracturing. However, the mechanisms of oil-foam interactions have yet to be fully understood at the pore level. Here, we present three characteristic zones identified in experiments involving the displacement of crude oil from model porous media via surfactant-stabilized foam, and we describe a series of pore-level dynamics in these zones which were not observed in experiments involving paraffin oil. In the displacement front zone, foam coalesces upon initial contact with crude oil, which is known to destabilize the liquid lamellae of the foam. Directly upstream, a transition zone occurs where surface wettability is altered from oil-wet to water-wet. After this transition takes place, a strong foam bank zone exists where foam is generated within the porous media. We visualized each zone using a microfluidic platform, and we discuss the unique physicochemical phenomena that define each zone. In our analysis, we also provide an updated mechanistic understanding of the "smart rheology" of foam which builds upon simple "phase separation" observations in the literature.
APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELLING TO A HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTATION TANK IN IRAQ
Ali Hadi GHAWI
2017-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling has been applied to examine the hydrodynamic behavior of water treatment sedimentation tanks at Baghdad Water Works, operated by Alkurech Water in Baghdad in Iraq. The existing tanks perform poorly at current flows and flow is unevenly split among online tanks, Therefore, CFD was used to investigate velocity profiles at current and projected loadings for the existing basins. Results from the CFD analysis were used to develop retrofit strategies to improve...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K. [Unite d' Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)
2012-06-15
This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Banitalebi Dehkordi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of the gravity compensation of a horizontal 3-UPU parallel mechanism. The conventional Newton-Euler method for static analysis and balancing of mechanisms works for serial robots; however, it can become computationally expensive when applied to the analysis of parallel manipulators. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose an approach, based on a Lagrangian method, that is more efficient in terms of computation time. The derivation of the gravity compensation model is based on the analytical computation of the total potential energy of the system at each position of the end-effector. In order to satisfy the gravity compensation condition, the total potential energy of the system should remain constant for all of the manipulator's configurations. Analytical and mechanical gravity compensation is taken into account, and the set of conditions and the system of springs are defined. Finally, employing a virtual reality environment, some experiments are carried out and the reliability and feasibility of the proposed model are evaluated in the presence and absence of the elastic components.
Fiducial-based monocular 3D displacement measurement of breakwater armour unit models.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vieira, R
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a fiducial-based approach to monitoring the movement of breakwater armour units in a model hall environment. Target symbols with known dimensions are attached to the physical models, allowing the recovery of three...
Fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and hybrid modelling of horizontal visibility
Tuba, Zoltán; Bottyán, Zsolt
2018-04-01
Forecasting visibility is one of the greatest challenges in aviation meteorology. At the same time, high accuracy visibility forecasts can significantly reduce or make avoidable weather-related risk in aviation as well. To improve forecasting visibility, this research links fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and post-processed numerical weather prediction model outputs in hybrid forecast. Performance of analogue forecasting model was improved by the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, linear combination of the mentioned outputs was applied to create ultra-short term hybrid visibility prediction which gradually shifts the focus from statistical to numerical products taking their advantages during the forecast period. It gives the opportunity to bring closer the numerical visibility forecast to the observations even it is wrong initially. Complete verification of categorical forecasts was carried out; results are available for persistence and terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF) as well in order to compare. The average value of Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of examined airports of analogue and hybrid forecasts shows very similar results even at the end of forecast period where the rate of analogue prediction in the final hybrid output is 0.1-0.2 only. However, in case of poor visibility (1000-2500 m), hybrid (0.65) and analogue forecasts (0.64) have similar average of HSS in the first 6 h of forecast period, and have better performance than persistence (0.60) or TAF (0.56). Important achievement that hybrid model takes into consideration physics and dynamics of the atmosphere due to the increasing part of the numerical weather prediction. In spite of this, its performance is similar to the most effective visibility forecasting methods and does not follow the poor verification results of clearly numerical outputs.
Modeling of heat transfer in a horizontal heat-generating layer by an effective diffusivity approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Shiah, S.W.
1994-01-01
The concept of effective diffusivity is employed to model various processes of heat transfer in a volumetrically heated fluid layer subjected to different initial and boundary conditions. The approach, which involves the solution of only heat diffusion equations, is found to give rather accurate predictions of the transient response of an initially stagnant fluid layer to a step input of power as well as the developing and decaying nature of the flow following a step change in the internal Rayleigh number from one state of steady convection to another. The approach is also found to be applicable to various flow regions of a heat-generating fluid layer, and is not limited to the case in which the entire layer is in turbulent motion. The simplicity and accuracy of the method are clearly illustrated in the analysis. Validity of the effective diffusivity approach is demonstrated by comparing the predicted results with corresponding experimental data
Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian
2013-04-01
Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roosen-Runge, F.; Seydel, T.
2015-01-01
Elastic fixed window scans of incoherent neutron scattering are an established and frequently employed method to study dynamical changes, usually over a broad temperature range or during a process such as a conformational change in the sample. In particular, the apparent mean-squared displacement can be extracted via a model-free analysis based on a solid physical interpretation as an effective amplitude of molecular motions. Here, we provide a new account of elastic and inelastic fixed window scans, defining a generalized mean-squared displacement for all fixed energy transfers. We show that this generalized mean-squared displacement in principle contains all information on the real mean-square displacement accessible in the instrumental time window. The derived formula provides a clear understanding of the effects of instrumental resolution on the apparent mean-squared displacement. Finally, we show that the generalized mean-square displacement can be used as a model-free indicator on confinement effects within the instrumental time window. (authors)
Designing a Physical Model for the Interaction between Displacement Piles and Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arūnas Jankauskas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the interaction between piles installed in dusty sandy clay and the base. The paper reviews experimental and theoretical work, presents a geological litological structure of soil and looks at the methods of composing a model. The article also describes the model of the carried out experiment and analyzes directions towards soil movement. Field and laboratory studies as well as soil analysis, including its distribution scheme are provided. Ground elevation around the piles has been calculated. A new physical model has been created on the basis of the before examined physical model and its reasoning.Article in Lithuanian
Force Displacement Model of Compliant Mechanisms Using Assur Sub-Chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Durango, Sebastian; Correa, Jorge; Aristizabal, Mauricio
2011-01-01
of ordinary mechanisms, (ii) to solve the equilibrium problem by means of a static analysis and (iii) to model the flexures behavior through a deflection analysis. The novel contribution of this article relies on the fact that a division strategy of the CM into Assur sub-chains is implemented, so that any CM...... subjected to such disaggregation can be accurately modeled. For this purpose a mathematical model for the leaf-spring flexure type is presented and used through this paper. However, any other flexure model can be used instead. To support the technique, a three Degree-Of-Freedom (3-DOF) flexurebased parallel...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panos G. Charalambides
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This study addresses the mechanics of a cracked cantilever beam subjected to a transverse force applied at it’s free end. In this Part A of a two Part series of papers, emphasis is placed on the development of a four-beam model for a beam with a fully embedded horizontal sharp crack. The beam aspect ratio, crack length and crack centre location appear as general model parameters. Rotary springs are introduced at the crack tip cross sections as needed to account for the changes in the structural compliance due to the presence of the sharp crack and augmented load transfer through the near-tip transition regions. Guided by recent finite element findings reported elsewhere, the four-beam model is advanced by recognizing two key observations, (a the free surface and neutral axis curvatures of the cracked beam at the crack center location match the curvature of a healthy beam (an identical beam without a crack under the same loading conditions, (b the neutral axis rotations (slope of the cracked beam in the region between the applied load and the nearest crack tip matches the corresponding slope of the healthy beam. The above observations led to the development of close form solutions for the resultant forces (axial and shear and moment acting in the beams above and below the crack. Axial force and bending moment predictions are found to be in excellent agreement with 2D finite element results for all normalized crack depths considered. Shear force estimates dominating the beams above and below the crack as well as transition region length estimates are also obtained. The model developed in this study is then used along with 2D finite elements in conducting parametric studies aimed at both validating the model and establishing the mechanics of the cracked system under consideration. The latter studies are reported in the companion paper Part B-Results and Discussion.
The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)
1997-08-01
The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)
Barchiesi, Emilio; Ganzosch, Gregor; Liebold, Christian; Placidi, Luca; Grygoruk, Roman; Müller, Wolfgang H.
2018-01-01
Due to the latest advancements in 3D printing technology and rapid prototyping techniques, the production of materials with complex geometries has become more affordable than ever. Pantographic structures, because of their attractive features, both in dynamics and statics and both in elastic and inelastic deformation regimes, deserve to be thoroughly investigated with experimental and theoretical tools. Herein, experimental results relative to displacement-controlled large deformation shear loading tests of pantographic structures are reported. In particular, five differently sized samples are analyzed up to first rupture. Results show that the deformation behavior is strongly nonlinear, and the structures are capable of undergoing large elastic deformations without reaching complete failure. Finally, a cutting edge model is validated by means of these experimental results.
Gu, Yanchao; Fan, Dongming; You, Wei
2017-07-01
Eleven GPS crustal vertical displacement (CVD) solutions for 110 IGS08/IGS14 core stations provided by the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service Analysis Centers are compared with seven Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-modeled CVD solutions. The results of the internal comparison of the GPS solutions from multiple institutions imply large uncertainty in the GPS postprocessing. There is also evidence that GRACE solutions from both different institutions and different processing approaches (mascon and traditional spherical harmonic coefficients) show similar results, suggesting that GRACE can provide CVD results of good internal consistency. When the uncertainty of the GPS data is accounted for, the GRACE data can explain as much as 50% of the actual signals and more than 80% of the GPS annual signals. Our study strongly indicates that GRACE data have great potential to correct the nontidal loading in GPS time series.
Tests of dielectric model descriptions of chemical charge displacements in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tawa, G.J.; Pratt, L.R.
1994-01-01
A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for (a) pairing of sodium and/or chloride ions; (b) the symmetric S N 2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; (c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to poor. It is argued that: (a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; (b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and (c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for salvation of classical electrostatic interactions the dielectric models appear to perform as well as the more detailed XRISM theory
A Reduced Order Model of Force Displacement Curves for the Failure of Mechanical Bolts in Tension.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, Keegan J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brake, Matthew Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry causes issues when generating a mesh of the model. This report will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.
Bracco, Annalisa; Choi, Jun; Kurian, Jaison; Chang, Ping
2018-02-01
A set of nine regional ocean model simulations at various horizontal (from 1 to 9 km) and vertical (from 25 to 150 layers) resolutions with different vertical mixing parameterizations is carried out to examine the transport and mixing of a passive tracer released near the ocean bottom over the continental slope in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The release location is in proximity to the Deepwater Horizon oil well that ruptured in April 2010. Horizontal and diapycnal diffusivities are calculated and their dependence on the model set-up and on the representation of mesoscale and submesoscale circulations is discussed. Horizontal and vertical resolutions play a comparable role in determining the modeled horizontal diffusivities. Vertical resolution is key to a proper representation of passive tracer propagation and - in the case of the Gulf of Mexico - contributes to both confining the tracer along the continental slope and limiting its vertical spreading. The choice of the tracer advection scheme is also important, with positive definiteness in the tracer concentration being achieved at the price of spurious mixing across density surfaces. In all cases, however, the diapycnal mixing coefficient derived from the model simulations overestimates the observed value, indicating an area where model improvement is needed.
García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce
2010-05-01
model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.
Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement
Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann
2015-04-01
aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/
Verginelli, Iason; Capobianco, Oriana; Hartog, Niels; Baciocchi, Renato
In this work we introduce a 1-D analytical solution that can be used for the design of horizontal permeable reactive barriers (HPRBs) as a vapor mitigation system at sites contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The developed model incorporates a transient diffusion-dominated transport with a
Chapman, E.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E. S.
2012-04-01
In the 1980s, Lenormand et al. carried out their pioneering work on displacement mechanisms of fluids in etched networks [1]. Here we further examine displacement mechanisms in relation to capillary filling rules for spontaneous imbibition. Understanding the role of spontaneous imbibition in fluid displacement is essential for refining pore network models. Generally, pore network models use simple capillary filling rules and here we examine the validity of these rules for spontaneous imbibition. Improvement of pore network models is vital for the process of 'up-scaling' to the field scale for both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration. In this work, we present our experimental microfluidic research into the displacement of both supercritical CO2/deionised water (DI) systems and analogous n-decane/air - where supercritical CO2 and n-decane are the respective wetting fluids - controlled by imbibition at the pore scale. We conducted our experiments in etched PMMA and silicon/glass micro-fluidic hydrophobic chips. We first investigate displacement in single etched pore junctions, followed by displacement in complex network designs representing actual rock thin sections, i.e. Berea sandstone and Sucrosic dolomite. The n-decane/air experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, whereas the supercritical CO2/DI water experiments were conducted under high temperature and pressure in order to replicate reservoir conditions. Fluid displacement in all experiments was captured via a high speed video microscope. The direction and type of displacement the imbibing fluid takes when it enters a junction is dependent on the number of possible channels in which the wetting fluid can imbibe, i.e. I1, I2 and I3 [1]. Depending on the experiment conducted, the micro-models were initially filled with either DI water or air before the wetting fluid was injected. We found that the imbibition of the wetting fluid through a single pore is primarily controlled by the
Modelling population effects of juvenile offshore fish displacement towards adult habitat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van de Wolfshaar, K.E.; Tulp, I.; Wennhage, H.
2015-01-01
consequences on population dynamics through changes in resource use and competition. To explore this, a conceptual stage-structured model was developed with 3 stages and 2 resources and allowing a move of large juveniles from the shallow to the deep habitat. Large juveniles compete with small juveniles...... in shallow waters and with adults in deeper waters. Alternative stable states occur, with one state dominated by small juvenile biomass and the other dominated by adult biomass. The model results show for both states that while large juvenile biomass responds to a change in time spent in the deep habitat...
Calibrating the Shan-Chen lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible displacement in porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun; Schaap, M.G.; Wildenschild, D.
2006-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann (LB) modeling technique is increasingly being applied in a variety of fields where computational fluid dynamics are investigated. In our field of interest, environmentally related flow processes in porous media, the use of the LB method is still not common. For the LB...
Displaced calibration of PM10 measurements using spatio-temporal models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Cocchi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available PM10 monitoring networks are equipped with heterogeneous samplers. Some of these samplers are known to underestimate true levels of concentrations (non-reference samplers. In this paper we propose a hierarchical spatio-temporal Bayesian model for the calibration of measurements recorded using non-reference samplers, by borrowing strength from non co-located reference sampler measurements.
Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann
2006-01-01
and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...
A dual-motive model of scapegoating: displacing blame to reduce guilt or increase control.
Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel; Keefer, Lucas A
2012-06-01
The authors present a model that specifies 2 psychological motives underlying scapegoating, defined as attributing inordinate blame for a negative outcome to a target individual or group, (a) maintaining perceived personal moral value by minimizing feelings of guilt over one's responsibility for a negative outcome and (b) maintaining perceived personal control by obtaining a clear explanation for a negative outcome that otherwise seems inexplicable. Three studies supported hypotheses derived from this dual-motive model. Framing a negative outcome (environmental destruction or climate change) as caused by one's own harmful actions (value threat) or unknown sources (control threat) both increased scapegoating, and these effects occurred indirectly through feelings of guilt and perceived personal control, respectively (Study 1), and were differentially moderated by affirmations of moral value and personal control (Study 2). Also, scapegoating in response to value threat versus control threat produced divergent, theoretically specified effects on self-perceptions and behavioral intentions (Study 3). 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung Hwan Park
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul D. Grosman
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2002, more than 200 moose-vehicle collisions occurred each year in Quebec, including about 50/yr in the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve. One cause is the presence of roadside salt pools that attract moose near roads in the spring and summer. Using the computer simulation technique of agent-based modeling, this study investigated whether salt pool removal and displacement, i.e., a compensatory salt pool set up 100 to 1500 m away from the road shoulder, would reduce the number of moose-vehicle collisions. Moose road crossings were used as a proxy measure. A GPS telemetry data set consisting of approximately 200,000 locations of 47 moose over 2 yr in the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve was used as an empirical basis for the model. Twelve moose were selected from this data set and programmed in the model to forage and travel in the study area. Five parameters with an additional application of stochasticity were used to determine moose movement between forest polygons. These included food quality; cover quality, i.e., protection from predators and thermal stress; proximity to salt pools; proximity to water; and slope. There was a significant reduction in road crossings when either all or two thirds of the roadside salt pools were removed, with and/or without salt pool displacement. With 100% salt pool removal, the reduction was greater (49% without compensatory salt pools than with them (18%. When two thirds of the salt pools were removed, the reduction was the same with and without compensatory salt pools (16%. Although moose-vehicle collisions are not a significant mortality factor for the moose population in the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, in areas with higher road densities, hunting pressure, and/or predator densities it could mean the difference between a stable and a declining population, and salt pool removal could be part of a good mitigation plan to halt population declines. This model can be used, with improvements such as
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.
1993-01-01
In agreement with earlier studies conducted at higher displacement rates, evolution of mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated at lower displacement rates in the 59 Ni isotopic doping experiment does not appear to be strongly affected by large differences in helium generation rate. This insensitivity to helium/dpa ratio is exhibited during both isothermal and non-isothermal irradiation. The overall behavior of the model alloys used in this study is dominated by the tendency to converge to a saturation strength level that is independent of thermomechanical starting state and helium/dpa ratio, but which is dependent on irradiation temperature and alloy composition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydsten, Lars
2006-12-01
This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial sediments and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)
2006-12-15
This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial
Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ju Binshan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.
An analytical model for displacement velocity of liquid film on a hot vertical surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshioka, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Shu
1975-01-01
The downward progress of the advancing front of a liquid film streaming down a heated vertical surface, as it would occur in emergency core cooling, is much slower than in the case of ordinary streaming down along a heated surface already wetted with the liquid. A two-dimensional heat conduction model is developed for evaluating this velocity of the liquid front, which takes account of the heat removal by ordinary flow boiling mechanism. In the analysis, the maximum heat flux and the calefaction temperature are taken up as parameters in addition to the initial dry heated wall temperature, the flow rate and the velocity of downward progress of the liquid front. The temperature profile is calculated for various combinations of these parameters. Two criteria are proposed for choosing the most suitable combination of the parameters. One is to reject solutions that represent an oscillating wall temperature distribution, and the second criterion requires that the length of the zone of violent boiling immediately following the liquid front should not be longer than about 1 mm, this value being determined from comparisons made between experiment and calculation. Application of the above two criteria resulted in reasonable values obtained for the calefaction temperature and the maximum heat flux, and the velocity of the liquid front derived therefrom showed good agreement with experiment. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landesman, C.; Grambow, B.; Bailly, C.; Ribet, S.; Perrigaud, K.; Baty, V.; Giffaut, E.
2010-01-01
porosity relations for anions and neutral species are determined. Strong effects of clay/calcite ratios on hydrodynamic properties were observed. Thereafter stable iodine and Se(VI) were injected to study radionuclide migration. No retention of iodine but strong retention of Se were observed. After test termination the clay core was sliced and elemental profiles were obtained. From anion analysis in the slices porosity distribution was obtained. The experimental results were modeled using a 1D coupled geochemical/transport code PHREEQC considering activity coefficients, electrical double layers, mineral solubility, ion exchange properties, transport in micropores linked to interlayer space, limited mineral inventories (Celestite) and hydrodynamic properties. Good agreement of model and data from out flowing water and slices was obtained simultaneously for anions, HTO, major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO 4 ) and minor (Sr) element concentration and pH evolution. (authors)
Pollard, Thomas B
Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity
Harlaß, Jan; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun
2018-04-01
We investigate the quality of simulating tropical Atlantic (TA) sector climatology and interannual variability in integrations of the Kiel climate model (KCM) with varying atmosphere model resolution. The ocean model resolution is kept fixed. A reasonable simulation of TA sector annual-mean climate, seasonal cycle and interannual variability can only be achieved at sufficiently high horizontal and vertical atmospheric resolution. Two major reasons for the improvements are identified. First, the western equatorial Atlantic westerly surface wind bias in spring can be largely eliminated, which is explained by a better representation of meridional and especially vertical zonal momentum transport. The enhanced atmospheric circulation along the equator in turn greatly improves the thermal structure of the upper equatorial Atlantic with much reduced warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases. Second, the coastline in the southeastern TA and steep orography are better resolved at high resolution, which improves wind structure and in turn reduces warm SST biases in the Benguela upwelling region. The strongly diminished wind and SST biases at high atmosphere model resolution allow for a more realistic latitudinal position of the intertropical convergence zone. Resulting stronger cross-equatorial winds, in conjunction with a shallower thermocline, enable a rapid cold tongue development in the eastern TA in boreal spring. This enables simulation of realistic interannual SST variability and its seasonal phase locking in the KCM, which primarily is the result of a stronger thermocline feedback. Our findings suggest that enhanced atmospheric resolution, both vertical and horizontal, could be a key to achieving more realistic simulation of TA climatology and interannual variability in climate models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijuan Cui
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3−-N concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38. The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01, but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01. The area-based constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01. The NO3−-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01. The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01, suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum.
Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Goubeaux, Craig; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian C
2017-05-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling technique for measuring intervertebral displacements. Here, we present the measurement bias and reliability of the developmental work using a porcine spine model. Porcine lumbar vertebral segments were fitted in a custom-built apparatus placed within an externally calibrated imaging volume of an open-MRI scanner. The apparatus allowed movement of the vertebrae through pre-assigned magnitudes of sagittal and coronal translation and rotation. The induced displacements were imaged with static (T 1 ) and fast dynamic (2D HYCE S) pulse sequences. These images were imported into animation software, in which these images formed a background 'scene'. Three-dimensional models of vertebrae were created using static axial scans from the specimen and then transferred into the animation environment. In the animation environment, the user manually moved the models (rotoscoping) to perform model-to-'scene' matching to fit the models to their image silhouettes and assigned anatomical joint axes to the motion-segments. The animation protocol quantified the experimental translation and rotation displacements between the vertebral models. Accuracy of the technique was calculated as 'bias' using a linear mixed effects model, average percentage error and root mean square errors. Between-session reliability was examined by computing intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and the coefficient of variations (CV). For translation trials, a constant bias (β 0 ) of 0.35 (±0.11) mm was detected for the 2D HYCE S sequence (p=0.01). The model did not demonstrate significant additional bias with each mm increase in experimental translation (β 1 Displacement=0.01mm; p=0.69). Using the T 1 sequence for the same assessments did not significantly change the bias (p>0.05). ICC values for the T 1 and 2D HYCE S pulse sequences were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. For rotation trials, a constant bias (
Emerson, Horace F.; Axelson, John A.
1949-01-01
An additional series of high-speed wind-tunnel tests of a modified 0.17-scale model of the McDonnell XF2H-1 airplane was conducted to evaluate the effects of a reduction in the thickness-to-chord ratios of the tail planes, the displacement of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail, and the extension of the trailing edge of the wing. Two tail-intersection fairings designed to improve the flow at the tail were also tested. The pitching-moment characteristics of the model were improved slightly by the use of the thinner tail sections. Rearward or rearward and downward displacements of the horizontal tail increased the critical Mach number at the tail intersection from 0.725 to a maximum of 0.80, but caused an excessive change in pitching-moment coefficient at the higher Mach numbers. Extending the trailing edge of the wing did not improve the static longitudinal-stability characteristics, but increased the pitching-down tendency between 0.725 and 0.825 Mach numbers prior to the pitching-up tendency. The extended wing did, however, increase the Mach numbers at which these tendencies occurred. The increase in the Mach numbers of divergence and the tuft studies indicate a probable increase in the buffet limit of the prototype airplane. No perceptible improvement of flow at the tail intersection was observed with the two fairings tested on the forward tail configuration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports two numerical simulation methods for modeling displacement instabilities around a surface groove in a metal substrate used in nuclear power plant. The amplitude change in the groove, the downward displacement at the base node, and the groove displacement at the periphery were simulated using ABAQUS to compare the results from two methods, as well as the tangential stress in the elements at the groove base and periphery. The comparison showed that for the tangential stress two methods were in close agreement for all thermal cycles. For the amplitude change, the downward displacement, the groove displacement, and the stress distribution, the two methods were in close agreement for the first 3 to 6 thermal cycles. After that, inconsistency increased with the number of thermal cycles. It is interesting that the thermal cycle at which the discrepancy between the two methods began to occur corresponded to a thermally grown oxide (TGO thickness of 1 μm, which showed the accuracy of the present work over the classic method. It is concluded that the present work’s numerical simulation scheme worked better with a thinner TGO layer than the classic method and could overcome the limitation of TGO thickness by simulating any thickness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgar Gerardo Alejo
2005-05-01
Full Text Available The following document pretends to describe the mentalhealth problematic on displaced people, presenting the modelof Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as a possiblediagnose . It includes the characteristics of the experiencesrelated to forced displacement, the previous studies relatedto the assessment of the impact of the stressful experiencesand the need to identify the existing problem in relation tothe psychological impact of the violence presented in thispeople. Thesis in favour and against the application of thePTSD model are discussed and its implications on the studyof the mental health in this population.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moro, Erik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-07
Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.
2011-04-15
Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng-dong Piao; Kun Yang; Peng Li; Min Luo
2015-01-01
In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the mag-nitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain; however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. There-fore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional ifnite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 ifnite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These ifndings indicate that three-dimensional ifnite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anas-tomosis after autologous nerve grafting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-dong Piao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.
Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Santos, Iná S; Chrestani, Maria Aurora D; Gigante, Denise Petrucci
2015-07-01
To conduct a systematic literature review to identify studies that used indirect methods to assess body fat in healthy children. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a search in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar databases. Studies in healthy children aged 0-9 years were eligible for inclusion. Studies were kept or excluded from the review according to eligibility criteria defined a priori. Two independent reviewers conducted all steps in the study selection. Initially, 11,246 articles were retrieved, with 3,593 duplicates. After applying the eligibility criteria, 22 articles were selected for review. The methodology of each study was analyzed by each reviewer individually. The indirect methods used to assess body fat in children included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (14 articles), air-displacement plethysmography (five articles), multicomponent models (two articles), and total body water (one article). Most studies reported absolute (in kilograms) or relative (percentage) body fat measures. Only seven studies reported the fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m(2)). DXA was the indirect method most frequently used to assess body fat in healthy children. FMI was seldom reported.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Dewangan, P.; Tsvankin, I.
when the symmetry axis deviates by 20 degrees-30 degrees from the vertical horizontal direction. All relevant parameters of a TTI layer can be estimated by nonlinear inversion of the NMO velocities and zero-offset traveltimes of PP- and SS-(SVSV) waves...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trewin, Richard R.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR with ECC Injection. → Three-Field Model of counter flowing water film and entrained droplets. → Flow of steam can cause a hydraulic jump in the supercritical flow of water. → Condensation of steam on subcooled water increases the required flow for hydraulic jump. → Better agreement with UPTF experimental data than Wallis-type correlation. - Abstract: A one-dimensional three-field model was developed to predict the flow of liquid and vapor that results from countercurrent flow of water injected into the hot leg of a PWR and the oncoming steam flowing from the upper plenum. The model solves the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy in a continuous-vapor field, a continuous-liquid field, and a dispersed-liquid (entrained-droplet) field. Single-effect experiments performed in the upper plenum test facility (UPTF) of the former SIEMENS KWU (now AREVA) at Mannheim, Germany, were used to validate the countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) model in case of emergency core cooling water injection into the hot legs. Subcooled water and saturated steam flowed countercurrent in a horizontal pipe with an inside diameter of 0.75 m. The flow of injected water was varied from 150 kg/s to 400 kg/s, and the flow of steam varied from 13 kg/s to 178 kg/s. The subcooling of the liquid ranged from 0 K to 104 K. The velocity of the water at the injection point was supercritical (greater than the celerity of a gravity wave) for all the experiments. The three-field model was successfully used to predict the experimental data, and the results from the model provide insight into the mechanisms that influence the flows of liquid and vapor during countercurrent flow in a hot leg. When the injected water was saturated and the flow of steam was small, all or most of the injected water flowed to the upper plenum. Because the velocity of the liquid remained supercritical, entrainment of droplets was suppressed. When the injected
Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles
H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)
1985-01-01
textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Levina
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The work is concerned with the results of theoretical and laboratory modelling the processes of the large-scale structure generation under turbulent convection in the rotating-plane horizontal layer of an incompressible fluid with unstable stratification. The theoretical model describes three alternative ways of creating unstable stratification: a layer heating from below, a volumetric heating of a fluid with internal heat sources and combination of both factors. The analysis of the model equations show that under conditions of high intensity of the small-scale convection and low level of heat loss through the horizontal layer boundaries a long wave instability may arise. The condition for the existence of an instability and criterion identifying the threshold of its initiation have been determined. The principle of action of the discovered instability mechanism has been described. Theoretical predictions have been verified by a series of experiments on a laboratory model. The horizontal dimensions of the experimentally-obtained long-lived vortices are 4÷6 times larger than the thickness of the fluid layer. This work presents a description of the laboratory setup and experimental procedure. From the geophysical viewpoint the examined mechanism of the long wave instability is supposed to be adequate to allow a description of the initial step in the evolution of such large-scale vortices as tropical cyclones - a transition form the small-scale cumulus clouds to the state of the atmosphere involving cloud clusters (the stage of initial tropical perturbation.
Jorba, O.; Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.
2009-09-01
In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008a), a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ/DREAM, is under development and applied to the European domain (12km x 12km, 1hr) as well as to the Iberian Peninsula domain (4km x 4km, 1hr) to provide air quality forecasts for Spain (http://www.bsc.es/caliope/). The simulation of such high-resolution model system is possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. To reassure potential users and reduce uncertainties, the model system must be evaluated to assess its performances in terms of air quality levels and dynamics reproducibility. The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year (2004). CALIOPE is a complex system that integrates a variety of environmental models. WRF-ARW provides high-resolution meteorological fields to the system. It is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. Meteorological initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data. The HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b) computes the emissions for the Iberian Peninsula simulation at 4 km horizontal resolution every hour using a bottom-up approach. For the European domain, HERMES disaggregates the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004. The CMAQ chemical transport model solves the physico-chemical processes in the system. The vertical resolution of CMAQ for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Chemical boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). Finally, the DREAM model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks. For the European
Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com
2017-05-01
Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.
Improved waterflooding efficiency by horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popa, C. G. [Petroleum and Gas Univ., Ploesti (Romania); Clipea, M. [SNP Petrom SA, ICPT Campina (Romania)
1998-12-31
The influence of well pattern involving the use of horizontal wells on the overall efficiency of the waterflooding process was analyzed. Three different scenarios were examined: (1) a pattern of using two parallel horizontal wells, one for injection, the other for production, (2) a pattern of one horizontal well for water injection and several vertical wells for production, and (3) a pattern of using vertical wells for injection and one horizontal well for production. In each case, the waterflooding process was simulated using a two phase two dimensional numerical model. Results showed that the pressure loss along the horizontal section had a large influence on the sweep efficiency whether the horizontal well was used for injection or production. Overall, the most successful combination appeared to be using vertical wells for injection and horizontal wells for production. 4 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.
Michael F Brooks; Maggie Ehrenfried
2016-01-01
In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN) uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and ...
Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus J; Caamano, Erick X; Gunter, James T; Mpanga, Enoch; Ayine, Robert; Okelloonen, Joseph; Nyeko, Jack Pen-Mogi; Shililu, Josephat I; Githure, John I; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J; Kakoma, Ibulaimu
2008-03-14
The aim of this study was to determine if remotely sensed data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can test relationships between Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval habitats and environmental parameters within Internally Displaced People (IDP) campgrounds in Gulu, Uganda. A total of 65 georeferenced aquatic habitats in various IDP camps were studied to compare the larval abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. The aquatic habitat dataset were overlaid onto Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps retrieved from Landsat imagery with 150 m x 150 m grid cells stratified by levels of drainage. The LULC change was estimated over a period of 14 years. Poisson regression analyses and Moran's I statistics were used to model relationships between larval abundance and environmental predictors. Individual larval habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Multispectral QuickBird imagery classification and DEM-based GIS methods were generated to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of immature Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. and abundance. The main LULC change in urban Gulu IDP camps was non-urban to urban, which included about 71.5 % of the land cover. The regression models indicate that counts of An. gambiae s.l. larvae were associated with shade while Cx. quinquefasciatus were associated with floating vegetation. Moran's I and the General G statistics for mosquito density by species and instars, identified significant clusters of high densities of Anopheles; larvae, however, Culex are not consistently clustered. A stepwise negative binomial regression decomposed the immature An. gambiae s.l. data into empirical orthogonal bases. The data suggest the presence of roughly 11% to 28 % redundant information in the larval count samples. The DEM suggest a positive correlation for Culex (0.24) while for
Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Boominathan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naseri, Abdolhossein, E-mail: a_naseri@tabrizu.ac.ir [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Soheila [Departments of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulzadeh, Farzaneh [Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51644-14766 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zakery, Maryam; Khayamian, Taghi [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-01-15
Serum albumins as major target proteins can bind to other ligands leading to alteration of their pharmacological properties. The mechanism of interaction between norfloxacin (NFLX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. Fuorescence quenching of serum albumin by this drug was found to be a static quenching process. The binding sites number, n, apparent binding constant, K, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated at different temperatures. The distance, r, between donor, BSA, and acceptor, NFLX, was calculated according to the Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. Also binding characteristics of NFLX with BSA together with its displacement from its binding site by kanamycin and effect of common metal ions on binding constant were investigated by the spectroscopic methods. The conformational change in the secondary structure of BSA upon interaction with NFLX was investigated qualitatively from synchronous fluorescence spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectrometric methods. Molecular docking studies were performed to obtain information on the possible residues involved in the interaction process and changes in accessible surface area of the interacting residues. The results showed that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of NFLX. For the first time, displacement studies were used for this interaction; displacement studies showed that NFLX was displaced by phenylbutazon and ketoprofen but was not displaced by ibuprofen indicating that the binding site of NFLX on albumin was site I. In addition a powerful chemometrics method, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square, was used for resolution of spectroscopic augmented data obtained in two different titration modes in order to extract spectral information regardless of spectral overlapping of components. - Highlights: • Interaction between norfloxacin and BSA is studied by spectral methods. • Chemometrics methods are used to
Verma, Rahul
2018-01-06
Understanding of pore-scale physics for multiphase flow in porous media is essential for accurate description of various flow phenomena. In particular, capillarity and wettability strongly influence capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships. Wettability is quantified by the contact angle of the fluid-fluid interface at the pore walls. In this work we focus on the non-trivial interface equilibria in presence of non-neutral wetting and complex geometries. We quantify the accuracy of a volume-of-fluid (VOF) formulation, implemented in a popular open-source computational fluid dynamics code, compared with a new formulation of a level set (LS) method, specifically developed for quasi-static capillarity-dominated displacement. The methods are tested in rhomboidal packings of spheres for a range of contact angles and for different rhomboidal configurations and the accuracy is evaluated against the semi-analytical solutions obtained by Mason and Morrow (1994). While the VOF method is implemented in a general purpose code that solves the full Navier-Stokes (NS) dynamics in a finite volume formulation, with additional terms to model surface tension, the LS method is optimised for the quasi-static case and, therefore, less computationally expensive. To overcome the shortcomings of the finite volume NS-VOF system for low capillary number flows, and its computational cost, we introduce an overdamped dynamics and a local time stepping to speed up the convergence to the steady state, for every given imposed pressure gradient (and therefore saturation condition). Despite these modifications, the methods fundamentally differ in the way they capture the interface, as well as in the number of equations solved and in the way the mean curvature (or equivalently capillary pressure) is computed. This study is intended to provide a rigorous validation study and gives important indications on the errors committed by these methods in solving more complex geometry
Verma, Rahul; Icardi, Matteo; Prodanović, Maša
2018-01-01
Understanding of pore-scale physics for multiphase flow in porous media is essential for accurate description of various flow phenomena. In particular, capillarity and wettability strongly influence capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability relationships. Wettability is quantified by the contact angle of the fluid-fluid interface at the pore walls. In this work we focus on the non-trivial interface equilibria in presence of non-neutral wetting and complex geometries. We quantify the accuracy of a volume-of-fluid (VOF) formulation, implemented in a popular open-source computational fluid dynamics code, compared with a new formulation of a level set (LS) method, specifically developed for quasi-static capillarity-dominated displacement. The methods are tested in rhomboidal packings of spheres for a range of contact angles and for different rhomboidal configurations and the accuracy is evaluated against the semi-analytical solutions obtained by Mason and Morrow (1994). While the VOF method is implemented in a general purpose code that solves the full Navier-Stokes (NS) dynamics in a finite volume formulation, with additional terms to model surface tension, the LS method is optimised for the quasi-static case and, therefore, less computationally expensive. To overcome the shortcomings of the finite volume NS-VOF system for low capillary number flows, and its computational cost, we introduce an overdamped dynamics and a local time stepping to speed up the convergence to the steady state, for every given imposed pressure gradient (and therefore saturation condition). Despite these modifications, the methods fundamentally differ in the way they capture the interface, as well as in the number of equations solved and in the way the mean curvature (or equivalently capillary pressure) is computed. This study is intended to provide a rigorous validation study and gives important indications on the errors committed by these methods in solving more complex geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhixue Sun
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS constructs an artificial thermal reservoir by hydraulic fracturing to extract heat economically from hot dry rock. As the core element of the EGS heat recovery process, mass and heat transfer of working fluid mainly occurs in fractures. Since the direction of the natural and induced fractures are generally perpendicular to the minimum principal stress in the formation, as an effective stimulation approach, horizontal well production could increase the contact area with the thermal reservoir significantly. In this paper, the thermal reservoir is developed by a dual horizontal well system and treated as a fractured porous medium composed of matrix rock and discrete fracture network. Using the local thermal non-equilibrium theory, a coupled THM mathematical model and an ideal 3D numerical model are established for the EGS heat extraction process. EGS heat extraction capacity is evaluated in the light of thermal recovery lifespan, average outlet temperature, heat production, electricity generation, energy efficiency and thermal recovery rate. The results show that with certain reservoir and production parameters, the heat production, electricity generation and thermal recovery lifespan can achieve the commercial goal of the dual horizontal well system, but the energy efficiency and overall thermal recovery rate are still at low levels. At last, this paper puts forward a series of optimizations to improve the heat extraction capacity, including production conditions and thermal reservoir construction design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvedov, O.V.; Aitov, G.M.; Balyuk, S.A.
1989-01-01
The effect of horizontal channels on the neutron field in the core of the TVR-M heavy-water cooled high-flux research reactor is experimentally studied. The experiments are carried out in a critical assembly using full-scale core model. The data are obtained characterizing soft and rigid effects of horizontal experimental channels on neutron field. The soft effect is connected with the total mass of experimental channels. It is practically uniform by the core azimuth and reveals itself in the decrease of neutron burst in the reflector, and, consequently in the decrease of neutron field distorsion in the external and middle fuel assembly rows. The rigid effect is conditioned by separate experimental channels located close to the core. It brings about local disturbance in the closest fuel assemblies. The data obtained are a part of experimental program on studying basis power distributions in the TVR-M reactor lattices. 2 refs.; 18 figs
Huang, Na; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Yu, Liyuan
2018-03-01
While shear-flow behavior through fractured media has been so far studied at single fracture scale, a numerical analysis of the shear effect on the hydraulic response of 3D crossed fracture model is presented. The analysis was based on a series of crossed fracture models, in which the effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement were considered. The rough fracture surfaces were generated using the modified successive random additions (SRA) algorithm. The shear displacement was applied on one fracture, and at the same time another fracture shifted along with the upper and lower surfaces of the sheared fracture. The simulation results reveal the development and variation of preferential flow paths through the model during the shear, accompanied by the change of the flow rate ratios between two flow planes at the outlet boundary. The average contact area accounts for approximately 5-27% of the fracture planes during shear, but the actual calculated flow area is about 38-55% of the fracture planes, which is much smaller than the noncontact area. The equivalent permeability will either increase or decrease as shear displacement increases from 0 to 4 mm, depending on the aperture distribution of intersection part between two fractures. When the shear displacement continuously increases by up to 20 mm, the equivalent permeability increases sharply first, and then keeps increasing with a lower gradient. The equivalent permeability of rough fractured model is about 26-80% of that calculated from the parallel plate model, and the equivalent permeability in the direction perpendicular to shear direction is approximately 1.31-3.67 times larger than that in the direction parallel to shear direction. These results can provide a fundamental understanding of fluid flow through crossed fracture model under shear.
Greenstreet, S.P.R.; Fraser, H.M.; Piet, G.J.
2009-01-01
The use of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to address regional-scale objectives as part of an ecosystem approach to management in the North Sea is examined. Ensuring that displacement of fishing activity does not negate the ecological benefits gained from MPAs is a major concern. Two scenarios are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jenny C A Read
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, R.; Engel, R.
1979-01-01
The core support plate is a very important component of the reactor pressure vessel internals. Therefore, an exact stress analysis is desired. This analysis will cause high computer costs with a detailed FEM-model because of the complexity of this compound system. In this paper, a method is suggested to solve the problem with a much cheaper beam element model. The main problem is to establish an equivalent beam system with nearly the same stiffness property as the perforated circular plate stiffened by a grid. Furthermore, the system must allow to determine the maximum stresses with sufficient accuracy. The calculation of the equivalent beam stiffness is based on the analysis of perforated plates by T. SLOT and W.J. O'DONNELL. This analysis method utilizes the concept of the equivalent solid plate. In this method, the perforated plate is replaced by a solid one which is geometrically similar to the perforated plate but has modified values of the elastic constants. The simple equivalent beam system of one half of the core support plate (symmetry) was loaded with a pressure difference and stresses and displacements were analysed. After that, these results were compared with the stress and displacement analysis of a part of the real structure. This substructure was discretized by three-dimensional 20-node brick-elements. The comparison of the results of the two models shows that the stresses and displacements, calculated with the simple beam model, are in good agreement with those of the real structure. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....
Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.
The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai
2015-09-01
The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we
Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P
2016-07-01
We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among occupations in the same economic branch. Given the nature of state socialist political-economic institutions, we expect power to exhibit much stronger effects in the socialist mobility regime, while autonomy and capital should play greater stratifying roles after the market transition. Education should have stable effects, and horizontal linkages should diminish in strength with market reforms. We estimate our model's parameters using data from surveys conducted in Hungary during and after the socialist period. We adopt a micro-class approach, though we test it against approaches that use more aggregated class categories. Our model provides a superior fit to other mobility models, and our results confirm our hypotheses about the distinctive features of the state socialist mobility regime. Mobility researchers often look for common patterns characterizing mobility in all industrialized societies. Our findings suggest that national institutions can produce fundamentally distinct patterns of mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu-Quoc, L.; Lesburg, L.; Zhang, X.
2004-01-01
An elasto-plastic frictional tangential force-displacement (TFD) model for spheres in contact for accurate and efficient granular-flow simulations is presented in this paper; the present TFD is consistent with the elasto-plastic normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 67 (2) (2000) 363; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) (1999) 4013]. The proposed elasto-plastic frictional TFD model is accurate, and is validated against non-linear finite-element analyses involving plastic flows under both loading and unloading conditions. The novelty of the present TFD model lies in (i) the additive decomposition of the elasto-plastic contact area radius into an elastic part and a plastic part, (ii) the correction of the particles' radii at the contact point, and (iii) the correction of the particles' elastic moduli. The correction of the contact-area radius represents an effect of plastic deformation in colliding particles; the correction of the radius of curvature represents a permanent indentation after impact; the correction of the elastic moduli represents a softening of the material due to plastic flow. The construction of both the present elasto-plastic frictional TFD model and its consistent companion, the elasto-plastic NFD model, parallels the formalism of the continuum theory of elasto-plasticity. Both NFD and TFD models form a coherent set of force-displacement (FD) models not available hitherto for granular-flow simulations, and are consistent with the Hertz, Cattaneo, Mindlin, Deresiewicz contact mechanics theory. Together, these FD models will allow for efficient simulations of granular flows (or granular gases) involving a large number of particles
Displacement of screw-retained single crowns into implants with conical internal connections.
Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L
2013-01-01
Internal conical implant-abutment connections without platforms may lead to axial displacement of crowns during screw tightening. This displacement may affect proximal contacts, incisal edge position, or occlusion. This study aimed to measure the displacement of screw-retained single crowns into an implant in three dimensions during screw tightening by hand or via torque driver. A stereolithic acrylic resin cast was created using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. A 4.0- × 11-mm implant was placed in the edentulous site. Five porcelain-fused-to-metal single crowns were made using "cast-to" abutments. Crowns were tried on the stereolithic model, representing the patient, and hand tightened. The spatial relationship of crowns to the model after hand tightening was determined using three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC), an optical measurement technique. The crowns were then tightened using a torque driver to 20 Ncm and the relative crown positions were again recorded. Testing was repeated three times for each crown, and displacement of the crowns was compared between the hand-tightened and torqued states. Commercial image correlation software was used to analyze the data. Mean vertical and horizontal crown displacement values were calculated after torqueing. The interproximal contacts were evaluated before and after torquing using an 8-μm aluminum foil shim. There were vertical and horizontal differences in crown positions between hand tightening and torqueing. Although these were small in magnitude, detectable displacements occurred in both apical and facial directions. After hand tightening, the 8-μm shim could be dragged without tearing. However, after torque tightening, the interproximal contacts were too tight and the 8-μm shim could not be dragged without tearing. Differences between hand tightening and torque tightening should be taken into consideration during laboratory and clinical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan-Shan, Xu; Shu-Min, Li; Jamal, Berakdar
2009-01-01
As a counterexample of the Euler condition for nonholonomic constraint problems [H. C. Shen, Acta Phys. Sin. 54, 2468 (2005)], we investigate the Apell–Hamel dynamical system on a horizontally moving plate. The inconsistency of the results with Newton mechanics suggests that the Euler condition is not a universal model for nonlinear nonholonomic systems. This is attributed to the fact that the virtual displacements so obtained are not normal to the constraint forces. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala
2015-01-01
In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)
2015-11-15
In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.
Aeroelastic analysis of large horizontal wind turbine baldes?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Di TANG; Zhiliang LU; Tongqing GUO
2016-01-01
A nonlinear aeroelastic analysis method for large horizontal wind turbines is described. A vortex wake method and a nonlinear ?nite element method (FEM) are coupled in the approach. The vortex wake method is used to predict wind turbine aero-dynamic loads of a wind turbine, and a three-dimensional (3D) shell model is built for the rotor. Average aerodynamic forces along the azimuth are applied to the structural model, and the nonlinear static aeroelastic behaviors are computed. The wind rotor modes are obtained at the static aeroelastic status by linearizing the coupled equations. The static aeroelastic performance and dynamic aeroelastic responses are calculated for the NH1500 wind turbine. The results show that structural geometrical nonlinearities signi?cantly reduce displacements and vibration amplitudes of the wind turbine blades. Therefore, structural geometrical nonlinearities cannot be neglected both in the static aeroelastic analysis and dynamic aeroelastic analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael F Brooks
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In a departure from traditional “vertical” healthcare interventions in low-resource settings that work to combat a single specific health issue, LifeNet International (LN uses a horizontal conversion franchise to develop and measure healthcare capacity and quality in primarily faith-based health centers in East Africa. Through a comprehensive franchise package of Medical Training, Management Training, Pharmaceutical Supply, and Growth Financing, LN is able to leverage existing resources and respond to a greater number of the obstacles preventing facilities from providing quality care. Through its Quality Score Card, LN measures improvements in quality of care within its network. This tool has measured consistent and significant improvements in quality of care following LN partnership. Together, these services improve quality of care at East African primary care facilities in ways that issue-specific, “vertical” interventions cannot.
Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.
1979-04-01
Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space
Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castans, M.
1981-01-01
The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)
Feedback control of horizontal position and plasma surface shape in a non-circular tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi
1986-01-01
The linear model for the coupled horizontal position and plasma surface shape control in the non-circular tokamak device was described. It enables us to estimate easily the displacement and the distortion due to the changes in plasma pressure and current density distribution. The PI-controller and the optimal regulator were designed with the linear model. Transient-response analysis of the control system in the TRIAM-1M tokamak showed that the optimal regulator is superior to the PI-controller with regard to the mutual-interference between the position control system and the elongation control system. (author)
Feature displacement interpolation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt
1998-01-01
Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....
Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir
2015-03-01
Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Zinkle, Steven J.; Stoller, Roger; Averback, Robert S.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei; Simeone, David
2015-01-01
Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM) was established in 2008 to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, aiming at evaluating multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation, and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models and expertise. The WPMM Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD) was established in 2009 to determine the limitations of the NRT-dpa standard, in the light of both atomistic simulations and known experimental discrepancies, to revisit the NRT-dpa standard and to examine the possibility of proposing a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics. This report reviews the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons (excluding photons, atomic clusters and more exotic particles), with emphasis on the range of validity of the 'displacement per atom' (dpa) concept in all major classes of materials with the exception of organics. The report also introduces an 'athermal recombination-corrected dpa' (arc-dpa) relation that uses a relatively simple functional to address the well-known issue that 'displacement per atom' (dpa) overestimates damage production in metals under energetic displacement cascade conditions, as well as a 'replacements-per-atom' (rpa) equation, also using a relatively simple functional, that accounts for the fact that dpa is understood to severely underestimate actual atom relocation (ion beam mixing) in metals. (authors)
Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan V. Daniluk
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.
Zhu, Ruo-Gu; Jiang, Kun; Qing, Zhao-Bo; Liu, Yue-Hui; Yan, Jun
2006-11-01
Taiji image originated from ancient China. It is not only the Taoism emblem but also the ancient graphic presentation sign to everything origin. It either has a too far-reaching impact on traditional culture of China, or is influencing the development of current natural science. On the basis of analyzing the classical philosophic theory of two-dimensional (2-D) Taiji image, we developed it into the model of complex interior surface-three-dimensional (3-D) Taiji ball, and explored its possible applications. Combining modern mathematics and physics knowledge, we have studied on the physical meaning of 3-D Taiji ball, thus the plane change of original Taiji image is developed into space change which is more close to the real world. The change layers are obvious increased notably, and the amount of information included in this model increases correspondingly. We also realized a special paper 3-D Taiji ball whose surface is coved with metal foil by means of laser manufacture. A new experiment set-up for measuring micro displace has been designed and constituted thus the relation between capacitance and micro displacement for the 3-D Taiji ball has performed. Experimental and theoretical analyses are also finished. This models of 3-D Taiji ball for physical characteristics are the first time set up. Experimental data and fitting curves between capacitance and micro displacement for the special paper Taiji ball coved with metal foil are suggested. It is shown that the special Taiji ball has less leakage capacitance or more strengthen electric field than an ordinary half ball capacitance. Finally their potential applied values are explored.
Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment
J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)
2009-01-01
textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.
2017-09-01
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [Spanish] El Sistema Global de Navegación por Satélite (GNSS), y, en particular, el Sistema Global de Posicionamiento (GPS) proporcionan una importante herramienta en el estudio de los procesos geodinámicos. Como consecuencia de estos estudios, es posible analizar la interacción entre las placas tectónicas con el fin de evaluar y establecer las características de sus límites. Este trabajo se centra principalmente, en el análisis de series temporales obtenidas a partir de observaciones de los satélites GNSS-GPS en estaciones geodésicas permanentes ubicadas en la región sur de la Península Ibérica y norte de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pattanasethanon, Singthong; Lertsatitthanakorn, Charoenporn; Atthajariyakul, Surat; Soponronnarit, Somchart
2008-01-01
The results of a study on all sky modeling and forecasting daylight availability for the tropical climate found in the central region of the northeastern part of Thailand (16 deg. 14' N, 103 deg. 15' E) is presented. The required components of sky quantities, namely, global and diffuse horizontal irradiance and global horizontal illuminance for saving energy used in buildings are estimated. The empirical sinusoidal models are validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a form of the sky conditions. In addition, a novel sinusoidal model, which consists of polynomial or exponential functions, is validated. A and B values of the empirical sinusoidal model for all sky conditions are determined and developed to become a new function in the polynomial or exponential form of the sky conditions. Novelettes, an artificial intelligent agent, namely, artificial neural network (ANN) model is also identified. Back propagation learning algorithms were used in the networks. Moreover, a one year data set and a next half year data set were used in order to train and test the neural network, respectively. Observation results from one year's round data indicate that luminosity and energy from the sky on horizontal in the area around Mahasarakham are frequently brighter than those of Bangkok. The accuracy of the validated model is determined in terms of the mean bias deviation (MBD), the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) and the coefficient of correlation (R 2 ) values. A comparison of the estimated solar irradiation values and the observed values revealed a small error slide in the empirical sinusoidal model as well. In addition, some results of the sky quantity forecast by the ANN model indicate that the ANN model is more accurate than the empirical models and the novel sinusoidal models. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict highly accurate solar radiance/illuminance values. We believe
The Winfrith horizontal impact rig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, P.
1985-12-01
The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)
Response of Voronezh reactor type to horizontal ground motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecinka, L.
1983-01-01
For the purposes of vibration monitoring of PWR's the well known 'double pendulum model' has been developed and experimentally verified. It is shown, that this model is possible to use for response calculations of Voronezh reactor pressure vessel and its internals to horizontal ground motion. The equation of motion is given in usual matrix form, the damping matrix is calculated by Rayleigh formula. Driving force is given by vector of ground motion in horizontal direction. For the numerical integration of equation of motion is possible to use following methods - matrix exponential in state space; - modal analysis; - one-step direct integration. For our purposes the last one has been chosen and related computer code TRANS has been developed. The results of calculations are given in the graphically form using generalized angular coordinates and its second derivatives, which describes the displacement or acceleration of reactor pressure vessel to ground and the core barrel to reactor pressure vessel. The driving vector is given in the form of artificially generated accelerogram. (orig./HP)
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334334
2017-08-02
Our current understanding of matter and its interactions is summarised in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Many experiments have tested the predictions of the SM with great success, but others have brought our ignorance into focus by showing us there are new phenomena that we can not describe within the framework of the SM. These include the experimental observations of neutrino masses and dark matter, which confirms there must be new physics. What this new physics may look like at colliders motivates the original work in this thesis, which comprises three studies: the prospects of future electron-positron colliders in testing a model with an extended Higgs sector with a scalar triplet, doublet and singlet; the discovery potential at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of a non-minimal Supersymmetric model via conventional sparticle searches and via searches for displaced vertices; and the experimental search for long-lived massive particles via a displaced vertex signature using data of proton-proton...
Displacement data assimilation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)
2017-02-01
We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.
Measurement of Seaward Ground Displacements on Coastal Landfill Area Using Radar Interferometry
Baek, W.-K.; Jung, H.-S.
2018-04-01
In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR) and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.
MEASUREMENT OF SEAWARD GROUND DISPLACEMENTS ON COASTAL LANDFILL AREA USING RADAR INTERFEROMETRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.-K. Baek
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.
Displacement pile installation effects in sand
Beijer-Lundberg, A.
2015-01-01
Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a
Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator
Zhu, Shaowei
2017-12-01
Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingbao Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator (ACCESS is used to test the sensitivity of heavy precipitation to various model configurations: horizontal resolution, domain size, rain rate assimilation, perturbed physics, and initial condition uncertainties, through a series of convection-permitting simulations of three heavy precipitation (greater than 200 mm day−1 cases in different synoptic backgrounds. The larger disparity of intensity histograms and rainfall fluctuation caused by different model configurations from their mean and/or control run indicates that heavier precipitation forecasts have larger uncertainty. A cross-verification exercise is used to quantify the impacts of different model parameters on heavy precipitation. The dispersion of skill scores with control run used as “truth” shows that the impacts of the model resolution and domain size on the quantitative precipitation forecast are not less than those of perturbed physics and initial field uncertainties in these not intentionally selected heavy precipitation cases. The result indicates that model resolution and domain size should be considered as part of probabilistic precipitation forecasts and ensemble prediction system design besides the model initial field uncertainty.
Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.
2013-03-01
The coupled model LMDzORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5°×1.25°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.45°×0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels, respectively, extending up to mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 vertical levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The best choice for the model validation was the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986. This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. However, the best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to Atlas), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for the 39 layers run due to the increase of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Tessitore
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982–1984, 1992–1995 and 2004–2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadiwala, M.S.; Usman, A.; Akhtar, M.; Jamil, K.
2013-01-01
In developing countries like Pakistan the global solar radiation and its components is not available for all locations due to which there is a requirement of using different models for the estimation of global solar radiation that use climatological parameters of the locations. Only five long-period locations data of solar radiation data is available in Pakistan (Karachi, Quetta, Lahore, Multan and Peshawar). These locations almost encompass the different geographical features of Pakistan. For this reason in this study the Mean monthly global solar radiation has been estimated using empirical models of Angstrom, FAO, Glover Mc-Culloch, Sangeeta & Tiwari for the diversity of approach and use of climatic and geographical parameters. Empirical constants for these models have been estimated and the results obtained by these models have been tested statistically. The results show encouraging agreement between estimated and measured values. The outcome of these empirical models will assist the researchers working on solar energy estimation of the location having similar conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahato, Niladri K.; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian
2016-01-01
Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T 1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T 1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4
Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian
2016-05-18
Single or biplanar video radiography and Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) techniques used for the assessment of in-vivo joint kinematics involves application of ionizing radiation, which is a limitation for clinical research involving human subjects. To overcome this limitation, our long-term goal is to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only, three dimensional (3-D) modeling technique that permits dynamic imaging of joint motion in humans. Here, we present our initial findings, as well as reliability data, for an MRI-only protocol and modeling technique. We developed a morphology-based motion-analysis technique that uses MRI of custom-built solid-body objects to animate and quantify experimental displacements between them. The technique involved four major steps. First, the imaging volume was calibrated using a custom-built grid. Second, 3-D models were segmented from axial scans of two custom-built solid-body cubes. Third, these cubes were positioned at pre-determined relative displacements (translation and rotation) in the magnetic resonance coil and scanned with a T1 and a fast contrast-enhanced pulse sequences. The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images were then processed for animation. The fourth step involved importing these processed images into an animation software, where they were displayed as background scenes. In the same step, 3-D models of the cubes were imported into the animation software, where the user manipulated the models to match their outlines in the scene (rotoscoping) and registered the models into an anatomical joint system. Measurements of displacements obtained from two different rotoscoping sessions were tested for reliability using coefficient of variations (CV), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, and Limits of Agreement analyses. Between-session reliability was high for both the T1 and the contrast-enhanced sequences. Specifically, the average CVs for translation were 4
The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs
2017-01-01
Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongliang Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrofracturing technology of perforated horizontal well has been widely used to stimulate the tight hydrocarbon reservoirs for gas production. To predict the hydraulic fracture propagation, the microseismicity can be used to infer hydraulic fractures state; by the effective numerical methods, microseismic events can be addressed from changes of the computed stresses. In numerical models, due to the challenges in accurately representing the complex structure of naturally fractured reservoir, the interaction between hydraulic and pre-existing fractures has not yet been considered and handled satisfactorily. To overcome these challenges, the adaptive finite element-discrete element method is used to refine mesh, effectively identify the fractures propagation, and investigate microseismic modelling. Numerical models are composed of hydraulic fractures, pre-existing fractures, and microscale pores, and the seepage analysis based on the Darcy’s law is used to determine fluid flow; then moment tensors in microseismicity are computed based on the computed stresses. Unfractured and naturally fractured models are compared to assess the influences of pre-existing fractures on hydrofracturing. The damaged and contact slip events were detected by the magnitudes, B-values, Hudson source type plots, and focal spheres.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr Kharchenko
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This article presents a mathematical model and the experimental results of automatic flights of the policopter UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" of oktacopter scheme with additional elektroimpeler engines of horizontal thrust. Methods: UAV NAU PKF "Aurora" is developed for experimental flights in manual, semi-automatic and unmanned modes. The uniqueness and scientific novelty of data of flight testes is in a complete separation and isolation of vertical and horizontal components of the flight, which enables a fundamentally new way of moving of vehicle in the aerial space. This approach gives a ability to obtain all advantages and to eliminate disadvantages of helicopter and airplane in fundamentally new aircraft by structure and by function – namely in the policopter flyer with additional independent engines of the lateral thrust. Results: Obtained a new experimental data that allowed to better understand the nature of the physical forces, providing the flight of the policopter. Discussion: Revised a physical basis of the airscrew (propeller, namely on the example of flight of the policopter proved that most of the thrust of the propeller provided by the mechanical impulse (kinetic energy Ек=mv2/2 by the impulse, that a airscrew receives at his collisions with air molecules,but not by the gradient of air pressure below and above the airscrew. Is put forward a hypothesis of gravitational nature of the flight and introduced the notion of "functional antigravity", that a force completely identical in function and opposite on the direction of the force of gravity (gravity force. Deduced a mathematical formula of "functionally antigravitational" transport, namely:G·M·m/R2 = mI·v2/2 – for the flights of the aircraft with a mass m over universal astronomical body with a mass M, and m·g = mI·v2/2 – for the flights of the aircraft with mass m over a planet Earth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Stålbom
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Determining the reliability of a unilateral horizontal drop jump for displacement provided the focus for this research. Eighteen male subjects were required to step off a 20cm box and land on a force plate with one leg and thereafter jump for maximal horizontal displacement on two different days. Dependent variables from the jump assessment included mean and peak vertical (V and horizontal (H ground reaction forces (GRF and impulses, horizontal displacement and contact time. The between-trial variability of all kinematic and kinetic measures was less than 7%. The most consistent measure over both trials was the horizontal displacement jumped (1.2 to 1.4% and the most variable were the contact time the first day (6.5% and peak HGRF the second day (4.3%. In all cases there was less variation associated with the second rather than the first day. In terms of test-retest variability the percent changes in the means and coefficient of variations (CVs were all under 10%. The smallest changes in the mean (0.43 %, least variation (< 2.26 % and second highest intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC = 0.95 were found for horizontal displacement jumped. The highest ICC (0.96 was found for horizontal impulse. Given the reliability of the single leg drop jump, it may offer better prognostic and diagnostic information than that obtained with bilateral vertical jumps
Horizontal violence in Nursing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsimoulaki Evangelia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.
Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aziz, Khalid
2000-03-06
One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokol, Zbyněk; Řezáčová, Daniela
2009-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 3 (2009), s. 331-342 ISSN 0169-8095. [International workshop on precipitation in urban areas /7./. St. Moritz, 07.12.2006-10.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905; GA MŠk OC 112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Precipitation * Local convective storm assimilation * Radar reflectivity * NWP model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009
Barnhart, B.
1982-01-01
The influence of horizontal tail location on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested using various horizontal tail positions, with both a high and a low-wing location and for each of two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.
Large displacement spring-like electro-mechanical thermal actuators with insulator constraint beams
Luo, J. K.; Fu, Y. Q.; Flewitt, A. J.; Spearing, S. M.; Fleck, N. A.; Milne, W. I.
2005-07-01
A number of in-plane spring-like micro-electro-thermal-actuators with large displacements were proposed. The devices take the advantage of the large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the conductive arms and the insulator clamping beams. The constraint beams in one type (the spring) of these devices are horizontally positioned to restrict the expansion of the active arms in the x-direction, and to produce a displacement in the y-direction only. In other two types of actuators (the deflector and the contractor), the constraint beams are positioned parallel to the active arms. When the constraint beams are on the inside of the active arms, the actuator produces an outward deflection in the y-direction. When they are on the outside of the active arms, the actuator produces an inward contraction. Analytical model and finite element analysis were used to simulate the performances. It showed that at a constant temperature, analytical model is sufficient to predict the displacement of these devices. The displacements are all proportional to the temperature and the number of the chevron sections. A two-mask process is under development to fabricate these devices, using Si3N4 as the insulator beams, and electroplated Ni as the conductive beams.
Lateral feedback from monophasic horizontal cells to cones in carp retina. I. Experiments
Kamermans, M.; van Dijk, B. W.; Spekreijse, H.; Zweypfenning, R. C.
1989-01-01
The spatial and color coding of the monophasic horizontal cells were studied in light- and dark-adapted retinae. Slit displacement experiments revealed differences in integration area for the different cone inputs of the monophasic horizontal cells. The integration area measured with a 670-nm
Kumar, V. R. Sanal; Sankar, Vigneshwaran; Chandrasekaran, Nichith; Saravanan, Vignesh; Natarajan, Vishnu; Padmanabhan, Sathyan; Sukumaran, Ajith; Mani, Sivabalan; Rameshkumar, Tharikaa; Nagaraju Doddi, Hema Sai; Vysaprasad, Krithika; Sharan, Sharad; Murugesh, Pavithra; Shankar, S. Ganesh; Nejaamtheen, Mohammed Niyasdeen; Baskaran, Roshan Vignesh; Rahman Mohamed Rafic, Sulthan Ariff; Harisrinivasan, Ukeshkumar; Srinivasan, Vivek
2018-02-01
A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. R. Sanal Kumar
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Sinkala
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We use Lie symmetry analysis to solve a boundary value problem that arises in chemical engineering, namely, mass transfer during the contact of a solid slab with an overhead flowing fluid. This problem was earlier tackled using Adomian decomposition method (Fatoorehchi and Abolghasemi 2011, leading to the Adomian series form of solution. It turns out that the application of Lie group analysis yields an elegant form of the solution. After introducing the governing mathematical model and some preliminaries of Lie symmetry analysis, we compute the Lie point symmetries admitted by the governing equation and use these to construct the desired solution as an invariant solution.
Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, F.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure
Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikonomou, A.S.
1983-01-01
This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment
Large scale mass redistribution and surface displacement from GRACE and SLR
Cheng, M.; Ries, J. C.; Tapley, B. D.
2012-12-01
Mass transport between the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth results in the temporal variations in the Earth gravity field and loading induced deformation of the Earth. Recent space-borne observations, such as GRACE mission, are providing extremely high precision temporal variations of gravity field. The results from 10-yr GRACE data has shown a significant annual variations of large scale vertical and horizontal displacements occurring over the Amazon, Himalayan region and South Asia, African, and Russian with a few mm amplitude. Improving understanding from monitoring and modeling of the large scale mass redistribution and the Earth's response are a critical for all studies in the geosciences, in particular for determination of Terrestrial Reference System (TRS), including geocenter motion. This paper will report results for the observed seasonal variations in the 3-dimentional surface displacements of SLR and GPS tracking stations and compare with the prediction from time series of GRACE monthly gravity solution.
Miyaguchi, Tomoshige
2017-10-01
There have been increasing reports that the diffusion coefficient of macromolecules depends on time and fluctuates randomly. Here a method is developed to elucidate this fluctuating diffusivity from trajectory data. Time-averaged mean-square displacement (MSD), a common tool in single-particle-tracking (SPT) experiments, is generalized to a second-order tensor with which both magnitude and orientation fluctuations of the diffusivity can be clearly detected. This method is used to analyze the center-of-mass motion of four fundamental polymer models: the Rouse model, the Zimm model, a reptation model, and a rigid rodlike polymer. It is found that these models exhibit distinctly different types of magnitude and orientation fluctuations of diffusivity. This is an advantage of the present method over previous ones, such as the ergodicity-breaking parameter and a non-Gaussian parameter, because with either of these parameters it is difficult to distinguish the dynamics of the four polymer models. Also, the present method of a time-averaged MSD tensor could be used to analyze trajectory data obtained in SPT experiments.
Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine
Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.
2016-08-01
The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.
Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.
Yao, Yina; Li, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Rui
2017-10-01
It is quite important to clearly understand the dynamic and freezing process of water droplets impacting a cold substrate for the prevention of ice accretion. In this study, a three-dimensional model including an extended phase change method was developed on OpenFOAM platform to simulate the impact, spreading and freezing of a water droplet on a cooled solid substrate. Both normal and oblique impact conditions were studied numerically. The evolution of the droplet shape and dynamic characteristics such as area ratio and spread factor were compared between numerical and experimental results. Good agreements were obtained. The effects of Weber number and Ohnersorge number on the oblique impact and freezing process were investigated. A regime map which depicts the different responses of droplets as a function of normal Weber number and Ohnesorge number was obtained. Moreover, the impact, spreading and freezing behaviour of water droplets were analyzed in detail from the numerical results.
Zhang, Yan; Lee, Dong-Weon
2010-05-01
An integrated system made up of a double-hot arm electro-thermal microactuator and a piezoresistor embedded at the base of the 'cold arm' is proposed. The electro-thermo-mechanical modeling and optimization is developed to elaborate the operation mechanism of the hybrid system through numerical simulations. For given materials, the geometry design mostly influences the performance of the sensor and actuator, which can be considered separately. That is because thermal expansion induced heating energy has less influence on the base area of the 'cold arm,' where is the maximum stress. The piezoresistor is positioned here for large sensitivity to monitor the in-plane movement of the system and characterize the actuator response precisely in real time. Force method is used to analyze the thermal induced mechanical expansion in the redundant structure. On the other hand, the integrated actuating mechanism is designed for high speed imaging. Based on the simulation results, the actuator operates at levels below 5 mA appearing to be very reliable, and the stress sensitivity is about 40 MPa per micron.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharali, K.; Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Wind Energy Group
2010-07-01
Natural wind can sometimes have a strong wind shear that causes the Dynamic Stall (DS) phenomena which may result in dynamic loads and varying lift coefficients. The DS phenomena cannot be prevented in horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Therefore, it is necessary to study the unsteady aerodynamics in order to modify common wind turbine rotor designs. This paper reported on a study that investigated the dynamic flow fields around an oscillating 2D S809 airfoil, representing the aerodynamic characteristics of HAWT airfoils for dynamic stall conditions. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver package with Fluent was used with different turbulence models, notably the Spalart-Allmaras and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methods. A sliding mesh is commonly used in numerical methods for simulating an oscillating foil, but sliding meshes suffer from mesh generation complexity and increased computational time. In this study, instead of a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, the direction of the far-field flow was changed according to a user-defined function in the software to simulate a proper angle of attack for the boundary conditions in each time step. This strategy helped to decrease processing time. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data and the Beddoes-Leishman model results. The DES method for unsteady 2D flow was not recommended. It was concluded that the Fluent package is time efficient, reliable and economic for the wind turbine industry. 17 refs., 3 figs.
Stratis, A.; Zhang, G.; Jacobs, R.; Bogaerts, R.; Bosmans, H.
2016-12-01
In order to carry out Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry studies, voxel phantoms, modeling human anatomy, and organ-based segmentation of CT image data sets are applied to simulation frameworks. The resulting voxel phantoms preserve patient CT acquisition geometry; in the case of head voxel models built upon head CT images, the head support with which CT scanners are equipped introduces an inclination to the head, and hence to the head voxel model. In dental cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging, patients are always positioned in such a way that the Frankfort line is horizontal, implying that there is no head inclination. The orientation of the head is important, as it influences the distance of critical radiosensitive organs like the thyroid and the esophagus from the x-ray tube. This work aims to propose a procedure to adjust head voxel phantom orientation, and to investigate the impact of head inclination on organ doses in dental CBCT MC dosimetry studies. The female adult ICRP, and three in-house-built paediatric voxel phantoms were in this study. An EGSnrc MC framework was employed to simulate two commonly used protocols; a Morita Accuitomo 170 dental CBCT scanner (FOVs: 60 × 60 mm2 and 80 × 80 mm2, standard resolution), and a 3D Teeth protocol (FOV: 100 × 90 mm2) in a Planmeca Promax 3D MAX scanner. Result analysis revealed large absorbed organ dose differences in radiosensitive organs between the original and the geometrically corrected voxel models of this study, ranging from -45.6% to 39.3%. Therefore, accurate dental CBCT MC dose calculations require geometrical adjustments to be applied to head voxel models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, He; Dong, Yao; Xiao, Ling
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Ensemble learning system is proposed to forecast the global solar radiation. • LASSO is utilized as feature selection method for subset model. • GSO is used to select the weight vector aggregating the response of subset model. • A simple and efficient algorithm is designed based on thresholding function. • Theoretical analysis focusing on error rate is provided. - Abstract: Forecasting of effective solar irradiation has developed a huge interest in recent decades, mainly due to its various applications in grid connect photovoltaic installations. This paper develops and investigates an ensemble learning based multistage intelligent approach to forecast 5 days global horizontal radiation at four given locations of India. The two-way interaction model is considered with purpose of detecting the associated correlation between the features. The main structure of the novel method is the ensemble learning, which is based on Divide and Conquer principle, is applied to enhance the forecasting accuracy and model stability. An efficient feature selection method LASSO is performed in the input space with the regularization parameter selected by Cross-Validation. A weight vector which best represents the importance of each individual model in ensemble system is provided by glowworm swarm optimization. The combination of feature selection and parameter selection are helpful in creating the diversity of the ensemble learning. In order to illustrate the validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four different locations of the India are split into training and test datasets. The results of the real data experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed method comparing with other competitors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubba, S.R.; Ingham, D.B.; Larsen, K.J.; Ma, L.; Pourkashanian, M.; Qian, X.; Williams, A.; Yan, Y.
2012-01-01
Recent national and international emission legislations to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide are forcing power generation industries using coal to look at various alternatives, such as biomass and especially by co-firing techniques. Biomass is transported to the burners either mixed with the primary fuel, in general, coal, or used in dedicated pipelines. In both cases, transportation of biomass is difficult due to its composition, size, shape and physical behaviour in comparison to the transportation of coal. This study considers experimental measurements for biomass particle transportation in a pipeline with a transverse elbow and compares the results with those using computation fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques. Various materials: flour, willow, wood, bark and a mixture of flour and willow, have been considered in the present investigation. The experimental work was performed using the dynamic changes in the electrostatic charges of biomass particles in conjunction with correlation signal processing techniques. The CFD simulations were performed by considering the effects of gravity, non-spherical drag (based on estimated shape factor), detailed information of the particle distribution, particle wall collisions and particle–particle interactions. Good quantitative and qualitative agreement was obtained between the CFD simulations and the experimental data. It is concluded that particle–particle interactions are of less importance if the mass loading ratio of particles to air is less than 0.03. -- Highlights: ► Dispersed biomass particle transportation is studied using experiments and CFD. ► Inclusion of asphericity in the drag model clearly demonstrated the improvements. ► Gravity effects are found to be important for correct particle distribution in pipe lines. ► Inter-particle collisions were less important for mass loading ratios <0.05 kg/kg.
Water displacement mercury pump
Nielsen, M.G.
1984-04-20
A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.
Multifactor Analysis of Roadheader’s Body Pose Responses during the Horizontal Cutting Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Zong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the Lagrange equation in system dynamics, aiming at the horizontal cutting process, the dynamical coupling model of boom-type roadheader’s body pose was established. According to input problem of solving the model, a calculation method of the cutting head load was proposed, and the relationship between the cutting head load and pressure of the driving cylinders and swing angle of the cutting arm was obtained through simulating analysis. The simulation model was established to solve the dynamical coupling model. The cutting head load, horizontal swing angle of the cutting arm, and dip angle of coal seam were regarded as independent variables to perform changing parameter analysis in variations of the body pose. The field experiment was carried out, and the measured data is basically consistent with the simulation values. The results show that lateral displacement of the body can reach up to 6.5 cm, backward displacement can reach up to 5.2 cm, floor-based quantity can reach up to 11 cm, pitch angle of the body can reach up to 7.8°, and roll angle can reach up to 2.1°. Variations of the body pose parameters are influenced greatly by the cutting head load, while the influence from horizontal swing angle of the cutting arm and dip angle of coal seam is slighter. Among the pose parameters, floor-based quantity and pitch angle of the body vary relatively greatly, which tend to seriously influence forming quality of the roadway and should be mainly considered in deviation rectification of the roadheader’s body pose.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paula Veneziano Valente
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Análise sobre os procedimentos de improvisação utilizados por Pixinguinha em 1 x 0 (1947 e por K-Ximbinho em Velhos Companheiros (1981. Uma comparação das diferenças e semelhanças entre suas abordagens mostra uma preferência pelos modelos estilísticos vertical ou horizontal.Analysis of the improvisation procedures of Brazilian instrumentalists Pixinguinha in 1 x 0 (One to zero; 1947 and K-Ximbinho in Velhos Companheiros (Old pals; 1981. A comparison of differences and similarities in their approaches reveals a preference for horizontal or vertical stylistic models.
Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses
Deborah Hines
2001-01-01
Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289
Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides
Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.
2006-01-01
Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.
Displacement compressors - acceptance tests
International Organization for Standardization. Geneva
1996-01-01
ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.
Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.
1999-01-01
This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Pierzchała
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Skid trails constructed for timber extraction in steep terrain constitute a serious environmental concern if not well planned, executed and ameliorated. Carrying out post-harvest surveys in monitoring constructed trails in such terrain is an onerous task for forest administrators, as hundreds of meters need to be surveyed per site, and the quantification of parameters and volumes is largely based on assumptions of trail symmetry and terrain uniformity. In this study, aerial imagery captured from a multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was used in generating a detailed post-harvest terrain model which included all skid trails. This was then compared with an Airborne Laser Scanning derived pre-harvest terrain model and the dimensions, slopes and cut-and-fill volumes associated with the skid trails were determined. The overall skid trail length was 954 m, or 381 m·ha−1 with segments varying from 40–60 m, inclinations from 3.9% to 9.6%, and cut volumes, from 1.7 to 3.7 m3 per running meter. The methods used in this work can be used in rapidly assessing the extent of disturbance and erosion risk on a wide range of sites. The multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was found to be highly suited to the task, given the relatively small size of harvested stands, their shape and their location in the mountainous terrain.
Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Álvarez, María E.; Hernández, José A.; Bourouis, Mahmoud
2016-01-01
An ANN (artificial neural network) model was developed to determine the efficiency parameters of a horizontal falling film absorber at operating conditions of interest for absorption cooling systems. The aqueous nitrate solution LiNO_3 + KNO_3 + NaNO_3 with salt mass percentages of 53%, 28% and 19%, respectively, was used as a working fluid. The authors created the ANN from the database they had compiled with the results of experiments that they had performed in a set-up designed and built for this purpose. The ANN structure consisted of 6 input variables: inlet solution and cooling water temperatures, cooling water and solution mass flow rates, absorber pressure and inlet solution concentration; 4 output variables which facilitated the assessment of the performance of the absorber: heat and mass transfer coefficients, absorption mass flux and the degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber. The hidden layer contained 9 neurons which were determined by training and test procedures. The results showed that the deviation between the experimental data and the estimated values was well adjusted. This indicated that the ANN model was an effective tool for predicting the efficiency parameters of the absorber. The solution flow rate was also observed to be the most significant operating variable which affected the performance of the absorber. - Highlights: • An ANN was developed to predict the efficiency parameters of a falling film absorber. • The ANN was created using a database corresponding to a triple-effect absorption chiller. • The ANN predicts the efficiency parameters of falling film absorbers with r"2 > 0.95. • The solution flow rate is the variable that most affects the performance of the absorber.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung, E-mail: ccheong@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-745, Rep. of Korea (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs), few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF) wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF) noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade of the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson’s acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson’s analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gwang-Se Lee
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Despite increasing concern about low-frequency noise of modern large horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs, few studies have focused on its origin or its prediction methods. In this paper, infra- and low-frequency (the ILF wind turbine noise are closely examined and an efficient method is developed for its prediction. Although most previous studies have assumed that the ILF noise consists primarily of blade passing frequency (BPF noise components, these tonal noise components are seldom identified in the measured noise spectrum, except for the case of downwind wind turbines. In reality, since modern HAWTs are very large, during rotation, a single blade of the turbine experiences inflow with variation in wind speed in time as well as in space, breaking periodic perturbations of the BPF. Consequently, this transforms acoustic contributions at the BPF harmonics into broadband noise components. In this study, the ILF noise of wind turbines is predicted by combining Lowson’s acoustic analogy with the stochastic wind model, which is employed to reproduce realistic wind speed conditions. In order to predict the effects of these wind conditions on pressure variation on the blade surface, unsteadiness in the incident wind speed is incorporated into the XFOIL code by varying incident flow velocities on each blade section, which depend on the azimuthal locations of the rotating blade. The calculated surface pressure distribution is subsequently used to predict acoustic pressure at an observing location by using Lowson’s analogy. These predictions are compared with measured data, which ensures that the present method can reproduce the broadband characteristics of the measured low-frequency noise spectrum. Further investigations are carried out to characterize the IFL noise in terms of pressure loading on blade surface, narrow-band noise spectrum and noise maps around the turbine.
The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian
China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...
Piot, M.; Pay, M.; Jorba, O.; Lopez, E.; Pirez, C.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J. M.
2009-12-01
In Europe, human exposure to air pollution often exceeds standards set by the EU commission (Directives 1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Urban/suburban areas are predominantly impacted upon, although exceedances of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Ozone (O3) also take place in rural areas. Within the CALIOPE project, a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM, has been developed and applied to the European domain (12x12 sq. km, 1hr) as well as the Spanish domain (4x4 sq. km, 1hr). The simulation of such high-resolution model system has been made possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. This contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for the reference year 2004. The WRF-ARW meteorological model contains 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. The vertical resolution of the CMAQ chemistry-transport model for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Gas phase boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model. For the European simulation, emissions are disaggregated from the EMEP emission inventory for 2004 to the utilized resolution using the criteria implemented in the HERMES04 emission model. The HERMES04 model system, running through a bottom-up approach, is used to estimate emissions for Spain at a 1x1 sq. km horizontal resolution, every hour. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, the model simulation for Europe was compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and the Spanish air quality networks (total of 60 stations for O3, 43 for NO2, 31 for SO2, 25 for PM10 and 16 for PM2.5). The model simulation for Europe satisfactorily reproduces O3 concentrations throughout the year (annual correlation: 0.66) with relatively small errors: MNGE values range from 13% to 26%, and MNBE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanaan, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Araj, Georges
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO 2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m 3 . Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m 3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ
Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357287746
2014-01-01
In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the
Vasilev, Aleksandr S.; Konyakhin, Igor A.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Molev, Fedor V.
2015-05-01
The paper analyzes the construction matters and metrological parameters of the electrooptic converter to control linear displacements of the large structures of the buildings and facilities. The converter includes the base module, the processing module and a set of the reference marks. The base module is the main unit of the system, it includes the receiving optical system and the CMOS photodetector array that realizes the instrument coordinate system that controls the mark coordinates in the space. The methods of the frame-to-frame difference, adaptive threshold filtration, binarization and objects search by the tied areas to detect the marks against accidental contrast background is the basis of the algorithm. The entire algorithm is performed during one image reading stage and is based on the FPGA. The developed and manufactured converter experimental model was tested in laboratory conditions at the metrological bench at the distance between the base module and the mark 50±0.2 m. The static characteristic was read during the experiment of the reference mark displacement at the pitch of 5 mm in the horizontal and vertical directions for the displacement range 400 mm. The converter experimental model error not exceeding ±0.5 mm was obtained in the result of the experiment.
Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2016-01-01
in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...
Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1997-12-31
The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.
Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuomisto, H [ed.; IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H [ed.; VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V [ed.; Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1998-12-31
The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.
Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.
1997-01-01
The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries
Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.
Statistical Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient For Horizontally Loaded Piles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honjo, Yusuke; Zaika, Yulvi; Pokharel, Gyaneswor
2002-01-01
Appropriate horizontal subgrade reaction (k h ) is required to evaluate stress and displacement in horizontal loading pile. In order to obtain more accurate prediction of pile behavior, statistical analysis is employed. Based on 21 data set gathered on horizontal loading piles, inverse analysis and regression analysis are carried out. The main value and uncertainty are obtained by inverse analysis, could be employed in the regression analysis. The relationship between the lateral resistant constant (k c ) and SPT N value takes into account in correlated and uncorrelated condition. The results are compared with Port and Harbor Technical Research Institute (JPHA, 1999) and Japan Highway Bridge Specification IV (JRA, 1996). The computed values are found to be very close to the JPHA line and within the range of JRA lines in diameter 0.5 m and 2 m
Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.
2009-04-01
Peninsula simulation at 4 km horizontal resolution, every hour. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks. For the European domain, 45 stations have been used to evaluate NO2, 60 for O3, 39 for SO2, 25 for PM10 and 16 for PM2.5. On the other hand, the Iberian Peninsula domain has been evaluated against 75 NO2 stations, 84 O3 stations, 69 for SO2, and 46 for PM10. Such large number of observations allows us to provide a detailed discussion of the model skills over quite different geographical locations and meteorological situations. The model simulation for Europe satisfactorily reproduces O3 concentrations throughout the year with relatively small errors: MNGE values range from 13% to 24%, and MNBE values show a slight negative bias ranging from -15% to 0%. These values lie within the range defined by the US-EPA guidelines (MNGE: +/- 30-35%; MNBE: +/- 10-15%). NO2 is less accurately simulated, with a mean MNBE of -47% caused by an overall underestimation in concentrations. The reproduction of SO2 concentrations is relatively correct but false peaks are reported (mean MNBE=22%). The simulated variation of particulate matter is reliable, with a mean correlation of 0.5. False peaks were reduced by use of an improved 8-bin aerosol description in the DREAM dust model, but mean aerosol levels are still underestimated. This problem is most probably related to uncertainties in our knowledge of the sources and in the description of the sulfate chemistry. The model simulation for Europe will be used to force the nested high-resolution simulation of the Iberian Peninsula. The performances of the latter will be also presented. Such high resolution simulation will allow analysing the small scale features observed over Spain. REFERENCES Baldasano J.M, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, O. Jorba, C. Pérez, E. López, P. Güereca, F. Martin, M. García-Vivanco, I. Palomino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolmogorov, A N
2004-01-01
The paper is published without modifications. Kolmogorov's manuscript was apparently prepared during his participation in one of expeditions of the ship 'D. Mendeleev' to the Atlantic Ocean (1969) or in a circumnavigation of the world (1971) organized by the Institute for Oceanology led at the time by A.S. Monin. As Kolmogorov himself wrote, the choice of the topic was stimulated by observations concerning '...meanders with horizontal sizes of hundreds of kilometers on a flow involving a layer of hundreds of meters, with subsequent disintegration of these meanders into vortices gradually decreasing in size to several kilometers'. In modern terminology, the paper is devoted to the problem of intensive mixing in pycnoclines, that is, thin layers of stratified fluid, caused by internal waves whose frequencies are less than the Brent-Vaeisaelae frequency. Here I would like to note two circumstances. The first is the scientific insight characteristic for Kolmogorov; this very approach was later reflected in numerous publications (see, for instance, the monograph by V.S. Modevich, V.I. Nikulin, and A.G. Stetsenko 'Dynamics of internal mixing in a stratified medium', Institute for Hydromechanics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova Dumka, Kiev 1988). The second, the more significant in my opinion, is the genuine intellectual curiosity and breadth of thought of this great thinker, who studied not only the most abstract mathematical constructions but also got his head out of the clouds with great interest to solve concrete applied problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Lu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available With the ever-increasing use of nanoparticles in immunosensors, a fundamental study on the effect of epitope density is presented herein, with a small molecule epitope, on the performance of the displacement assay format in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Thiolated bisphenol A (BPA functionalized gold nanoparticles (cysBPAv-AuNPs and specific anti-BPA antibodies are employed for this purpose. It is shown that the displacement of cysBPAv-AuNPs bound to the immobilized antibodies was influenced by both the avidity of bound cysBPAv-AuNPs and the concentration of free BPA to displace it. The importance of surface epitope density was that it changed the number of epitopes in close proximity to the antibody-binding site. This then influenced the avidity of cysBPAv-AuNPs bound to the immobilized antibody. Furthermore, the molar epitope concentration in an assay appears to affect the degree of antibody binding site saturation. Controlling surface epitope density of the functionalized nanoparticles and molar epitope concentration in an assay leads to a decrease of the concentration of free BPA required to displace the bound cysBPAv-AuNP, and hence better assay performance with regards to the D50 value and dynamic range in the displacement assay.
Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.
2000-08-01
A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, S.
1987-01-01
This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods
A horizontal well analysis from a view of its productivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucia Sciranková
2006-10-01
Full Text Available The 1990s may become known in the oil field as the decade of the horizontal well. Horizontal wells can increase the production rate and the ultimate recovery, and can reduce the number of platforms on wells required to develop a reservoir.An empirical equation to calculate the inflow performance of two-phase flow for a vertical and a horizontal well in regime of dissolved gas presented by Vogel in 1968. His equation was based on the results of reservoir simulation. The created model whore result (output is the ratio of the productivity of a horizontal well to the productivity of a vertical well for a given area expressed by anumber of vertical wells the replaced by one horizontal well. The model is applied for a concrete ideological model.
Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhigang
through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made....... Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study these two air flow cases. The air flow rate and air flow pattern are predicted and compared with the full-scale measurements. The measurement data are used to compare two CFD models: standard k- ε model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The cases...... transient, unstable and complex, and the air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the opening ratio L/D are obtained, which is reasonable agreement with Epstein's formula derived from brine-water measurements, but the obtained Fr values show considerable deviations...
Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem
Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.
2009-01-01
The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model
Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making
Naidu, Maheshvari
2016-01-01
Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pors, Anja Svejgaard
as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 49, Jun (2016), 1016-1020 ISSN 1600-5767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray diffuse scattering * atomic displacements * anomalous X-ray scattering * SrTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2016
Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdin, B.
1987-01-01
The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizunaga, H; Ushijima, K; Hashimoto, K; Masuda, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-10-01
The 3-D model program was developed to apply a mise-a-la-masse method to linear current sources with optional shapes. Mise-a-la-masse method is a bipolar mapping survey method using current sources installed in wells, and recently has been widely used for direct exploration of geothermal reservoirs. This method is also used for monitoring underground fluid as electrode arrangement of fluid flow tomography for surveying underground fluid (geothermal fluid, underground water, petroleum). In the geothermal reservoir exploration, the casing pipes of wells are used as linear current sources, and measured data are processed as those based on vertical current source. In the largely inclined well, the inclination of current sources should be considered. The 3-D modeling program was developed by difference calculus using the theoretical potential equation and apparent resistivity based on linear current sources with optional 3-D shapes. The numerical model experiment result clarified that the previous theoretical equation for vertical wells is inapplicable to inclined linear current sources because of clear asymmetric apparent resistivity distribution. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local
Ros, Rosa M.
2009-12-01
The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)
Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meller, R.
2001-07-01
Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.
Rebeeah, Hanadi A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin; Clelland, Nancy; Brantley, William
2018-01-01
Internal conical implant-abutment connections without horizontal platforms may lead to crown displacement during screw tightening and torque application. This displacement may affect the proximal contacts and occlusion of the definitive prosthesis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the displacement of custom screw-retained zirconia single crowns into a recently introduced internal conical seal implant-abutment connection in 3D during hand and torque driver screw tightening. Stereolithic acrylic resin models were printed using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. Two different internal connection implant systems (both ∼11.5 mm) were placed in the edentulous site in each model using a surgical guide. Five screw-retained single zirconia computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) crowns were fabricated for each system. A pair of high-resolution digital cameras was used to record the relationship of the crown to the model. The crowns were tightened according to the manufacturers' specifications using a torque driver, and the cameras recorded their relative position again. Three-dimensional image correlation was used to measure and compare crown positions, first hand tightened and then torque driven. The displacement test was repeated 3 times for each crown. Commercial image correlation software was used to extract the data and compare the amount of displacement vertically, mesiodistally, and buccolingually. Repeated-measures ANOVA calculated the relative displacements for all 5 specimens for each implant for both crown screw hand tightening and after applied torque. A Student t test with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparison of interest to determine statistical differences between the 2 implants (α=.05). The mean vertical displacements were statistically higher than the mean displacements in the mesiodistal and buccolingual directions for both implants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoran, Maria; Ciobanu, Mircea; Mitrea, Marius Gabriel; Talianu, Camelia; Cotarlan, Costel; Mateciuc, Doru; Radulescu, Florin; Biter Mircea
2002-01-01
The majority of strong Romanian earthquakes has the origin in Vrancea region. Subduction of the Black Sea Sub-Plate under the Pannonian Plate produces faulting processes. Crustal displacement identification and monitoring is very important for a seismically active area like Vrancea-Focsani. Earthquake displacements are very well revealed by satellite remote sensing data. At the same time, geomorphologic analysis of topographic maps is carried out and particularly longitudinal and transverse profiles are constructed, as well as structural-geomorphologic maps. Faults are interpreted by specific features in nature of relief, straightness of line of river beds and their tributaries, exits of springs, etc. Remote sensing analysis and field studies of active faults can provide a geologic history that overcomes many of the shortcomings of instrumental and historic records. Our theoretical models developed in the frame of this project are presented as follows: a) Spectral Mixture Analysis model of geomorphological and topographic characteristics for Vrancea region proposed for satellite images analysis which assumes that the different classes present in a pixel (image unit) contribute independently to its reflectance. Therefore, the reflectance of a pixel at a particular frequency is the sum of the reflectances of the components at that frequency. The same test region in Vrancea area is imaged at several different frequencies (spectral bands), leading to multispectral observations for each pixel. It is useful to merge different satellite data into a hybrid image with high spatial and spectral resolution to create detailed images map of the abundance of various materials within the scene based on material spectral fingerprint. Image fusion produces a high-resolution multispectral image that is then unmixed into high-resolution material maps. b) Model of seismic cross section analysis which is applied in seismic active zones morphology. Since a seismic section can be
MRI of displaced meniscal fragments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal
2012-01-01
A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)
MRI of displaced meniscal fragments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
2012-01-15
A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)
Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.
1994-06-01
Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO 3 and KTaO 3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs
Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-10-15
Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.
Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydsten, Lars
1999-12-01
This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins
Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science
1999-12-15
This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One
Possible displacement of mercury's dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.
1979-01-01
Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged
Displacement cascades in diatomic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.
1981-01-01
A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio José Chirinos García
2015-12-01
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es elaborar un modelo matemático para el diseño aerodinámico de las palas de una turbina eólica de eje horizontal en forma rápida y confiable que facilite a construcción y comportamiento bajo diferentes condiciones. Este resultado se obtuvo por el método inductivo y deductivo partiendo de las teorías aerodinámicas de Glauert y otros introduciéndole modificaciones. Igualmente el desarrollo del modelo fue programado en una hoja de cálculo que permitió calcular el radio R del rotor, la distribución de la cuerda c(r y la variación del ángulo de torsiónӨ(r de forma automática. El desarrollo del modelo está estructurado de acuerdo a las siguientes etapas: identificación y definición, conceptualización, formulación e implementación y finalmente la validación del modelo. La validación del modelo fue hecha comparando la geometría de la pala y la potencia generada por el rotor con una familia de palas defabricantes europeos.The research purpose is elaborate a mathematical model for blade aerodynamic designing of horizontal axis wind turbine in fast and reliable way to facilitate the construction and performance evaluation under different operational conditions. To reach the theoretical and empirical approach it was used induction and deduction method starting from aerodynamic theories of Glauert and other researchers, in which necessary modifications were introduced. Also, the development of the model was programmed in aspreadsheet which allows to calcula table de radio R, the distribution of chord c (r, and the variation of twist angle or pitch Ө (r in automatic way. The development of the model was structured according to the following stages: identification and definition, conceptualization, formulationandimplementation and finally the validation of the model. The model validation was made comparing the blade geometry and generated power by the rotor with a blade family of European
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Khorshid, P.; Nedzelskiy, I.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2010-01-01
The modified Rogowski sine-coil (MRSC) has been designed and implemented for the plasma column horizontal displacement measurements on small IR-T1 tokamak. MRSC operation has been examined on test assembly and tokamak. Obtained results show high sensitivity to the plasma column horizontal displacement and negligible sensitivity to the vertical displacement; linearity in wide, ±0.1 m, range of the displacements; and excellent, 1.5%, agreement with the results of numerical solution of Biot-Savart and magnetic flux equations.
Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Werf, S.Y.
1997-01-01
Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)
The role of vertical shear on the horizontal oceanic dispersion
A. S. Lanotte; R. Corrado; G. Lacorata; L. Palatella; C. Pizzigalli; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri
2015-01-01
The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispers...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio José–Chirinos García
2016-02-01
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es elaborar un modelo matemát ico para el diseño aerodinámico de las palas de una turbina eólica de eje horizontal en forma rápida y confiable qu e facilite a construcción y comportamiento bajo diferentes condiciones. Este resultado se obtuvo por el método inductivo y deductivo partiendo de las teorías aerodinámicas de Glauert y otros introduciéndole modificaciones. Igualmente el d esarrollo del modelo fue programado en una hoja de cálculo que permitió calcular el radio R del rotor, la distribu ción de la cuerda c(r y la variación del ángulo de torsión Ө(r de forma automática. El desarrollo del modelo está estructura do de acuerdo a las siguientes etapas: identificación y definición, conceptualización, formulación e implementación y finalmente la validación del modelo. La validación del modelo fue hecha comparando la geometría de la pala y la potenc ia generada por el rotor con una familia de palas de fabricantes europeos. The research purpose is elaborate a mathematical model fo r blade aerodynamic designing of horizontal axis wind turbine in fast and reliable way to facilitate the construc tion and performance evaluation under different operational conditions. To reach the theoretical and empirical approa ch it was used induction and deduction method starting from aerodynamic theories of Glauert and other researchers, in which necessary modifications were introduced. Also, the development of the model was programmed in aspreadsheet which allows to calc ula table de radio R, the distribution of chord c (r, and the variation of twist angle or pitch Ө (r in automatic way. The development of the model was structured according to the following stages: identification and definition, conceptualization, formulation andimplementation and finally the validation of the m odel. The model validation was made comparing the blade geometry and generated power by the rotor with a blade family of
On the Coulomb displacement energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.
1976-01-01
The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)
Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)
2011-07-01
Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.
Dependence of residual displacements on the width and depth of compliant fault zones: a 3D study
Kang, J.; Duan, B.
2011-12-01
Compliant fault zones have been detected along active faults by seismic investigations (trapped waves and travel time analysis) and InSAR observations. However, the width and depth extent of compliant fault zones are still under debate in the community. Numerical models of dynamic rupture build a bridge between theories and the geological and geophysical observations. Theoretical 2D plane-strain studies of elastic and inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquake have been conducted by Duan [2010] and Duan et al [2010]. In this study, we further extend the experiments to 3D with a focus on elastic response. We are specifically interested in how residual displacements depend on the structure and properties of complaint fault zones, in particular on the width and depth extent. We conduct numerical experiments on various types of fault-zone models, including fault zones with a constant width along depth, with decreasing widths along depth, and with Hanning taper profiles of velocity reduction. . Our preliminary results suggest 1) the width of anomalous horizontal residual displacement is only indicative of the width of a fault zone near the surface, and 2) the vertical residual displacement contains information of the depth extent of compliant fault zones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TalebiTaher, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Tarkeshian, R.; Salem, M. K.; Khorshid, P.
2008-01-01
Since displacement is very important for plasma position control, in IR-T1 tokamak a combination of two cosine coils and two saddle sine coils is used for horizontal displacement measurement. According to the multiple moment theory, the output of these coils linearly depends to radial displacement of plasma column. A new circuit for adding these signals to feedback system designed and unwanted effects of other fields in final output compensated. After compensation and calibration of the system, the output of horizontal displacement circuits applied to feedback control system. By considers the required auxiliary vertical field, a proportional amplifier and driver circuit are constructed to drive power transistors these power transistors switch the feedback bank capacitors. In the experiment, a good linear proportionality between displacement and output observed by applying an appropriate feedback field, the linger confinement time in IR-T1 tokamak obtained, applying this system to discharge increased the plasma duration and realizes repetitive discharges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Kolobov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The results of the research model and real data spatial distribution of trees in single-species, ages and mixed stands are studied. Modeling of the horizontal structure of the stand was based on a computer simulation model. Investigation of the horizontal structure of the stand allows drawing of conclusions about the processes of intraspecific and interspecific competition. It is shown that the model used to generate spatial data model reflects the basic mechanisms of stacked-mosaic structure of the stand, which is observed in natural communities. It allows future use of this model to study the characteristics of the formation of the spatial structure of mixed forest communities, developing under the influence of internal (competition and external (logging, windfalls, herbivores, etc. factors. Statistical analysis of the tree spatial distribution for shade-tolerant and light-loving species relative to each other showed that, on average, around an arbitrarily chosen shade-tolerant tree species, there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the tree light-loving species is less than it would be under their random placement. Around an arbitrarily chosen «large» tree of shade-tolerant species there is an area within which the opportunity to meet the «small» or «medium» light-loving tree species is less than would have been at their random placement. It is shown that the mutual arrangement of «large» light-loving trees and «small», «medium» shade-tolerant trees is no different from a random allocation. As a result of competitive processes of spatial arrangement for light-loving tree species is determined by the placement of shade-tolerant trees. Location of light-loving trees does not affect the location of shade-tolerant trees. The relative placement of different types of shade-tolerant trees, especially spruce, fir and pine, are independent of each other.
Displacement sensing system and method
VunKannon, Jr., Robert S
2006-08-08
A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.
The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.
Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D
2016-04-12
DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; van Dam, Tonie
2013-01-01
of the horizontal motion, can help determine whether nearby loading is concentrated in a small region (for example, in a single lake or glacier), and where that region is. We illustrate this method by applying it to two specific cases: an analysis of GPS data from northern California to monitor the level of Lake......We describe how GPS measurements of horizontal crustal motion can be used to augment vertical crustal motion measurements, to improve and extend GPS studies of surface loading. We show that the ratio of the vertical displacement to the horizontal displacement, combined with the direction...... Shasta, and the analysis of data from a single GPS site in southeast Greenland to determine mass variability of two large, nearby outlet glaciers: Helheim Glacier and Midgaard Glacier. The California example serves largely as a proof-of-concept, where the results can be assessed by comparing...
Displacement functions for diatomic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.
1979-01-01
An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another
Stackelberg equilibria and horizontal differentiation
Lambertini, Luca
1993-01-01
This paper proposes a taxonomy of the Stackelberg equilibria emerging from a standard game of horizontal differentiation à la Hotelling in which the strategy set of the sellers in the location stage is the real axis. Repeated leadership appears the most advantageous position. Furthermore, this endogenously yields vertical differentiation between products at equilibrium.
Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomás Ortiz-Basso
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.
Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
1996-01-01
in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...
Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara; Wynalek, Janusz
2017-12-01
) were obtained for selected years (1995 and 2007), taking the ground height 136 m a.s.l. into calculation. To calculate raster maps of Z* interpolated values, methods of quick interpolation were also used, such as the technique of the inverse distance squares, a linear model of kriging, a spline kriging, which made the recognition of the general background of displacements possible, without the accuracy assessment of Z* value estimation, i.e., the value of σk. These maps are also related to 1995 and 2007 and the elevation. As a result of applying these techniques, clear boundaries of subsiding areas, upthrusting and also horizontal displacements on the examined hydrotechnical object were marked out, which can be interpreted as areas of local deformations of the object, important for the safety of the construction. The effect of geostatistical research conducted, including the structural analysis, semivariograms modeling, estimating the displacements of the hydrotechnical object, are rich cartographic characteristic (semivariograms, raster maps, block diagrams), which present the spatial visualization of the conducted various analyses of the monitored displacements. The prepared geostatistical model (3D) of displacement variability (analysed within the area of the dam, during its operating period and including its height) will be useful not only in the correct assessment of displacements and deformations, but it will also make it possible to forecast these phenomena, which is crucial when the operating safety of such constructions is taken into account.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R.
1993-01-01
Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs
NUMERICAL DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL SETTLERS PERFORMANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Biliaiev
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification
Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.
1993-01-01
Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)
Horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-04-01
A horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer operates at -20/sup 0/ to +100/sup 0/C as a moving belt driven by a motor at 0.7 kw at 1400 rpm to pick up oil by adhesion from a surface such as that of used cooling water or cutting oil for subsequent stripping and collection by gravity flow. Two models provide collection rates of 10-45 l./hr for diesel oil, 35-115 l./hr for hydraulic oil, and 170-455 l./hr for gear oils and heavy heating oils.
Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?
van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek
2010-01-01
We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A. [Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, Gif sur Yvette (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Moeller, A.P. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution
2013-07-01
The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer {sup 137}Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5 x 1.27 , and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66 x 0.51 . The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for {sup 137}Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Moeller, A.P.
2013-01-01
The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer "1"3"7Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5 x 1.27 , and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66 x 0.51 . The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for "1"3"7Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for
Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.
2013-07-01
The coupled model LMDZORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5° × 1.27°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.66° × 0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels respectively, extending up to the mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The model is validated with the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986 using the emission inventory from Brandt et al. (2002). This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. The best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to De Cort et al., 1998), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for
Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.
Particle displacement tracking for PIV
Wernet, Mark P.
1990-01-01
A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.
Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring
McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.
2009-10-01
Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.
Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.
Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan
2012-04-01
It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Horizontal well geosteering: planning, monitoring and geosteering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottahedeh, R.
2008-11-15
The geosteering process should not be seen as a process solely designated for the most expensive or highest profile horizontal wells. It can be regarded as another tool for improving the odds of success by remaining in the productive zone for longer periods of drilling. Also, it can be used to optimize the positioning of a horizontal wellbore in the sweet spots within the reservoir. The current process has been successfully applied to large infill drilling programs at over 40 wells for heavy oil, tight gas, conventional oil and gas plays and for Mannville coalbed methane (CBM) in Alberta. The service has been provided irrespective of location, as long as the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML)/Pason Satellite service is available. Exploration and production (E&P) companies are continuously being driven to reduce the cost per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE). E&P needs and technologies related to advanced and accurate directional drilling, communication of vital data in real-time through the internet, as well as reduced cycle time associated with advanced forward-looking 3D geo-modelling and visualization technologies, are currently converging. The motivation to reduce costs has been responsible for advancing the horizontal well geosteering process by incorporating the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool into mainstream drilling practices. The universal economic benefits gained can be found in all resource play types (conventional oil and gas, heavy oil, tight gas and coalbed methane). It is important to note that the process described here is essentially collaborative. For best results, there must be cooperation between the E&P operational geologist, wellsite geologist, directional driller and geo-modelling staff, as well as the engineering consultants involved in the project (i.e. the team as a whole).
Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Mannini, Andrea
2015-11-23
In biomechanical studies Optical Motion Capture Systems (OMCS) are considered the gold standard for determining the orientation and the position (pose) of an object in a global reference frame. However, the use of OMCS can be difficult, which has prompted research on alternative sensing technologies, such as body-worn inertial sensors. We developed a drift-free method to estimate the three-dimensional (3D) displacement of a body part during cyclical motions using body-worn inertial sensors. We performed the Fourier analysis of the stride-by-stride estimates of the linear acceleration, which were obtained by transposing the specific forces measured by the tri-axial accelerometer into the global frame using a quaternion-based orientation estimation algorithm and detecting when each stride began using a gait-segmentation algorithm. The time integration was performed analytically using the Fourier series coefficients; the inverse Fourier series was then taken for reconstructing the displacement over each single stride. The displacement traces were concatenated and spline-interpolated to obtain the entire trace. The method was applied to estimate the motion of the lower trunk of healthy subjects that walked on a treadmill and it was validated using OMCS reference 3D displacement data; different approaches were tested for transposing the measured specific force into the global frame, segmenting the gait and performing time integration (numerically and analytically). The width of the limits of agreements were computed between each tested method and the OMCS reference method for each anatomical direction: Medio-Lateral (ML), VerTical (VT) and Antero-Posterior (AP); using the proposed method, it was observed that the vertical component of displacement (VT) was within ±4 mm (±1.96 standard deviation) of OMCS data and each component of horizontal displacement (ML and AP) was within ±9 mm of OMCS data. Fourier harmonic analysis was applied to model stride-by-stride linear
comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
This paper presents comparative analysis between the pressure behavior of ... Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and ..... Superscript. ' derivative. D = dimensionless. h = horizontal. = change.
Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, D.G.
1975-09-01
Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation
Urban displaced youth in Kabul
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nassim Majidi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.
187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fr. Ikenga
The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...
Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josyceyla Duarte Morais
Full Text Available Abstract: This work is an altimetry evaluation study involving Digital Elevation Models ASTER GDEM version 2 and SRTM version 3. Both models are readily available free of charge, however as they are built from different remote sensing methods it is also expected that they present different data qualities. LIDAR data with 25 cm vertical accuracy were used as reference for assessment validation. The evaluation study, carried out in urbanized area, investigated the distribution of the residuals and the relationship between the observed errors with land slope classes. Remote sensing principles, quantitative statistical methods and the Cartographic Accuracy Standard of Digital Mapping Products (PEC-PCD were considered. The results indicated strong positive linear correlation and the existence of a functional relationship between the evaluated models and the reference model. Residuals between -4.36 m and 3.11 m grouped 47.7% of samples corresponding to ASTER GDEM and 63.7% of samples corresponding to SRTM. In both evaluated models, Root Mean Square Error values increased with increasing of land slope. Considering 1: 50,000 mapping scale the PEC-PCD classification indicated class B standard for SRTM and class C for ASTER GDEM. In all analyzes, SRTM presented smaller altimetry errors compared to ASTER GDEM, except in areas with steep relief.
Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.
Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik
2009-12-02
DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.
Searches for light sterile neutrinos with multitrack displaced vertices
Cottin, Giovanna; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hirsch, Martin
2018-03-01
We study discovery prospects for long-lived sterile neutrinos at the LHC with multitrack displaced vertices, with masses below the electroweak scale. We reinterpret current displaced vertex searches making use of publicly available, parametrized selection efficiencies for modeling the detector response to displaced vertices. We focus on the production of right-handed WR bosons and neutrinos N in a left-right symmetric model, and find poor sensitivity. After proposing a different trigger strategy (considering the prompt lepton accompanying the neutrino displaced vertex) and optimized cuts in the invariant mass and track multiplicity of the vertex, we find that the LHC with √{s }=13 TeV and 300 fb-1 is able to probe sterile neutrino masses between 10 GeV right-handed gauge boson mass of 2 TeV work joins other efforts in motivating dedicated experimental searches to target this low sterile neutrino mass region.
Environmental restoration using horizontal wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems
Talmon, A.M.
1985-01-01
Wake effects will cause power loss when wínd turbínes are grouped in so called wind turbine parks. Wind tunnel measurements of the wake of a wind turbíne model are conducted in order to refine calculatíons of wake effects. Wake effects caused by tower and nacelle are studied in uniform flow. Wake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila
2014-10-01
, time-synchronized to a video camera that recorded at 210 Hz the sagital plane of the jumps performed on the platform. The jumps have been considered as a symmetrical movement taking place in a plane, with a mechanical coordinated model of eight segments. In the SV condition, participants had to perform a maximum vertical jump, starting from a standing position on the force platform. In the SH condition, participants had to perform a maximal horizontal jump starting from the same position. The results show a greater time for the jump in SH, (0.898 vs 1.056 s using a strategy extension-rotation in the horizontal jumps. The net force exerted during the braking impulse is higher for SV due to the greater velocity at the beginning of this phase (-1.166 vs -0.992 m/s. There was a greater involvement of the ankle and hip in SH, with a higher contribution of the trunk during the jump, also there was a greater contribution of the arms to the vertical displacement of the CM in SV.
Thermal-hydraulic assessment of concrete storage cubicle with horizontal 3013 canisters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HEARD, F.J.
1999-04-08
The FIDAP computer code was used to perform a series of analyses to assess the thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of the concrete plutonium storage cubicles, as modified for the horizontal placement of 3013 canisters. Four separate models were developed ranging from a full height model of the storage cubicle to a very detailed standalone model of a horizontal 3013 canister.
Thermal-hydraulic assessment of concrete storage cubicle with horizontal 3013 canisters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heard, F.J.
1999-01-01
The FIDAP computer code was used to perform a series of analyses to assess the thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of the concrete plutonium storage cubicles, as modified for the horizontal placement of 3013 canisters. Four separate models were developed ranging from a full height model of the storage cubicle to a very detailed standalone model of a horizontal 3013 canister
Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhattacharya Debashish
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.
Impact of horizontal resolution on prediction of tropical cyclones over ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Two cyclones, which formed over the Bay of Bengal during the years 1995 and 1997, are simulated using a regional weather prediction model with two horizontal resolutions of 165km and 55 km. The model is found to perform reasonably well towards simulation of the storms. The structure, intensity and track of the cyclones ...
Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility
Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.
2014-10-01
It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ever Góngora Leyva
2011-02-01
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados relacionados con la modelación matemática del procesode enfriamiento de sólidos en cilindros rotatorios horizontales. Se exponen las ecuaciones que conformanel modelo y la fundamentación científica sobre la cual fueron obtenidas. La modelación se basaprincipalmente en el planteamiento de las ecuaciones del balance energético en forma dinámica, de lo cualse obtiene un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales, que se complementan conotras que establecen la relación entre los coeficientes y parámetros físicos. The present work shows the results or the authors related with mathematical modelling the process ofcooling of reduced mineral in the rotary horizontal cooler; Equations that conform the model and its scientificfundamentals are exposed. The modelling is based, mainly, in the establishment of the energetic balancesin the dynamic way, that carries to obtainment of a partial derivates differential equations system, which iscomplemented with other algebraic equations that establish the relation between the different coefficientsand parameter.
Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.
1982-01-01
The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displaceme