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Sample records for hordeum vulgare sorghum

  1. Five new secondary metabolites from Monascus purpureus-fermented Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Md Pravej; Puri, Alka; Ali, M; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Long grains of Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor were individually fermented with Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 under solid state fermentation. The aqueous extract of Monascus which fermented H. vulgare and S. bicolor was found to contain five different new metabolites. Silica gel column chromatography of the aqueous extract with a linear gradient of ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride (v/v) yielded five new metabolites named benzopranyl capriate (9H-1-isoprenyl-benzopyran-5-isopropanoic acid-6-ol-6-n-decanoate), shorghumoic acid (n-octadec-8,11-dien-7α-ol-1-oic acid) and sorghumflavin A (2-n-butyloxo-6-β-hydroxy-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) from Monascus-fermented S. bicolor, while hordeumflavin B (2-n-undecanyloxo-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) and vulgaredilone (2-dodecanyl-7-β isopranyl monoscodilone) from Monascus-fermented H. vulgare.

  2. Pollen dimorphism and androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Idzikowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphism of binucleate pollen grains of Hordeum vulgare has been confirmed. It is considered, however, in contrast to the accepted opinions, that some of the large pollen grains with dense cytoplasm lying close to the tapetum are the outset forms for embryoids, and not the small pollen grains with scarce cytoplasm lying in the pollen sac centre.

  3. Mitochondria during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Idzikowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different number of mitochondria of varying structure was observed in particular stages of the development of barley (Hordeum vulgare microspores, stimulated by the in vitro culture to form embryoids. This variability was reflected in different shape of sections, different ratio between total area of mitochondria profiles and area of cytoplasm sections, varying number of cristae, and different density of the matrix. Within the cristae of some mitochondria crystalline inclusions were observed. Mitochondria divided by a contraction. In the matrix of some mitochondria spheric bodies were formed. They were surrounded by one or two membranes. It is suggested that the bi-membrane forms constituted promitochandria, whereas unimembrane forms could constitute promicrobodies.

  4. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  5. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...... for the full length protease...

  6. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and w...

  7. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare) were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b). The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximate...

  8. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunat Młodzianowski; Krystyna Idzikowska

    2014-01-01

    The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of bar...

  9. Development and characterization of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum as a source of donor alleles in a Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, I; Corey, A; Filichkin, T; Hayes, P M; Vales, M I; Kling, J; Riera-Lizarazu, O; Sato, K; Powell, W; Waugh, R

    2003-12-01

    The ancestor of barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) may be a source of novel alleles for crop improvement. We developed a set of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) using an accession of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24, from Israel) as the donor and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Harrington' (the North American malting quality standard) as the recurrent parent via two backcrosses to the recurrent parent, followed by six generations of selfing. Here we report (i) the genomic architecture of the RCSLs, as inferred by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and (ii) the effects of H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome segment introgressions in terms of three classes of phenotypes: inflorescence yield components, malting quality traits, and domestication traits. Significant differences among the RCSLs were detected for all phenotypes measured. The phenotypic effects of the introgressions were assessed using association analysis, and these were referenced to quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the literature. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, despite its overall inferior phenotype, contributed some favorable alleles for agronomic and malting quality traits. In most cases, the introgression of the ancestral genome resulted in a loss of desirable phenotypes in the cultivated parent. Although disappointing from a plant breeding perspective, this finding may prove to be a useful tool for gene discovery.

  10. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    , (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ Aα and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression...... were monitered during induction by collecting 1 ml samples every hr for 24 hrs. After 4 days, the supernatant were harvested and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, activity assay and Western blot. A significant amount of functional, heterologous protein was produced and the protein production was highest after 4...

  11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b. The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximated to a sphere. In the mechanical properties, at major diameter, Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.16kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.955kN. In minor diameter, the Dura variety also recorded highest rupture force of 1.12kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Kafir variety had the lowest value of 0.952kN. Also at 20% moisture content, the Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.025kN while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.965kN. The same trend applies in the varieties at 30% moisture content. This is because, increase in moisture content results to decrease in rupture force. And this implies that force beyond these points at these moisture contents may cause damage to the sorghum varieties.

  12. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  13. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of barley was compared with embryos developed from fertilized egg cell, and we did not found any fundamental differences between them. However, only plastid ribosomes were difficult to identify on ultrathin sections in embryoids and in the embryos.

  14. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...... of hybrid and haploid tillers were investigated....

  15. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties a

  16. Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3− or NO3− from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3− plus ClO3− concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3−/ClO3− ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3− for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3− influx into barley roots at different external ClO3−/NO3− ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3− and NO3−. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident. PMID:16662478

  17. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  18. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown under low ... Thousand-kernel malting weight loss (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the ... and refined wheat flour starch as a substrate (1:29) showed a reduction in peak ...

  19. Quantitative trait locus analysis of nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindu, G.A.; Tang, J.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted on data generated from two pot experiments carried out in 2005 (using four nitrogen rates) and 2008 (with three rates) with AFLP markers and 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the

  20. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  1. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...... of the known powdery mildew resistance genes. The infection types and spectra of resistance were compared to those of 31 test lines with 35 known resistance genes to find possible new resistance genes and to reveal known resistance genes. The collections may possess some new and some known resistance genes...

  2. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  3. Uzu mutation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reduces the leaf unrolling response to brassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Chono, Makiko; Kaneko, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-01

    A sensitive method to examine the brassinolide (BL) response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using dark-grown leaf segments was established based on the known method for wheat. BL responses of 53 dwarf isogenic lines of barley were examined, and two lines were found having a uzu gene that doesn't respond significantly. These results indicate that uzu dwarfism may be caused by the non-responding character to BL.

  4. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were ...... is that an unreduced gamete from the amphiploid was fertilized by a normal gamete from the backcross parent, and during early embryo development, some chromosomes were eliminated....

  5. Monosomic and double monosomic substitutions of Hordeum bulbosum L. chromosomes into H. vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, R A

    1992-07-01

    One of the aims of the interspecific crossing programme between Hordeum vulgare L. and H. bulbosum L. has been to introgress desirable genes into barley from the wild species. However, despite their close taxonomic relationship there have been few reports of achieving this objective using amphidiploid hybrids. In order to broaden the range of available hybrids, partially fertile triploids between H. vulgare (2n = 2x = 14) and H. bulbosum (2n = 4x = 28) were developed and crossed with H. vulgare as female parent. From 580 progeny which were screened, eight putative single monosomic chromosome substitution lines and one double monosomic substitution were identified by cytological analysis. These involved the substitution of H. vulgare chromosome 1 (two lines), 6 (four lines), 6L (one line), 7 (one line) and 1 + 4 (one line) by their respective H. bulbosum homoeologues. The H. bulbosum chromosome was frequently eliminated during plant development, but it was observed regularly in pollen mother cells of two lines. However, pairing between the H. bulbosum chromosome and its H. vulgare homoeologue was low. Several of the lines were more resistant than their H. vulgare parents to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f.sp. hordei Em. Marchai), net blotch (Drechslera teres Sacc.) and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem.) Davis). Apart from their use in studying genome relationships, their value to plant breeders will depend on the ease of inducing translocations between the parental chromosomes.

  6. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kirsten A; Hrmova, Maria; Nielsen, Janni Nyvang; Forslund, Karin; Ebert, Stefan; Olsen, Carl E; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces a leucine-derived cyanogenic beta-D-glucoside, epiheterodendrin that accumulates specifically in leaf epidermis. Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase. Cyanogenesis was reconstituted in barley leaf epidermal cells through single cell expression of a cDNA encoding dhurrinase-2, a cyanogenic beta-D-glucosidase from sorghum. This resulted in a 35-60% reduction in colonization rate by an obligate parasite Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. A database search for barley homologues of dhurrinase-2 identified a (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII that is located in the starchy endosperm of barley grain. The purified barley (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII was found to hydrolyze the cyanogenic beta-D-glucosides, epiheterodendrin and dhurrin. Molecular modelling of its active site based on the crystal structure of linamarase from white clover, demonstrated that the disposition of the catalytic active amino acid residues was structurally conserved. Epiheterodendrin stimulated appressoria and appressorial hook formation of B. graminis in vitro, suggesting that loss of cyanogenesis in barley leaves has enabled the fungus to utilize the presence of epiheterodendrin to facilitate host recognition and to establish infection.

  7. Characterization of senscence-associated NAC transcription factors in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzimska, Dagmara Agata

    the senescence process has been extensively studied in the model plant Arabidopsis, knowledge about the molecular mechanism driving senescence in crop plants is still limited. Extending our knowledge about the genes that control senescence in cereals is very important for future improvement of agronomic traits......, such as yield, biomass production and nutrient quality, and NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors are promising targets for the breeding. The aim of this thesis was thus to assess the role of NAC transcription factors in regulation of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to contribute...

  8. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  9. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...

  10. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch was investig...

  11. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch was investig...

  12. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  13. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  14. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants.

  15. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huibin; Tang, Shirong; Zhang, Ximei; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian, Shuai; Smith, Donald L

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (860 microL L(-1)) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg(-1)). The results showed that elevated CO2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO2, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  16. Proteomic response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to salinity stress: Similarities and differences between a glycophyte and a halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Maršálová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley Hordeum marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defence-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA family, several chaperones from heat shock protein (HSP family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper (bZIP and nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H

  17. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Szczerba, Mark W.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Britto, Dev T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of sodium and potassium ions in the context of the primary entry of Na+ into plant cells, and the subsequent development of sodium toxicity, has been the subject of much recent attention. In the present study, the technique of compartmental analysis with the radiotracers 42K+ and 24Na+ was applied in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of K+ in the growth medium will reduce both rapid, futile Na+ cycling at the plasma membrane, and Na+ build-up in the cytosol of root cells, under saline conditions (100 mM NaCl). We reject this hypothesis, showing that, over a wide (400-fold) range of K+ supply, K+ neither reduces the primary fluxes of Na+ at the root plasma membrane nor suppresses Na+ accumulation in the cytosol. By contrast, 100 mM NaCl suppressed the cytosolic K+ pool by 47–73%, and also substantially decreased low-affinity K+ transport across the plasma membrane. We confirm that the cytosolic [K+]:[Na+] ratio is a poor predictor of growth performance under saline conditions, while a good correlation is seen between growth and the tissue ratios of the two ions. The data provide insight into the mechanisms that mediate the toxic influx of sodium across the root plasma membrane under salinity stress, demonstrating that, in the glycophyte barley, K+ and Na+ are unlikely to share a common low-affinity pathway for entry into the plant cell. PMID:18562445

  18. Evaluation of Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Copper in Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of toxic effects of cadmium and copper on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings of barley were treated with four different concentrations of cadmium and copper, ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. The aim of the study was to assess toxic effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on the growth of spring barley, and to determine metal accumulation in above-ground and underground parts of the plant. The impact of Cu and Cd on photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the essential micronutrients (Mn, Fe were examined. Metal treatment reduced the growth of roots (by 60%, shoots (Cd – 48 %, Cu – 57% and dry weight (Cd – 47 %, Cu – 52% of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. Regression analysis revealed that there was significant negative relationship between MDA content and biomass of barley treated with Cu (r=-0.99, p=0.01. The examined heavy metals were accumulated mainly in the roots and bioconcentration of Cu there was higher than that of Cd, indicating that roots tended to accumulate higher amounts of Cu than Cd. Though translocation of Cd from roots to above-ground tissues was higher, higher levels of Cd were observed in leaves.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.1951

  19. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  20. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  1. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  2. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  3. Tissue-specific epigenetic modifications in root apical meristem cells of Hordeum vulgare.

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    Agnieszka J Braszewska-Zalewska

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure are essential for many biological processes, including growth and reproduction. Patterns of DNA and histone modifications have recently been widely studied in many plant species, although there is virtually no data on the spatial and temporal distribution of epigenetic markers during plant development. Accordingly, we have used immunostaining techniques to investigate epigenetic modifications in the root apical meristem of Hordeum vulgare. Histone H4 acetylation (H4K5ac, histone H3 dimethylation (H3K4me2, H3K9me2 and DNA methylation (5mC patterns were established for various root meristem tissues. Distinct levels of those modifications were visualised in the root cap, epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. The lateral root cap cells seem to display the highest level of H3K9me2 and 5mC. In the epidermis, the highest level of 5mC and H3K9me2 was detected in the nuclei from the boundary of the proximal meristem and the elongation zone, while the vascular tissues were characterized by the highest level of H4K5ac. Some of the modified histones were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a highly tissue-specific manner. Immunolocalisation of epigenetic modifications of chromatin carried out in this way, on longitudinal or transverse sections, provides a unique topographic context within the organ, and will provide some answers to the significant biological question of tissue differentiation processes during root development in a monocotyledon plant species.

  4. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Deng

    Full Text Available The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  5. Tissue-Specific Epigenetic Modifications in Root Apical Meristem Cells of Hordeum vulgare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka J.; Wolny, Elzbieta A.; Smialek, Lukasz; Hasterok, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure are essential for many biological processes, including growth and reproduction. Patterns of DNA and histone modifications have recently been widely studied in many plant species, although there is virtually no data on the spatial and temporal distribution of epigenetic markers during plant development. Accordingly, we have used immunostaining techniques to investigate epigenetic modifications in the root apical meristem of Hordeum vulgare. Histone H4 acetylation (H4K5ac), histone H3 dimethylation (H3K4me2, H3K9me2) and DNA methylation (5mC) patterns were established for various root meristem tissues. Distinct levels of those modifications were visualised in the root cap, epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. The lateral root cap cells seem to display the highest level of H3K9me2 and 5mC. In the epidermis, the highest level of 5mC and H3K9me2 was detected in the nuclei from the boundary of the proximal meristem and the elongation zone, while the vascular tissues were characterized by the highest level of H4K5ac. Some of the modified histones were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a highly tissue-specific manner. Immunolocalisation of epigenetic modifications of chromatin carried out in this way, on longitudinal or transverse sections, provides a unique topographic context within the organ, and will provide some answers to the significant biological question of tissue differentiation processes during root development in a monocotyledon plant species. PMID:23935955

  6. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  7. Physiological and biochemical reactions of Hordeum vulgare seedlings to the action of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Khromykh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical indexes, and spectrophotometrically measured protein and glutathione (GSH, GSSG contents and activity of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione-reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were examined in Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings after 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l AgNPs treatment during 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that the action of nanoparticles has a stressful effect on the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Growth of roots was inhibited and fresh weight decreased by 29% and 21% under low and high concentrations respectively. Conversely, leaf growth was intensified, and leaf length (16% and 18% and fresh weight (35% and 44% increased at low and high concentrations respectively. POD activity in roots increased by 26% and 7%, and decreased in leaves to 57% and 81% of control at low and high concentrations respectively. GSH content changed insignificantly, but GSSG content increased in roots (2 and 2.5-fold and in leaves (13% and 30% at both AgNPs concentrations. GSH/GSSG-ratio decreased in roots (1.9 and 2.6-fold and in leaves (1.1 and 1.3-fold at low and high concentrations respectively. GR activity decreased at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (7% in roots and 17% in leaves respectively and increased at 0.1 mg/l (52% in roots and 6% in leaves. GST activity increased in leaves (52% and 78% at low and high concentrations but decreased by 17% in roots under high concentration of nanosilver. Thus, the action of AgNPs on barley seedlings had a dose-dependent and organ-specific character. The various directions of changes in growth, metabolic processes and activity of antioxidant defense systems appear to be a stress response of barley seedlings to the impact of AgNPs, which underlines the necessity of detailed study of plant intracellular processes exposed to the action of nanomaterial.

  8. A study on the inoculated root of Sorghum vulgare by mycorrhiza under the water stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on the yieldand root characteristics of Sorghum vulgare under water stress. The experiment was carried out in afactorial test using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in three replications. Treatmentswere conducted base on drought stress in four levels and mycorrhiza were applied in two ranges M1(inoculated by mycorrhiza and M0 (non-mycorrhiza. The Results showed that, the drought stress hadsignificant influences on dry matter of shoot, length of the root and percentage of the mycorrhizacolonization. It seemed that, the mycorrhiza had significantly increased the biomass of sorghum byinfluences on the root characteristics, such as: root length, colonization and root/shoot ratio.

  9. Reduction in amounts of mitochondrial DNA in the sperm cells as a mechanism for maternal inheritance in Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodmergen; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Yingtao; Sakamoto, Wataru; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2002-12-01

    It is known that extranuclear organelle DNA is inherited maternally in the majority of angiosperms. The mechanisms for maternal inheritance have been well studied in plastids but not in mitochondria. In the present study we examined the mitochondrial DNA in the male reproductive cells of Hordeum vulgare L. by immunoelectron microscopy. Our results show that the number of anti-DNA gold particles on sections of sperm cell mitochondria decreased by 97% during pollen development. The reduction occurred rapidly in the generative cells and subsequently in the sperm cells, concomitant with a remarkable reduction in mitochondrial volume. It seems that the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA were reduced in the male reproductive cells, which may be a possible mechanism by which paternal transmission is inhibited. Unlike mitochondria, plastids are excluded from the generative cells during the first pollen mitosis. These data suggest a mechanism for maternal inheritance of mitochondria in angiosperms and for independent control of inheritance of mitochondria and plastids in H. vulgare.

  10. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  11. Effects of Phosphorus Nutrient on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) Seedling Roots Under Water Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-Ping SHANGGUAN; Ting-Wu LEI; Ming-An SHAO; Qing-Wu XUE

    2005-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted in a growth chamber and changes in the hydraulic conductivity of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) roots (Lpr) at the three-leaf stage were measured using the pressure chamber method. Water deficiency was imposed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and the phosphorus (P) levels were controlled by complete Hoagland solution with and without P nutrient. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of P nutrition on root Lpr under water deficiency. The results showed that the Lpr in P deficiency treatments decreased markedly, but the Lpr recovered to the same value as that of control when sufficient P was supplied for 4-24 h. Water deficiency decreased Lpr, but the hydraulic conductivity of the roots with sufficient P supply was still higher than that of plants without P supply. When resuming water supply, the Lpr of the water-deficient plants under P supply recovered faster than that of plants without P supply, which indicates that plants with sufficient P nutrient are more drought tolerant and have a greater ability to recover after drought. The treatment of HgCl2 indicated that P nutrient could regulate the Lpr by affecting the activity and the expression levels of aquaporins.

  12. Hordein Variation in Wild (Hordeum Spontaneum) and Cultivated (H. Vulgare) Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Brown, A. H. D.

    1979-01-01

    The storage protein hordein contains two major groups of polypeptides which are highly polymorphic in barley, and in its evolutionary progenitor Hordeum spontaneum Koch. Crosses between the two species showed that the complex electrophoretic phenotypes within the two groups of polypeptides are go...

  13. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was

  14. Using elevated CO{sub 2} to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huibin [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Tang Shirong, E-mail: tangshir@hotmail.com [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, The Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Zhang Ximei; Guo Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian Shuai [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Smith, Donald L. [Plant Science Department, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (860 {mu}L L{sup -1}) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg{sup -1}). The results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO{sub 2} treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO{sub 2} could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO{sub 2}, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  15. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  16. Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Castiglia, Daniela; Cafasso, Donata; Pizzo, Elio; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In plant cells, the plastidial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P2-G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) represents one of the most important sources of NADPH. However, previous studies revealed that both native and recombinant purified P2-G6PDHs show a great instability and a rapid loss of catalytic activity. Therefore it has been difficult to describe accurately the catalytic and physico-chemical properties of these isoforms. The plastidial G6PDH encoding sequence from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure), devoid of a long plastidial transit peptide, was expressed as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, either untagged or with an N-terminal his-tag. After purification from both the soluble fraction and inclusion bodies, we have explored its kinetic parameters, as well as its sensitivity to reduction. The obtained results are consistent with values determined for other P2-G6PDHs previously purified from barley roots and from other land plants. Overall, these data shed light on the catalytic mechanism of plant P2-G6PDH, summarized in a proposed model in which the sequential mechanism is very similar to the mammalian cytosolic G6PDH. This study provides a rational basis to consider the recombinant barley root P2-G6PDH as a good model for further kinetic and structural studies.

  17. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Per L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L. only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses.

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  19. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Direct measurement of recombination frequency in interspecific hybrids between Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum using genomic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Pickering, R; Murray, B

    1999-09-01

    Two different genotypes of diploid Hordeum vulgare x H. bulbosum hybrids, which differ in their pattern of meiotic metaphase pairing behaviour, were investigated at MI and AI by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One hybrid, 102C2, showed a high frequency of bivalents at metaphase I whereas the other, 103K5, showed a high frequency of univalents. The GISH analysis of both hybrids established that pairing occurred only between chromosomes of different parental genomes and revealed that pairing frequency greatly exceeded recombination. Hybrid 102C2 had a significantly higher recombination frequency than 103K5, but in both hybrids recombination involved only distal chromosome regions. However, an interesting finding is that the ratio of recombination to pairing frequency in 103K5 (1:8.9) is twice as high compared with 102C2 (1:17). The hybrids also differed in chromosome stability; little chromosome elimination occurred in 102C2 but 103K5 showed extensive chromosome loss. It appears that the high frequency of bound arms at MI favours retention of H. bulbosum chromosomes and maintains stability of chromosome numbers in PMCs. Various ideas are put forward to explain the discrepancy between meiotic pairing frequency and recombination in these hybrids.

  1. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  2. Effects of Seed Priming on Root Characteristics of Two Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars in Different Levels of Salinity Stress by using Gel Chamber Technique

    OpenAIRE

    H. R Khazaei; A Nezami; B Saadatian; O Armand Pishe

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming on root growth of two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salinity stress was performed in phytogel. The treatments included two cultivars of barely (Yusuf and Maquie), levels of seed priming (control, hydro-priming and priming with 4.35 g l-1 of urea) and four levels of NaCl salinity stress (0, 0.2, 0.3 M). The experiment was conducted in Factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replic...

  3. Genetic Transformation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with the Gus Color Marker, the Bar Herbicide Resistance, and the Barley (Hordeum vulgare HVA1 Drought Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingdom Kwapata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties including “Condor,” “Matterhorn,” “Sedona,” “Olathe,” and “Montcalm” were genetically transformed via the Biolistic bombardment of the apical shoot meristem primordium. Transgenes included gus color marker which visually confirmed transgenic events, the bar herbicide resistance selectable marker used for in vitro selection of transgenic cultures and which confirmed Liberty herbicide resistant plants, and the barley (Hordeum vulgare late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 which conferred drought tolerance with a corresponding increase in root length of transgenic plants. Research presented here might assist in production of better P. vulgaris germplasm.

  4. The activity of some oxidoreductases in Hordeum vulgare L. plants treated with ethylmethanesulfonate and Rosmarinus officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogu Gheorghita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide- dismutase in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50% of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (EHR. The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.

  5. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  6. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  7. Estimation of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L. Crop Water Requirements Using Cropwat Software in Ksar-Chellala Region, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Laouisset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 and Water requirements of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in Ksar-Chellala region, Algeria, for one dry year by using CROPWAT software. Determination of Evapotranspiration ( ET is important in application such as irrigation design, irrigation scheduling, water resource management, hydrology and cropping systems modeling. Estimation of crop water requirements of barley ( CWR b respected the methodology adopted by the service of development and management service of FAO, based on the use of software CROPWAT 8.0. The total water requirements for barley depend on a variety of target yields and crops management. The period of climatic data used is 23 years (1990-2012, the average rain in this period is 254 mm. The total rain of the dry year is 190 mm. The results of this study show, during the vegetative cycle of barley which is 6 months, the calculation of ET 0 is 453 mm, the potential water which was used by the crop barley is estimated at 281.4 mm, the efficiency of rainfall is 69 mm and a total water requirements of barley ( CWR b equals to 211 mm, this amount distributed on three months coincided with important stages of development in barley. The supplementary irrigation in these conditions with optimal contents equals water requirements estimated by CROPWAT software that increases significantly grain yield of barely. Consequently, the gross irrigation water requirements ( GIWR of 1250000 ha which project to grow barley in the Algerian steppes regions are estimated at 3.77 billion and this for a dry year and a irrigation efficiency of 70%.

  8. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cheng-Cang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast, empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with 250 fragments. Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing.

  9. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  10. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  11. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  12. Rph22: mapping of a novel leaf rust resistance gene introgressed from the non-host Hordeum bulbosum L. into cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, P.A.; Niks, R.E.; Meiyalaghan, V.; Blanchet, E.; Pickering, R.

    2013-01-01

    A resistance gene (Rph22) to barley leaf rust caused by Puccinia hordei was introgressed from the non-host species Hordeum bulbosum into cultivated barley. The H. bulbosum introgression in line ‘182Q20’ was located to chromosome 2HL using genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH). Using molecular markers

  13. Cell-type-specific H+-ATPase activity in root tissues enables K+ retention and mediates acclimation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms...... compared with the mature zone, mature root cells accumulated more cytosolic and vacuolar Na(+), suggesting that the higher sensitivity of apical cells to salt is not related to either enhanced Na(+) exclusion or sequestration inside the root. Rather, the above differential sensitivity between the two zones...... conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na(+) uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex...

  14. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, C; Li, H F; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2008-12-01

    The influence of soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl2. Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg(-1), representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co2+ activity in soil solution. The EC50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2+ activity, respectively. Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models obtained showed that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most consistent single predictors of the EC50 values based on soil added Co.

  15. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grando, S.; Baum, M.; Ceccarelli, S.;

    2005-01-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore......, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between...... a Hordeum vulgare cultivar (`Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including...

  16. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used.

  17. Some characteristics of segregation in hybrids of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. × H. vulgare (L.) emend. Vav. et Bacht.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhteyev, F K

    1969-01-01

    The analysis of hybrid generations, that had arisen from crosses of various forms of H. spontaneum, as well as comparison of the results of crossing representatives of H. spontaneum with two and six-row forms of H. vulgare warrant the following statements: 1. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were intercrossed, no morphologically new types arose among the progeny of hybrid generations as a result of these crosses. Various morphological hybrid groups, eight up to F 3, remained strictly within the variability of the system of the species Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. 2. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were hybridized with two- and six-row forms of H. vulgare, marked dominance of characters of the wild parent were observed, nevertheless even in F 3 occasional hybrid individuals with a nonbrittle ear have been obtained. This fact is an evidence that cultivated barley may take part in the formation of such hybrids. In the fourth generation of the above interspecific crosses besides individuals which had inherited the characters of one or the other of the parents new morphological types arise. The latter are characterized by new combinations, inherited from both parents. In studies reported previously such casual hybrid individuals were provisionally named by us "sessiliproskowetzii". At first glance, the latter seemed not to differ from H. spontaneum v. proskowetzii, but more thorough observation showed that such hybrids differ from genuine individuals of v. proskowetzii: their sterile lateral spikelets are sessile, i.e. deprived of pedicels.

  18. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were...... analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC...

  19. Low-resolution structure of the full-length barley (Hordeum vulgare SGT1 protein in solution, obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Taube

    Full Text Available SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR, the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS, and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS, and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2. In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed.

  20. Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi Zribi, O; Abdelly, C; Debez, A

    2011-11-01

    The interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Manel). Seedlings were grown hydroponically under low or sufficient phosphorus (P) supply (5 or 180 μmol KH(2) PO(4) plant(-1) week(-1) , respectively), with or without 100 mm NaCl. Phosphorus deficiency or salinity significantly decreased whole plant growth, leaf water content, leaf osmotic potential and gas exchange parameters, with a more marked impact of P stress. The effect of both stresses was not additive since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under P deficiency alone. In addition, salt-treated plants exposed to P deficiency showed higher salt tolerance compared to plants grown with sufficient P supply. This was related to plant ability to significantly increase root:shoot DW ratio, root length, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, leaf proline and soluble sugar concentrations and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, together with restricting Na(+) accumulation in the upper leaves. As a whole, our results indicate that under concomitant exposure to both salt and P deficiency, the impact of the latter constraint is pre-dominant.

  1. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Three basic chitinases and one basic beta-1,3-glucanase were secreted into the medium when embryogenic cell suspensions of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' were cultured as undifferentiated aggregates in the presence of 2,4-D. The enzymes were purified by affinity and ion exchange...... chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  2. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, T B; Gardner, J S; Anderson, N

    1999-11-01

    Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Triticum monoccocum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum, and two species of barley, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum, were analyzed using computer-assisted image and statistical analysis with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key based on significant differences among the mean morphometries of the inflorescence phytoliths produced by each species was created and tested. Discriminant analysis of the morphometries of several morphotypes of phytoliths was also conducted to determine whether this computer-assisted statistical procedure could be used as another method to classify the taxa and to determine which morphotypes have measurements that can best be used in discriminant functions. Test results indicated that, at the genus level, both the classification key and discriminant analysis of certain morphotypes of phytoliths were relatively reliable tools for distinguishing among phytoliths produced in the inflorescence bracts of the taxa considered. For distinguishing among the taxa at the species level, the classification key was most reliable. Of the discriminant analyses tested, that based on all the phytolith morphotypes combined was more reliable than those based on only one morphotype.

  3. [Cold induced cDNA library construction of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) using suppression subtractive hybridization technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Jia, Jing Fen

    2008-12-01

    Cold-induced genes of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) were studied using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The cDNA from the materials treated with 4 degrees C was used as "tester", and that from the materials growing in green house (20+/-2 degrees C) as "driver". A subtractive library of highland barley including 640 cDNA clones was constructed in this study. Enzyme digestion of 32 clones chosen randomly from the library indicated that 87.5% of them contained inserts. The cDNA inserts of 16 clones were sequenced. Blast search analyses showed that these cDNAs were homologies to genes encoding the following proteins: metallothionein, protein kinase, ethylene signal transcription factor, bZIP transcription factor, zing finger transcription factor, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, ribosomal protein, sodium: hydrogen antiporter, catalase, NADPH-cytochrome reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, DNA binding protein, and sugar transporter-like protein. These results indicated that the cDNA clones in the library were related to cold-induced genes, and suggested that the cold-tolerant mechanism of highland barley might be a complicated, interactive system involving multiple approaches and genes. Construction of subtractive cDNA library provided an advantage for further studies to isolate and clone cold-induced genes in highland barley.

  4. The Effect of Homoeologous Meiotic Pairing in Tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum L. × H. vulgare L. Hybrids on Alien Introgressions in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Margret; Pendinen, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The pairing behaviour of the individual chromosome arms of Hordeum vulgare (Hv) with their homoeologous arms of H. bulbosum (Hb) at metaphase I of meiosis in tetraploid Hb × Hv hybrids and the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosome arms in selfed offspring were studied on differentially visualized chromosomes after fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The frequencies of paired Hv-Hb arms in the F2 and F3 hybrids were correlated with the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosomes in progenies. Self-generation of hybrids, the number of Hv and Hb chromosomes, and the number of recombined Hv chromosomes of the hybrids strongly influenced the Hv-Hb pairing frequency in meiosis. Within the offspring of F2 and F3 hybrids both Hv plants and hybrids were detected. In contrast, all progenies of the F4 hybrid were hybrids which exhibited centromere misdivisions. The highest frequencies of homoeologous pairing in hybrids and most recombinants were obtained for the barley chromosome 1HL. Recombinants for 4HL, 5HS, 6HS, and 7HS were rarely found. Meiotic pairing and recombinants involving chromosome 1HS were never observed. The results of this study demonstrate that fertile tetraploid interspecific hybrids with a high intergenomic pairing at meiosis are valuable basic material for introgression breeding in barley.

  5. Effects of the Application of Different Concentrations of NaN3 for Different Times on the Morphological and Cytogenetic Characteristics of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Irfan ILBAS; Yasemin EROGLU; Halil Erhan EROGLU

    2005-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) has been used in many biological studies as a mutagen. In the present study, the morphological and cytogenetic effects of NaN3 on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were investigated. Seeds of barley were treated with different concentrations of NaN3 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and3.0 mmol/L) and applied for different periods of time (3 and 4 h). Parameters investigated, except for the mitotic index, were determined on Days 7 and 14. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 affected germination rates on Days 7 and 14 following application for 3 and 4 h. Although the length of the roots and leaves was affected by treatment with NaN3 on Day 14 of the germination period, coleoptile length was affected by NaN3 treatment on Day 7. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 and increased treatment period decreased the mitotic index compared with the untreated control. The inhibitory effects of NaN3 on the mitotic index indicate that NaN3 can have genotoxic and mutagenic effects on barley seedlings.

  6. Growth parameters and resistance against Drechslera teres of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) grown at elevated ozone and carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessl, M; Heller, W; Payer, H-D; Elstner, E F; Habermeyer, J; Heiser, I

    2005-11-01

    Spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) was grown at two CO2 levels (400 vs. 700 ppm) combined with two ozone regimes (ambient vs. double ambient) in climate chambers for four weeks, beginning at seedling emergence. Elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased aboveground biomass, root biomass, and tiller number, whereas double ambient ozone significantly decreased these parameters. These ozone-induced reductions in growth parameters were strongly overridden by 700 ppm CO2. The elevated CO2 level increased C : N ratio of the leaf tissue and leaf starch content but decreased leaf protein levels. Exposure to double ambient ozone did not affect protein content and C : N ratio but dramatically increased leaf starch levels at 700 ppm CO2. Resistance against Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoemaker was increased in leaves grown at double ambient ozone but was less obvious at 700 ppm than at 400 ppm CO2. Constitutive activities of beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were significantly higher in leaves grown at double ambient ozone compared to ambient ozone levels. The sum of methanol-soluble and alkali-released cell wall-bound aromatic metabolites (i.e., C-glycosylflavones and several structurally unidentified metabolites) and lignin contents did not show any treatment-dependent differences.

  7. Biorestauration of soil polluted by waste motor oil by biostimulation with vermicompost and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare inoculated by Bacillus cereus and Rhizobium etli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Cisneros Gladys

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution by waste motor oil (WMO caused soil´s lost fertility. The aims of this research where a bioremediation of soil polluted by 10000 ppm of WMO for biostimulation with vermicompost (VC at 3 and 6 % (w/w follow by b phytoremediation (PR of the same soil to eliminate remaining WMO with Sorghum vulgare inoculated with Bacillus cereus and/or Rhizobium etli or Promoting Growth Plant Bacteria (PGPB. At the first step of assay WMO concentration was measured before and after bioremediation. At the second step the same soil phytoremediation was applied for remaining WHO sowing S. vulgare inoculated with PGPB, then at flowering stage its biomass and WHO final concentration was determined. Results showed that soil impacted by WMO biostimulated with VC at 3% was eliminated 8630 ppm of WMO. At the second phase in the same soil PR applied for remaining WMO which was reduced until 210 ppm. Soil polluted by remaining WMO applied PR using S. vulgare plus R. etli WMO was decreased at 260 ppm. While S. vulgare´s biomass inoculated with PGPB was higher compared to S. vulgare grown in soil not polluted by WMO according by ANOVA - Tukey (p > 0.05. These results suggested that soil polluted by WMO could be recovering by applying integrated BR and PR better than just using one type.

  8. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  9. An eceriferum locus, cer-zv, is associated with a defect in cutin responsible for water retention in barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Ma, Xiaoying; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Sakuma, Shun; Wang, Ning; Ning, Shunzong; Nevo, Eviatar; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2013-03-01

    Drought limits plant growth and threatens crop productivity. A barley (Hordeum vulgare) ethylene imine-induced monogenic recessive mutant cer-zv, which is sensitive to drought, was characterized and genetically mapped in the present study. Detached leaves of cer-zv lost 34.2 % of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration. The transpiration was much higher in cer-zv leaves than in wild-type leaves under both light and dark conditions. The stomata of cer-zv leaves functioned normally, but the cuticle of cer-zv leaves showed increased permeability to ethanol and toluidine blue dye. There was a 50-90 % reduction in four major cutin monomers, but no reduction in wax loads was found in the cer-zv mutant as compared with the wild type. Two F(2) mapping populations were established by the crosses of 23-19 × cer-zv and cer-zv × OUH602. More polymorphisms were found in EST sequences between cer-zv and OUH602 than between cer-zv and 23-19. cer-zv was located in a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H in a 10.8 cM interval in the 23-19 × cer-zv map based on 186 gametes tested and a 1.7 cM interval in the cer-zv × OUH602 map based on 176 gametes tested. It co-segregated with EST marker AK251484 in both maps. The results indicated that the cer-zv mutant is defective in cutin, which might be responsible for the increased transpiration rate and drought sensitivity, and that the F(2) of cer-zv × OUH602 might better facilitate high resolution mapping of cer-zv.

  10. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  11. Evidence of phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Hordeum vulgare L. exposed to CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eMattiello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs are considered emerging contaminants since they are perceived as a potential threat to the environment and the human health. The reactions of living organisms when exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs or NPs of different size are not well known. Very few studies on NPs-plant interactions have been published, so far. For this reason there is also great concern regarding the potential NPs impact to food safety. Early genotoxic and phytotoxic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2 and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 were investigated in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L.Caryopses were exposed to an aqueous dispersion of nCeO2 and nTiO2 at respectively 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg l-1 for 7 days. Genotoxicity was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPDs and mitotic index on root tip cells. Differences between treated and control plants were observed in RAPD banding patterns as well as at the chromosomal level with a reduction of cell divisions. At cellular level we monitored the oxidative stress of treated plants in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and ATP content. Again nCeO2 influenced clearly these two physiological parameters, while nTiO2 were ineffective. In particular, the dose 500 mg l-1 showed the highest increase regarding both ROS generation and ATP content; the phenomenon were detectable, at different extent, both at root and shoot level. Total Ce and Ti concentration in seedlings was detected by ICP-OES. TEM EDSX microanalysis demonstrated the presence of aggregates of nCeO2 and nTiO2 within root cells of barley. nCeO2 induced modifications in the chromatin aggregation mode in the nuclei of both root and shoot cells.

  12. Effect of salinity stress on chlorophyll content, proline, water soluble carbohydrate, germination, growth and dry weight of three seedling barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movafegh S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a serious environmental constraint to crop production in many parts of the world and the development of crops with improved salt tolerance is proposed as part of solution to this problem. This research was performed out in order to study the effects of different salinity levels on germination, growth, dry weight, proline, water soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll content of three barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars named Jonoob (INC-54, Reyhan (INC-45 & Nosrat (INC -47.The experiment was carried out using factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications.Seven old seedlings after germination were transferred to Hoagland nutrient solution under the effect of salinity levels (0, 50, 150 and 250 mM NaClin during seven days. Data variance analysis showed that seed germination of three barley cultivars was significantly (PReyhan>Nosrat. The results showed that, increasing in salinity decreased all growth parameters. Salinity stress decreased shoot and root length, root dry weight and chlorophyll contents in every three cultivars. But decreasing of chlorophyll was less in Nosrat compared to two other items. Proline content and soluble carbohydrate were increased in all of the three cultivars with enhance of NaCl concentration. By increasing of salinity stress accumulation of proline and soluble sugar content in leaves of Nosrat cultivar was more than other cultivars.As saltiness increases resistance natural responses in this plant gets better considering less decrease in chlorophyll amount and strategy of more production about praline and sugar solution compared to two other items.

  13. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  14. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good.

  15. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions between monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Christer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare, three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far as regulators in sucrose signaling, pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. Results In this study, we used available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY genes. According to their structural features, the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. Conclusion HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in monocot and dicot species.

  16. Comparative effect of salinity on ion accumulation, grain yield and stability salt tolerance degree of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in different growth stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdennaceur Ben Khaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, excess salts in agricultural land can limit crop production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is one of the most salt tolerant crop species. This study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on seed germination, mineral content and yield production of 14 barley accessions from two regions in the Southern Tunisia. First experiment was conducted in laboratory to test the effect of nine levels of NaCl concentrations in different germination parameter. Second experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. The accessions were grown in soil and exposed to three salinity levels. Salinity decreased significantly the germination rate and the germination rate index for all accessions. Na+ content, total dry matter and grain yield vary significantly with increasing salinity levels. The degree of tolerance varies between accessions in the different growth stage. A significant correlation were observed between ranking using grain yield and multivariate parameter. The tolerance degree based in germination rate and Na+ content don’t present significant correlation with yield ranking. Therefore, ranking using multivariate parameter can be the appropriate method to analysis the tolerance degree of barley under saline conditions. The differences response between accessions of local population of barley “Ardhaoui” reflected an important internal genetic variability against the salinity. This variability could be more explored and used for the barley breeding program. The accessions Ettalah, Chneni Tatouine and Elhezma showed more salt tolerance at 13 dS/m as indicated by the multivariate ranking using germination rate, Na+ content and grain yield.

  17. Quantitative trait loci for water-use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) measured by carbon isotope discrimination under rain-fed conditions on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Chang, Scott X; Anyia, Anthony O

    2012-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield is commonly limited by low rainfall and high temperature during the growing season on the Canadian Prairies. Empirical knowledge suggests that carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), through its negative relationship with water-use efficiency (WUE), is a good index for selecting stable yielding crops in some rain-fed environments. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and linked markers for Δ(13)C will enhance its use efficiency in breeding programs. In the present study, two barley populations (W89001002003 × I60049 or W × I, six-row type, and Merit × H93174006 or M × H, two-row type), containing 200 and 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), were phenotyped for leaf Δ(13)C and agronomic traits under rain-fed environments in Alberta, Canada. A transgressive segregation pattern for leaf Δ(13)C was observed among RILs. The broad-sense heritability (H (2)) of leaf Δ(13)C was 0.8, and there was no significant interaction between genotype and environment for leaf Δ(13)C in the W × I RILs. A total of 12 QTL for leaf Δ(13)C were detected in the W × I RILs and 5 QTL in the M × H RILs. For the W × I RILs, a major QTL located on chromosome 3H near marker Bmag606 (9.3, 9.4 and 10.7 cM interval) was identified. This major QTL overlapped with several agronomic traits, with W89001002003 alleles favoring lower leaf Δ(13)C, increased plant height, and reduced leaf area index, grain yield, harvest index and days to maturity at this locus or loci. This major QTL and its associated marker, when validated, maybe useful in breeding programs aimed at improving WUE and yield stability of barley on the Canadian Prairies.

  18. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins.

  19. Transformation of isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspores: I. the influence of pretreatments and osmotic treatment on the time of DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn-Seb; Pauls, K Peter; Kasha, Ken J

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine when DNA synthesis occurred during pretreatments of cultured barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspores and during their preparation for particle bombardment. Based on this information, an investigation of the influence of cell cycle stage on the ability to obtain homozygous transgenic plants by particle bombardment will be presented in paper II of this series. It was hypothesized that the introduction of foreign genes at the G1 cell cycle stage in cultured uninucleate microspores would produce homozygous transgenic plants. Experiments were conducted with two different commonly used pretreatments to induce microspore embryogenesis: cold (4 degrees C) for 21days and cold plus 0.3 mol/L mannitol for 4 days. After pretreatment, the microspores were placed in a higher osmotic medium for 4 h prior to and for 18 h following bombardment. It was confirmed that during the cold plus mannitol pretreatment, there was no apparent change in the cell cycle stage, with the majority of the microspores remaining at the G1 stage. While in the cold for 21 days, the microspores progressed slowly through to G2, with a few progressing further into the mitosis and binucleate stages. Hourly DNA density measurements that were taken during the 4 h osmotic adjustment period following the cold plus mannitol pretreatment indicated that DNA synthesis began during this period at 25 degrees C, while at 4 degrees C, there was no apparent change in cell cycle stage or in DNA density. Thus, one might expect to find a higher frequency of homozygous doubled haploids by maintaining the temperature low during the 4 h osmotic adjustment period following the cold plus mannitol pretreatment than following the 21 day cold pretreatment. However, it is also not known what effect the temperatures during the whole high-osmotic treatments will have on the rate and time of incorporation of the transgene.

  20. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  1. An evaluation of the impact of the endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on some traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghabouli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which make one of the most important classes of soil microorganisms, induce genetic, physiological and ecological alterations in their host plant and thus increase its yield and enable its cultivation in saline or dry soils or in climates facing biotic and abiotic stresses. The endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica exhibits a high effect in plant growth and increased resistance against environmental tensions like drought and salinity, as well as against phytopathogens. This work was intended to study the potential of P. indica in enhancing growth and elevating drought resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during 2010. A greenhouse trial of completely randomized design with two fungal treatments (inoculated vs. non-inoculated and three drought levels (F.C., 50% F.C. and 25% F.C. with four repeats was conducted in greenhouse of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (Isfahan. The results indicate that the fungus P. indica has accompanied biomass increments of both shoot and root parts in the inoculated plant compared to the control, as in inoculated plant, total shoot dry weight and root dry weight were increased by 39 and 46 percent, respectively. Also, in stress conditions RWC in inoculated plant was greater. In addition to the growth increasing activity, the effective role of the fungus in enhancing barley growth and yield under drought conditions (especially at the 25% F.C. level is evident. According to the results, and to the fact that the fungus can be cultured on artificial (host-plant-free growth medium, this fungus can be contemplated as making a growth stimulating agent and in producing biological fertilizer for use in crops; and it might take a significant role toward a sustainable agriculture. The application of this fungus can also be beneficial in increasing growth and production of crops such as barley and wheat under the dry conditions widely encountered in Iran.

  2. Molecular size and net charge of pathogenesis-related enzymes from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) infected with Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, G M; Welschbillig, N; Reiss, E

    1998-05-01

    Molecular size and net charge of isoforms of pathogenesis-related (PR) chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase were studied in uninfected barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) leaves and in barley leaves infected with the pathogenic fungus Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem. Molecular characteristics were determined by time-dependent polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions and by applying an extended version of the computer program MOL-MASS (Rothe, G. M., Weidmann, H., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 703-709). Uninfected barley leaves contained predominantly one peroxidase isozyme but also three very weak peroxidases. Activities of all of these three peroxidases increased considerably after infection with Drechslera teres. The molecular masses of peroxidases 1 and 3 were estimated to be 38 +/- 5 and 42 +/- 7 kDa and their apparent valences at pH 8.4 were Z = 3.13 and 3.20, respectively. Amongst the chitinase isoforms, chitinase 1 and chitinase 2 appeared after infection, while chitinase 3 was also observed in uninfected leaves of barley. The molecular mass of chitinase 3 (31 +/- 6 kDa; f/fo = 1.20) was larger than that of chitinase 1 (20 +/- 2 kDa; f/fo = 1.04) and chitinase 2 (23 +/- 3 kDa; f/fo = 1.06). The valence of constitutive chitinase 3 (Z = 1.44 +/- 0.81) at pH 8.4 was lower than that of adaptive chitinase 1 (Z = 3.27 +/- 1.02) and chitinase 2 (Z = 2.96 +/- 1.38). Infection of barley leaves with Drechslera teres also induced the hydrolytic enzyme beta-1,3-glucanase 1; beta-1,3-glucanase 2 appeared in uninfected and in infected leaves. Constitutive beta-1,3-glucanase 2 was smaller (molecular mass 19 +/- kDa; f/fo = 1.05) than adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (molecular mass 26 +/- 4 kDa; f/fo = 1.07). The valence of adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (Z = 9.58 +/- 4.17) was approximately threefold that of beta-1,3-glucanase 2 (Z = 2.80 +/- 0.93).

  3. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  4. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderas-León Iván

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR by double and following biostimulation (BS with mineral solution (MS and a legume as green manure (GM then using phytoremediation (PR with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and then b Its phytoremediation for remaining WMO by Sorghum vulgare inoculated with B. cereus and B. cepacia. Soil polluted by high concentration WMO was biostimulated with MS, and then Phaseolus vulgaris treated by GPVB was incorporated as GM, finally to apply PR to eliminate WMO with S. vulgare with GPVB. Results indicate that soil bioremediated by biostimulation with MS, WMO decreased at 32500 ppm/30 days, and then with GM, WMO was reduced at 10100 ppm after/90 days. Finally, to apply phytoremediation using S. vulgare and GPVB at flowering, WMO was reduced from 2500 ppm to 800 ppm. For recovering soil impacted by high concentration WMO to apply both techniques double and following BS and PR are the best option than each technique separately.

  5. Genetic Diversity of SSR Markers in Cultivated Hordeum vulgare L. in Qinghai Province%青海省栽培青稞SSR标记遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海宁; 杨菁; 何桂芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to analyze genetic diversity of SSR markers in Hordeum vulgare L. in Qinghai Province and lay a foundation for screening and protecting some excellent H. vulgare cultivars. [ Method] SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 42 cultivated H. vulgare from Qinghai Province. [ Result ] 42 H. vulgare showed polymorphism in 7 SSR markers locus. A total of 24 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 6, with an average of 3.0. According to SSR markers polymorphism, 42 H. vulgare could be divided into 4 groups, namely Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and IV. [ Result] The study indicated that cultivated H. vulgare from Qinghai Province is rich in genetic diversity, which will provide reference for selecting parent of H. vulgare breeding.%[目的]分析我国青海省青稞SSR标记遗传多样性,为具有某些优异特性的青稞品种或资源筛选及青稞资源的保护奠定基础.[方法]利用SSR标记评估42份青海省栽培青稞的遗传多样性.[结果]42份青稞材料在7个SSR标记位点处表现出多态性,各位点扩增的等位基因数为1~6个,共鉴定出24个等位基因,每位点平均3.0个;根据SSR标记多态性可将42份青稞材料分为4组,即Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ.[结论]该研究表明青海省栽培青稞具有丰富的遗传多样性,可为青稞育种亲本选择提供参考.

  6. Influence of Straw Pulp Film Mulching on Water Conservation Effect of Hordeum vulgare Farmland in Tibet%西藏青稞农田草浆地膜覆盖的保水效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关法春

    2012-01-01

    采用对比方法研究了草浆地膜覆盖对青稞(Hordeum vulgare)农田土壤的保水作用,以期明确草浆地膜的农田保水理论依据和保水效果.结果表明:草浆地膜覆盖下的土壤表面相对湿度、土壤紧实度和土壤含水量等指标均低于塑料地膜覆盖处理,其中土壤含水量指标显著低于后者(n=3,P<0.05);与对照相比,草浆地膜覆盖下0~5 cm土层内土壤紧实度显著降低,但土壤温度与对照相比相差不大,同时土壤表层水分散失明显减少,土壤含水量增加7.59%,达到显著差异水平(n=3,P<0.05).草浆地膜覆盖保水效果十分明显.%In order to offer theoretical basis and clarify practical effect, straw pulp film and plastic film were compared to investigate the effect of film mulches for water conservation of soil in Hordeum vulgare farmland. Plastic film, straw pulp film and CK treatment were administrated; the effect was compared by measuring relative humidity of soil surface, soil temperature, soil compaction and water content. The results showed that all four factors monitored were lower in the treatment of straw pulp film than the plastic film, among which water content of the former was significantly reduced than the latter(n=3, P<0.05). In the treatment of straw pulp film comparing to CK, soil compaction was significantly reduced(n=3, P<0.05), while no significant difference in soil temperature was shown between the two. The evaporation of soil moisture reduced dramatically in the treatment of straw pulp film, resulting in a 7.59% statistically significant increase in the water content of soil (n=3, P<0.05). In conclusion, the straw pulp film mulch has significantly improved the water conservation of the soil in Hordeum vulgare farmland.

  7. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  8. Giemsa C-banding in two polyploid, South American Hordeum species, H. tetraploidum and H. lechleri, and their aneuploid hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    American taxa of the same sections suggest a rather close relationship and support that the biological basis for their classification with different sections is questionable. C-banding patterns identified the chromosomes of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids between the two species and H. vulgare....... The hybrids were stably aneuploid. Both had lost and acquired H. vulgare chromosomes. Thus, somatic elimination of chromosomes was combined with multiplication of chromosomes. The observations of stably aneuploid hybrids have implications for the exploitation of alien germplasm. The activity of non-H. vulgare...

  9. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2016-01-01

    lines including landraces and old and modern cultivars, we demonstrated that the HNG level varies notably between lines whereas the overall ratio between the compounds is constant. Based on sequence similarity to the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genes involved in dhurrin biosynthesis, we identified a gene...

  10. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and... § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sorghum cane (sorgos) (Sorghum vulgare). It contains not less than 74 percent...

  11. Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Dri, Nicolas; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Fluorosis is a disease caused by over-exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0-8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...... over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good...

  13. Evaluación agronómica de genotipos de sorgo y millo (Sorghum vulgare) forrajeros para alimentación de bovinos en el medio Sinú

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cabrales; Rafael Montoya; Jaime Rivera M.

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar siete genotipos de millo y cinco genotipos de sorgo, para determinar el rendimiento forrajero y su utilidad en la alimentación de bovinos en el valle del medio Sinu. Materiales y métodos. Las semillas de sorgo y millo (Sorghum vulgare), fueron materiales híbridos y variedades tipo comercial. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 cuatro repeticiones para millo y tres para sorgo. Resultados. Respecto al vigor los genotipos de millo que mejor comportamiento pr...

  14. EVALUACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DE GENOTIPOS DE SORGO Y MILLO (Sorghum vulgare FORRAJEROS PARA ALIMENTACIÓN DE BOVINOS EN EL MEDIO SINÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cabrales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar siete genotipos de millo y cinco genotipos de sorgo, para determinar el rendimiento forrajero y su utilidad en la alimentación de bovinos en el valle del medio Sinu. Materiales y métodos. Las semillas de sorgo y millo (Sorghum vulgare, fueron materiales híbridos y variedades tipo comercial. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 cuatro repeticiones para millo y tres para sorgo. Resultados. Respecto al vigor los genotipos de millo que mejor comportamiento presentaron fueron el redondo cuba y blanco panoja larga; en sorgo el LC 603, el P-8239 y el DR-1125. Los millos que mostraron mayor senescencia fueron el cuarentano alto, el bastón y el blanco panoja larga; en sorgo los de mayor senescencia fueron el P-8239, el LC603 y el 74 CO. La mayor producción de forraje verde y materia seca la presentaron los genotipos de millo, el batea cuba, el redondo cuba y el blanco panoja larga, los de sorgo fueron el blanco criollo y el DR-1125. El mayor rendimiento de grano fue de los genotipos el batea cuba y bastón en millo, y en sorgo fueron DR-1125 y LC 603. Se seleccionaron como materiales de buen comportamiento dentro de todos los evaluados el batea cuba, redondo cuba, y blanco panoja larga en millo y el blanco criollo y DR-1125 en sorgo. Conclusiones. Los genotipos de millo que mejor comportamiento presentaron fueron en su orden por rendimiento (ton/ha: el batea cuba, el redondo cuba y el blanco panoja larga (ton/ha, obteniéndose una mayor capacidad de carga animal. Los genotipos de mejor comportamiento de sorgo fueron el blanco criollo y el DR-1125.

  15. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    for the infection in this experiment. Moreover, powdery mildew disease severity was observed in the field at two different epidemic stages. In addition to other DNA markers, the map included 13 RGA (resistance gene analog) loci. The structure of the data demanded a non-parametric QTL-analysis. For each of the four......The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...... the results for the different powdery mildew related traits and the relation between qualitative and quantitative resistance are discussed....

  16. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  17. Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Iran by Sorghum and Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Irajy Asiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum compounds are one of the most frequently encountered pollutants in soils adjacent to oil refineries. Phytoremediation,where feasible, has become a cost-effective alternative to physicochemical methods of soil remediation. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and barley (Hordeum vulgare were selected for phytoremediationand the diminution in the concentration of oil-based contaminants was measured during a 90-day period. Contaminated and control treatments were compared in terms of root and shoot dry weight. Comparisons revealed reductions of about 22% and 30% in root dry matter and 51% and 42% in shoot dry matter of sorghum and barley in contaminated soil, respectively. The control and planted soils were significantly different in total and oil-degrading bacterial counts. Moreover, the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons decreased by 52%-64% in 90 days. Since planting the contaminated soil with sorghum and barley resulted in an improvement of 30% compared to unplanted contaminated soil, the two plants were highly efficient in removing petroleum from oil-contaminated soils. Therefore, despite the necessity of further studies to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation by assessing the appropriateness of various plant species, some genotypes like sorghum and barley were found suitable choices for phytoremediation of the investigated petroleum-contaminated soil.

  18. Glucuronoarabinoxylans from sorghum grain

    OpenAIRE

    Verbruggen, M.A.

    1996-01-01


    Water-unextractable cell wall materials (WUS) were prepared from raw, polished, and malted sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare cv. Fara Fara). Except for the amounts, hardly any difference could be observed between the WUS of these three raw materials. This means that cell wall materials of the endosperm cell walls are basically the same as those of the outer endosperm and pericarp layers, and that the cell walls largely persist, during malting. These preparations were f...

  19. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  20. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON PHENOLIC ACID AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L. ) GRAIN%氮素对大麦籽粒中酚酸和蛋白质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥军; 齐军仓; 贾力群; 王倩; 王琴; 马建峰; 王仙; 曹连莆

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the necessary nutrient elements for crop growth. The primary and secondary metabolisms of plant are regulated by nitrogen nutrient levels. As important secondary metabolites, phenolic acids play significant roles in plant resistances, and potentially contribute to barley qualities. However, little is known concerning effects of nitrogen on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) phenolic acids. In the present study, two barley cultivars were used, and seven nitrogen concentration treatments (0,412.5, 825.0, 1237.5, 1650, 3300, and 4950mg/L, respectively) under in vitro spike culture were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen on phenolic acid and protein contents in barley grain. Results showed that the development of barley grain was inhibited under high nitrogen levels (3300 ~ 4950mg/L), and grain weight decreasing significantly was as the response. Total hydroxybenzoic acid content (THBA), total hydroxycinnamic acid content (THCA), total phenolic acid content (TPA) and THBA/THCA ratio were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Four indexes above were all significantly positively correlated with nitrogen concentration. Except for hordein content ( HC ), the protein indexes of crude protein content (CPC), salt-soluble protein content (SSPC), and glutelin content (GC) were all significantly affected by nitrogen concentration, moreover, SSPC and GC were significantly affected by cultivar and the interaction between nitrogen concentration and cultivar. Excluding HC and GC in the four indexes, CPC and SSPC were significantly positive-correlated with nitrogen concentration. The results also indicated that phenolic acid contents (including THBA, THCA, and TPA) in barley grain increased cooperated with CPC and SSPC when the nitrogen nutrient level went up.%采用穗培养技术在7个氮素(NH4NO3为氮源)浓度水平(N1:0mg/L;N2:412.5 mg/L;N3:825.0mg/L;N4

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-08-11

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  2. 青稞HbSnRK2.4的克隆及其序列特征与表达特性分析%Cloning and Characterization of HbSnRK2.4 in Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum HK.f.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾兴权; 王玉林; 徐齐君; 原红军; 韦泽秀; 尼玛扎西

    2015-01-01

    干旱胁迫是制约农作物生产的重要限制因素之一,研究并增强作物的抗旱性具有重要意义。SnRK2(Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2)基因编码一类蔗糖非酵解型蛋白激酶,该酶在ABA信号转录途径和抗渗透胁迫中起着重要作用。以青稞(Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare)抗旱品种喜马拉雅10号为材料,利用RT-PCR技术克隆获得了SnRK2基因全长cDNA序列,命名为HbSnRK2.4(登录号:KJ699389)。生物信息学分析表明,该基因全长1310 bp,编码362个氨基酸序列,蛋白分子量为41.94 kD,等电点(pI)为5.96。Prosite Scan分析结果表明,HbSnRK2.4含有多个干旱胁迫响应蛋白的作用位点,如酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点、酪氨酸激酶磷酸化位点、蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点及N-豆蔻酰化位点等。利用实时定量PCR方法研究了HbSnRK2.4在干旱胁迫条件下及复水后不同时间点的表达情况,发现HbSnRK2.4在土壤绝对含水量为33.4%时表达量最高,随着土壤绝对含水量的下降而下调表达;当达到作物正常生长所需的土壤绝对含水量时又开始上调表达;进行干旱胁迫后(<15.5%)基因表达量下降;复水后8h时恢复正常表达水平。%Drought stress has become one of the important factors that hamper the production of agriculture. Varieties with enhanced drought resistance can be an effective way to solve this problem. SnRK2 gene encoded a kind of Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase,which have been thought to play an important role in the ABA signaling pathways and resistance to osmotic stress. However,the exact mechanism underlining is still to be elusive. We presented the isolation of a new SnRK2 gene from Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare, nominated as HbSnRK2.4(Accession No. Kj699389)by RT-PCR. The plants were proved to be highly drought tolerance. The gene was 1 310 base pair in length,encoding a peptide of 362 amino acids

  3. NAM-1gene polymorphism and grain protein content in Hordeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, Catherine; Loffet, Francois; Frettinger, Patrick; Ramsay, Luke; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; du Jardin, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    Grain protein content (GPC) is a key quality factor for malting and brewing process. In wheat, a QTL explaining a large part of GPC variation was identified, which co-localizes with a gene encoding a NAC transcription factor (TtNAM-B1). NAC transcription factors influence GPC by their role in the regulation of senescence and in protein remobilization. An orthologous gene was discovered on barley chromosome 6H where a GPC QTL was mapped. In this study, we identify allelic variation of the NAM-1 gene for three species of Hordeum representing wild and cultivated barley and we investigate the possible link with GPC. Three haplotypes were identified, one corresponds to the sequences of 11 European varieties representing H. vulgare, one corresponds to the sequence found in H. spontaneum and one represents the sequence of H. bulbosum. Three SNPs were identified between H. spontaneum sequence and H. vulgare sequence. One of the H. bulbosum polymorphisms leads to the introduction of a stop codon and a non-functional protein. Differences in GPC between the 11 varieties were found but no polymorphism in the NAM-1 gene was observed, suggesting that differences in expression of the HvNAM-1 gene or other genes should play a role in GPC regulation. Nevertheless based on published values for GPC of H. bulbosum and H. spontaneum compared to GPC measured here in H. vulgare, the non-functional protein is associated with the lower GPC, suggesting that loss of functionality of the NAM-1 gene in Hordeum is related to lower GPC. Moreover H. spontaneum GPC seems to be higher than H. vulgare GPC, suggesting also that allelic variation of the functional NAM-1 gene could be associated with GPC variation within the genus Hordeum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Efeito alelopático de folhas de bamburral [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] sobre a germinação de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum vulgare Pers., rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic effects of leaves of "bamburral" [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] on the germination of seeds of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. , radish (Raphanus sativus L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi à verificação do efeito alelopático de Hyptis. suaveolens na germinação de sorgo, alface e rabanete, bem como, a comprovação da existência de compostos com potencial alelopático. Sementes de sorgo, alface e rabanete foram semeadas em substrato constituído de areia, terra e adubo orgânico contendo folhas de H. suaveolens. As análises da germinação foram feitas considerando a protrusão da radícula para o término do evento germinativo. Foi calculado o IVG (índice de velocidade de germinação e %G (porcentagem de germinação. Os resultados mostraram que sorgo e a alface foram mais susceptíveis ao potencial alelopático de H. suaveolens, sendo que para o rabanete foi observado um efeito benéfico. Entre os tratamentos, o substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado mostraram diferenças entre si. A análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial presente nas folhas de H. suaveolens revelou a presença de compostos com potencial alelopático. Portanto, H. suaveolens, pode apresentar efeito alelopático positivo no IVG de sementes de rabanete e a presença de microorganismos pode ser necessária para que esse efeito alelopático aconteça.The aim of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of H. suaveolens on the germination of sorghum, lettuce and radish, as well as to prove the existence of compounds with allelopathic potential. Seeds of sorghum, lettuce and radish were sown in substrate consisting of sand, soil and organic fertilizer containing leaves of H. suaveolens. The germination tests were performed considering the protrusion of the radicle for the conclusion of the germinative event. GSI (germination speed index and G% (percentage of germination were calculated. The results showed that sorghum and lettuce were more susceptible to the allelopathic potential of H. suaveolens, while for radishes a beneficial effect was observed. Between treatments, the sterilized and unsterilized

  5. NaCl对大麦硝态氮吸收动力学特征的影响%Kinetics characteristics of NO3absorption of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) pretreated with different concentrations of NaCl and NO3-N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁效东; 张士荣

    2015-01-01

    To learn nitrogen absorption characteristics of plant under salt stress, the NO3--N absorption ability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar ‘Jian 4’ pretreated with NaCl and NO3--N were investigated using culture solution. The pretreatment concentrations of NaCl were 1 mmol×L-1(CK) and 120 mmol×L-1, those of NO3--N were 1 mmol (NO3--N)×L-1 and 10 mmol (NO3--N)×L-1. Barley growth and NO3--N absorption were measured and the kinetics of NO3--N absorption of high- affinity transport system and low-affinity transport system of barley were investigated. The results showed that the uptake of NO3--N of barley pretreated with different concentrations of NaCl and NO3--N was in accordance with Michelis-Menten equation. Also the uptake kinetics parametersVmax andKm were enhanced with increasing pretreatment concentration of NO3--N. For high-affinity system, the uptake of NO3--N of barley was in accordance with Michaelis-Menten equation for all the pretreatments. Under 1 mmol(NO3--N)×L-1 pretreatment, compared with 1 mmol×L-1 NaCl treatment, 120 mmol×L-1 NaCl pretreatment significantly increased barley uptake rate of NO3--N; while under 10 mmol(NO3--N)×L-1, no significant difference in the rate of uptake of NO3--N was observed between 1 mmol×L-1 NaCl and 120 mmol×L-1 NaCl treatments. This indicated that in low nitrogen environment, NaCl restrained uptake of NO3--N of high-affinity system. For low-affinity systems, the uptake rate of NO3--N of barley was in accordance with Michaelis-Menten equation for all pretreatments. Under 1 mmol(NO3--N)×L-1 pretreatment, compared with 1 mmol×L-1 NaCl treatment, 120 mmol×L-1 NaCl treatment significantly increased the rate of uptake of NO3--N. With 10 mmol×L-1 NO3--N pretreatment, the uptake rate of NO3--N under 120 mmol×L-1 NaCl was lower than that of under 1 mmol×L-1 NaCl pretreatment. This showed that under low nitrogen environment, salt stress improved root uptake of NO3--N in low-affinity system. However, under

  6. Vulgar Music and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  7. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  8. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... region of B1 hordein gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Walfajre and Alger barley by ... plasmid DNA extraction kits were provided from Bioneer ... The E. coli competent cells were used for transformation by 5 µL of.

  9. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  10. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  11. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... traits, genotypes in cluster III deserve consideration for directly developing high yielding barely varieties. The result of ... Criteria for the estimation of genetic diversity can be ...... Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

  12. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... extremely variable and therefore, suitable cultivars should be released for each ... stability is useful for the selection of crop varieties as well as for breeding .... represents the heterogeneity of linear regression coefficients (bi) whereas the second .... x ), depend only on G X E interaction and error effects.

  13. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  14. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenotypic frequencies of morphological characters (qualitative ... of genetic variation among segregating progeny for pure line cultivar development ...... provided discrimination between landraces according to their origin because the .... categories of descriptors evolving along different evolutionary lines (Asfaw, 1989b ...

  15. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... These results could be used for barley germplasm management in terms of biodiversity ... animal feed, malt manufactures and human food. Its importance ... indigenous crop genetic resources of KSA are potentially threatened and ... and Hayes, 2002; Turpeinen et al., 2003; Nevo et al.,. 2005; Chaabane et ...

  16. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  17. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    During germination of barley seeds, the mobilization of protein is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction of the...

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  19. Evolutionary changes in defensive specialized metabolism in the genus Hordeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ube, Naoki; Nishizaka, Miho; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Kotomi; Taketa, Shin; Ishihara, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Plants have developed defensive specialized metabolites over the course of evolution. In the genus Hordeum, which includes the important cereal crop barley, specialized metabolites such as hordatines, benzoxazinones, and gramine have been identified. Hordeum species are classified into four clades, H, Xu, Xa, and I. The presence or absence of defensive specialized metabolites was analyzed in representative Hordeum species that included all of the four clades. In the H clade, Hordeum vulgare accumulated hordatines but not benzoxazinones, whereas H. bulbosum accumulated neither compound. Some accessions in the H clade accumulated gramine. Species in the clades I and Xa accumulated benzoxazinones without hordatines. In H. murinum, a Xu clade species, neither hordatines nor benzoxazinones were detected. Two hitherto undescribed compounds were found to commonly accumulate in H. bulbosum in the H clade and H. murinum in the Xu clade. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, they were identified as dehydrodimers of feruloylagmatine and were designated murinamides A and B. Radical coupling reactions with feruloylagmatine as a substrate by peroxidase afforded murinamides A and B. These compounds showed antifungal activities against Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium asiaticum, indicating their defensive roles. Because hordatines are also dehydrodimers of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) of agmatine, both the H and Xu clade species are considered to accumulate the same class of compounds. Thus, when the H/Xu clades split from the I/Xa clades during evolution, the defensive metabolites shifted from benzoxazinones to dehydrodimers of agmatine HCAAs plus gramine in the H/Xu clades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum. Sorghum... seeds, inbred sorghum line seed, and sorghum cultivar seed), sorghum forage, sorghum hay,...

  1. 刺槐根瘤菌与纤维素分解菌对上海青和高粱的促生效应%Combined Rhizobium of Robinia pseudoacacia with Cellulose-decomposing Bacteria for Promoting Growth of Shanghai Green (Brassica chinensis) And Sorghum vulgare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振山; 杜洋; 贺晓龙; 赵瑞华

    2016-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of Rhizobium with cellulose-decomposing bacteria ( CDB) on Sorghum vulgare and Shanghai green ( Brassica chinensis) using pot experiment with Rhizobia and CDB single and mixed inoculation to the plants was carried out, using acupuncture, seed soaking, and leaf daubing three inoculation methods, and deter-mine their various growth indices.The growth promotion effects of Rhizobium combined with CDB on sorghum of gram-inaceous crops and Shanghai green of dicotyledonous crops these two non-fabaceous crops were initially probed deeply into.The results showed that under the conditions of non-stab inoculation of combined with two kinds of bacteria ( group B) had more significant effects on their growth promotion than that inoculated with single Rhizobium ( group D).Under sterilized conditions, the growth rate of root length of Shanghai green was over 48.97%higher than that of group D, and the dried weight in group B of S.vulgare grew higher than 30.76%;Moreover, the other growth promo-tion indices of group B and D with sterilized pot experiment, the growth promotion rate was higher than that of the non-sterilized pot experiment.And in addition, the dried weight of S.vulgare in group B, under sterilized conditions, the largest difference was the Shanghai green's fresh weight, under sterilized conditions it was higher by 47.13%than that under non-sterilized conditions.The growth promoting effect of combined Rhizobium with CDB on S.vulgare and Shanghai green of non-stab groups had significant effects on various growth promotion indices, these can provide an ex-perimental foundation for further development of microbial fertilizer for crops of non -fabaceous family in the future.%通过盆栽试验,用刺槐根瘤菌( Rhizobium of Robinia pseudoacacia)与纤维素分解菌( Cellulose-decompo-sing Bacteria)对高粱和上海青进行单独接种和混合接种,采用针刺、浸种和涂叶3种接种方法,测量其各种生长指标

  2. The Sublime and the Vulgar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Explores how Edmund Burke's discourse on the sublime helps illuminate attacks on the vulgarization of culture (as typified by Allan Bloom), both for the presumedly "vulgar" reader and for the champions of high culture. (MG)

  3. Sorghums as energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  4. Two New American Species of Hordeum (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland Von; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1985-01-01

    Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala.......Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala....

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorghum_bico...lor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bico...lor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  6. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  7. Sorghum Insect Problems and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunshan Guo; Wei Cui; Xue Feng; Jianzhou Zhao; Guihua Lu

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has high levels of starch, sugar, and fiber and is one of the most important energy crops in the world. Insect damage is one of the challenges that impacts sorghum biomass production. There are at least 150 insect species that can infest sorghum varieties worldwide. These insects can complete several generations within a growing season, they target various parts of sorghum plants at devel- opmental stages, and they cause significant biomass losses. Genetic research has revealed the existence of resistant genetics in sorghum and insect tolerant sorghum varieties have been identified. Various control methods have been developed, yet more effective management is needed for increasing sorghum biomass production. Although there are no transgenic sorghum products on the market yet, biotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for controlling insect pests and increasing sorghum production.

  8. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  9. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  11. Highly efficient sorghum transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoquan; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient microprojectile transformation system for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has been developed by using immature embryos (IEs) of inbred line Tx430. Co-bombardment was performed with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, both under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 (ubi1) promoter. After optimization of both tissue culture media and parameters of microprojectile transformation, 25 independent transgenic events were obtain...

  12. Genomics of Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    PATERSON, ANDREW H

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a subject of plant genomics research based on its importance as one of the world's leading cereal crops, a biofuels crop of high and growing importance, a progenitor of one of the world's most noxious weeds, and a botanical model for many tropical grasses with complex genomes. A rich history of genome analysis, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the genome of a leading inbred, provides a foundation for invigorating progress toward relatin...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barley Hordeum vulgare Hordeum_vulgare_L.png Hordeum_vulgare_NL.png Hordeum_vulgare_S.png Hordeum_vu...lgare_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=L http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vu...lgare&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NS ...

  14. Heterologous expression and purification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    The mobilization of protein during germination of barley seeds is essential and Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins [1]. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme until activated through reduction...... of the active site cysteines and via removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. The barley key cysteine protease, endoprotease...

  15. Cuticular permeance in relation to wax and cutin development along the growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jarvis, Mike; Fricke, Wieland

    2007-05-01

    The developing leaf three of barley provides an excellent model system for the direct determination of relationships between amounts of waxes and cutin and cuticular permeance. Permeance of the cuticle was assessed via the time-course of uptake of either toluidine blue or (14)C-labelled benzoic acid ([(14)C] BA) along the length of the developing leaf. Toluidine blue uptake only occurred within the region 0-25 mm from the point of leaf insertion (POLI). Resistance--the inverse of permeance--to uptake of [(14)C] BA was determined for four leaf regions and was lowest in the region 10-20 mm above POLI. At 20-30 and 50-60 mm above POLI, it increased by factors of 6 and a further 32, respectively. Above the point of emergence of leaf three from the sheath of leaf two, which was 76-80 mm above POLI, resistance was as high as at 50-60 mm above POLI. GC-FID/MS analyses of wax and cutin showed that: (1) the initial seven fold increase in cuticular resistance coincided with increase in cutin coverage and appearance of waxes; (2) the second, larger and final increase in cuticle resistance was accompanied by an increase in wax coverage, whereas cutin coverage remained unchanged; (3) cutin deposition in barley leaf epidermis occurred in parallel with cell elongation, whereas deposition of significant amounts of wax commenced as cells ceased to elongate.

  16. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster.

  17. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    successfully developed a method for indexing the weed suppressive ability of spring barley varieties. The suppressive index ranged from 12% in Lux and 55% in Modena in proportion to the 90% quantile coverage of all varieties. The index was validated against independent data from two locations in 2005 with 14...

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. yield with normal and coated urea in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Lema-Aguirre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the response of barley production to nitrogenized fertilization (NF and its impact on the protein content of the grain and the availability of nutrients on the soil. The study was carried out in two sites in Hacienda Valencia, in Pintag, Quito, Ecuador, between March 2014 and February 2015. A variety of INIAP Cañicapa 2003 was used, and the NF was done with normal urea and polymerized (urea + tiophosphate of N-nbutiltriamida. An experimental design of randomized full blocks in four repetitions of divided lots [the urea (normal and polymerized was used in the main lot and the NF (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, y 150 kg N/ha in the sub-lot]. 110 kg/ha of seed was used; 50% of the NF was applied three weeks after planting (broadcast and 50% eight weeks after. The type of urea did not affect the production (p>0,10, although the average was different between two sites (4,33 y 2,08 t/ha for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Excess of rain could have limit the effect on the urea type. On average a cuadratic response to NF was obtined, with an optimum dose of N (DON of 90 kg N/ha and a production of 3,41 t/ ha. This DON was similar to the dose of N recomended for barley in Ecuador. The NF augmented the protein content up to 14,50% (p<0,01 and acidi ed the ground, because the urea nitri cation produces H+.

  19. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs...... relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead...

  20. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Supplementary irrigation × site interaction had significant effect only on ... of those of the respective non-stressed environments (Cantero-Martínez et al., ..... managements and genotypes response (Boyer, 1982). .... Doctoral Scientiarum Thesis. ... term tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wheat yield under.

  1. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  2. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar (Horde

  3. The composite water and solute transport of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots: effect of suberized barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Kim, Yangmin X; Wassmann, Friedrich; Kreszies, Tino; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2017-03-01

    Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). The hydraulic conductivity of roots ( Lp r ) and of cortical cells ( Lp c ) was measured using root and cell pressure probes. When grown in hydroponics, barley roots did not form an exodermis, even at their basal zones. However, they developed an endodermis. Endodermal Casparian bands first appeared as 'dots' as early as at 20 mm from the apex, whereas a patchy suberin lamellae appeared at 60 mm. The endodermal suberin accounted for the total suberin of the roots. The absolute amount in the basal zone was significantly higher than in the apical zone, which was inversely proportional to the Lp r . Comparison of Lp r and Lp c suggested that cell to cell pathways dominate for water transport in roots. However, the calculation of Lp r from Lp c showed that at least 26 % of water transport occurs through the apoplast. Roots had different solute permeabilities ( P sr ) and reflection coefficients ( σ sr ) for the solutes used. The σ sr was below unity for the solutes, which have virtually zero permeability for semi-permeable membranes. Suberized endodermis significantly reduces Lp r of seminal roots. The water and solute transport across barley roots is composite in nature and they do not behave like ideal osmometers. The composite transport model should be extended by adding components arranged in series (cortex, endodermis) in addition to the currently included components arranged in parallel (apoplastic, cell to cell pathways).

  4. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  6. Review:Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; RAMAN Harsh; ZHANG Guo-ping; MENDHAM Neville; ZHOU Mei-xue

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley.

  7. Transformation of Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) by Agrobacterium tumefasciens Infection of In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transform...

  8. DAÑOS EN GERMOPLASMA DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Lin. PRODUCIDOS POR Rhyzoperta dominica FABRICIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla M. Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los daños cuantitativos producidos por plagas de almacén revisten vital importancia cuando se trata de semillas con destino a la investigación, pues generalmente las cantidades son muy pequeñas. El estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de conocer las pérdidas de este tipo, producidas por Rhyzoperta dominica F. en semillas de 96 líneas de cebada procedentes de Siria y conservadas a la temperatura de 15 ± 2°C durante seis meses; para ello, se tuvo en cuenta la reducción producida en el peso (g, se determinó el peso de mil granos (PMG, se estimó el número de insectos adultos en mil granos (NAMG y se calculó, además, el índice de ataque (IA. Los resultados mostraron que 12 líneas presentaron daños producidos por R. dominica, con una pérdida promedio de 18 % en el peso en gramos; las líneas en estudio mostraron un bajo PMG (32.38 g, mientras el NAMG estimado fue de 31.25 y el IA de 3.17 %.

  9. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  10. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein group...

  11. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (Ins) is catalyzed by two enzymatic activities; Ins(3)P1 synthase (MIPS; EC. 5.5.1.4) and Ins monophosphatase (IMPase; EC 3.1.3.25). The barley IMP-1 gene and gene products were studied to facilitate research into the regulation of Ins synthesis and supply. In m...

  12. Entwicklung transgener Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) mit dem Ziel der Lysin- und Threoninanreicherung im Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Shawky Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation system was established with a transformation rate of 13.4 % on average. Towards improving the nutritional value of barley, a set of novel transformation vectors was developed including the dapA and lysC genes encoding the feed-back-inhibition insensitive form of the dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) and aspartate kinase (AK) respectively. Both genes under the control of the endosperm-specific D-hordein promoter or the constitutive u...

  13. Genetic evaluation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. germplasm for resistance components of spot blotch disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejveer Singh, V. K. Mishra*, L. C. Prasad, Ankitand R. Chand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important fungal disease of Barley in warm humid areas of the world. In present study, 124 genotypes that includes 122 un-adapted germplasm accessions and 2 cultivars of barley were evaluated for three years, to select resistant and susceptible accessions based on five components of spot blotch resistance viz., disease severity, latent period, spore load, number of spots and incubation period. Significant differences were observed among the evaluated accessions for all of the components of resistance. A significant positive correlation was recorded between disease severity, number of spots, and spore load while a significant negative correlation of disease severity was recorded with latent period and incubation period. Multiple regression analysis revealed that number of spots contributed maximum followed by latent period, spore load and incubation period towards the variation in disease severity. Clustering of accessions based on different components identified three groups. Based on the studied components, accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 demonstrated good performance, while BCU711, K603 and RD2506 were the most susceptible to spot blotch pathogen. Identified accessions BCU422, BCU1204 and BCU5092 can be recommended for use in breeding programs that aim to generate barley genotypes resistant to Bipolaris sorokiniana.

  14. Important Quality Attributes of Malt Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ): Effect of Genetics, Environments and Agronomic Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virender Sardana; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2003-01-01

    Barley has been in use as food and fodder for thousands of years, and also used currently as themost important raw material in malting and brewing. The quality of malt barley is not much satisfied with therequirement by malting and brewing industry worldwide, although the great effort has been devoted to its im-provement through breeding and agronomy. The quality of malt barley is involved in many physical and chemi-cal traits, including hydrolytic enzymes. Of them, kernel protein content, beta-amylase activity, beta-glucancontent and kernel plumpness have dramatic influence on malting or brewing quality. The expression of thesequality parameters varies greatly in genotypes and is easily changed by diverse environments and agronomicpractices. This paper reviewed the important role of various parameters influencing the quality of malt barleyand the effect of different factors on them.

  15. In vitro influences of TiO₂ nanoparticles on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeh, Mahnaz; Omidi, Mansoor; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades, extensive research on the effects of nano-TiO₂ on plant systems and different microorganisms has confirmed its photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity. However, there is no report on its application in plant cell and tissue culture as well as its role in eliminating contaminating microorganisms in tissue culture. In this work, barley mature embryos were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with four concentrations (0, 10, 30, 60 μg/ml) of TiO₂ suspension in four repetitions. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of calli were analyzed after each subculture. Data analysis for calli number in the first culture and callus size in all three cultures showed that the effect of treatment was significant at p > 0.95. As a result, quantitative features such as callus color, shape, embryogenesis, etc. were completely similar in both control and TiO₂ nanoparticle treatments; there is no doubt that TiO₂ nanoparticles could dramatically increase callugenesis and the size of calli. As well, TiO₂ nanoparticles are effective bactericides with an aseptic effect, causing no negative change in the quality of the callus. It is necessary to do more complementary works to identify mechanisms involved for the increased calli size and embryogenesis of explants in darkness.

  16. Proteomic analysis of differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare) malts with distinct filterability by DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Min; Gao, Fei; Sun, Jun-Yong; Mu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Jian

    2013-11-20

    Filterability is an essential quality parameter of barley malt and significantly impacts productive efficiency and quality of beer. In the study, differences of metabolic capability, rather than of initial contents of macromolecules in barleys, were found to be the main reason for malt filterability gap between the widely used cultivars Dan'er and Metcalfe in China. Comparative proteomics based on fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was employed to quantitatively analyze proteins of four commercial malts belonging to the two cultivars, and 51 cultivar-differential spots were identified to 40 metabolic proteins by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, mainly including hydrolases and pathogen-related proteins. According to their function analysis and abundance comparison between cultivars, filterability-beneficial and -adverse proteins were putatively proposed. Two most remarkable differential proteins, β-amylase and serpin Z7, were further investigated to verify their effects on Dan'er malt filterability. These results provide biological markers for barley breeders and maltsters to improve malt filterability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of comprehensive investigation of metabolic proteins related to wort filterability of barley malts, and sheds light on clues for filterability improvement. Visible differences in the expression level of metabolic proteins between Dan'er and Metcalfe malts using 2D-DIGE signify a valuable tool for cultivar comparison, illustration of key proteins responsible for filterability and even other qualities of barley malts. And with these explorations on biomarkers of malt filterability and other aspects, there will be higher efficiency and quality of beer brewing, less application of exogenous hydrolases and more expending market for Chinese malting barleys. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  18. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL MEXICO: IMPACT ON BARLEY PRODUCTION (Hordeum vulgare IN TLAXCALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O. Calderón-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical production of barley for ten years (2003-2012 as well as under climate change scenarios for near future (2015-2039 and for near future (2075-2099 in Calpulalpan, Tlaxcala was evaluated. An assessment of suitable regions for production was performed as well as historical performance and barley considering future climate change scenarios through the model AquaCrop (FAO also was estimated. Finally, the average production costs in the region were estimated through surveys with barley producers. The results show that over 70% of the area of the municipality has some degree of aptitude for producing barley. Climate change scenarios indicate increases proficiency in 2% of the surface and reductions of up to 16%. The production model shows very close results with those obtained by farmers in the municipality yields (2.53 t/ha, thus estimated future changes show a decline in yields of about 5% up to 100% depending on the future horizon. Considering current production costs, the benefit-cost relationship could be reduced from 1.4 and to 0.0 in the future. This will certainly affect the economy of the producers in the region.

  20. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    B2 (HvEPB2) was ligated into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ Aα and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain KM71H. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and maximum yield were obtained after 4 days where the supernatant was harvested. Purification of HvEPB2 from...

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...

  3. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  4. Plant regeneration by pollen embryogenesis from cultured whole spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S K

    1987-05-01

    Pollen embryogenesis and subsequent plant regeneration have been established from cultured whole barley spikes in agitated N6 liquid medium (Chu 1978) containing high levels of 2,4-D, Ficoll and potato extract. Microspore division within the anthers and subsequent embryogenic development were obtained in medium containing high amounts of reduced nitrogen with Zeatin, NAA and BAP (all at 0.5 mg/l levels, pH 6.2). Once embryoids were formed in the liquid medium, they produced secondary embryoids from the scutellum and subsequently plants on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) agar medium containing BAP and NAA. The ratio of green plants to albino was 1∶8.7.

  5. Quantification of the tissue-culture induced variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek Piotr T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When plant tissue is passaged through in vitro culture, many regenerated plants appear to be no longer clonal copies of their donor genotype. Among the factors that affect this so-called tissue culture induced variation are explant genotype, explant tissue origin, medium composition, and the length of time in culture. Variation is understood to be generated via a combination of genetic and/or epigenetic changes. A lack of any phenotypic variation between regenerants does not necessarily imply a concomitant lack of genetic (or epigenetic change, and it is therefore of interest to assay the outcomes of tissue culture at the genotypic level. Results A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP, based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65I/MseI and KpnI/MseI was applied to analyze, at both the sequence and methylation levels, the outcomes of regeneration from tissue culture in barley. Both sequence mutation and alteration in methylation pattern were detected. Two sets of regenerants from each of five DH donor lines were compared. One set was derived via androgenesis, and the other via somatic embryogenesis, developed from immature embryos. These comparisons delivered a quantitative assessment of the various types of somaclonal variation induced. The average level of variation was 6%, of which almost 1.7% could be accounted for by nucleotide mutation, and the remainder by changes in methylation state. The nucleotide mutation rates and the rate of epimutations were substantially similar between the andro- and embryo-derived sets of regenerants across all the donors. Conclusion We have developed an AFLP based approach that is capable of describing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the tissue culture-induced variation. We believe that this approach will find particular value in the study of patterns of inheritance of somaclonal variation, since non-heritable variation is of little interest for the improvement of plant species which are sexually propagated. Of significant biological interest is the conclusion that the mode of regeneration has no significant effect on the balance between sequence and methylation state change induced by the tissue culture process.

  6. Antimicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Soo; Choi, Won Gyu; Kim, Won Jun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Myong Jo; Kang, Won Hee; Kim, Chang Min

    2002-04-01

    A phenyl propanoid derivative, dillapional(1) was found to be a antimicrobial principle of the stems of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) with MIC values of 125, 250 and 125/ against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides, respectively. A coumarin derivative, scopoletin(2) was also isolated as marginally antimicrobial agent along with inactive compounds, dillapiol(3), bergapten(4), imperatorin(5) and psolaren(6) from this plant. The isolates 1-6 were not active against the Escherichia coli.

  7. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in ... Conclusion: F. vulgare may be useful in the management of stress and stress-related disorders on account of ..... Kutlu HR, Forbes JM.

  8. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2004-12-29

    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising.

  10. Soil Cadmium Regulates Antioxidases in Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Da-lin; ZHANG Shu-pan; CHEN Zheng; QIU Wei-wei

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of soil cadmium(Cd)on antioxidases in sorghum was studied using 3 sorghum species viz.,sweet sorghum[Sorghum bicolor(L.)]Moench.cv.Hunnigreen,sorghum hybrid sudangrass(Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense,cv.Everlush)and sudangrass[Sorghum sudanense(Piper)Stapf cv.Xinjiang].The results showed that low concentrations of Cd2+(≤10 mg kg-1)induced the activities of 4 antioxidases in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum,but high Cd2+concentrations(≥50 mg kg-1)significantly reduced the activities of all the four antioxidases.The glutathione(GSH)contents in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum correlated positively with the Cd2+concentrations.The maximum antioxidase activities were observed at the elongation stage of sorghum during the whole growth period.

  11. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  12. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  13. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle;

    2015-01-01

    genome sequence data of four sorghum inbred lines for the discovery and validation of small-size PAVs (40bp-10kb). Five thousand five hundreds and eleven (5,511) genic small-size PAVs (40 bp-10 kb) were identified and found to affect 3238 genes. These PAVs were mainly distributed on the sub...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...... covering 97 % of the region of the physical genome. The resources reported here should be useful for genetic study and breeding of sorghum and related species....

  14. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    genome sequence data of four sorghum inbred lines for the discovery and validation of small-size PAVs (40bp-10kb). Five thousand five hundreds and eleven (5,511) genic small-size PAVs (40 bp-10 kb) were identified and found to affect 3238 genes. These PAVs were mainly distributed on the sub...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...... covering 97 % of the region of the physical genome. The resources reported here should be useful for genetic study and breeding of sorghum and related species....

  15. Research update: Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of photoperiod-sensitive forage sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass against non-photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, or corn silage. Forages were planted on two dates at two locations (Marshfield and Hancock, WI). Results suggested some ...

  16. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  17. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Kiboi

    in which 67 lines fell in three major clusters of 39, 15 and 13 lines each. ... Aluminium (Al) toxicity, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum bicolor multi-drug, toxic extrusion compound ... Eighty nine (89) Kenyan sorghum lines were used in this study to.

  18. Sorghum allelopathy – from ecosystem to molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference have also been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse loca...

  19. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species ...

  20. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species...

  1. Environmental adaptibility of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... A GC-MS analyses, to determine quantitative and qualitative composition of essential oils were used. The results of the research indicate that tansy from both locations shows ... Tansy from Ada Huja had larger total amount of essential oils comparing to .... T. vulgare is principally used in tradition Maroccon.

  2. 大麦(Hordeum vulgare)昼夜节律钟基因CCA1的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Circadian Clock Gene CCA1 in Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢国芳; 宋萌; 姚涵; 韩渊怀

    2012-01-01

    CCA 1 gene plays an important role in circadian clock sensitivity in rice (Oryza sativa L. ) and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, CCAl gene in barley was cloned by RT-PCR using homological primers based on the highly conserved region of the multiple alignments of the rice and Arabidopsis. The similarities of this sequence were up to 72% and 69%, respectively, to corresponding mRNA sequences of rice and maize in BLASTx of GenBank database. Using ORF Finder software, a 2157 bp open reading frame was found to code 718 amino acids. Using Compute pI/Mw tool, the amino acid sequence was analyzed, and it revealed that the molecular weight of this protein was about 77 769. 4 Da, and isoelectric point was about 6. 55. We established fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR system with barley inbred lines HUADAMAI 1 and HUADAMAI 2, and studied the expression of CCAl in leaf under 16h/8h (light/ dark) conditions. Expression analysis showed that the gene expression peaked at dawn (ZTO) then gradually declined from ZTO to ZT15, bottomed at ZT15, then increased and returned to the initial level at ZT24. This study will provide information of barley CCAl gene for further studying the function in regulating photoperiod sensitivity in barley, and provide scientific basis for clarifying the mechanism of the circadian synchronization in barley.%昼夜节律钟基因CCA1在调解水稻和拟南芥的光周期反应中起着重要作用.利用BLAST手段以玉米中的CCA1基因序列作为靶序列,调取Genbank数据库信息,并结合RT-PCR方法获得了大麦的cDNA同源序列.BLASTx分析发现其与水稻和玉米的序列相似性分别达到72%和69%.通过ORF Finder软件分析发现,该序列包含一个2157 bp的开放阅读框,编码一个由718个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白序列,其分子量为77769.4 Da,等电点为6.55.采用实时荧光定量PCR分析发现,随光照时间的变化,该基因在大麦叶片中的表达量呈现出白天不断降低而夜晚逐渐升高的昼夜变化趋势,且在华大麦1号和华大麦2号中的表达曲线存在一定的差异.本研究为进一步研究大麦CCA1基因在调控大麦光周期响应途径中的功能,阐明大麦光周期敏感机制提供了科学依据.

  3. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  4. Influence of crop rotation and meteorological conditons on density and biomass of weeds in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wanic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of changes in weed infestation in spring barley cultivated in the years 1990-2004 in crop rotation with a 25% proportion of this cereal (potato - spring barley - sowing peas - winter triticale, when it was grown after potato, and in crop rotation with its 75% proportion (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley, when it was grown once or twice after spring barley. In the experiment, no weed control was applied. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal and before the harvest, the composition of weed species and weed density of particular weed species were determined, and before the harvest also their biomass. Weed density increased linearly on all plots during the 15-year period. The average values confirm the increase in weed biomass in the case when spring barley was grown once or twice after this crop; however, those differences were influenced by the previous situation only during some seasons. Weed density and biomass showed high year-to-year variability and a positive correlation with the amount of precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature during the period of the study. A negative correlation between the yield of barley and weed biomass was shown.

  5. Luteibacter rhizovicinus gen. nov., sp nov., a yellow-pigmented gammaproteobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens E.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Kroer, Niels

    2005-01-01

    ) had a DNA G+C content of 64.3 mol% and the major fatty acids were 15:0 iso (23.4%), 17: 1 iso omega 9c (25.5%) and 17 :0 iso (18.1 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains showed 96 % sequence similarity to Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 18385(T), 95...... % to Frateuria aurantia DSM 6220(T) and 96 % to Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T). Using LJ96(T) DNA as probe, DNA-DNA hybridizations documented the relationship of the three strains to a single species (87.4-98.7% relatedness) and showed less than 30% relatedness to Frateuria aurantia DSM 62207 and Fulvimonas soli...... DSM 14263(T). Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 183857 is not extant and the strain not available from any public strain collections, thus DNA-DNA hybridization could not include this strain. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the three yellow-pigmented strains could also...

  6. Drought-related secondary metabolites of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves and their metabolomic quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Anna; Sawikowska, Aneta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Gudyś, Kornelia; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Krajewski, Paweł; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Determining the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to the diversity of their structures and the complexity of their interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information about the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed their level as a result of drought stress. Metabolites with similar patterns of change were grouped in modules, revealing differences among RILs and parental varieties at early and late stages of drought. The most significant changes in stress were observed for ferulic and sinapic acid derivatives as well as acylated glycosides of flavones. The tendency to accumulate methylated compounds was a major phenomenon in this set of samples. In addition, the polyamine derivatives hordatines as well as terpenoid blumenol C derivatives were observed to be drought related. The correlation of drought-related compounds with molecular marker polymorphisms resulted in the definition of metabolomic quantitative trait loci in the genomic regions of single-nucleotide polymorphism 3101-111 and simple sequence repeat Bmag0692 with multiple linkages to metabolites. The associations pointed to genes related to the defence response and response to cold, heat and oxidative stress, but not to genes related to biosynthesis of the compounds. We postulate that the significant metabolites have a role as antioxidants, regulators of gene expression and modulators of protein function in barley during drought. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue también evaluada mediante su capacidad para estabilizar aceite de girasol con concentraciones de BSE de 600 ppm (respecto al peso del aceite. La muestras estabilizadas (tratadas con extractos y el control (sin adición de extractos SFO fueron tratadas bajo condiciones de almacenamiento acelerado (calentamiento en un horno a 60ºC durante 30 días y ciclos de calentamiento de 8 h/día. Estas fueron analizadas a intervalos regulares para evaluar la extensión de los cambios oxidativos mediante la medida del valor de peróxidos, valor de para-anisidina y los contenidos de dienos conjugados y trienos congujados. Generalmente, los extractos de semilla de cebada al 80% demostraron una mejor acción antioxidante que los extracto al 100% de metanol. La actividad antioxidante de BSE varió también considerablemente entre las distintas variedades ensayadas. Los presentes resultados sugieren que los extractos antioxidantes de semillas de cebada podrían ser usadas para proteger aceites vegetales de la oxidación.

  8. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a modifier of root architecture and that root traits and their utility in breeding for greater productivity have to be understood in the context of high sowing densities.

  9. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve t...... introductions of the gene of interest and the resistance gene for selection, respectively. The transgenic lines (T0), currently growing in greenhouse will be self pollinated and the molecular, physiological and agronomic characterization of subsequent generations will be undertaken....

  10. Molecular analysis of cultivated naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifen PAN; Guangbing DENG; Xuguang ZHAI; Hai LONG; Yawei TANG; Xiaolin QIANG; Maoqun YU

    2008-01-01

    Naked barley is widely planted in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and is essential for the daily life of Tibetans in those regions. In this study, the genetic diversity of 64 cultivated naked barley accessions from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China was analyzed using 30 mapped SSRs linked with the important traits of barley improvement. A total of 132 alleles were identified at 22 polymorphic SSR loci, with the number of each locus ranging from 2 to 15, the polymorphism information con-tent (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.91, and with an average of 0.65. Of the selected SSRs, 13 SSR markers with high PIC value were highly efficient for the genetic analysis of Chinese barley. The accessions were divided into five main groups by cluster analysis and could be differentiated from each other. The genetic diversity in the Tibet accessions was slightly higher than in the Sichuan accessions. It is found that there were specific genes linked with the collecting sites. These results indi-cate the cultivated naked barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China are highly polymorphic and could be considered as an important resource bank for cultivated naked barley breeding in the future.

  11. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    Most cultivars of higher plants display poor regeneration capacity of explants due to yet unknown genotypic determined mechanisms. This implies that technologies such as transformation often are restricted to model cultivars with good tissue characteristics. In the present paper, we add further...... evidence to our previous hypothesis that regeneration from young barley embryos derived from in vitro-cultured ovules is genotype independent. We investigated the ovule culture ability of four cultivars Femina, Salome, Corniche and Alexis, known to have poor response in other types of tissue culture...... vector pVec8-GFP harboring a hygromycin resistance gene and the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene, was used for transformation. The results strongly indicate that the tissue culture response level in ovule culture is genotype independent. However, we did observe differences between cultivars...

  12. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  13. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    generally showed stronger regrowth than barley after late cutting, but only the perennial variety 'Soperta' regenerated as many tillers at cutting as formed when harvested at the ripe grain stage. In both species, significant differences were found between varieties. The level of soluble carbohydrates...

  14. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the major crops cultivated worldwide and constitutes an important basis for animal feed. However, the production is facing a number of challenges that will be accentuated in the years to come, in particular restrictions on the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In order to improve t...... the N use efficiency in barley, we are developing a new generation of genetically modified plants based on the concept of cisgenesis. In this approach, plants are transformed only with their own genetic material. The genes encoding the cytosolic isoform of the glutamine synthetase (GS1...... into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  15. Identification of SNPs in barley(Hordeum vulgare L.)by deep sequencing of six reduced representation libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganggang; Guo; Dawa; Dondup; Lisha; Zhang; Sha; Hu; Xingmiao; Yuan; Jing; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are required for genotyping and linkage mapping in identifying genes from crops with complex genomes, such as barley. As the most common variation, single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) are suitable for accurate genotyping by using the next-generation sequencing(NGS) technology. Reduced representation libraries(RRLs) of five barley accessions and one mutant were sequenced using NGS technology for SNP discovery. Twenty million short reads were generated and the proportion of repetitive sequences was reduced by more than 56%. A total of 6061 SNPs were identified, and 451 were mapped to the draft sequence of the barley genome with pairing reads. Eleven SNPs were validated using length polymorphic allele-specific PCR markers.

  16. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The projected future climate will affect the global agricultural production negatively, however, to keep abreast of the expected increase in global population, the agricultural production must increase. Therefore, to safeguard the future crop yield and quality, the adaptive potential of crops...

  17. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  18. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L. in the mouse forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Yamaura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young green barley leaf is one of the richest sources of antioxidants and has been widely consumed for health management in Japan. In this study, we examined whether oral administration of young green barley leaf has an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were individually forced to swim in an open cylindrical container, one hour after oral administration of young green barley leaf (400 or 1000 mg / kg or imipramine (100 mg / kg. Expression of mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the brain was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test; both 400 and 1000 mg / kg young green barley leaves, as well as the positive control imipramine (100 mg / kg, reduced the immobility duration compared to the vehicle group. The expression of mRNA for NGF detected in the hippocampus immediately after the last swimming test was higher than that in the non-swimming group (Nil. Oral administration of imipramine suppressed this increase to the level of the Nil group. Young green barley leaf (400 and 1000 mg / kg also showed a moderate decrease in the expression of mRNA for NGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Oral administration of young green barley leaf is able to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. Consequently it is possible that the antidepressant-like effects of the young green barley leaf are, at least in part, mediated by an inhibition of the increase in the hippocampus levels of NGF.

  20. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  1. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui

    2010-01-01

    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  2. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet.

  3. The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid O. Abulnaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study focused on testing the hypolipidemic activity of two doses of barley bran on hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats weighing 180–200 gm were divided into four groups. The first group (G1 was the negative control, the second group (G2 was the positive control group fed 2% cholesterol in the diet, and rats of the third and the fourth groups were fed 2% cholesterol and were cosupplemented with 5% and 10% barley bran, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic rats of (G2 showed an increase in lipid profile, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, whereas kidney function, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin total protein, and total bilirubin were not significantly affected compared with the negative control group in G1. Moreover, histology of heart, liver, and kidney of G2 rats showed histopathological changes compared with the negative control. Administration of the two doses of barley bran in G3 and G4 to the hypercholesterolemic rats ameliorated the level of lipids, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney tissues nearly restored the normal state as in G1.

  4. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  5. EFICIÊNCIA E FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Drechslera teres EM SEMENTES DE CEVADA (Hordeum vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin; Milto José Facco

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência e fitotoxicidade de cinco fungicidas aplicados no tratamento de sementes para o controle de Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha reticulada em cevada. A produtividade da cultura foi afetada pelos fungicidas testados. Os fungicidas tebuconazole e triadimenol reduziram a altura das plântulas. enquanto que o difenoconazole reduziu significativamente a matéria seca (30g/100kg de sementes). O efeito dos fungicidas sobre a emergência mo...

  6. EFICIÊNCIA E FITOTOXICIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE Drechslera teres EM SEMENTES DE CEVADA (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silveiro Balardin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência e fitotoxicidade de cinco fungicidas aplicados no tratamento de sementes para o controle de Drechslera teres, agente causal da mancha reticulada em cevada. A produtividade da cultura foi afetada pelos fungicidas testados. Os fungicidas tebuconazole e triadimenol reduziram a altura das plântulas. enquanto que o difenoconazole reduziu significativamente a matéria seca (30g/100kg de sementes. O efeito dos fungicidas sobre a emergência mostrou que difenoconazole (30g/100kg de sementes e iprodine + thiram possibilitaram as maiores percentagens. Os fungicidas reduziram a incidência da Drechslera teres, o comprimento do coleóptilo e das radículas.

  7. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    after inoculation. This coincided with the appearance of discrete F. graminearum-induced proteolytic fragments of beta-amylase. Based on these results, analysis of grain proteome changes prior to extensive proteolysis enabled identification of barley proteins responding early to infection by the fungus...... function was identified. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed a correlation between high gene expression and detection of the corresponding proteins. Fungal genes encoding alkaline protease and endothiapepsin were expressed during 1-3 days after inoculation, making them...... candidates for generation of the observed beta-amylase fragments. These fragments have potential to be developed as proteome-level markers for fungal infection that are also informative about grain protein quality....

  8. Mutation at the circadian clock gene EARLY MATURITY 8 adapts domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to short growing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sebastien; Turner, Adrian S; Gruszka, Damian; Christodoulou, Vangelis; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria; Laurie, David A

    2012-05-22

    The circadian clock is an autonomous oscillator that produces endogenous biological rhythms with a period of about 24 h. This clock allows organisms to coordinate their metabolism and development with predicted daily and seasonal changes of the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both evolutionary fitness and agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, we show that commercial barley varieties bred for short growing seasons by use of early maturity 8 (eam8) mutations, also termed mat-a, are severely compromised in clock gene expression and clock outputs. We identified EAM8 as a barley ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) and demonstrate that eam8 accelerates the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and inflorescence development. We propose that eam8 was selected as barley cultivation moved to high-latitude short-season environments in Europe because it allowed rapid flowering in genetic backgrounds that contained a previously selected late-flowering mutation of the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1. We show that eam8 mutants have increased expression of the floral activator HvFT1, which is independent of allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The selection of independent eam8 mutations shows that this strategy facilitates short growth-season adaptation and expansion of the geographic range of barley, despite the pronounced clock defect.

  9. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  10. Efficacy of Si fertilization to modulate the heavy metals absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Yuqiao, Liu; Qiang, Zhan; Matichenkov, Vladimir; Bocharnikova, Elena; Dåstøl, Magne

    2016-10-01

    Silicon-based fertilizers and soil amendments can have direct and indirect positive influences on cultivated plants. The solid forms of Si-based substances, the most widespread in use, are efficient only at high application rates due to their low level of solubility. Several types of Si-based substances such as fumed silica, slags from the iron and steel industry, modified slags, and a Si-rich product were tested using barley and pea as silicon accumulative and non-accumulative plants, respectively, at two application rates. The plants were grown under toxic concentrations of heavy metals in a greenhouse. Si-rich materials high in water-soluble Si had a positive effect at both the low and high application rates, and for both plant species. This type of substance can be regarded as Si fertilizer, demonstrating greater efficiency at a low application rate and lessened efficiency at a high application rate for protection of the cultivated plants against accumulation of the heavy metals.

  11. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  12. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Mrízová

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  13. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  14. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  15. Apoptosis in developing anthers and the role of ABA in this process during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Bergen, S. van; Lamers, G.E.M.; Oppedijk, B.J.; Heijden, M.W. van der; Priester, W. de; Schilperoort, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Intra-nucleosomal cleavage of DNA into fragments of about 200 bp was demonstrated to occur in developing anthers, in which microspores had developed into the mid-late to late uni-nucleate stage in situ, i.e. at the verge of mitosis. The same was observed, but to a much larger extent, if these anther

  16. The effect of anther orientation on the production of microspore-derived embryoids and plants of Hordeum vulgare cv. Sabarlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C P

    1985-10-01

    The orientation of barley anthers on culture medium had a marked effect on their response. Embryoids developed only in the upper lobes of anthers cultured on edge, i.e. with a single lobe in contact with the culture medium. Anthers cultured flat, i.e. with both lobes in contact with the medium, did not respond. Careful orientation of anthers at the start of incubation resulted in a mean yield of 20 green plants per 100 anthers cultured.

  17. Androgenesis in Anther Culture of Lithuanian Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKAVICIUTE, Rita

    2008-01-01

    An anther culture method was used for the production of doubled haploids (DHs) in Lithuanian barley and potato cultivars that were directly regenerated from embryoids (Caredda´s method) were applied to determine androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green DH regenerants were obtained in 3 Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (´Aidas´, ´Alsa´, and ´Auksiniai´) out of 10 studied. The highest rate of embryoid formation was determined in cv. ...

  18. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    was inhibited by UDP and uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP). Glucanase digestion of the in vitro product showed that it was a beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide. Two different procedures were used for further enrichment of polypeptides involved in callose synthase activity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation...

  19. 75 FR 70573 - Sorghum Promotion and Research Program: Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., sorghum haylage, sorghum billets, and sorghum silage are assessed at a rate of 0.35 percent of net market... haylage, sorghum billets, and sorghum silage. The Act requires that a referendum to ascertain approval...

  20. Biorefinery of sweet sorghum stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhong, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has been considered as a viable energy crop for alcohol fuel production. This review discloses a novel approach for the biorefining of sweet sorghum stem to produce multiple valuable products, such as ethanol, butanol and wood plastic composites. Sweet sorghum stem has a high concentration of soluble sugars in its juice, which can be fermented to produce ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to obtain high ethanol yield and fermentation rates, concentrated juice with an initial total sugar concentration of 300gL(-1) was fermented. The maximum ethanol concentration after 54h reached 140gL(-1) with a yield of 0.49g ethanol per g consumed sugar, which is 97% of the theoretical value. Sweet sorghum bagasse, obtained from juice squeezing, was pretreated by acetic acid to hydrolyze 80-90% of the contained hemicelluloses. Using this hydrolysate as raw material (total sugar 55gL(-1)), 19.21gL(-1) total solvent (butanol 9.34g, ethanol 2.5g, and acetone 7.36g) was produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The residual bagasse after pretreatment was extruded with PLA in a twin-screw extruder to produce a final product having a PLA: fiber ratio of 2:1, a tensile strength of 49.5M and a flexible strength of 65MPa. This product has potential use for applications where truly biodegradable materials are required. This strategy for sustainability is crucial for the industrialization of biofuels from sweet sorghum.

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, H; Uğraş, S; Dülger, H; Bayram, I; Tuncer, I; Oztürk, G; Oztürk, A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl(4) administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that FEO has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  2. Adhesive performance of sorghum protein extracted from sorghum DDGS and flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main co-product from grain-based ethanol production. The objective of this research was to compare the adhesive performance of three types of sorghum proteins: acetic acid-extracted sorghum protein from DDGS (PI), aqueous ethanol-extracted sorghum ...

  3. Agronomic performance of sorghum seed production lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Naveda, Antonio; Valdés-Lozano, Ciro G.S; Francisco ZAVALA-GARCÍA; Olivares-Saénz, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Díez, Adriana; Vázquez-Badillo, Mario Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of A, B isogenic lines and R grain sorghum lines which restore androfertility of sorghum for grain production. This work was performed during the spring-summer 2010 in Marin Nuevo Leon under drip irrigation. Days to flowering, seed yield per plant, brix degrees and weight of 1000 seeds were measured. The statistical analysis with the benchmark test of averages with independent samples was realized in A, B sorghum lines to da...

  4. Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) to Residual Phosphate in Soybean-Sorghum and Maize-Sorghum Crop Rotation Schemes on Two Contrasting Nigerian Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of finely ground Sokoto Rock Phosphate and Morocco Rock Phosphate to enhance productivity of maize- (Zea mays L.) Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and soybean- (Glycine max L.) Sorghum crop rotation schemes was evaluated using Single Super Phosphate as reference fertilizer. The experiments were carried out in the screen house of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, in February and June 2013. The experiments involved 2 × 2 × 4 × 3 factorial in a Completely Randomized De...

  5. Effects of sorghum on broilers gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCA Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.

  6. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Govinda; Karki, Shanta; Thakur, Vivek; Wanchana, Samart; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Dionora, Jacque; Sheehy, John E; Furbank, Robert; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Quick, William Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33) with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT). The back-cross (BC1F1) progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air) and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used in the

  7. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  8. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp., its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour, syrup, sugar, ethanol, vegetable oil, starch, wax, paints, and animal fodder (the grain and entire plant. Sorghum straw is used to produce fibres, paper, and building materials. Sorghum has high energy value and can be an excellent source of renewable energy. It is easy to cultivate, with low soil and nutrient requirements. Due to its content of allelopathic compounds, it inhibits weed growth and has a phytosanitary effect. It is also resistant to disease and pests. It is a short-day plant, and in Polish climate conditions, it does not form sufficiently mature seeds, but produces a very high yield of green matter that can be used for fodder. Cultivation of sorghum during periodic water shortages may be an alternative solution for obtaining fodder when maize cultivation is unreliable.

  9. Sorghum biotechnology for food and health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mehlo, L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project is to develop transgenic sorghum varieties that will deliver essential amino acids (lysine, threonine and tryptophan), vitamins A and E, iron and zinc - all of which are deficient in sorghum - to African populations...

  10. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  11. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  12. Genetic dissection of bioenergy traits in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, and high biomass yield. Because of the species’ great genetic diversity (Murray et al. 2009), and the fact that sorghum is a diploid, seed-propagated crop...

  13. Acometimento oral no pênfigo vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Miziara Ivan Dieb; Ximenes Filho João Aragão; Ribeiro Fernando César; Brandão Ana Laura

    2003-01-01

    O Pênfigo Vulgar (PV) é uma doença vesicobolhosa caracterizada pela presença de auto-anticorpos contra moléculas de adesão intraepidérmicas. OBJETIVO: Identificar as características do PV em cada sexo, formas de apresentação, idade de acometimento, métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento utilizado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte histórica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Pacientes com PV acompanhados no Ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia do HC-FMUSP entre 1990 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Dos 23 pacientes, 91,3% foram mul...

  14. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  15. Mutation breeding in sorghum in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Razzak, M.T. [Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Batan (Indonesia); Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2001-05-01

    Sorghum has a big potential to be grown and developed in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to produce new sorghum variety to improve sorghum production for supporting the development of sorghum agroindustry in Indonesia. The lethal dose 50% (LD-50) value for sorghum was found to be 0.73 kGy. The dose of 0.4 kGy gave the highest variance for plant height and harvest index. Selection in the generating M2, M3 and M4 populations resulted to some promising lines, especially ET20-B, with desirable agronomic characteristics, big and condense head, high yielding, white and clean color of seeds, and good nutrition values. (author)

  16. Caracterización morfológica de almidones de los géneros Triticum y Hordeum en la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Sáez, José Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains are increasingly used in archaeobotanical studies as markers of diet, plant domestication, tool use and site organization in archaeological research, because their morphology and features provide a means to identify the plant that produced them. In this paper we characterize morphometrically the starch grains of five species of the genus Triticum and three varieties of Hordeum vulgare. In addition there is an assessment of the studies of starch grains made in the Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating the achievements, the weaknesses and future directions to promote this type of bioarchaeological analysis; especially, there is a need to rely on wide reference collections, as well as apply statistical analyses and carry out experimental studies to control the processes of alteration of the starch grains.Los granos de almidón son cada vez más utilizados en los estudios arqueobotánicos como marcadores de la dieta, la domesticación de plantas, el uso de herramientas y la organización microespacial de los yacimientos arqueológicos, debido a que su morfología y características permiten identificar las plantas que los produjeron. En el presente trabajo se caracterizan morfométricamente los granos de almidón de cinco especies del género Triticum y tres variedades de Hordeum vulgare. Además se hace un balance de los estudios de almidones realizados en la Prehistoria de la Península Ibérica, señalando los logros, las debilidades y futuras directrices para potenciar este tipo de análisis bioarqueológico; especialmente la necesidad de contar con amplias colecciones de referencia, la aplicación de análisis estadísticos paralelos, y la realización de estudios experimentales para controlar los procesos de alteración de los almidones.

  17. Impact of NPK treatments on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) yields for biofuel feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative ener...

  18. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds......) movement, would all contribute to submergence tolerance in H. marinum. The present study demonstrates that dissolved CO(2) levels can determine submergence tolerance of terrestrial plants. So, submergence experiments should be conducted with defined CO(2) concentrations and enrichment might be needed...

  19. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Grain Sorghum Genotypes ( Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Beheshti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of drought stress tolerance in sorghum genotypes at different growth stages and severity of stress and their reaction is very important in breeding programs. This study was conducted with the 13 grain sorghum genotypes in 3 different environmental conditions including normal condition and two water deficit conditions at vegetative and reproductive stages using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Genotypes grouping were performed based on tolerance and sensitivity indices by cluster analysis. There was a positive and significant correlation between grain yield with tolerance indices (MP, GMP and STI and sensitivity indices (SSI and TOL in both normal and two water deficit conditions. The results showed that STI, GMP and MP indices were the best indices for evaluation of genotypes response in drought stress conditions. Cluster analysis showed that B26 genotype and M2 promising line had the most grain yield and higher values of STI ،GMP and MP indices in both normal and stress conditions and they grouped in the same cluster.

  20. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes.

  1. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  2. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): Nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-01-22

    Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal in the world and is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the human diet. We summarize the recent findings concerning the nutrients and bioactive compounds of sorghum and its potential impact on human health, analyzing the limitations and positive points of the studies and proposing directions for future research. Sorghum is basically composed of starch, which is more slowly digested than that of other cereals, has low digestibility proteins and unsaturated lipids, and is a source of some minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, most sorghum varieties are rich in phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. The results obtained in vitro and in animals have shown that phenolics compounds and fat soluble compounds (polycosanols) isolated from sorghum benefit the gut microbiota and parameters related to obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, and hypertension. The effects of whole sorghum and its fractions on human health need to be evaluated. In conclusion, sorghum is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, tannins, and polycosanols, which beneficially modulate, in vitro and in animals, parameters related to noncommunicable diseases. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing on protein and starch digestibility of sorghum as well as on the profile and bioavailability of its bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. Furthermore, the benefits resulting from the interaction of bioactive compounds in sorghum and human microbiota should be studied.

  3. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  4. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The yeast isolat~s used were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry yeast), Candido. A I isolated from ... Key words: S.cerevisiae, Candida sp., sorghum, protein enrichment, animal feed. .... Identifying bacteria using metabolic characteristics Ln:.

  5. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  6. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns to ... poor price incentives and difficulties in getting secure markets for farm ..... distortions in price policy – trade restrictions or taxes/subsidies – enacted to promote.

  7. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  8. Sweet sorghum. An alternative energy crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik [WIP Renewable Energies, Muenchen (Germany); Braconnier, Serge [Centre International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), Toulouse (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the past years sweet sorghum (scientific name: Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has gained considerable interest as a source of either fermentable free sugars or lignocellulosic feedstock with the potential to produce fuel, food, feed and a variety of other products in various combinations thereby reconciling energy and food security issues. Sweet sorghum is considered one of the most efficient crops to convert atmospheric CO{sub 2} into sugar with large advantages compared to sugarcane production in some areas of the tropics, making it a promising crop for bioenergy while meeting food and fodder needs. Sweet sorghum is a C4 plant with the following interesting characteristics (i) its growth cycle is short (about four months) facilitating double cropping, (ii) it can be easily grown from seeds, (iii) its production can be completely mechanized, (iv) it produces sugar in the stalk, and starch in the grain, (v) it has a high water and nutrient use efficiency, (vi) the bagasse produced from sweet sorghum has high biological value when used as forage and (vii) it has a wide adaptability to different environments. However, unlike sugarcane and maize, sweet sorghum has little breeding history. The potential of production improvement through genetic enhancement is thus very high.

  9. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum taxa from North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    submetacentrics than previously reported in Hordeum distinguished the genomes of H. arizonicum and H. brachyantherum (4x) from Newfoundland. A partial inactivation of the nucleolus organizers of one parental genome in interspecific hybrids is considered more common than generally appreciated....

  10. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  11. Effect of Tillage on Soil Properties and Yield of Sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Tillage on Soil Properties and Yield of Sorghum ( Sorghum Bicolor (L.) ... second and third experiments and selected soil physical properties were determined. ... Soil pH, organic matter, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were significantly influenced ...

  12. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  13. Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass in central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the yield and nutrient composition of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn planted on 2 dates and harvested using single or multiple-cut harvest strategies at 2 research stations (Marshfield and Ha...

  14. Pollen size in Hordeum L.: correlation between size, ploidy level, and breeding system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; von Bothmer, Roland

    1994-01-01

    The size of pollen in the genus Hordeum (Poaceae) is correlated with ploidy level and breeding system. Generally, the pollen size increases with the ploidy level, and outbreeding species possess significant- ly larger pollen than inbreeders. In H. roshevitzii (2x), H. pusilplum (2x), H. murinum...... consequences of heteromorphic pollen are discussed, and a model for the evolution of breeding strategies in Hordeum is suggest- ed. Key...

  15. Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, U.; Craufurd, P.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Kumar, A.A.; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2012-01-01

    The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on

  16. Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, U.; Craufurd, P.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Kumar, A.A.; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2012-01-01

    The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on

  17. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids .... national variety trial in the case of open pollinated varieties ...... Principles of field crop production. 3rd Ed., Macmillan. Publishing Co.

  18. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Referendum. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing...

  19. Genetic variability of sorghum landraces from lower Eastern Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuben M. Muasya

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... Key words: Genetic variability, landraces, simple sequence repeats, sorghum. ... determining the fate of new genetic combinations from ..... Systematics and evolution of Sorghum Sect. ... Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, ... environment for genetic marker analysis. ... Introduction to population biology.

  20. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda Schons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum, phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7 spores/mL; A Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  1. Sorghum protein structure and chemistry: Implications for nutrition and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the 5th most widely grown cereal crop in the world and has desirable agronomic traits such as drought resistance and heat tolerance. Sorghum is a major food source in developing nations and is widely used as feed grain in Western countries. There is increasing interest in sorghum food pr...

  2. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  4. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  5. Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y. Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review.

  6. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  7. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  8. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  9. Features of Vulgar Latin in the inscriptions of Naissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Vojin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigraphic material from the region of Naissus, in spite of its relative scarcity and poor state of preservation, offers valuable examples of Vulgar Latin usage. Interesting phenomena include an instance of the imperial name Pertinax in the form Pertenax, which may be due to a vulgar reinterpretation of the name (‘Very Tough’, cf. Constans, Valens, sim. and may imply rhizotony (Perténax; the adjective superstantes ‘survivors’, apparently the issue of two consequent vulgar developments, superstes > superstens (hypercorrect spelling > superstans (false analogy; an isosyllabic 3rd declension nominative singular, Melioris (from the name Melior, as well as a 3rd decl. dative singular generi from the 2nd decl. noun gener ‘son-in-law’; an early borrowing from Germanic, brutes ‘daughter-in-law’; a ‘weak’ future participle, sequiture, for secuturae; the bastard noun volumptas, cf. voluntas and voluptas; a correlative construction with sic...sic for quemadmodum...sic; and the verb adjuvare followed by a dative, which illustrates a vulgarism known from the Glossaries. Another kind of vulgarity, which is rather a matter of simplicity than purely linguistic incompetence, is found in cases such as an epitaph whose dedicator calls herself bene merita; or a semi-metric inscription-a commaticum-whose actual text may be the outcome of tampering with a regular epigraphic poem

  10. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity.

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  12. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion.

  13. Genotypic Variation for Salinity Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Genotypes at Early Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigabu, Endalew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is the fifth most economically important crop among cereals in the world. Salinity is an abiotic factor which reduces productivity of sorghum. Exploiting genetic variability to identify salt tolerant genotype is one of the strategies used to overcome salinity. Pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the genetic variation of eleven sorghum genotypes for NaCl salinity response at germination and early seedling stages. The experimental treatments were five NaCl salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS m-1 and eleven sorghum genotypes (Gambella1107, Melkam, S-35, ESH-2, Gobye, 97MW6130, Meko, 76T1#23, ICSV-111, Abshir and Teshale. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replicates.Data was analyzed using SAS (version 9.0 statistical software and means were separated by LSD. Germination rate, final germination percentage, seedling shoot length and seedling root length were measured. The ANOVA for treatments, genotypes and their interaction was found to be highly significant (p<0.001 with regard to all parameters. Genotypes Meko, Gambella1107, ICSV-111 and Melkam were found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth stages. However, genotypes ESH-2 and Gobye were salt sensitive during both stages. The rest sorghum genotypes were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of wide genotypic variation among the sorghum genotypes for NaCl salt tolerance.

  14. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Bedell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  15. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  16. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  17. Nutritional value of sorghum silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielly Maria Almeida Moura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional characteristics and quality of silages of five sorghum genotypes, namely: Volumax, AG2005E, Qualimax, BRS610 and AG2501. The study was conducted at the Experimental Farm Unimontes, in the municipality of Janaúba, state of Minas Gerais. The treatments were distributed in a randomized block design with four replicates. Data were tested by analysis of variance andmeans were compared by Scott-Knott test at a significance level of 5%. The pH values ranged from 3.93 and 4.10. Genotypes differed in all studied nutritional characteristics (p < 0.05. For the acid detergent fiber, differences were detected between the genotypes, AG2501 (35.66%, Volumax (34.89%, AG2005E (34.53%, Qualimax (32.39% and BRS610 (33.60%. The high participation of lignin was verifiedin all genotypes except for Volumax (4.14%. All silages were within the recommended range 50-65% for in vitro dry matter digestibility and classified as having good quality, however only the AG2005E genotype met nitrogen requirements for microbial fermentation, with 7.06% crude protein.

  18. Chemical composition and quality of sweet sorghum and maize silages

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew PODKÓWKA; Lucyna PODKÓWKA

    2011-01-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) silage, maize (Zea mays) silage, and sorghum and maize (1:1) silage were investigated. The silages were analysed for chemical composition, quality and aerobic stability. Dry matter was the lowest (20.88%) in sorghum silage and the highest (37.45%) in maize silage. In sorghum silage, the concentration of crude ash and crude fibre was higher, and that of crude protein, crude fat and N-free extractives lower compared to maize silage. Neutral detergent fibre an...

  19. Investigating Genetic Diversity of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill using Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Jadidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are considered valuable genetic resources in Iran. One of these medicinal as well as spice plants is Foeniculum Vulgare Mill from Umbellifetae family used in different industries such as food, medicine, and cosmetics. It seems that due to different climate conditions in Iran this plant represents a high and valuable genetic diversity; therefore, management of genetic resources protection and obtaining information about genetic diversity will help awareness of evolution processes as well as genetic erosion of this valuable plant. Genetic diversity in local masses of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill can be investigated using molecule markers such as AFLP, RAPD, ISSR, SRAP, RFLP, and so on. In investigation of over 30 ecotype of local Foeniculum Vulgare Mill, different markers have shown that mean polymorphic content (PIC is about 36% and mean genetic diversity is estimated about 40% in different samples. Data obtained from molecule software analyses help to categorize Foeniculum Vulgare Mill genotype in different groups based on climate and geographical conditions. Principle components analysis (PCOA has also confirmed the results of cluster analysis. Dendrogram obtained by cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient of simple matching (SM and UPGMA algorithm can also categorize population of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill in different groups. Results of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA have shown that most genetic variance between geographical groups can be seen in populations. In general, according to investigations, there is a significant genetic diversity regarding agronomic and molecular traits of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill masses in Iran and knowing this genetic diversity will help in breeding programs, complementary studies, categorization, and so on.

  20. Teratogenic effects of Origanum Vulgare extract in mice fetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on reproduction have mentioned Origanum Vulgare extract’s ability to reduce mortality rates and improve fertility rates. However, other studies have suggested that it is possible to use Origanum Vulgare extract to induce abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of Origanum Vulgare on embryo survival and macroscopic abnormalities in mice.Methods: In this study, 24 mice Balb/c female weighting approximately 25-30 g were divided into 4 groups. Origanum Vulgare extract was prepared; different concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg in 0.25 ml distilled water were administered, by oral gavage, to three experimental groups of mice between day 6 (starting gastrulation until day 15 of pregnancy (end of organogenesis. The control group consisted of six mice that received 0.25 ml of distilled water daily. On day 16 of study, pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and fetuses were removed and stained with Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red s and microwave irradiation. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities were investigated by light and stereomicroscopes.Results: The results of this study showed that high doses of the Origanum Vulgare extract significantly decreased the mean number of embryos (100.5, P>0.05, mean number of live embryos (70.5, P>0.05 in each mouse and resulted in significant reduction in mean weight(11848 mg, P>0.05 and crown-rump length(11.90.23 mm, P>0.05 and the overall size of fetuses compared to control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the groups receiving low dose of Origanum Vulgare extract with control group. In addition, under the effect of the Origanum Vulgare extract the subcutaneous bleeding seemed (20.1, P>0.05 significantly more frequent compared to the control group. Conclusion: Origanum Vulgare extract did not have any positive effect on fetal development; and high dosages led to an increased incidence rate of

  1. Some physicochemical properties of flour from germinated sorghum grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhalifa, Abd Elmoneim O; Bernhardt, Rita

    2013-02-01

    A Sudanese sorghum cultivar (Fetarita) was germinated for 3 days. Stability and clarity of sorghum pastes, freeze-thaw stability, gel consistency, and swelling power were measured every 24 h. There is no substantial difference in stability and clarity between flour samples from germinated and ungerminated sorghum, but a different behavior was observed between samples stored at room temperature and at 4 °C. Cooked paste derived from germinated sorghum flour presented higher syneresis than that derived from ungerminated sorghum flour over the first three cycles but when the cycle number increased, both flours showed zero syneresis value. For the gel consistency the flours derived from germinated sorghum produced thinnest gels. The neutral and acid gel consistency increased when the germination time increased. Germination had not much effect on the swelling power of sorghum flour.

  2. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  3. Preservation of potential fermentables in sweet sorghum by ensiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, J C; Henk, L L; Murphy, V G; Smith, D H; Gabrielsen, B C; Tengerdy, R P; Czako, L

    1987-11-01

    Pressed and wilted samples of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. Rio] were ensiled for periods up to 155 days. A kinetic study of the biochemical changes which occurred during ensiling showed that in wilted sorghum ensilage invert sugars and mannitol levels collectively were maintained at 65% of the original ferment able sugar content of the sorghum. The acidic environment produced by ensiling also served as a pretreatment that resulted in enhanced yields of reducing sugar when the sorghum was contacted with cellulolytic enzymes. The quantity of sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis more than compensated for carbohydrate used by organisms during the ensiling process. Both Saccharomyces uvarum and Clostridium acetobutylicum were able to ferment a medium constituted from pressed sorghum juice and the solution resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum ensilage.

  4. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuoche, James O.; Oyoo, Maurice E.; Cheruiyot, Erick; Mulianga, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p = 0.05) differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting) would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1) due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1) and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1) due to its high brix (16.21). PMID:28255577

  5. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  6. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ali, Salah Eldeen A

    2014-01-01

    This survey examined 60 samples of sorghum and 30 samples of sorghum products from three states (Khartoum, Kordofan and Gadarif) of Sudan for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A and B (OTA, OTB) and zearalenone (ZEN), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.6 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-2.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The frequency of contaminated samples with AFB1 from Khartoum, Gadarif and Kordofan state was 38.1%, 22.2% and 23.8%, respectively. Only two samples of sorghum from Khartoum state were contaminated with OTA (3.3%). Concentrations of OTA and OTB were low and may not cause problems. No sample of sorghum or sorghum products was contaminated with ZEN. Some sorghum samples contained AFB1 concentrations above the European Union regulatory limits. The highest contaminated samples were found in Khartoum state.

  7. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  8. Use of hybridization (F1 in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants with bisexual flowers, the development of hybrids and F1 seed production is only possible by using cytoplasmatic male sterility. The discovery of such sterility and the maintainers has made it possible to utilize the phenomenon of heterosis to improve yields and yield components in forage sorghum. It has been shown that the best way to develop forage sorghum hybrids is to cross grain sorghum as the female parent and Sudan grass as the male. The objective of this study was to develop a forage sorghum hybrid for the production of green matter to be used either fresh or for silage. The sorghum hybrid developed in these efforts (Siloking is intended for multiple cutting, as the basal nodes produce buds and regrowth takes place. The performance of the new hybrid with respect to yield and quality was compared to that of the forage sorghum cultivar NS Džin. In a two-year study conducted under different growing conditions in four locations, Siloking produced an average green matter yield of 86.29 t ha-1 (two cuts, a dry matter yield of 25.34 t ha-1, and a crude protein content of 11.85 %. Siloking outperformed NS Džin in terms of yield and quality. .

  9. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    Specific Objectives: 1. To identify the gene(s) underlying a major QTL for stem sugar concentration located on chromosome 3. 2. To identify QTL for stem juice volume and stalk sugar concentration and to identify the underlying genes. 3. To classify 60 novel sorghum bmr mutants from the USDA TILLING population in allelic groups based on cell wall chemistry and allelism tests. 4. To select representative bmr mutants from each allelic group and selected NIR spectral mutants for their potential value as feedstock for ethanol production. 5. To clone and characterize those Bmr genes that represent loci other than Bmr12 and Bmr6 using a mapping and a candidate gene approach. Objective 1 The experiments for this objective are largely complete and the data have been analyzed. Data interpretation and follow-up experiments are still in progress. A manuscript is in preparation (Vermerris et al.; see publication list for full details). The main results are: 1) 16 cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced at Cornell University. The libraries represent internode tissue and flag leaf tissue at booting, internode tissue and peduncle at soft-dough stage, from two plants per sampling time with the Rio allele for the QTL on chromosome 3, and two plants with the BTx623 allele on chromosome 3 (4 tissues x 2 genotypes x 2 replicates) 2) 480 million 86-nucleotide reads were generated from four lanes of Illuminia HiSeqII 3) 74% of the reads could be mapped to the sorghum transcriptome, indicative of good sequence quality 4) Of the 216 genes within the QTL, 17 genes were differentially expressed among plants with and without the Rio QTL. None of these 17 genes had obvious roles in sucrose metabolism 5) Clustering algorithms identified a group of 721 co-expressed genes. One of these genes is a sucrose synthase gene. This cluster also contains 10 genes from the QTL. 6) Among these co-expressed genes are regulatory genes for which knock-out lines in Arabidopsis have been obtained. Analysis of

  10. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  11. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds.

  12. Omslaget - hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redergør for den historiske baggrund for den illustration (tavle 994 fra Flora Danica, udgivet i 1790) af hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare), der er anvendt som illustration på festskriftets omslag. De illustratorer, der blev anvendt af Martin Vahl, udgiver af Flora Danica da tavle 994...

  13. genetic diversity among sorghum landraces of southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Analysis revealed the largest variation contributors. Key Words: Panicle ... process of evolution, through farmer selection within crop ... reported that phenotypic characterisation is a quick tool in ... Development Institute (KAZARDI), during sorghum ..... 2 vols. Murray, London . de Wet, J.M.J. and Harlan, J.R. 1971. The origin.

  14. Fermentation alcohol from grain sorghum starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Preez, J.C.; De Jong, F.; Botes, P.J.; Lategan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Grain sorghum is an attractive agricultural feedstock for ethanol production because of its high starch content and the fact that it is more drought-resistant than other cereal crops such as maize. The popular bird-proof grain sorghum variety was investigated. This was subjected to a chemical pretreatment to remove the polyphenolic compounds prior to starch hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation. Starch hydrolysis was accomplished with a commercial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and amyloglucosidase for saccharification. Depending on the saccharification conditions, the hydrolysate contained 65 to 128 g/litre glucose with corresponding maltose concentrations of 50 to 20 g/litre. Several yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to ferment maltose. The total saccharification plus fermentation time could be shortened substantially by inoculating after a brief saccharification period. The addition of ammonium chloride to the hydrolysate improved the fermentation rate. From a 30% grain sorghum slurry an ethanol concentration of over 12% (v/v) was obtained, which was 84% of the theoretical maximum. The data indicated that about 380 litres of ethanol could be produced per ton grain sorghum. 38 references.

  15. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Price, H. James; Dillon, Sally L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; Rooney, William L.; Ross, Larry; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  16. Management of Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane aphids are becoming a more prevalent pest in sorghum in the United States, especially in the south and are making their way north. There are many management practices that can be used on sugarcane aphids, the most important being scouting and maintaining populations. The most common mistake once a pest has been found is to immediately…

  17. Photoperiod response and floral transition in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolabu, Tezera W; Tadege, Million

    2016-12-01

    Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States. However, the molecular mechanism of photoperiod response and floral transition is poorly understood in sorghum. We have previously reported 3 FLOWERING LOCUS T homologues (SbFT1, SbFT8 and SbFT10) that serve as the ultimate mediators of photoperiod response and floral transition, but more work remains to be done to clearly define the molecular function of the upstream regulatory factors. One of the major QTL that accounts for 85% of the flowering time variation, which was reported to be encoding the PRR37 protein is now debated to be encoding the SbFT12 protein, raising further questions as to how SbFT12 may regulate sorghum florigens. Further molecular analyses will uncover the true nature of the day length sensors in sorghum and the mechanisms of their interactions with florigens to modulate photoperiod dependent vegetative growth and floral transition.

  18. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of Sargassum vulgare alginate from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marcia R; Sousa, Alessandra P A; Silva Filho, Eduardo A T; Melo, Dirce F; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Lima, Maria G S

    2007-10-15

    Alginate fractions from Sargassum vulgare brown seaweed were characterized by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy and by rheological measurements. The alginate extraction conditions were investigated. In order to carry out the structural and physicochemical characterization, samples extracted for 1 and 5h at 60 degrees C were further purified by re-precipitation with ethanol and denoted as SVLV (S. vulgare low viscosity) and SVHV (S. vulgare high viscosity), respectively. The M/G ratio values for SVLV and SVHV were 1.56 and 1.27, respectively, higher than the ratio for most Sargassum spp. alginates (0.19-0.82). The homopolymeric blocks F(GG) and F(MM) of these fractions characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were 0.43 and 0.55 for SVHV and 0.36 and 0.58 for SVLV samples, respectively, these values typically being within 0.28-0.77 and 0.07-0.41, respectively. Therefore, the alginate samples from S. vulgare are much richer in mannuronic block structures than those from other Sargassum species. Values of M(w) for alginate samples were also calculated using intrinsic viscosity data. The M(w) value for SVLV (1.94 x 10(5)g/mol) was lower than that for SVHV (3.3 x 10(5)g/mol). Newtonian behavior was observed for a solution concentration as high as 0.7% for SVLV, while for SVHV the solutions behaved as a Newtonian fluid up to 0.5%. The optimal conditions for obtaining the alginates from S. vulgare were 60 degrees C and 5h extraction. Under these conditions, a more viscous alginate in higher yield was extracted from the seaweed biomass.

  19. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.

  20. Effect of Substituting Yellow Maize for Sorghum on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the nutritional value of yellow maize when it substitutes sorghum grain as source of energy at levels 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in broiler rations. One hundred and forty unsexed one day old (Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (S0 containing sorghum 100% (control, 60% of the diet, diet (S1 75% sorghum 25% maize, diet (S2 50% sorghum 50% maize, diet (S3 25% sorghum 75% maize and diet (S4 maize (100% (without sorghum. Each treatment had four replicates with 7 birds/replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Feed intake and body weight gain had been recorded weekly. The results showed significant increase (P 0.05 effect on cold carcass dressing percentage, liver and abdominal fat weights, serum cholesterol, serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels. The cost of production decreased by increasing level of maize.

  1. Effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on product quality of sorghum starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, Kristinah; Hadiyanto, Handayani, Noera; Nugraheni, Dwi; Suryanto

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a cereal plant that rich of nutrition contents. The high content of carbohydrate in sorghum make this plant can be processed into one of the processed food i.e vermicelli. To give better quality, it is necessary to use flour substitution from sorghum starch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of natural sorghum starch substitution, the addition of CMC, and a comparison of the natural starch with starch sorghum forage sorghum against solid losses value, rehydration weight and texture profiles. The variable used in this study: amount of natural sorghum starch subtituion (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%), the addition of CMC (0.1%; 0.2%; 0.3%; 0.4%; 0.5%) and substituting sorghum starch Natural: HMT sorghum starch (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3; 1: 4; 1: 5) and the quality parameters were evaluated. The result indicated that to substitute sorghum starch naturally at a rate of 50% had the best results with a value of solid losses 5.1% (white sorghum) 5.83% (red sorghum) and weighing rehydration 301.82% (white sorghums) 293.16% (red sorghum), the addition of CMC with 0.5% concentration of 3.96% solid losses value (red sorghum) 4:21% (white sorghums) and weight rehydration 252.71% (white sorghums) 244.45% (red sorghums).

  2. Molecular Characterization of Non-flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, R. W.; Whitmire, D. K.; Farrow, Z. L.; Burson, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this study was to characterize recently identified, non-flowering, putative tetraploid Sorghum spp. hybrids utilizing bulked segregant analysis with SSRs and compare them to S. bicolor, S. halepense, and triploid putative Sorghum spp. hybrids. Confirmed species hybrids between S. bicolor and S. halepense would provide resources for investigating risks of invasiveness and transgene escape alongside potential for identifying novel perennial Sorghum feedstocks of value. Study d...

  3. KARAKTERISTIK KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN DAYA CERNA TEMPE SORGUM COKLAT (Sorghum bicolor) [Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum ...

  4. Weed Control and Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Tolerance to Pyrasulfotole plus Bromoxynil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at five locations in the Texas grain sorghum producing regions to evaluate pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations for weed control and grain sorghum response. All pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations controlled Amaranthus palmeri, Cucumis melo, and Proboscidea louisianica at least 94% while control of Urochloa texana was never better than 69%. Pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations did result in early season chlorosis and stunting; however, by the end of the growing season no visual injury or stunting differences were noted when compared to the untreated check. Early season grain sorghum chlorosis and stunting with pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations did not affect grain sorghum yields with the exception of pyrasulfotole at 0.03 kg ai/ha plus bromoxynil at 0.26 kg ai/ha plus atrazine at 0.58 kg ai/ha applied early postemergence followed by pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil applied mid-postemergence which reduced yield at one of two locations in 2008. Grain sorghum yield increased following all pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil treatments compared to the untreated check in 2009.

  5. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...... plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...... a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...

  6. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...... plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...... a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...

  7. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from transgenic provitamin A biofortified sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; De Moura, Fabiana F; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Albertsen, Marc C; Che, Ping; Glassman, Kimberly; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-06-19

    Biofortified sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) lines are being developed to target vitamin A deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, but the delivery of provitamin A carotenoids from such diverse germplasms has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to screen vectors and independent transgenic events for the bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids using an in vitro digestion model. The germplasm background and transgenic sorghum contained 1.0-1.5 and 3.3-14.0 μg/g β-carotene equivalents on a dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Test porridges made from milled transgenic sorghum contained up to 250 μg of β-carotene equivalents per 100 g of porridge on a fresh weight basis (FW). Micellarization efficiency of all-trans-β-carotene was lower (p transgenic sorghum (1-5%) than from null/nontransgenic sorghum (6-11%) but not different between vector constructs. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was significantly improved (p Transgenic sorghum event Homo188-A contained the greatest bioaccessible β-carotene content, with a 4-8-fold increase from null/nontransgenic sorghum. While the bioavailability and bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids from these grains must be confirmed in vivo, these data support the notion that biofortification of sorghum can enhance total and bioaccessible provitamin A carotenoid levels.

  8. The use of whole grain sorghum in broiler feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In broiler feed manufacturing, grinding may significantly increase costs due to electric energy use. This study evaluated the performance and the morphometrics of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. According to a completely randomized experimental design, 2,400 birds (1,200 males and 1,200 females were submitted to five treatments of eight replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets based corn or sorghum as follows: ground corn (A, broken corn (B, ground sorghum (C, ground (50% and whole (50% sorghum (D and whole sorghum (100%; E. Pre-starter feeds (1 to 8 days, based on corn or sorghum, were produced only with ground grains. The study was divided in two trials: males and females. The results were submitted to analysis of variance (p<0.05 and Tukey's test. Feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio, and livability of 21- and 42-day-old male and female broilers were not affected by the treatments. This demonstrates that broiler performance is not influenced by sorghum physical form and that broilers fed sorghum-based diets presented similar performance as those fed corn-based diets. Gizzard and small intestine were heavier when whole sorghum grains was included in the diet. It was concluded that whole sorghum grains can be included in broiler feeds with not detrimental effects on performance.

  9. Morphology and AFLP markers suggest three Hordeum chilense ecotypes that differ in avoidance to rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Aardse, A.; Buntjer, J.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    In Hordeum chilense Roem. & Schult., a high variation in the level of avoidance to infection of barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) occurs. Probably resulting from the properties of the stomata, the rust germ tube overgrows stomata, and the infection process fails in an early stage. In the prese

  10. Relationships in the barley genus (Hordeum): An electrophoretic examination of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between all known Hordeum species except H. guatemalense were inferred from the electrophoresis of the six enzyme systems Got, 6-Pgd, Mdh, Idh, .alpha.- and.beta.- amylases. A total of eleven loci were scored for in these systems. Maximum likelihood clusters and Wagner networks...

  11. The genetics and mechanism of avoidance of rust infection in Hordeum chilense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a perennial species occurring in Chile and Argentina. This wild barley species shows a very wide range of variation of morphological and agronomic characters and crosses easily with other members of the Triticeae tribe.H. chilense is one of the five wild barley species in which a

  12. Germination and microwave processing of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) changes the structural and physicochemical properties of β-d-glucan & enhances its antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Asima; Gani, Asir; Masoodi, F A

    2016-11-20

    The nutraceutical potential of β-d-glucan is largely dependent on its structure, size and viscosity. The present study analyzed the effect of germination and microwave processing of barley on the structural, size, antioxidant and thermal characteristics of β-d-glucan. The molecular weight and viscosity of β-d-glucan obtained from germinated barley (GGB) were the lowest (144kDa and 37.33cp) as compared to β-d-glucan from microwave processed barley (GMB) and unprocessed barley (GUB). The GGB exhibited higher antioxidant potential than GMB and GUB. The Structural elucidation by ATR-FTIR revealed scission in polymeric chain and β glycosydic linkage of β-d-glucan obtained from processed barley. The highest peak intensity at glycosydic linkage in GGB confirms more scission in the molecule. The DSC curve of GGB showed the highest transition temperature. It was concluded that germination of barley can be a good approach for enhancing the antioxidant potential of β-d-glucan.

  13. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, P.; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). PMID:16535491

  14. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    of a larger number of genes than did the two factors separately. Among the genes up-regulated by Mn deficiency were key genes related to Mnaffected physiological traits such as winter hardiness and disease resistance. GWAS based on chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements on the youngest fully developed leaves...

  15. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in barley (Hordeum vulgare L cultivated on fly ash dump mixed with compost and natural zeolite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physic-chemical characteristics of the upper layers of fly ash dumps are very important when phytostabilizationplant selection is carried out. Plants with topsoil well developed roots, like cereals are used to stabilize fly ash dumpsin order to eliminate the deflation, erosion, etc. These plant species could be used in thephytostabilization/phytoextraction variant taking into account their metal hyper accumulation capacity, and also inphytostabilization variant by adequate topsoil treatments when a decrease mobility of metals from soil to plants isachieved and thus a less toxic crop is obtained. This study presents a comparative analysis of the metalbioaccumulation degree in plant tissues (grain and straw of barley cultivated on fly ash variants treated withdifferent quantities of compost in the absence/presence of natural zeolite materials, indigenous volcanic tuff. Theaddition of plant debris and sewage sludge compost mixed with natural zeolite materials has lowered thebioaccumulation of Cr with 49%, of Cu with 29%, Fe with more than 77.5%, in grains and straw when compared tountreated fly ash. Barley plants does not allow for Pb and Ni transfer from the fly ash in the aerial part of tissue.

  16. Remodeling of the major light-harvesting antenna protein of PSII protects the young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from photoinhibition under prolonged iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiro; Iino, Tomohisa; Sonoike, Kintake; Miwa, Eitaro; Higuchi, Kyoko

    2010-12-01

    Because of the high demand for iron of the photosynthetic apparatus in thylakoid membranes, iron deficiency primarily affects the electron transfer between the two photosystems (PSI and PSII), resulting in photooxidative damage in plants. However, in barley, PSII is protected against photoinhibition, and the plant survives even with a low iron content in its chlorotic leaves. In this study, we report an adaptation mechanism of the photosynthetic apparatus in barley to iron deficiency, which is concomitant with the remodeling of a PSII antenna system. Transcriptome analysis revealed that long-term iron deficiency induced the expression of two genes of the major light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding protein of PSII (LHCII), namely HvLhcb1.11 and HvLhcb1.12. Chl fluorescence analysis of the wild type and Lhcb1-less chlorina mutants clearly showed that non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of the wild type was increased by approximately 200% by iron deficiency, whereas NPQ of chlorina mutants did not change significantly under iron deficiency. The mutant showed severe photodamage in young leaves under prolonged iron deficiency, suggesting that the HvLhcb1 protein is essential for both thermal dissipation and photoprotection in iron-deficient barley. Analysis of thylakoid protein complexes revealed that the proportion of the monomeric form of Lhcb1 significantly increased in barley grown under iron-deficient conditions. We hypothesize that alteration of the HvLhcb1 subpopulations modifies the organization of LHCII in the thylakoid membranes, which is a key step for thermal dissipation to compensate for excess excitation energy and thereby protect the photosystems from serious damage in iron-deficient barley leaves.

  17. Identification of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Autophagy Genes and Their Expression Levels during Leaf Senescence, Chronic Nitrogen Limitation and in Response to Dark Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a cereal of primary importance for forage and human nutrition, and is a useful model for wheat. Autophagy genes first described in yeast have been subsequently isolated in mammals and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis and maize it was recently shown that autophagy machinery participates in nitrogen remobilization for grain filling. In rice, autophagy is also important for nitrogen recycling at the vegetative stage. In this study, HvATGs, HvNBR1 and HvATI1 sequences were identified from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC, complementary DNA (cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. The gene models were subsequently determined from alignments between genome and transcript sequences. Essential amino acids were identified from the protein sequences in order to estimate their functionality. A total of twenty-four barley HvATG genes, one HvNBR1 gene and one HvATI1 gene were identified. Except for HvATG5, all the genomic sequences found completely matched their cDNA sequences. The HvATG5 gene sequence presents a gap that cannot be sequenced due to its high GC content. The HvATG5 coding DNA sequence (CDS, when over-expressed in the Arabidopsis atg5 mutant, complemented the plant phenotype. The HvATG transcript levels were increased globally by leaf senescence, nitrogen starvation and dark-treatment. The induction of HvATG5 during senescence was mainly observed in the flag leaves, while it remained surprisingly stable in the seedling leaves, irrespective of the leaf age during stress treatment.

  18. Lactic acid and thermal treatments trigger the hydrolysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and modify the abundance of lower myo-inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol of lactic acid (LA, without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H, on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001 InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4 and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5. Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P was only reduced (P<0.05 in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance.

  19. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly existed ca. 600–1000 cal yr AD across the island region. Despite a large body of studies and numerous theoretical and conceptual debates, the question of how to differentiate between hunter–gatherer and farming economies persists reflecting the wide range of dynamic subsistence strategies used by humans through the Holocene. Our current study contributes to the ongoing discussion of this important issue. PMID:28355249

  20. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of significant 1% and 5%. Results and discussion There was significant difference between minimum and maximum dry weight of weeds, the results showed that barley have important role in weed control wild safflower. Therefore, weed control efficiency in 15 plant in m2 was higher than two 10 and 20 plant in m2. The lowest WCE (161.27% was found at 15-35-65 treatment, but, the highest WCE (51.99 was obtained from 15-65-35 (Wild safflower-common vetch-barley treatment. Computes showed that WCE, in 15 plants of wild safflower/m2, was more than 10 and 20 p/m2. The reduction in weed population and biomass in intercropping systems with barley may be attributed to shading effect and competition stress created by the canopy. Thus, result showed that reduction rate of common vetch in intercropping, with bearing compatibility power to weeds reduced LER. CR for common vetch intercropping component in comparison with barley in total treatments was>1. The highest CR, for vetch obtained from treatment 45-55-control (2.64 and for barley from seed ratio 65-35-control (1.83. Conclusion The results in this study showed various seed rate had noticeable effect on forage yield, LER and weed control. In this experiment changing seed rate in two tested plants (barly- commen vetch changed the number and weed species, as a result noticeable changing was created in their competitive power. Result showed that seed rate (35% barley-65% common vetch was better than other treatment, not only in use efficiency of environment, but also it had more dry forage yield. Also, former seed rate had effective role in decreasing the weed biomass. This important result was related to reduced light penetrate at the bottom of cover crop and probably lack of competition in access to environmental resources was also affected. So using this seed density for mentioned area is recommended for reducing weed competition and improving the quality and quantity of dry forage. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the teachers of College of Agriculture of Lorestan University, for their critical review of the manuscript.

  1. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammed A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. Results The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC and leaf wilting (WS. QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. Conclusions The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars.

  2. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Mohammed A; Schumann, Henrik; Pillen, Klaus; Naz, Ali A; Léon, Jens

    2012-07-20

    Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC) and leaf wilting (WS). QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars.

  3. Isparta Ekolojik Koşullarında Bazı Arpa (Hordeum vulgare L. Çeşitlerinin Verim ve Kalite Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmren ÇÖKEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Isparta ilinde 2013-2014 yetiştirme sezonunda yürütülmüştür. Araştırma tesadüf blokları deneme desenine göre 3 tekerrürlü olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada 13 arpa çeşidi (Larende, Ünver, Özdemir-05, İnce-04, Özen, Akar, Zeynelağa, Altıkat, Samyeli, Kendal, Bolayır, Martı, Harman kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada bitki boyu 73.6 (Samyeli-89.6 (Özdemir-05; metrekarede başak sayısı 200.0 (Akar-340.0 (Samyeli; başakta tane sayısı 22.6 (Bolayır-67.3 (Altıkat; başak uzunluğu 7.4 (Martı-9.5 (Akar; bin tane ağırlığı 43.4 (Martı-56.4 (Larende; dekara tane verim 169.6 (Martı-363.0 (Zeynelağa; hasat indeks 15.5 (Martı-30.1 (Bolayır; hektolitre ağırlığı 66.2 (Kendal-76.3 (Larende; biyolojik verim 749.4 (İnce-04-1366.1 (Akar; protein % 9.6 (Altıkat-16.3 (Larende; azot oranı % 1.5 (Altıkat-3.2 (Larende arasında değişmiştir.

  4. Chromosome landing at the ¤Mla¤ locus in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.) by means of high-resolution mapping with AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Mohler, V.

    1999-01-01

    to construct a high-resolution map of the Mla region. A fluorescence-based AFLP technique and bulked segregant analysis were applied to screen for polymorphic, tightly linked AFLP markers, Three AFLP markers were selected as suitable for a chromosome-landing strategy. One of these AFLP markers and a closely...

  5. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsa, Bulti Tesso; Eglinton, Jason; Coventry, Stewart; March, Timothy; Guillaume, Maxime; Le, Thanh Phuoc; Hayden, Matthew; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH) populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF), Commander x WI4304 (CW), and Fleet x WI4304 (FW) developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  6. The interaction of 2,4-D application and mannitol pretreatment in anther and microspore culture of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. igri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, S.; Bergen, S. van; Brouwershaven, I.R. van; Schilperoort, R.A.; Heidekamp, F.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on embryo-like structures (ELS) and plant development from barley microspores was determined. Microspores cultured on filters enabled simple modification of growth regulator concentrations. Regeneration frequencies obtained with 2,4- D as

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective.In this study, a double haploid (DH population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1 and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD and waterlogged (SalinityW conditions at two different sowing times.Three quantitative trait loci (QTL located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.

  8. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly existed ca. 600-1000 cal yr AD across the island region. Despite a large body of studies and numerous theoretical and conceptual debates, the question of how to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and farming economies persists reflecting the wide range of dynamic subsistence strategies used by humans through the Holocene. Our current study contributes to the ongoing discussion of this important issue.

  9. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity.

  10. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    10- and 15-day treatments. Furthermore, NO significantly increased stromal APX and Mn-SOD activities in both genotypes and upregulated Cd-induced decrease in cAPX activity and gene expression of root/leaf cAPX and leaf CAT1 in the Cd-sensitive genotype. These data suggest that under Cd stress, NO......A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ......M Cd increased the accumulation of O2•-, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (P n), and biomass, with a much more severe response in the Cd-sensitive genotype. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly under Cd stress...

  11. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency remains an unsolved nutritional problem affecting crop production worldwide. The tolerance to Mn limiting conditions, known as Mn efficiency, is a quantitative abiotic stress trait, generally controlled by several genes. However the underlying genetic background of Mn...... efficiency remained elusive. This PhD study aimed to understand better the genetic determination of the trait and propose new insights for plant breeding purposes. Two genome-wide approaches were used in a winter barley collection to characterize the genetic control of the trait. First, a Genome......-wide association study (GWAS) and chlorophyll a fluorescence phenotyping allowed to identify several QTLs involved in the plant response to Mn deficiency. Multiple candidate coding genes were fund, among which, photosystem II PsbP subunit, germin-like proteins or Mn-Superoxide Dismutase. It supports the Mn...

  12. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.;

    1991-01-01

    chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p...... chitinases from barley aleurone and barley, bean and potato leaves. The purified beta-1,3-glucanase with a molecular weight (MW) of 32 kDa and pI greater-than-or-equal-to 9.8 constituted 1% of the soluble protein in the medium. Based on similar MW, pI and amino acid composition as well as identical N...

  13. The identification of new cytosolic glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and their expression during leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Marmagne, Anne; Talbotec, Joël; Krupinska, Karin; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase are two master enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation in plants. Their roles in nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen use efficiency have been proposed. In this report, the genes coding for the cytosolic glutamine synthetases (HvGS1) and asparagine synthetases (HvASN) in barley were identified. In addition to the three HvGS1 and two HvASN sequences previously reported, two prokaryotic-like HvGS1 and three HvASN cDNA sequences were identified. Gene structures were then characterized, obtaining full genomic sequences. The response of the five HvGS1 and five HvASN genes to leaf senescence was then studied. Developmental senescence was studied using primary and flag leaves. Dark-exposure or low-nitrate conditions were also used to trigger stress-induced senescence. Well-known senescence markers such as the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents were monitored in order to characterize senescence levels in the different leaves. The three eukaryotic-like HvGS1_1, HvGS1_2, and HvGS1_3 sequences showed the typical senescence-induced reduction in gene expression described in many plant species. By contrast, the two prokaryotic-like HvGS1_4 and HvGS1_5 sequences were repressed by leaf senescence, similar to the HvGS2 gene, which encodes the chloroplast glutamine synthetase isoenzyme. There was a greater contrast in the responses of the five HvASN and this suggested that these genes are needed for N remobilization in senescing leaves only when plants are well fertilized with nitrate. Responses of the HvASN sequences to dark-induced senescence showed that there are two categories of asparagine synthetases, one induced in the dark and the other repressed by the same conditions.

  14. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...

  15. Impact of Pre-Anthesis Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants Grown under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria I. Al-Ajlouni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought at pre-anthesis stages can influence barley growth and results in yield losses. Therefore, it is important to understand how drought at pre-anthesis can affect different traits associated with yield reduction in barley. The objective of this study was to understand the relevance of the genetic background of major flowering time genes in barley plants subjected to pre-anthesis drought and its impact on yield and yield components. A glasshouse experiment using a Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted to investigate the effect of drought and its timing on yield and yield components on eleven barley genotypes, which were selected to represent genetic diversity of major flowering time genes (PPDH1, PPDH2, HvVrn1, HvVrn2 and HvVrn3. Barley plants were exposed to three water regimes, non-stressed and stressed, which was applied at two pre-anthesis growth stages, tillering (SS and stem elongation (SE. Results identified differences among genotypes in all measured traits. Grain yield, grain number and "thousand kernel weight" were reduced in all genotypes due to drought, irrespective of the growth stage. Early flowering genotypes had better performance as reflected in higher yield compared with late flowering genotypes. Results verified the fundamental importance of early flowering to improve productivity in response to pre-anthesis drought. The results of this study can help in selecting barley lines for future breeding purposes with improved resilience to drought conditions in Mediterranean environments.

  16. A substantial fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid mutations have little or no effect on yield across diverse production environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa) seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield....

  17. The effect of temperature and rainfall on participation of the pathogens causing root and stem rot in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments conducted in the years 1990-1995 were localized at the Plaiit Cultivation Station, Ulhówek to repeat the cultivation of spring barley cultivars Roland and Lot. In conditions of monoculture, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium culmorum were of the foremost importance in causing root and stem rot. The proportion of infected plants did not increase with time. Depending on the period of vegetation and the cultivar, the percentage of seedlings with necrosis symptoms ranged from 6% to 53,5% and that of stem base rot from 14% to 59%. In the case of both cultivars. root and stem rot was especially intensive in the third successive season of vegetation, i, e,. in 1992. That season was characterized by warm and wet weather conditions. favourable for the infection of seedlings by B.sorokiniane during the period of six weeks after the sowing of grain. Bipolaris sorokiniana always had the greatest proportion in the infction of spring barley but not in the seasons distinguished by hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, during dry and hot weather conditions the only or the dominating fungus obtained from the infcted stem base after the heading of spring barley was F. culmorum. In conditions of monoculture, favourable for root and stem rot of spring barley, the temperature and rainfalls clearly distinguished the proportion of B. sorokiniana and F. culmorum in plant infection.

  18. An Investigation on Physiological Characteristics of Tow Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars and Soil Moisture Content as Affected by Straw Management and Nitrogen Rates under Dryland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In most southern parts of Iran, crop residues have been traditionally burned or removed; that is often criticized for soil organic and nutrient losses, reducing soil microbial activity and increasing CO2 emission. A 2-years field study was conducted at the College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran to evaluate the effects of different barley residue and N rates on some physiological indices and soil moisture contents of two dryland barley cultivars. The experiment was conducted as strip split plot with four replications. Vertical plots included two dryland common barley cultivars (Afzal and Reyhan, horizontal plots were three crop residue rates (0, 750 and 1500 kg ha-1 and sub plots were three N rates (0, 40, and 80 kg N ha-1. The results showed that when the crop residues were applied, N rates should be increased accordingly. Increasing N rates (from 0 to 80 kg N ha-1 accompanied by residue application increased leaf area index in both cultivars. When the crop residues were completely applied, but N rates were not appropriated with crop residue application, LAI decreased in both cultivars. The lowest LAI (1.14 was obtained from 1500 kg ha-1crop residue and 0 kg N ha-1 in both cultivars. The highest (1196g/m2 and the lowest (595g/m2 dry matter yield was obtained from 80 kg N ha-1 and % 100 crop residue and from 0 kg N ha-1 and 1500 kg ha-1 crop residue in both cultivars, respectively. Application of 1500 kg ha-1 crop residues and 80 kg N ha-1 significantly increased soil moisture contents and LAI.

  19. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  20. 大麦矮秆基因uz的SSR标记%SSR Marker Tagging of the Dwarfing Gene uz in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京

    2003-01-01

    @@ 矮秆是大麦育种的重要目标性状之一.uz和denso分别是亚洲和欧洲大麦育种中利用最为广泛的2个矮秆基因,均位于3H染色体长臂之上.Barua等(1993)利用RAPD和RFLP技术,将denso基因确定在OPH7-H800和WG110所标记的染色体区段之间,距WG110约12.8 cM,可解释80%以上的株高遗传变异[1].系谱分析和等位测验表明,我国大麦育种中主要使用的尺八大麦、萧山立夏黄、沧州裸大麦、矮秆齐、浙皮1号和盐辐矮早3等6个矮源品种,前4个携带相同的矮秆基因uz[2].而且,uz基因作为易突变位点,在我国的原始农家大麦品种中普遍存在[3].本文采用SSR分析技术,对该基因进行分子标记.

  1. Comparison of the Phosphorus and Mineral Concentrations in Bran and Abraded Kernel Fractions of a Normal Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Cultivar versus Four Low Phytic Acid Isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid consists of 65-80% of the total phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. Its salts are concentrated in the germ and aleurone layers, which are typically removed during milling. We hypothesize that concentrations of different types of P and minerals in milled products will be greatly altered in ...

  2. Interactions between ethylene, CO/sub 2/, and ABA on GA/sub 3/-induced amylase synthesis in barley aleurone tissue. [Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    Gibberellic acid-induced synthesis and release of ..cap alpha..-amylase in barley aleurone tissue was inhibited by abscisic acid. This inhibition was relieved by simultaneous application of ethylene ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 100 microliters per liter. When CO/sub 2/ was applied, it eliminated the effect of 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene and reimposed the abscisic acid inhibition. All concentrations of CO/sub 2/ tested from 400 to 10/sup 5/ microliters per liter counteracted the effect of 0.1 microliter per liter ethylene, but had no observable effect on any higher concentration of ethylene. The results indicate that some processes necessary for embryo growth may be subject to regulation by ethylene and carbon dioxide at naturally occurring concentrations of the gases.

  3. Inheritance of the number and thickness of cell layers in barley aleurone tissue (Hordeum vulgare L.): an approach using F2-F3 progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestin, Louis; Ravel, Catherine; Auroy, Sylvie; Laubin, Bastien; Perretant, Marie-Reine; Pont, Caroline; Charmet, Gilles

    2008-05-01

    The aleurone tissue of cereal grains, nutritionally rich in minerals and vitamins, is an important target for the improvement of cereals. Inheritance of the thickness and the number of cell layers in barley aleurone was studied on the F2-F3 progeny of an Erhard Frederichen x Criolla Negra cross in which the parental lines have three or two aleurone layers, respectively. F3 grain was sampled from each F2 plant and 96.8% of the entire F3 grain population was classified as being either the 2- or 3-layer type. Using microsatellite, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and morphological markers on 190 F2 plants, a linkage map was built. Three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting aleurone traits were revealed on chromosome 5H (max. LOD = 5.83) and chromosome 7H (max. LOD = 4.45) by interval mapping, and on chromosome 2H by marker analysis with an unmapped marker. These QTLs were consistent with genetic sub-models involving either 2-cell type dominance for 7H and 2H, or putative partial dominance for 5H where 2-cell-layer dominance and additivity gave similar LODs. The number of aleurone cell layers and aleurone thickness were strongly correlated and QTL results for these traits were alike. An SNP marker of sal1, an orthologue of the maize multilayer aleurone gene was mapped to the 7HL chromosome arm. However, the 7H QTL did not co-locate with the barley sal1 SNP, suggesting that an additional gene is involved in determining aleurone traits. These new mapping data allow comparisons to be made with related studies.

  4. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops.

  5. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    and the interaction between latent Mn deficiency and light stress in maize plants. The obtained results showed that latent Mn deficiency decreased the utilization of photosynthetically active light, inhibited the ability to perform photosynthetic state transitions and the response of net photosynthetic CO2......Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils...... with low Mn availability, a phenomenon referred to as Mn efficiency. Iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1), known to be correlated with Mn uptake capacity and Mn efficiency in barley, was characterized using barley RNAi lines. The obtained results showed that HvIRT1 was involved in uptake and root...

  6. Unravelling the full complement of phytase encoding enzymes from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2007-01-01

    Brinch-Pedersen, H., Dionisio, G. and Holm, PB (2007). . The PSE Congress, Plant for human health in the post-genome era. 26-29 august, 2007, Helsinki. P119.......Brinch-Pedersen, H., Dionisio, G. and Holm, PB (2007). . The PSE Congress, Plant for human health in the post-genome era. 26-29 august, 2007, Helsinki. P119....

  7. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and ...

  8. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (MINPPs) are phytases expressed during grain filling and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2007-03-01

    At present, little is known about the phytases of plant seeds in spite of the fact that this group of enzymes is the primary determinant for the utilization of the major phosphate storage compound in seeds, phytic acid. We report the cloning and characterization of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding one of the groups of enzymes with phytase activity, the multiple inositol phosphate phosphatases (MINPPs). Four wheat cDNAs (TaPhyIIa1, TaPhyIIa2, TaPhyIIb and TaPhyIIc) and three barley cDNAs (HvPhyIIa1, HvPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb) were isolated. The open reading frames ranged from 1548 to 1554 bp and the level of homology between the barley and wheat proteins ranged from 90.5% to 91.9%. All cDNAs contained an N-terminal signal peptide encoding sequence, and a KDEL-like sequence, KTEL, was present at the C-terminal, indicating that the enzyme was targeted to and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of TaPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb in Escherichia coli revealed that the MINPPs possessed a significant phytase activity with narrow substrate specificity for phytate. The pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were pH 4.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and the K(m) values for phytate were 246 and 334 microm for the wheat and barley recombinant enzymes, respectively. The enzymes were inhibited by several metal ions, in particular copper and zinc. The cDNAs showed significantly different temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns during seed development and germination. With the exception of TaPhyIIb, the cDNAs were present during late seed development and germination. We conclude that MINPPs constitute a significant part of the endogenous phytase potential of the developing and germinating barley and wheat seeds.

  9. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    -wide association study (GWAS) and chlorophyll a fluorescence phenotyping allowed to identify several QTLs involved in the plant response to Mn deficiency. Multiple candidate coding genes were fund, among which, photosystem II PsbP subunit, germin-like proteins or Mn-Superoxide Dismutase. It supports the Mn...... functionality in Mn dependent pathways and processes. In a the second step, a genuine statistical method to assist breeding programs in selecting new varieties, named Genomic Selection (GS), was applied. It was demonstrated that GS is an effective tool to be used in breeding programs for selecting more...

  10. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    of knotted1 from maize was isolated from barley seedlings and expressed as a maltose binding protein fusion in E. coli. The purified HvH21-fusion protein selected DNA fragments with 1-3 copies of the sequence TGAC. Gel shift experiments showed that the TGAC element was required for binding and the results...

  11. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  12. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating...

  13. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  14. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Yousefi; Sanaz Hamedeyazdan; Mohammadali Torbati; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radic...

  15. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'roni Sa'roni; Imono A. Donatus

    2012-01-01

    Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas) secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap h...

  16. Probing allelochemical biosynthesis in sorghum root hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathic interaction between plants is thought to involve the release of phytotoxic allelochemicals by one species, thus inhibiting the growth of neighboring species in competition for limited resources. Sorgoleone represents one of the more potent allelochemicals characterized to date, and its prolific production in root hair cells of Sorghum spp. has made the investigation of its biosynthetic pathway ideally-suited for functional genomics investigations. Through the use of a recently-released EST data set generated from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells, significant inroads have been made toward the identification of genes and the corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of this compound in root hairs. Here we provide additional information concerning our recent report on the identification of a 5-n-alk(en) ylresorcinol utilizing O-methyltransferase, as well as other key enzymes likely to participate in the biosynthesis of this important allelochemical. PMID:19704820

  17. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  18. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  19. Chemical diversity in Indian oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit; Verma, Rajesh K; Yadav, Ajai K; Singh, Hemendra P

    2010-08-01

    The terpenoid composition of the essential oils of 17 different populations of Origanum vulgare L., collected from wild populations and subsequently grown under similar conditions in the sub-temperate region of the Western Himalaya, was studied. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 51 components, representing 90.15 to 99.94% of the total oil. The two classes of the phenolic compounds and the monoterpenoids were predominant in all the essential oils. On the basis of the major constituents, i.e., marker compounds, and by comparison of the results with previous reports, new chemotypes could be identified. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the chemical variability within the different populations of O. vulgare collected and grown under similar conditions. Based on the marker compounds, six chemotypes with significant variations in their terpenoid profile were noticed within the 17 populations.

  20. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare.

  1. Pênfigo Vulgar - um caso pediátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Faria Boto, Ana Cristina; Galhardo, Júlia; Ramos, Margarida; Helena Neves, Maria; Sousa Coutinho, Vasco; Serrão Neto, Ana; Leça, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O Pênfigo Vulgar é uma doença auto-imune rara na infância, com evolução crónica e mortalidade significativa. A doença manifesta-se por lesões vesiculares, semelhantes a infecções benignas, mas que são refractárias ao tratamento sintomático e persistem após a fase aguda. Apresenta-se o caso de uma criança de três anos com lesões muco-cutâneas orais, persistentes. A biópsia permitiu o diagnóstico de Pênfigo Vulgar, tendo sido iniciada terapia corticosteróide sistémica. A dificuldade no ...

  2. Pénfigo vulgar: Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Lauro Gilberto Nunes R; Raquel Moresco V; Marley, G; Cristina da Silva B; Matesanz Pérez, P.

    2005-01-01

    El pénfigo vulgar es una enfermedad auto-inmune ampollosa, muco cutánea, de carácter crónico, donde las lesiones de la mucosa bucal pueden anteceder las lesiones cutáneas. Así, el odontólogo asume papel importante en la identificación de las lesiones, debiendo realizar el diagnóstico por la historia clínica i exámenes complementares adecuados. Este artículo relata un caso de pénfigo vulgar acometiendo un paciente del sexo masculino, 47 años, con lesiones en la mucosa bucal y piel.Pemphigus vu...

  3. Metabolome profiling reveals metabolic cooperation between Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare during induced swarm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Qian; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The metabolic cooperation in the ecosystem of Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare was investigated by cultivating them spatially on a soft agar plate. We found that B. megaterium swarmed in a direction along the trace of K. vulgare on the agar plate. Metabolomics based on gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was employed to analyze the interaction mechanism between the two microorganisms. We found that the microorganisms interact by exchanging a number of metabolites. Both intracellular metabolism and cell-cell communication via metabolic cooperation were essential in determining the population dynamics of the ecosystem. The contents of amino acids and other nutritional compounds in K. vulgare were rather low in comparison to those in B. megaterium, but the levels of these compounds in the medium surrounding K. vulgare were fairly high, even higher than in fresh medium. Erythrose, erythritol, guanine, and inositol accumulated around B. megaterium were consumed by K. vulgare upon its migration. The oxidization products of K. vulgare, including 2-keto-gulonic acids (2KGA), were sharply increased. Upon coculturing of B. megaterium and K. vulgare, 2,6-dipicolinic acid (the biomarker of sporulation of B. megaterium), was remarkably increased compared with those in the monocultures. Therefore, the interactions between B. megaterium and K. vulgare were a synergistic combination of mutualism and antagonism. This paper is the first to systematically identify a symbiotic interaction mechanism via metabolites in the ecosystem established by two isolated colonies of B. megaterium and K. vulgare.

  4. Estudio reológico de las mezclas de harinas: trigo (Triticum vulgare, cebada (Hordeum vulgare y papas (Solanum tuberosum para la utilización en la elaboración de pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con las harinas de trigo importado, el trigo nacional y los cereales que se producen en el país, y el tubérculo papa, se realizó un estudio reológico para determinar las proporciones más convenientes de sustitución de harina de trigo importado con éstas últimas y su factibilidad para la elaboración de pan. Se trabajó en mezclas de harinas, de trigo CWRS#1 (trigo rojo de primavera del oeste de Canadá, de cebada Cañicapa, trigo Cojitambo y papa Gabriela, provenientes de cultivos ecuatorianos, en proporciones de 10, 20 y 30% (p/p. Las masas provenientes de las mezclas de harinas fueron analizadas en un Farinógrafo Brabender, con la finalidad de determinar la absorción de agua, el tiempo de desarrollo, la estabilidad e índice de tolerancia, con el objeto de seleccionar las mezclas de harinas que tuvieran un comportamiento similar a la harina de trigo CWRS#1. Las mejores mezclas encontradas fueron: harina de trigo CWRS#1 sustituida con el 10, 20 y 30% de harina de cebada Cañicapa; y la mezcla de harina de trigo CWRS#1 con harina de trigo Cojitambo en un 30%. Estas mezclas de harinas seleccionadas fueron también sometidas al análisis reológico de sus masas utilizando un equipo MIXOLAB. La utilización de las harinas seleccionadas en la elaboración de pan fue evaluado a través de un análisis sensorial. Los panes más aceptados por los consumidores fueron aquellos que contenían 20 y 30% de cebada; seguido del grupo de los elaborados con trigo importado con 30% de trigo Cojitambo, y los que contenían el 10% de harina de cebada.

  5. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Vaněk, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied.

  6. Novel Sources of Witchweed (Striga) Resistance from Wild Sorghum Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuvi, Dorothy A.; Masiga, Clet W.; Kuria, Eric; Masanga, Joel; Wamalwa, Mark; Mohamed, Abdallah; Odeny, Damaris A.; Hamza, Nada; Timko, Michael P.; Runo, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but its production is constrained by the parasitic plant Striga that attaches to the roots of many cereals crops and causes severe stunting and loss of yield. Away from cultivated farmland, wild sorghum accessions grow as weedy plants and have shown remarkable immunity to Striga. We sought to determine the extent of the resistance to Striga in wild sorghum plants. Our screening strategy involved controlled laboratory assays of rhizotrons, where we artificially infected sorghum with Striga, as well as field experiments at three sites, where we grew sorghum with a natural Striga infestation. We tested the resistance response of seven accessions of wild sorghum of the aethiopicum, drummondii, and arundinaceum races against N13, which is a cultivated Striga resistant landrace. The susceptible control was farmer-preferred variety, Ochuti. From the laboratory experiments, we found three wild sorghum accessions (WSA-1, WSE-1, and WSA-2) that had significantly higher resistance than N13. These accessions had the lowest Striga biomass and the fewest and smallest Striga attached to them. Further microscopic and histological analysis of attached Striga haustorium showed that wild sorghum accessions hindered the ingression of Striga haustorium into the host endodermis. In one of the resistant accessions (WSE-1), host and parasite interaction led to the accumulation of large amounts of secondary metabolites that formed a dark coloration at the interphase. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory screening experiments in that these same accessions were found to have resistance against Striga. In the field, wild sorghum had low Area under the Striga Number Progressive curve (AUSNPC), which measures emergence of Striga from a host over time. We concluded that wild sorghum accessions are an important reservoir for Striga resistance that could be used to expand the genetic basis of cultivated sorghum for resistance to the

  7. Use of sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor for second generation ethanol production: pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Soares Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic biomass yields of forage sorghum BRS 655 presented similar results to other energy crops, producing 9 to 12.6 tons/ha (dry mass of sorghum straw. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lignocellulosic part of this cultivar in terms of its potential in the different unit processes in the production of cellulosic ethanol, measuring the effects of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Three types of pre-treatments for two reaction times were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the pulp for subsequent saccharification. The pulp pretreated by alkali, and by acid followed by delignification, attained hydrolysis rates of over 90%.

  8. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate.

  9. POLYPODIUM VULGARE LINN. A VERSATILE HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervaiz Ahmad Dar*, G. Sofi and M. A. Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypodium vulgare Linn. also called as Bisfaij in Unani system of medicine is a perineal fern growing to a height of 30cm. Polypodium vulgare Linn. rhizome is used in European, American, Chinese, and Unani and Ayurveda traditions. It is claimed to be efficacious in jaundice, dropsy, scurvy and combined with mallows it removes hardness of the spleen. The distilled water of the roots and leaves is considered good for ague (malarial fever, and the fresh or dried roots, mixed with honey and applied to the nose, were used in the treatment of polypus The fresh root is used in the form of decoction, or powder for melancholia and also for rheumatic swelling of the joints. The rhizome extract was found to possess anti-epileptic activity. The ecdysones present in the rhizome (0.07%-1% dry weightwas seen to act topically on a wide variety of arthropods and caused abnormal molting and death, so ecdysone analogues may be useful not only as insecticides but also miticides. The aqueous extract of Polypodium vulgare Linn. was found to possess analgesic activity, protective effect in various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, stimulatory effect on the adrenoceptors, and antioxidant properties.

  10. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  13. Phenotypic evaluation of sweet sorghum lines for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem juice of sweet sorghum is rich in fermentable sugars and is a desirable primary material for alcoholic fermentation. Today, interest in growing sweet sorghum for fermentable sugars is increasing worldwide; thus there is strong demand for elite varieties and hybrids offering high sugar yiel...

  14. Chemical composition and quality of sweet sorghum and maize silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew PODKÓWKA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum silage, maize (Zea mays silage, and sorghum and maize (1:1 silage were investigated. The silages were analysed for chemical composition, quality and aerobic stability. Dry matter was the lowest (20.88% in sorghum silage and the highest (37.45% in maize silage. In sorghum silage, the concentration of crude ash and crude fibre was higher, and that of crude protein, crude fat and N-free extractives lower compared to maize silage. Neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were the highest in sorghum silage and the lowest in maize silage. The silages were dominated by lactic acid, with trace amounts of butyric acid. Maize silage was higher lactic acid and higher total acids than others. All silages were of very good quality according to Flieg-Zimmer scale. Silage pH ranged from 4.20 to 4.31. Sorghum silage was characterized by higher aerobic stability (81h compared to the other silages from maize (74h and sorghum and maize 1:1 (69h.

  15. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Ping; SHU Wensheng; LI Zhian; LIAO Bin; LI Jintian; SHAO Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimization of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  16. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  17. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  18. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  19. Genetic Dissection of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, the fifth most important cereal crop in the world is a highly versatile crop and an excellent model species due to its overall tolerance to a number of abiotic stress conditions. To gain a better understanding of the physiological and genetic basis of abiotic stress tolerance in sorghum w...

  20. Proceedings of the 2013 sorghum improvement conference of north america

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2013 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the International Cultural Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, from August 28-30, 2013. The meeting attracted a large group of participants from a wide spectrum of the sorghum research community, represe...

  1. Nitrogen fertilization effects on sorghum forage yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn. This study was a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 8 factorial...

  2. The Mexican Market for U.S. Sorghum: Is There Room for Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments are affecting the Mexican grain-sorghum market, the primary destination of US sorghum exports. This study estimates the parameters of a Mexican import demand model for grain-sorghum that could be used to forecast and simulate future bilateral trade trends. Mexican sorghum/corn price ratio and Mexican poultry production revealed to be the critical explanatory variables.

  3. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between

  4. Obtaining induced mutations of drought tolerance in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeman, S.; Razzak, M.T. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia). Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation; Nakanishi, Tomoko M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences

    2003-01-01

    Since sorghum plant (Sorghum bicolor L.) has a big potential to be cultivated in Indonesia especially in drought-prone areas, improvement of sorghum had been carried out through mutation breeding methods. The seeds of the sorghum plant was irradiated by gamma rays emitted from cobalt-60 source. The total dose was 0.4 kGy. Through selection process in the M2 generation, a number of promising mutant lines of sorghum have been obtained and registered in the M3 generation. In the M4, a number of 100 mutant lines were tested against drought in Gunung Kidul District during the dry season in 2000. Results of the test showed that mutant line DU/20/Psj/1, DU/20/Psj/4, DU/20/Psj/24, JA/30/Cty/21, ET/40/Psj/4 and DU/20/Psj/10 had relatively high grain yield compared to the control variety. (author)

  5. Biofuels from Sorghum: Plant-based Sesquiterpene Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Chromatin will engineer sweet sorghum—a plant that naturally produces large quantities of sugar and requires little water—to accumulate the fuel precursor farnesene, a molecule that can be blended into diesel fuel. Chromatin’s proprietary technology enables the introduction of a completely novel biosynthetic process into the plant to produce farnesene, enabling sorghum to accumulate up to 20% of its weight as fuel. Chromatin will also introduce a trait to improve biomass yields in sorghum. The farnesene will accumulate in the sorghum plants—similar to the way in which it currently stores sugar—and can be extracted and converted into a type of diesel fuel using low-cost, conventional methods. Sorghum can be easily grown and harvested in many climates with low input of water or fertilizer, and is already planted on an agricultural scale. The technology will be demonstrated in a model plant, guayule, before being used in sorghum.

  6. In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Different Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Tsago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of sorghum in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Sixteen elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at callus induction and plant regeneration stage for drought tolerance. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. The factorial experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design which comprised of a combination of two factors (genotypes and five PEG stress level; 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/v treatments. Data were recorded for callus induction efficiency, callus fresh weight, embryogenic callus percentage and plant regeneration percentage. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, treatments and their interactions for the evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis also revealed strong and significant association between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent as well as between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent. By taking into consideration all the measured traits, Mann Whitney rank sum test revealed that 76T1#23 and Teshale followed by Meko, Gambella-1107 and Melkam showed better drought stress tolerance. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance while Chelenko, Hormat and Raya appear to be drought sensitive.

  7. Evaluation of yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive sorghum and sorghum sudangrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year study was conducted at 2 sites (Hancock, Marshfield) in central Wisconsin to assess yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS sorghums in relation to corn planted on 2 dates and harvested once or twice. At each site, treatments were arranged as a split-split plot in a rando...

  8. Biolistic mediated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) transformation via mannose and bialaphos based selection systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of transformation. In sorghum, concerns about flow of herbicide and antibiotic resistance gene into genetically related wild and weedy species have a direct bearing on the choice of suitable selectable markers in many tropical and subtropical regions. The authors...

  9. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  10. Effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified White sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Tahira Mohsin, E-mail: tahira.mohsin@uok.edu.pk [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan); Hasnain, Abid, E-mail: abidhasnain@uok.edu.pk [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan)

    2013-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorghum starches were chemically modified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch-lipid complexes were studied in the presence of emulsifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type II complexes were also detected in native and oxidized starches on adding GMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch-lipid complexes sharply reduced retrogradation in modified starches. - Abstract: The effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified white sorghum starches was studied. Complex forming tendency of white sorghum starch with commercially available emulsifiers GMS and DATEM improved after acetylation. Presence of emulsifiers reduced {lambda}{sub max} (wavelength of maximum absorbance) both for native and modified sorghum starches suggesting lower availability of amylose chains to complex with iodine. In native white sorghum starch (NWSS) and oxidized white sorghum starch (OWSS), both Type I and Type II starch-lipid complexes were observed on addition of 1.0% GMS prior to gelatinization. Acetylated-oxidized white sorghum starch (AOWSS) formed weakest complexes among all the modified starches. The results revealed that antistaling characteristics of modified sorghum starches were enhanced when used in combination with emulsifiers. The most prominent decline in reassociative capability among modified starches was observed for acetylated starches.

  11. Sorghum as Dry Land Feedstock for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; WU Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Dry land crops such as sorghums(grain sorghum,sweet sorghum and forage sorghum)have been identified aspromising feedstocks for fuel ethanol production.The major issue for using the sweet sorghum as feedstock is its stability at room temperature.At room temperature,the sweet sorghum juice could lose from 40%to50%of its fermentable sugars from 7to14 days.No significant sugar content and profile changes were observed in juice stored at refrigerator temperature in two weeks.Ethanolfermentation efficiencies of fresh and frozen juice were high(-93%).Concentrated juice(≥25%sugar)had significantly lower efficiencies and large amounts of fructose left in finished beer; however,winery yeast strains and novel fermentation techniques maysolve these problems.The ethanol yield from sorghum grain increased as starch content increased.No linear relationship betweenstarch content and fermentation efficiency was found.Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum includestarches and protein digestibility,amylose-lipid complexes,tannin content,and mash viscosity.Life cycle analysis showed a positivenet energy value(NEV)=25 500 Btu/gal ethanol.Fourier transform infrared(FTIR)spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction(XRD)were used to determine changes in the structure and chemical composition of sorghum biomasses.Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment waseffective in removing the hemicellulose from biomasses and exposing the cellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis.Forage sorghum ligninhad a lower syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and its pretreated biomass was easier to hydrolyze.Up to 72% hexose yield and 94% pentoseyield were obtained by using a modified steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140"C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis withcellulase.

  12. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Caixia; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xie, Gaodi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); He, Tingting [Macquarie University, NSW2109 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm{sup 2}) are only as much as 78.6 x 10{sup 4} hm{sup 2}; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10{sup 4}-294.6 x 10{sup 4} t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10{sup 4} t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China. (author)

  13. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  14. QTLs for Sugar Content of Stalk in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Yun-long; Yazaki Seiji; Inoue Maiko; CAI Hong-wei

    2006-01-01

    High sugar content of sorghum stalk is an important factor in the sorghum silage production. To identify the genomic regions controlling sugar content and to develop molecular markers linked to sugar content in sweet sorghum, we used an Early Folger, and a normal inbred line, N32B, for genetic linkage mapping and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We constructed a genetic linkage map spanning 983.5 cM based on a total of 327 markers comprising 31 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, 254 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and 42 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the 20 linkage groups detected, 98.2% of markers aligned to the 10 linkage groups of sorghum.Variations in sugar content at different growth stages and among internodes suggested that the sugar content of middle internodes is stable and suitable for measuring at early dough stage. The broad sense heritability (hB2) of sugar content was 0.64 and 0.62 estimated from the data of F3 families and each parent in 2003 and 2004. We identified one and two QTLs accounting for 22.2 to 25.0% of phenotypic variance using simple interval mapping method in 2003 and 2004, respectively.These two QTLs showed a negative additive effect, and over-dominance effect. A QTL on LG-D was detected in both two years. Above results will be help us to understand the genetic mechanism of sugar content in sorghum and the QTL detected in this study might be useful in the improvement of sugar content by marker-assisted selection.

  15. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  16. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.×Sorghum vulgare L., its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630. Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency, potential of PSII and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  17. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuyoshiShimizu; 唐建军; 陈欣

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.× Sorghum vulgare L. , its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic pm'mneters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630.Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency,potential of PSII and non-photochemieal quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats.

  19. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  20. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  1. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis.

  2. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to its resistance to drought, production potential, low inputs and production cost. It is an alternative to maize crop being more utilized as substituent in animal diets. The world sorghum production reached 63,811 thousand metric tons in 2014, the main producers being the USA, Mexico, Nigeria, India, Argentina, Ethiopia, Sudan and China. The world consumption of sorghum reached 63,148 thousand metric tons and it is continuously increasing. The sorghum exports accounted for 7,690 thousand metric tons in 2014, of which the USA export represents 4,600 thousand metric tons. Besides the USA, other exporting countries are Argentina, Australia, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Uruguay, while the main importing countries are China, Japan, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the EU, Sudan. In 2014, the EU produced 576 thousand metric tons sorghum, imported 200 thousand metric tons, and consumed 770 thousand metric tons. The main EU producers of sorghum are France, Italy, Romania, Spain and Hungary. In 2012, Romania cultivated 20,000 ha with sorghum crop, 18 times more than in 2077. Also, in 2012, Romania produced 37.5 thousand tons of sorghum grains, by 31 times more than in 2007. The sorghum yield was 1,875 kg/ha by 66% higher in 2012 compared to 2007. Therefore, these figures show the increasing importance of sorghum crop at world level. Because Romania is situated in suitable geographical area for producing sorghum, it could increase production and become a more important supplier

  3. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Sankalp U

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod-sensitive flowering in sorghum. For this purpose a genetically characterized panel of 219 sorghum accessions from West and Central Africa was evaluated for their photoperiod response index (PRI based on two sowing dates under field conditions. Results Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1 and GIGANTEA (GI. Conclusions The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum.

  4. Grain and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) serves as a novel source of bioactive compounds for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanamala, Jairam K P; Massey, Aaron R; Pinnamaneni, Srinivas Rao; Reddivari, Lavanya; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2017-06-29

    Grain sorghum is an important staple food crop grown globally while sweet sorghum is increasingly considered as a promising biofuel feedstock. Biofuels are the major economic products from the processing of large quantities of biomass, which is currently being utilized to make value-added products in the biorefinery approach. To date, these value-added products are typically commodity chemicals and waste materials used in agriculture. However, there are opportunities to generate high value bioactive compounds from sorghum grain and biomass. Chronic diseases, such as cancers, are the top causes for morbidity and mortality in developed nations and are promoted by inflammation and oxidative stress. Globally, colorectal cancer results in approximately one-half million deaths annually. It is estimated that as much as 80% of colorectal cancer cases can be attributed to environmental and dietary factors. The sorghum grain and ligno-cellulosic biomass generated for biofuel production has been reported to be high in bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review focuses on the bioactive compounds of grain and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-colon cancer and immune modulator functions. The review summarizes previous efforts to identify and quantify bioactive compounds in sorghum and documents their anti-cancer biological activities. Finally, this review discusses bioactive compound extraction methodologies and technologies as well as considerations for incorporating these technologies into current biorefining practices.

  5. Thinking on Orientation of Engineering Research of China’s Sorghum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan; JING; Wenbin; BAI; Fuyue; ZHANG; Xiaoyan; JIAO; Liangli; DONG; Qingshan; LIU; Jun’ai; PING

    2013-01-01

    To solve engineering problems restricting development of China’s sorghum industry in the whole chain,this paper firstly introduces functions of sorghum industry to national economic and social development.Then,it analyzes current situations of engineering research of sorghum industry.Finally,it discusses countermeasures for engineering research of sorghum industrial development.On the basis of current situations,it proposes 7 pertinent countermeasures.(i)Collection and storage of sorghum germplasm resource;(ii)Innovation on germplasm resource for sorghum breeding;(iii)Seed selection for new variety of special sorghum;(iv)Integrated innovation on high yield,high quality and high efficient cultivation technology;(v)Research and development of integrated prevention and control technology for disease,pests and weeds;(vi)Improvement in technological extension service system;(vii)Research of sorghum deep processing and use technology.It is intended to promote rapid,sustainable and healthy development of sorghum industry in China.

  6. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  7. Untangling nucleotide diversity and evolution of the H genome in polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species based on the single copy of nuclear gene DMC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfa Sun

    Full Text Available Numerous hybrid and polypoid species are found within the Triticeae. It has been suggested that the H subgenome of allopolyploid Elymus (wheatgrass species originated from diploid Hordeum (barley species, but the role of hybridization between polyploid Elymus and Hordeum has not been studied. It is not clear whether gene flow across polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species has occurred following polyploid speciation. Answering these questions will provide new insights into the formation of these polyploid species, and the potential role of gene flow among polyploid species during polyploid evolution. In order to address these questions, disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1 data from the allopolyploid StH Elymus are analyzed together with diploid and polyploid Hordeum species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some Elymus are very close to the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some polyploid Hordeum species, indicating either that the H genome in theses Elymus and polyploid Hordeum species originated from same diploid donor or that gene flow has occurred among them. Our analysis also suggested that the H genomes in Elymus species originated from limited gene pool, while H genomes in Hordeum polyploids have originated from broad gene pools. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences on H genome from polyploid species (π = 0.02083 in Elymus, π = 0.01680 in polyploid Hordeum is higher than that in diploid Hordeum (π = 0.01488. The estimates of Tajima's D were significantly departure from the equilibrium neutral model at this locus in diploid Hordeum species (P<0.05, suggesting an excess of rare variants in diploid species which may not contribute to the origination of polyploids. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences in Elymus polyploid species (π = 0.02083 is higher than that in polyploid Hordeum (π = 0.01680, suggesting that the degree of relationships between two parents of a polyploid might be a factor

  8. Pénfigo vulgar: Caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Gilberto Nunes R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El pénfigo vulgar es una enfermedad auto-inmune ampollosa, muco cutánea, de carácter crónico, donde las lesiones de la mucosa bucal pueden anteceder las lesiones cutáneas. Así, el odontólogo asume papel importante en la identificación de las lesiones, debiendo realizar el diagnóstico por la historia clínica i exámenes complementares adecuados. Este artículo relata un caso de pénfigo vulgar acometiendo un paciente del sexo masculino, 47 años, con lesiones en la mucosa bucal y piel.Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease, mucocutaneous, chronic, where the lesions in the mouth mucosa usually precede the skin lesions. Thus, the dentist has an important role in identifying the lesions, and the diagnosis must be done through an adequate clinical history and complementary exams. This article reports a case of pemphigus vulgaris in a male patient, 47, suffering from lesions in the skin and mouth mucosa.

  9. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  10. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  11. The renal effects of alginates isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Alves Sousa, Alessandra; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Ferreira; Torres, Márcia Rocha; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Martins, René Duarte; de Sousa Alves, Renata; de Sousa, Daniel Freire; Alves, Claudênio Diógenes; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul

    2008-04-01

    Alginates isolated from Sargassum vulgare, present a strong antitumor activity, associated with kidney reversible damage, as analysed by histopathology of treated animals. In the present study, the renal alteration mechanisms of S. vulgare alginates were investigated using the isolated perfused rat kidney and the isolated perfused rat mesenteric blood vessel methods. The results showed that the effects of Sargassum vulgare low viscosity (SVLV) alginate were more potent than those of Sargassum vulgare high viscosity (SVHV) alginate in the isolated rat kidney. The SVLV alginate caused considerable changes in renal physiology, as shown by an increase in parameters such as perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride excretion and by reduction of chloride tubular transport. The effects of SVHV were weaker than those of SVLV. The effects of SVLV on kidney could be related to direct vascular action as demonstrated with SVLV alginate on mesenteric blood vessels. In conclusion, the Sargassum vulgare alginate altered the renal function parameters evaluated. S. vulgare low viscosity alginate renal effects were more potent than S. vulgare high viscosity alginate. It is suggested that physicochemical differences between SVHV and SVLV could explain the differences found in the results.

  12. Functional and phylogenetic diversity of cultivable rhizobacterial endophytes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, Venkadasamy; Raina, Susheel Kumar; George, Priya; Kumar, Mahesh; Rane, Jagadish; Minhas, Paramjit Singh; Vittal, Kanuparthy Pandu Ranga

    2017-03-28

    A diverse group of bacteria colonize the exo- and endo-rhizospheres of sorghum and play a critical role in its tolerance to drought and other abiotic stresses. Two hundred and eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of four sorghum cultivars that were grown on three soil types at three different phenological stages of growth. The isolates were subjected to in vitro screening for their plant growth promoting traits. Out of 280 isolates, 70 could produce Indole 3-Acetic Acid (IAA), 28 showed N-fixation, 28 could solubilize phosphate, 24 had ACC deaminase activity and 13 isolates were able to produce siderophores. Functional diversity grouping of the isolates indicated one isolate having five PGP traits and two isolates having four PGP traits; two and 29 isolates having three and two PGP traits, respectively. Among the thirty-four isolates that possessed multiple PGP traits, 19 and 17 isolates were able to produce significant quantities of IAA in the presence and absence of L-tryptophan, an inducer. Eight isolates possessed high levels of ACC deaminase activity. PCR-RFLP of the 16Sr RNA gene revealed a distinct clustering and considerable genetic diversity among these functionally characterized isolates. The 16S rRNA gene based identification of the isolates of single and multiple PGP traits revealed phylogenetic dominance of Firmicutes; Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Geobacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas were the major genera present in the endo-rhizosphere of sorghum. Results of this study are constructive in selection of effective rhizobacterial endophytes or consortia for drought stress alleviation in sorghum.

  13. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  14. Biochemical quality indices of sorghum genotypes from east Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... 314 Afr. J. Biotechnol. simple sugars for alcohol production after fermentation. .... of the test, the funnels were emptied and the number of non- germinated grains ..... Review Sorghum Food, Beverage and Brewing. Potentials.

  15. development of hardy sorghum cultivars for the arid and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPMENT OF HARDY SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR THE ARID AND. SEMI ARID REGIONS .... media and presence or absence ofin vitro selective agents (Amzallag et ...... diversity in India Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and its relationship ...

  16. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of sugar. ... Key words: Ethanol, sweet sorghum, stalk juice, medium ..... production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a.

  17. Development of drought tolerant sorghum lines using molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    parent in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programmes for improvement of drought tolerance. Low hybridization ... stress, sorghum plants exhibit premature death of stalk and leaves, stalk ..... Page 7 .... For reasons yet to be determined, low.

  18. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Supriya; Umakanth, A V; Tonapi, V A; Sharma, Rita; Sharma, Manoj K

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. It is a C4 crop with low input requirements and accumulates high levels of sugars in its stalks. However, large-scale planting on marginal lands would require improved varieties with optimized biofuel-related traits and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering this, many studies have been carried out to generate genetic and genomic resources for sweet sorghum. In this review, we discuss various attributes of sweet sorghum that make it an ideal candidate for biofuel feedstock, and provide an overview of genetic diversity, tools, and resources available for engineering and/or marker-assisting breeding of sweet sorghum. Finally, the progress made so far, in identification of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) important for agronomic traits and ongoing molecular breeding efforts to generate improved varieties, has been discussed.

  19. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration (200 mg/kg) of Foeniculum vulgare fruit methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammatory diseases and type IV allergic reactions and showed a central analgesic effect. Moreover, it significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. On the contrary, the malondialdehyde (MDA) (as a measure of lipid peroxidation) level was significantly decreased in F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract group compared to the control group (P<0.05). These results seems to support the use of F. vulgare fruit methanolic extract in relieving inflammation.

  20. Red Card for Pathogens : Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Poloni; Jan Schirawski

    2014-01-01

    Cereal crop plants such as maize and sorghum are constantly being attacked by a great variety of pathogens that cause large economic losses. Plants protect themselves against pathogens by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, which include phytoalexins. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on phytoalexins produced by sorghum (luteolinidin, apigeninidin) and maize (zealexin, kauralexin, DIMBOA and HDMBOA). For these molecules, we highlight biosynthetic pathways, known intermediate...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03338-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3 ( AV929262 ) Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna Nijo cDN... 280 e-113 3 ...J298309 ) Triticum aestivum cDNA clone:whsl24e04, 3' end, s... 272 6e-99 2 ( AV920301 ) Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna... Nijo cDN... 280 2e-95 2 ( AV928609 ) Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna Nijo cDN....um vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna Nijo cDN... 280 4e-94 2 ( BJ476030 ) Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna... Nijo cDN... 280 4e-94 2 ( BJ465796 ) Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare cv.Haruna

  2. SUSTITUCIÓN GRADUAL DE LA ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L.) POR EL GERMINADO DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare) EN RACIONES DE CUYES (Cavia porcellus L.) EN LA ETAPA DE CRECIMIENTO/MANIFESTATIONS FADED GRADUALLY REPLACEMENT OF ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L.) BY BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.) SPROUT IN PORTIONS OF GUINEA PIGS (Cavia porcellus L.) IN THE STAGE OF GROWTH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freddy C Cayllahua; Daisy U D Condori; Alfonso G F Cordero; Miriam L Veliz; José L P Contreras

    2015-01-01

    ...%) of hydroponic barley (CH) in substitution of alfalfa in the feeding male and female guinea pigs of Peru line, in the growth phase, in number of 72, with 18 days of age and 175 g of initial PV means confined for 42 days...

  3. 西藏雅鲁藏布江中部流域发现的古青稞(Hordeum vulgare L.var.nudum)炭化粒%The ancient carbonized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.Var. nudum) kernel discovered in the middle of Yalu Tsanypo river basin in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅大雄; 徐廷文; 冯宗云

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the discovery of the ancient carbonized barley kernel in Changguo Gou archaeological traces of the middle Yalu Tsangpo river basin of Tibet.The traces have been dated from the Late Neolithic Age(3500 years ago),and some related problems are discussed.%本文报道了在西藏雅鲁藏布江中部流域昌果沟遗址发现的距今3500年新石器时代晚期的古青稞炭化粒,并对此进行了相关的讨论.

  4. Molecular evolution of the Sorghum Maturity Gene Ma3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Time to maturity is a critical trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) breeding, as it determines whether a variety can be grown in a particular cropping system or ecosystem. Understanding the nucleotide variation and the mechanisms of molecular evolution of the maturity genes would be helpful for breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide diversity of Ma3, an important maturity gene in sorghum, using 252 cultivated and wild sorghum materials from all over the world. The nucleotide variation and diversity were analyzed based both on race- and usage-based groups. We also sequenced 12 genes around the Ma3 gene in 185 of these materials to search for a selective sweep and found that purifying selection was the strongest force on Ma3, as low nucleotide diversity and low-frequency amino acid variants were observed. However, a very special mutation, described as ma3R, seemed to be under positive selection, as indicated by dramatically reduced nucleotide variation not only at the loci but also in the surrounding regions among individuals carrying the mutations. In addition, in an association study using the Ma3 nucleotide variations, we detected 3 significant SNPs for the heading date at a high-latitude environment (Beijing) and 17 at a low-latitude environment (Hainan). The results of this study increases our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the maturity genes in sorghum and will be useful in sorghum breeding.

  5. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  6. EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF SORGHUM FOR STARCH EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, the wet milling process for the extraction of starch is made from corn, cereal which is currently imported, that is why it is required to substitute it for another grain of national production as it is the case of sorghum. Given the similarities of the two grains in their starch content and considering the potential of sorghum for the food industry, it is developed in this work an assessment process, taking into account two sorghum varieties: red (CIAPR-132 and white (UDG-110. In this sense, a factorial design of the type 2k-1 is made, where the independent variables of most influence in the laboratory process are considered, such as: (x1 type of sorghum, (x2 soaking time and (x3 solution concentration. It is considered that there is no interaction between them and it is taken as the response variable the starch yield in the extraction process. We conclude that the type of sorghum and soaking time are the most influential variables, obtaining the best results for white sorghum subjected for 48 hours to soak in a solution of SO2 at a concentration of 1800 ppm.

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  8. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  9. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    ... tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence...

  10. Genome-wide association study of grain polyphenol concentrations in global sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Ramu, Punna; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen

    2014-11-12

    Identifying natural variation of health-promoting compounds in staple crops and characterizing its genetic basis can help improve human nutrition through crop biofortification. Some varieties of sorghum, a staple cereal crop grown worldwide, have high concentrations of proanthocyanidins and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We quantified total phenols, proanthocyanidins, and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in a global sorghum diversity panel (n = 381) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and characterized the patterns of variation with respect to geographic origin and botanical race. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 404,628 SNP markers identified novel quantitative trait loci for sorghum polyphenols, some of which colocalized with homologues of flavonoid pathway genes from other plants, including an orthologue of maize (Zea mays) Pr1 and a homologue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TT16. This survey of grain polyphenol variation in sorghum germplasm and catalog of flavonoid pathway loci may be useful to guide future enhancement of cereal polyphenols.

  11. Toxigenicity of fungi from grain sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, U L; Morgan-Jones, G; Wagener, R E; Davis, N D

    1981-07-10

    The mycoflora of nine varieties of grain sorghum was determined by plating serial dilutions of ground samples on rose bengal-streptomycin agar. Seventeen species of fungi representing 10 genera were identified. Curvularia, Penicillium, Mucor, and Aspergillus were dominant genera. Extracts of P. herquei were highly toxic to brine shrimp, while those of C. clavata, C. lunata, and Mucor mucedo showed low to moderate toxicity. Extracts of C. clavata, C. lunata, and M. mucedo were highly toxic to chicken embryos; those of six other species showed low to moderate toxicity. Extracts of C. clavata, C. lunata, M. mucedo, Fusarium moniliforme, Alternaria tenuissima. P. herquei, and P. steckii showed varying degrees of toxicity to day-old cockerels.

  12. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  13. KARAKTERISTIK KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN DAYA CERNA TEMPE SORGUM COKLAT (Sorghum bicolor [Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Sofia Murtini*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain using tempeh fermentation. This research was performed in two steps; preparation of sorghum grain and production of sorghum tempeh. Proximate contents, anti nutritional compounds, and in vitro protein digestibility were tested. The test was applied to each of sorghum tempeh samples every 12 hour until 72 hours of total incubation time. The result of study showed that fermentation process decreased anti nutritional factors such as tannin and phytic acid, and increased in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain. The reduction of anti nutritions and increase of in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain were time-dependent in the fermentation process. The highest in vitro protein digestibility (79.13% was observed from 72 hour-fermented sorghum.

  14. [Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility and the state of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant and introgressive lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheva, N V; Sinyavskaya, M G; Devyatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2014-10-01

    Alloplasmic lines combining alien nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are convenient models for studying the mechanisms of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility/incompatibility. In the.present study, we have investigated the correlation between the characters and state of mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant common wheat lines with barley cytoplasm characterized by partial or total fertility. Fertility restoration in the studied lines (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum is determined by different ratios of the genetic material of common wheat variety Pyrotrix 28, which is a fertility restorer in the cytoplasm of barley, and varietySaratovskaya 29, which is a fixer of sterility. In partially fertile lines with nuclear genomes dominated by the genetic material of Saratovskaya 29, plant growth and development are suppressed. In these lines we have identified the barley homoplasmy of cpDNA regions infA and rpoB and the heteroplasmy of the 18S/5S mt repeat and the cpDNA ycf5 region. Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in lines with reduced fertility (the genetic material of Pyrotrix 28 predominates in their nuclear genomes) is associated with restoration of normal plant growth and development and the changes in thestate of the studied cpDNA and mtDNA regions towards the wheat type. Thus, in fertile lines, the cpDNA regions (infA, rpoB) and the 18S/5S mt repeat were identified in the homoplasmic wheat state; though the cpDNAycf5 region was in the heteroplasmic state, it was dominated by the wheat type of the copies. The nuclearicytoplasmic compatibility is not broken as a result of introgression of the alien genetic material into the nuclear genome of one of the fertile lines; the plants of introgressive lines are fertile and normally developed, and the states of the cpDNA and mtDNA regions correspond to their states in fertile recombinant lines.

  15. A remote sensing assessment of pest infestation on sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.

    The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was

  16. Brier Study on the Translation of Chinese Vulgarism Language into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余娜

    2009-01-01

    Vulgarism language,also named four-letter words in English,is words or phrases ofroughness and pushiness used in people's daily life.Though crude and ungrarefid,it is an indispensable part of any,qnguage.It is a common way for people to exprcss their emotions with such words.Any language in the world has vulgarism hnguage and Chinese has no exception.Chinese vulgarism language not only exists in daily life.but in literary works as well.In English and Chinese their expressions of vnlgamm language differ because of the different categories.In this article,the author would like to come up with a preliminary study on the translation of Chinese vulgarism language into English.

  17. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare Linn. administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in mice. The passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral model for assessing memory. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. Hence, F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Carlos Jansen and the literary vulgarization for the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Araujo Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the translations of Carlos Jansen for the youth, age group corresponding approximately to the contemporary concepts of preadolescence and adolescence, made at the end of the 19th century. Jansen was a pioneer in translating into Brazilian Portuguese works for the youth among which novels by Swift, Defoe, and Cervantes. His widely adapted versions had a pedagogical goal, serving as a reading material for children and adolescents attending schools. For this reason he was called a "vulgarizer" by critics of that period. The research encompassed the analysis of newspapers published between 1880 and 1899, available at the National Library's Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira, which provide data on the advertising and reception of his works. We intend to enrich historical research on children's literature in Brazil and analyse to what degree Jansen's pedagogical project has governed his translation practice.

  19. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum pr

  20. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  1. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    Specific Objectives: 1. To identify the gene(s) underlying a major QTL for stem sugar concentration located on chromosome 3. 2. To identify QTL for stem juice volume and stalk sugar concentration and to identify the underlying genes. 3. To classify 60 novel sorghum bmr mutants from the USDA TILLING population in allelic groups based on cell wall chemistry and allelism tests. 4. To select representative bmr mutants from each allelic group and selected NIR spectral mutants for their potential value as feedstock for ethanol production. 5. To clone and characterize those Bmr genes that represent loci other than Bmr12 and Bmr6 using a mapping and a candidate gene approach. Objective 1 The experiments for this objective are largely complete and the data have been analyzed. Data interpretation and follow-up experiments are still in progress. A manuscript is in preparation (Vermerris et al.; see publication list for full details). The main results are: 1) 16 cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced at Cornell University. The libraries represent internode tissue and flag leaf tissue at booting, internode tissue and peduncle at soft-dough stage, from two plants per sampling time with the Rio allele for the QTL on chromosome 3, and two plants with the BTx623 allele on chromosome 3 (4 tissues x 2 genotypes x 2 replicates) 2) 480 million 86-nucleotide reads were generated from four lanes of Illuminia HiSeqII 3) 74% of the reads could be mapped to the sorghum transcriptome, indicative of good sequence quality 4) Of the 216 genes within the QTL, 17 genes were differentially expressed among plants with and without the Rio QTL. None of these 17 genes had obvious roles in sucrose metabolism 5) Clustering algorithms identified a group of 721 co-expressed genes. One of these genes is a sucrose synthase gene. This cluster also contains 10 genes from the QTL. 6) Among these co-expressed genes are regulatory genes for which knock-out lines in Arabidopsis have been obtained. Analysis of

  2. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia (W

  3. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  4. Impact of added nutrients in sweet sorghum syrup fermentation to produce ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work demonstrated that sweet sorghum syrup was efficiently converted to ethanol by yeast. Fermentation broth with sweet sorghum syrup performed better (at least faster) than with only pure sugars due to the pH-buffering effect of sweet sorghum syrup solutions. Sugar solutions containing up to 2...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  6. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  7. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  8. Defining a dryland grain sorghum production function for the Central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a drought tolerant C4 species capable of making use of limited available water supplies and is suitable for dryland crop rotations in the central Great Plains. In order for farmers to assess the production risk encountered when utilizing sorghum in rotati...

  9. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  10. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  11. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and th

  12. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  13. Proceedings of the 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the Hilton Garden Inn, Manhattan, KS from September 1-3, 2015. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry including sorghum research community fr...

  14. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum I: brix and sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was done to measure the deterioration of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after harvest. Three varieties of sorghum were grown in Louisiana and harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting (DAP). Whole stalks were cut from the field at soil level, stripped, and topped...

  15. Pedigreed mutant library- a unique resource for sorghum improvement and genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a versatile crop used for food, feeder, fodder, and biofuel. Due to its superior resilience to drought and high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum is becoming increasingly important in meeting the growing need for food and energy in face of de...

  16. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  17. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

  18. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNAs in Hordeum bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular karyotypes of H. bogdanii Wilensky, 1918 (2n = 14, and H. brevisubulatum Link, 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum (2n = 28, were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of 18 repeats, including all possible di- or trinucleotide SSR (simple sequence repeat motifs and satellite DNAs, such as pAs1, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and pSc119.2, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on root-tip metaphase chromosomes. Except for the SSR motifs AG, AT and GC, all the repeats we examined produced detectable hybridization signals on chromosomes of both species. A detailed molecular karyotype of the I genome of H. bogdanii is described for the first time, and each repetitive sequence is physically mapped. A high degree of chromosome variation, including aneuploidy and structural changes, was observed in H. brevisubulatum. Although the distribution of repeats in the chromosomes of H. brevisubulatum is different from that of H. bogdanii, similar patterns between the two species imply that the autopolyploid origin of H. brevisubulatum is from a Hordeum species with an I genome. A comparison of the I genome and the other Hordeum genomes, H, Xa and Xu, shows that colocalization of motifs AAC, ACT and CAT and colocalization of motifs AAG and AGG are characteristic of the I genome. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary significance of repeats in the genome during genome differentiation.

  19. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  20. The quality of silage of different sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Cangussú Tolentino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to select from among 24 sorghum genotypes the superior ones for silage production. The study was conducted in the experimental field of Embrapa Maize & Sorghum, in the municipality of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State. It used 24 forage sorghum genotypes, 21 being hybrids from the crossing of grain sorghum females and forage males (12F38019, 12F38006, 12F40006, 12F40005, 12F40019, 12F37016, 12F37005, 12F37043, 12F39006, 12F39005, 12F39019, 12F38005, 12F38007, 12F37007, 12F39007, 12F40007, 12F38014, 12F37014, 12F39014, 12F40014 e 12F38009 and three witnesses: BRS 610, BRS 655 and Volumax. It estimated productivity per area, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and assessed the bromatological and fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage. In vitro dry matter digestibility, unavailable protein in neutral detergent, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ashes and protein, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin differed as to the genotypes tested. The pH and the ammoniacal nitrogen of the silage also showed differences between genotypes. Most of the genotypes tested are favorable for silage production, except the hybrid with higher lignin content 12F370014, and the hybrids 12F37007 and 12F370014, which showed the highest NDFap values.

  1. Oxidative enzyme changes in sorghum infested by shoot fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.

  2. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  3. Germination of sorghum grain results in significant changes in paste and texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cuiping; Li, Yan; Ping, Junai

    2017-10-01

    The changes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] proteins during germination and the resultant effects on the physicochemical properties of sorghum flour were studied using non-germinated grains as a control. Results showed that flour obtained from germinated sorghum grains had lower protein levels, higher protease levels, and higher free amino nitrogen content compared with the control. There was an increase in the albumin and globulin protein fractions and a decrease in kafirin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that this decrease was the result of a decrease in γ-kafirins, while microscopy found that a continuous protein network was formed. Following the germination-associated protein changes, the viscosities of sorghum paste decreased with germination from a peak viscosity value of 1,324 rapid visco units (RVU) down to 727 RVU in white sorghum (WS), and from 1,549 RVU to 1,295 RVU in red sorghum (RS). The hardness of the sorghum gels was significantly enhanced after germination, with WS increasing from 1,640 g to 5,374 g and RS from 970 g to 5,529 g. Thus, the study revealed that germination decreased the viscosity of sorghum paste and increased the strength of sorghum gel by changing the content and structure of sorghum protein, making it possible to design new foods that require thickening and gelling using germinated sorghum. Germination triggers the protease system of sprouting seeds, leading to the breakdown of proteins into simpler forms that decrease the viscosity of sorghum paste and improve the strength of sorghum gel, allowing the use of germinated sorghum to design new foods that require thickening and gelling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. QTL mapping provides evidence for lack of association of the avoidance of leaf rust in Hordeum chilense with stomata density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.

    2003-01-01

    In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of s

  5. Quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) grown under different levels of nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, I.A.M.; Vanhala, T.K.; Turin, J.H.B.; Stam, P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity of relative growth rate (RGR), its components and associated morphological traits was studied in relation to nutrient limitation. In all, 140 F3 lines from a cross, made between two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) accessions sampled in Israel, were subject

  6. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  7. Acceptability of Food Products from Sweet Sorghum Sorghum bicolor L.Moench Grain Developed at Pampanga Agricultural College, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella C Zabala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty five sweet sorghum products were developed from the sweet sorghum grain at Pampanga Agricultural College, Magalang, Pampanga, Philippines. This products were grouped into soups and porridges  (8 recipes; snacks and native delicacies (9 recipes , meals (8 recipes and sorghum flour (2 recipes. In general, the sweet sorghum food products developed are “Like very much “ in terms of taste and appearance  but Moderately Like in terms of texture.  Since the “pattern recipe”  are popular the result of acceptability is high in terms of appearance and taste, however,  the comment on texture is that there is a little rough or gritty taste and sometimes there is the presence of plastic like particles.  As to level of acceptability, the food sorghum food products developed in this study were “Like very much” in terms of appearance, taste and over all acceptability but are “Moderately like” in terms of texture.  

  8. Sorghum for biogas. Results from a multiannual research in Bavaria; Sorghum fuer Biogas. Mehrjaehrige Versuchsergebnisse aus Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeise, Karen [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Straubing (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The successful cultivation of Sorghum in Bavaria depends on the availability of early maturing cultivars that can cope with a quite short vegetation period. By using the TFZ-maturity-group-model it was possible to identify suitable Sorghum material out of a great international Sorghum assortment and to draft clear regional specific management recommendations. So, early and mid-early maturing cultivars were proved to achieve at least 28 % dry matter content even when grown in cooler regions and/or sown until mid-June and thus, are predestinated as catch crops following cereals for total plants silage. Mid-late cvs. perform only well in warm and dry regions as main crops whereas late cvs. fail round here. The yields of some mid-late cvs. can reach the level of simultaneously sown maize. However, the methane yield of Sorghum was always much lower than that of maize whereas the calculation models related Sorghum significantly poorer than the ''Hohenheimer biogas test''. (orig.)

  9. Seed Coating with Hydro-Absorbers as Potential Mitigation of Early Season Drought in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorim, Linda; Asch, Folkard

    2017-07-31

    Climate change poses a threat to sorghum production systems by shifting the onset of the rainy season to a later date, increasing the risk of crop failure during crop establishment. The effects of drought on sorghum during seedling establishment have not been determined. Coating seeds with a water absorbing substance offers a way to buffer the seed against insufficient moisture in the surrounding soil. Seeds of two different sorghum varieties were coated with one of two commercially available hydro-absorbers: Stokosorb(®) and Geohumus(®). These hydro-absorbers have the capacity to store water several times their own weight. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the cited hydro-absorbers on early seedling growth of two sorghum landraces under different levels of soil water deficit. Seedlings were grown for 12 days under three water availability levels (Field capacity (FC), 50% of FC, and 25% of FC). The seedlings under water limited treatments were subsequently re-watered. Biomass, root length, plant height, leaf area, and leaf extension rate were monitored in two-day intervals for 24 days. Coating strongly affected seedling growth both under fully watered and water deficit conditions. Sorghum varieties differed in their responses to both soil water deficit and coating materials. In general, Stockosorb improved seedling performance under water limited conditions particularly by promoting root growth, whereas Geohumus did not.

  10. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  11. Compatibility of Intercropping Stem Borer Resistant Sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench Genotypes with Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp and its Effect on Flower Thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampong-Nyarko, K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of sorghum Sorghum bicolor Moench genotypes with varying levels of resistance to stem borers for intercropping was studied in field experiments for two cropping seasons at the ICIPE in Kenya. Sorghum genotypes IS-18520, IS-1044, IS-2269, ICS 3, ICS 4, LRB6, 2Kx17and Gaddam El Hamam were grown both as monocrops and as intercrops with cowpea. Intercropping reduced the Chilo partellus population density but there was no significant genotype x intercropping interaction. Intercropping significantly reduced the number of flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti in cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. The stem borer resistance level of sorghum genotypes tested was not affected by intercropping. There were, however, differences in agronomic productivity. Grain yield of intercropped sorghum was positively correlated with the number of tillers per harvestable head. Sorghum genotypes with high tillering capacity, of intermediate plant height and intermediate leaf area were considered compatible for intercropping with cowpea.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  13. Selection of a yeast strain for sweet sorghum fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Seven natural and eight commercial yeast strains were tested for fermenting the high sugar content of sweet sorghum juice with a high yield of alcohol and a high pecentage utilization of the sugar within a ten day period. The sorghum juice pH was adjusted to range between 4 and 5. A comparison was made with and without an added nitrogen source. Fermentation temperatures were maintained at 27/sup 0/C. The American Type Culture Collection number 918, a Saccharomyces species fermented the sorghum juice at the 26 and 18 to 20 balling (brix). No yeast strain was found to ferment the 30 balling juice within a ten day period at 90% utilization.

  14. Red Card for Pathogens: Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Poloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crop plants such as maize and sorghum are constantly being attacked by a great variety of pathogens that cause large economic losses. Plants protect themselves against pathogens by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, which include phytoalexins. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on phytoalexins produced by sorghum (luteolinidin, apigeninidin and maize (zealexin, kauralexin, DIMBOA and HDMBOA. For these molecules, we highlight biosynthetic pathways, known intermediates, proposed enzymes, and mechanisms of elicitation. Finally, we discuss the involvement of phytoalexins in plant resistance and their possible application in technology, medicine and agriculture. For those whose world is round we tried to set the scene in the context of a hypothetical football game in which pathogens fight with phytoalexins on the different playing fields provided by maize and sorghum.

  15. Red card for pathogens: phytoalexins in sorghum and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Alana; Schirawski, Jan

    2014-06-30

    Cereal crop plants such as maize and sorghum are constantly being attacked by a great variety of pathogens that cause large economic losses. Plants protect themselves against pathogens by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, which include phytoalexins. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on phytoalexins produced by sorghum (luteolinidin, apigeninidin) and maize (zealexin, kauralexin, DIMBOA and HDMBOA). For these molecules, we highlight biosynthetic pathways, known intermediates, proposed enzymes, and mechanisms of elicitation. Finally, we discuss the involvement of phytoalexins in plant resistance and their possible application in technology, medicine and agriculture. For those whose world is round we tried to set the scene in the context of a hypothetical football game in which pathogens fight with phytoalexins on the different playing fields provided by maize and sorghum.

  16. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae Seasonality of the secretory ducts and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.This work aimed to analyze the secretory ducts and the essential oil of the leaves of Foeniculum vulgare in different periods of the year. For this purpose, the anatomic characterization, and histochemical tests of the leaves were performed as well as the comparative anatomy of the secretory ducts. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves and fruits by hidrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, each analysis was repeated three times for leaves collected during the winter and spring, and for fruits collected in the Summer. The results obtained for the secretory ducts, corresponded to the yield reduction of essential oil in the leaves collected in the end of the spring. The major substance of the essential oil of the leaves and fruits, in all

  17. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) Contents of Porridges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts ...

  18. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels.

  19. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha POPESCU; Reta CONDEI

    2014-01-01

    The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to ...

  20. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain