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Sample records for hop glandular trichomes

  1. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Plant Glandular Trichomes Chemical ... Peter1 Thomas G Shanower2. Scientist, Nagarjuna Agricultural Research and Development Institute 28, P & T colony Secunderabad 500 009, India; Senior Scientist at ICRISAT Asia Center, Hyderabad.

  2. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resistance to several anti-malarial drugs. Chinese scientists have made good progress in identifying an anti-malarial chemical, artemisinin, from the glandular trichomes of the wormwood,. Artemisia annua. In a recent study, artemisinin was found to cure. 143 cases of chloroqUIne-resistant falciparum malaria and 141.

  3. Glandular trichomes of Tussilago Farfara (Senecioneae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravnik, Lyudmila E; Kostina, Olga V; Shavarda, Alexey L

    2016-09-01

    The glandular trichomes are developed on the aerial organs of Tussilago farfara ; they produce phenols and terpenoids. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum and leucoplasts are the main organelles of the trichome secretory cells. The aim of this study was to characterise the morphology, anatomy, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the trichomes in Tussilago farfara as well as to identify composition of the secretory products. Structure of trichomes located on the peduncles, bracts, phyllaries, and leaves were studied by light and electron microscopy. The capitate glandular trichomes consist of a multicellular head and a biseriate long stalk. Histochemical tests and fluorescence microscopy reveal phenols and terpenoids in the head cells. During secretory stage, the head cells contain smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, diversiform leucoplasts with opaque contents in lamellae, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and microbodies. In the capitate glandular trichomes of T. farfara subcuticular cavity is absent, unlike glandular trichomes in other Asteraceae species. For the first time, content of metabolites in the different vegetative and reproductive organs as well as in the isolated capitate glandular trichomes was identified by GC-MS. Forty-five compounds, including organic acids, sugars, polyols, phenolics, and terpenoids were identified. It appeared that metabolite content in the methanol extracts from peduncles, bracts and phyllaries is biochemically analogous, and similar to the metabolites from leaves, in which photosynthesis happens. At the same time, the metabolites from trichome extracts essentially differ and refer to the above-mentioned secondary substances. The study has shown that the practical value of the aerial organs of coltsfoot is provided with flavonoids produced in the capitate glandular trichomes.

  4. A comprehensive proteome map of glandular trichomes of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) female cones: Identification of biosynthetic pathways of the major terpenoid-related compounds and possible transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus) are an essential source of terpenoid-related compounds, which are mainly used as flavoring in the beer brewing process. The compounds involved are bitter acids, terpenophenolics, as well as mono- and sesquiterpenoids. In this work, we analyzed the proteome of purified glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) from female flowers, which produce and accumulate these compounds. An extensive 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1015 proteins. Of these, most correspond to housekeeping and primary metabolism-related proteins, albeit predominantly including amino acid and lipid metabolism, which feeds the specialized (secondary) metabolism. Indeed, 75 proteins belong to the specialized metabolism. No less than 40 enzymes are involved in the synthesis of terpenoid-derived compounds and 21 are predicted transporters, some of which might be involved in the transport of specialized metabolites. We discuss the possible routes involved in the intra- and intercellular translocation of terpenoids and their precursors. This comprehensive proteomic map of the glandular trichomes of hop female flowers represents a valuable resource to improve our knowledge on the function of glandular trichomes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  6. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  7. Localization of salvinorin A and related compounds in glandular trichomes of the psychoactive sage, Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes.

  8. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  9. Global characterization of Artemisia annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

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    Qi Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. Results We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. Sequencing runs using two normalized cDNA collections from glandular trichomes yielded 406,044 expressed sequence tags (average length = 210 nucleotides, which assembled into 42,678 contigs and 147,699 singletons. Performing a second sequencing run only increased the number of genes identified by ~30%, indicating that massively parallel pyrosequencing provides deep coverage of the A. annua trichome transcriptome. By BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant protein database, putative functions were assigned to over 28,573 unigenes, including previously undescribed enzymes likely involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Comparison with ESTs derived from trichome collections of other plant species revealed expressed genes in common functional categories across different plant species. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of selected unigenes and novel transcripts in A. annua glandular trichomes. Conclusion The presence of contigs corresponding to enzymes for terpenoids and flavonoids biosynthesis suggests important metabolic activity in A. annua glandular trichomes. Our comprehensive survey of genes expressed in glandular trichome will facilitate new gene discovery and shed light on the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin metabolism and trichome function in A. annua.

  10. Plant glandular trichomes as targets for breeding or engineering of resistance to herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Alba, J.M.; Escobar-Bravo, R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Kant, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant's secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by

  11. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-22

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption.

  12. Promoter of a cotton fibre MYB gene functional in trichomes of Arabidopsis and glandular trichomes of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Xu, Bing; Yu, Zong-Xia; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibres are unicellular seed trichomes. Our previous study suggested that the cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 is a functional homologue of the Arabidopsis trichome regulator GLABRA1 (GL1). Here, the GaMYB2 promoter activity is reported in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis plants. A 2062 bp promoter of GaMYB2 was isolated from G. arboreum, and fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In cotton, the GaMYB2 promoter exhibited activities in developing fibre cells and trichomes of other aerial organs, including leaves, stems and bracts. In Arabidopsis the promoter was specific to trichomes. Different from Arabidopsis and cotton that have unicellular non-glandular simple trichomes, tobacco plants contain more than one type of trichome, including multicellular simple and glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs). Interestingly, in tobacco plants the GaMYB2 promoter directed GUS expression exclusively in glandular cells of GSTs. A series of 5'-deletions revealed that a 360 bp fragment upstream to the translation initiation codon was sufficient to drive gene expression. A putative cis-element of the T/G-box was located at -233 to -214; a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that Arabidopsis bHLH protein GLABRA3 (GL3), also a trichome regulator, and GhDEL65, a GL3-like cotton protein, had high binding activities to the T/G-box motif. Overexpression of GL3 or GhDEL65 enhanced the GaMYB2 promoter activity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. A comparison of GaMYB2 promoter specificities in trichomes of different plant species with different types of trichomes provides a tool for further dissection of plant trichome structure and development.

  13. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  14. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-06

    Feb 6, 2012 ... Neu's reagent, peltate trichomes showed intense yellow fluorescence (Figure 4r), indicating different flavonoids in comparison to capitate type I trichomes, with fluoresce blue under UV light (Figure 4s). With antimony trichloride, peltate trichomes showed intense green fluorescence under UV light (Figure 4t) ...

  15. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

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    Merijn R. Kant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests.

  16. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Taura, Futoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Ishikawa, Yu; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    ...), the psychoactive component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). We suggest herein that THCA is biosynthesized in the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes based on the following observations...

  17. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  18. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary metabolites secreted by peltate trichomes were examined histochemically, which included terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenolics and alkaloids. The peltate trichomes are not only sites of oridonin accumulation, but also sites of oridonin biosynthesis in I. rubescens. Key words: Isodon rubescens, ...

  19. Costs of glandular trichomes in Datura wrightii: a three-year study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, J.D.; Elle, E.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    Models accounting for genetic variation for resistance to herbivores within plant populations often postulate a balance between the costs of that resistance and its benefits. The production of glandular trichomes by Datura wrightii was shown to be costly in a previous one-year study because plants

  20. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  1. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Göpfert, Jens C; MacNevin, Gillian; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2009-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae) which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes as well. Conclusion This

  2. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

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    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  3. Infraspecific variation in the chemistry of glandular trichomes of two Brazilian Viguiera species (Heliantheae; Asteraceae

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    Da Costa Fernando B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical survey on the glandular trichome chemistry of different populations of two Brazilian Viguiera species has been performed by the glandular trichome microsampling technique and isocratic HPLC analyses. In all six analysed samples of V. robusta, the furanoheliangolide budlein A and its tiglate and methacrylate isomers were detected as the major compounds. They were accompanied by various constituents in mostly minor or trace amounts. The chemical pattern of all samples was qualitatively very similar, thus featuring V. robusta as a taxon of high "chemoconsistency". In contrast, V. quinqueremis represented an example of "chemodiversity". Although budlein A and its derivatives were present in five of the six analysed populations, other heliangolides and germacrolides co-occurred and partly dominated in quantity. Distinct compound patterns divided the samples of V. quinqueremis into three chemical subgroups.

  4. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    OpenAIRE

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution.

  5. Biosynthesis and localization of parthenolide in glandular trichomes of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Schulz Bip.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Liu, Qing; Karimzadeh, Ghasem; Malboobi, Mohammad Ali; Beekwilder, Jules; Cankar, Katarina; Vos, Ric de; Todorović, Sladjana; Simonović, Ana; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2011-10-01

    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a perennial medicinal herb and is a rich source of sesquiterpene lactones. Parthenolide is the main sesquiterpene lactone in feverfew and has attracted attention because of its medicinal potential for treatment of migraine and cancer. In the present work the parthenolide content in different tissues and developmental stages of feverfew was analyzed to study the timing and localization of parthenolide biosynthesis. The strongest accumulating tissue was subsequently used to isolate sesquiterpene synthases with the goal to isolate the gene encoding the first dedicated step in parthenolide biosynthesis. This led to the isolation and charachterization of a germacrene A synthase (TpGAS) and an (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase (TpCarS). Transcript level patterns of both sesquiterpene synthases were analyzed in different tissues and glandular trichomes. Although TpGAS was expressed in all aerial tissues, the highest expression was observed in tissues that contain high concentrations of parthenolide and in flowers the highest expression was observed in the biosynthetically most active stages of flower development. The high expression of TpGAS in glandular trichomes which also contain the highest concentration of parthenolide, suggests that glandular trichomes are the secretory tissues where parthenolide biosynthesis and accumulation occur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  7. Transcriptional profiling unravels potential metabolic activities of the olive leaf non-glandular trichome

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    Konstantinos eKoudounas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The olive leaf trichomes are multicellular peltate hairs densely distributed mainly at the lower leaf epidermis. Although non-glandular, they have gained much attention since they significantly contribute to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of olive leaves. The exact mechanisms by which olive trichomes achieve these goals are not fully understood. They could act as mechanical barrier but they also accumulate high amounts of flavonoids among other secondary metabolites. However, little is currently known about the exact compounds they produce and the respective metabolic pathways. Here we present the first EST analysis from olive leaf trichomes by using 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 5,368 unigenes were identified out of 7,258 high quality reads with an average length of 262 bp. Blast search revealed that 27.5% of them had high homologies to known proteins. By using Blast2GO, 1,079 unigenes (20.1% were assigned at least one Gene Ontology (GO term. Most of the genes were involved in cellular and metabolic processes and in binding functions followed by catalytic activity. A total of 521 transcripts were mapped to 67 KEGG pathways. Olive trichomes represent a tissue of highly unique transcriptome as per the genes involved in developmental processes and the secondary metabolism. The results indicate that mature olive trichomes are trancriptionally active, mainly through the potential production of enzymes that contribute to phenolic compounds with important roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses.

  8. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes in Hyptis villosa Pohl ex Benth. (Lamiaceae and differential labeling of cytoskeletal elements

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    Luiz Ricardo dos Santos Tozin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lamiaceae contains many species known for their aromatic properties that are produced by the production of essential oils in glandular trichomes. Hyptis is one of the most common genera of Lamiaceae in the Brazilian flora, and includes several species with medicinal value. However, studies on the morphology and functioning of their glandular trichomes are lacking. We analyzed the morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes in leaves of H. villosa, emphasizing the differential distribution of actin filaments and microtubules in cells secreting hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Four morphotypes of glandular trichomes were identified. Total lipid, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, proteins and polysaccharides were histochemically detected in all morphotyes. This evidences the mixed nature of the secretions of this species, although there are differences in the prevalence of lipophilic and hydrophilic components among the glandular morphotypes and among the cells of the same trichome. The actin microfilaments are more abundant in cells that secrete mainly hydrophilic compounds, and microtubules predominate in cells that secrete lipophilic compounds. Our results corroborate the correlation between the glandular morphotype and the composition of the secretion produced, with a differential distribution of the cytoskeletal elements according to the prevalence of either hydrophilic or lipophilic substances.

  9. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  10. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

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    Ulrike Steiner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  11. The flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase modulates terpenoid production in glandular trichomes of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E; Jones, A Daniel; Howe, Gregg A

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments.

  12. Investigation of glandular trichome proteins in Artemisia annua L. using comparative proteomics.

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    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs are called biofactories because they are active in synthesizing, storing and secreting various types of plant secondary metabolites. As the most effective drug against malaria, artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone is derived from GSTs of Artemisia annua. However, low artemisinin content (0.001%~1.54% of dry weight has hindered its wide application. We investigate the GST-expressed proteins in Artemisia annua using a comparative proteomics approach, aiming for a better understanding of the trichome proteome and arteminisin metabolism. 2D-electrophoresis was employed to compare the protein profiles of GSTs and leaves. More than 700 spots were resolved for GSTs, of which ∼93 non-redundant proteins were confidently identified by searching NCBI and Artemisia EST databases. Over 70% of these proteins were highly expressed in GTSs. Functional classification of these GSTs enriched proteins revealed that many of them participate in major plant metabolic processes such as electron transport, transcription and translation.

  13. The structure and distribution of glandular trichomes on the stems and leaves of drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm.

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta is a medicinal plant being one of the ingredients of "Herba Euphrasiae". Many studies have been devoted to the identification of biologically active substances in the herb of eyebright, but much less research has been done on the constitution of glandular structures of this taxon. This paper relates to glandular trichomes located on the stems and leaves of E. stricta. The trichome structure was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the stems of E. stricta were mainly covered by non-glandular trichomes, whereas glandular trichomes were rarely found on them. However, clusters of short capitate trichomes were found to occur in specific epidermal regions on both surfaces of the leaf blades and bracts. On the adaxial leaf surface, glandular trichomes grew only in the grooves above the vascular bundles, while on the abaxial surface in the depressions located in the expanded part of the teeth. The glandular hairs consisted of 1-2 cells of the stalk and a two-celled head. Trichomes with 3- or 4-celled heads were found sporadically. The glandular trichomes functioned non-synchronously, since they differed in head size and the colour of cell protoplasts. The presence of a light secretion was found on the surface and around the trichomes in both fresh and dry plant material.

  14. Identifying Three Ecological Chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium Glandular Trichomes Using a Combined NMR and LC-MS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fangfang Chen; Fuhua Hao; Changfu Li; Junbo Gou; Dayan Lu; Fujun Gong; Huiru Tang; Yansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores i...

  15. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  16. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

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    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  17. Identifying Three Ecological Chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium Glandular Trichomes Using a Combined NMR and LC-MS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures. PMID:24098541

  18. Promoter of a cotton fibre MYB gene functional in trichomes of Arabidopsis and glandular trichomes of tobacco

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiao-Xia Shangguan; Bing Xu; Zong-Xia Yu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibres are unicellular seed trichomes. Our previous study suggested that the cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 is a functional homologue of the Arabidopsis trichome regulator GLABRA1 (GL1...

  19. Expression of Terpenoids 1, a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyropoulou, E.A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Terpene biosynthesis in tomato glandular trichomes has been well studied, with most if not all terpene synthases (TPSs) being identified. However, transcription factors (TFs) that regulate TPSs have not yet been discovered from tomato. In order to unravel the transcriptional regulation of the

  20. Metabolic flux engineering of cembratrien-ol production in both the glandular trichome and leaf mesophyll in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongying; Zhang, Songtao; Yang, Yongxia; Jia, Hongfang; Cui, Hong

    2018-01-15

    Cembratrien-ol synthase (CBTS) catalyses the first step in cembranoid biosynthesis, producing cembratrien-ols in plant trichomes. In our previous study, microarray transcriptomes between leaves with trichomes and leaves without trichomes showed that a NtCBTS2 gene was expressed exclusively and abundantly in trichomes. Here, two NtCBTS2 isogenes (NtCBTS2a and NtCBTS2b), derived from a diploid genome donor, N. sylvestris, were identified from N. tabacum. Both genes were expressed primarily in trichomes, with relatively decreased transcription in flowers and stems, faint expression in roots, and no expression was detected in leaves lacking trichomes.To demonstrate the feasibility of producing natural-product cembratrien-ols in tobacco mesophylls, the mesophylls of 35S: NtCBTS2b transgenic tobaccos were used to analyse, suggesting that constitutive expression of NtCBTS2b led to the cembratrien-ol producing in mesophylls. Overexpression of NtCBTS2b using either CaMV-35S or trichome-specific CYP promoters, greatly increased aphid resistance by promoting the accumulation of CBT-ols, increased secretory cell growth in glandular trichomes, and increased the levels of various physiological measures, including sugar esters, gibberellins, and cembranoid production. Meanwhile, specifically overexpressing NtCBTS2b in glandular trichomes could most efficiently promote aphid resistance in tobaccos. Notably, our results indicate the feasibility of utilizing bio-engineering to produce large amounts of CBT-ols, and modify significantly the composition of naturally produced CBT-ols and CBT-diols, thereby promoting aphid resistance in plants. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

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    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  2. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  3. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  4. Herbivory by leaf-cutter ants changes the glandular trichomes density and the volatile components in an aromatic plant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos; Mayo Marques, Marcia Ortiz; Maria Rodrigues, Tatiane

    2017-11-01

    Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced. Despite the abundance of trichomes producing important anti-herbivory components in their leaves, the association between Ocimum species and leaf-cutter ants has been commonly registered in Brazil. We investigated the effect of leaf-cutter ant attack on the density of the glandular trichomes and on the chemistry of the VOCs released from leaves of O. gratissimum . Plants were subjected to Acromyrmex rugosus attack until 90 % of leaves were removed. After 40 days from the leaf-cutter attack, both treatments were sampled. The glandular trichome density was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The VOCs were extracted utilizing headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique and analysed by gas chromatography. Generally, the density of glandular trichomes increased in the adaxial leaf surface of the attacked plants. However, we bring novelties on this topic since we analysed the density of each morphotype separately. The morphotype I decreased in the abaxial leaf surface, and increased in the adaxial leaf surface; the morphotype II increased in both leaf surfaces; and the morphotype III decreased in the abaxial leaf surface and remained constant in the adaxial leaf surface of attacked plants. In leaves of attacked plants, the ( Z )-β-ocimene increased by 50 %, the α-selinene by 13 % and the germacrene D by 126 %, whereas the eugenol decreased by 70 %. Our data point to a

  5. Capability of wild Rosa rugosa and its varieties and hybrids to produce sesquiterpene components in leaf glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashidoko, Y; Endoh, K; Kudo, T; Tahara, S

    2001-09-01

    The sesquiterpene contents in leaves of wild Rosa rugosa and of sixty-one hybrid rugosas were quantitatively measured by a GC analysis. In this group of samples, the greater the number of glandular trichomes the hybrid rugosas possessed on their leaves, the larger the amount of sesquiterpenes they accumulated. In contrast, those having no leaf glandular hairs contained only a trace amount of sesquiterpene components. The concentrations of bisaborosaol A (1) and carota-1,4-dienaldehyde (2) as representative sesquiterpenes of R. rugosa were positively correlated with the density of the glandular trichomes. Furthermore, an approximately regular correlation was observed between the concentrations of 1 and 2 in most of the sesquiterpene-producing hybrid rugosas, regardless of their productivity. This suggests that a major part of these hybrid rugosas have inherited from R. rugosa the ability to produce two skeletally different sesquiterpenes in parallel with a phenotype to develop leaf glandular trichomes. This investigation also led to discovering 1-dominant (e.g., Amelie Gravereaux and Purple Pavement), 2-dominant (e.g., David Thompson), and other-dominant (e.g., Martin Frobisher) types of sesquiterpene-producing hybrid rugosas.

  6. The development of type VI glandular trichomes in the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and a related wild species S. habrochaites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Bennewitz, Stefan; Syrowatka, Frank; Hause, Gerd; Tissier, Alain

    2015-12-12

    Type VI glandular trichomes represent the most abundant trichome type on leaves and stems of tomato plants and significantly contribute to herbivore resistance, particularly in the wild species. Despite this, their development has been poorly studied so far. The goal of this study is to fill this gap. Using a variety of cell imaging techniques, a detailed record of the anatomy and developmental stages of type VI trichomes in the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and in a related wild species (S. habrochaites) is provided. In both species, the development of these structures follows a highly reproducible cell division pattern. The two species differ in the shape of the trichome head which is round in S. habrochaites and like a four-leaf clover in S. lycopersicum, correlating with the presence of a large intercellular cavity in S. habrochaites where the produced metabolites accumulate. In both species, the junction between the intermediate cell and the four glandular cells constitute a breaking point facilitating the decapitation of the trichome and thereby the quick release of the metabolites. A strongly auto-fluorescent compound transiently accumulates in the early stages of development suggesting a potential role in the differentiation process. Finally, immuno-labelling with antibodies recognizing specific cell wall components indicate a key role of pectin and arabinogalactan components in the differentiation of type VI trichomes. Our observations explain the adaptive morphologies of type VI trichomes for metabolite storage and release and provide a framework for further studies of these important metabolic cellular factories. This is required to better exploit their potential, in particular for the breeding of pest resistance in tomato.

  7. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

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    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  8. Promoter of a cotton fibre MYB gene functional in trichomes of Arabidopsis and glandular trichomes of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Xu, Bing; Yu, Zong-Xia; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibres are unicellular seed trichomes. Our previous study suggested that the cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 is a functional homologue of the Arabidopsis trichome regulator GLABRA1 (GL1). Here, the GaMYB2 promoter activity is reported in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis plants. A 2062 bp promoter of GaMYB2 was isolated from G. arboreum, and fused to a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In cotton, the GaMYB2 promoter exhibited activiti...

  9. Glandular trichomes and essential oil characteristics of in vitro propagated Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojičić, Dragana; Tošić, Svetlana; Slavkovska, Violeta; Zlatković, Bojan; Budimir, Snežana; Janošević, Dušica; Uzelac, Branka

    2016-08-01

    In vitro conditions and benzyladenine influenced both content and composition of micropropagated Micromeria pulegium essential oils, with pulegone and menthone being the main essential oil components. The content and chemical composition of Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Benth. essential oils were studied in native plant material at vegetative stage and in micropropagated plants, obtained from nodal segments cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin at different concentrations, alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid. Shoot proliferation was achieved in all treatments, but the highest biomass production was obtained after treatment with 10 μM BA. Phytochemical analysis identified up to 21 compounds in the essential oils of wild-growing and in vitro cultivated plants, both showing very high percentages of total monoterpenoids dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes of the menthane type. Pulegone and menthone were the main essential oil components detected in both wild-growing plants (60.07 and 26.85 %, respectively) and micropropagated plants grown on either plant growth regulator-free medium (44.57 and 29.14 %, respectively) or BA-supplemented medium (50.77 and 14.45 %, respectively). The percentage of total sesquiterpenoids increased in vitro, particularly owing to sesquiterpene hydrocarbons that were not found in wild-growing plants. Differences in both content and the composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples indicated that in vitro culture conditions and plant growth regulators significantly influence the essential oils properties. In addition, the morphology and structure of M. pulegium glandular trichomes in relation to the secretory process were characterized for the first time using SEM and light microscopy, and their secretion was histochemically analyzed.

  10. Effect of prolonged water stress on specialized secondary metabolites, peltate glandular trichomes, and pathway gene expression in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritesh K; Sangwan, Rajender S; Sabir, Farzana; Srivastava, Awadesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. accumulates substantial quantities of unique sesquiternoid artemisinin and related phytomolecules and characteristic essential oil in glandular trichomes, present on its leaves and inflorescence. Water stress is a major concern in controlling plant growth and productivity. In this study, our aim was to find out the modulation of artemisinin and essential oil constituents in plants grown under prolonged water stress conditions. A. annua CIM-Arogya plants grown in pots were subjected to mild (60% ± 5) and moderate (40% ± 5) water stress treatment and continued during entire developmental period. Results revealed that artemisinin, arteannuin-B, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid and essential oil content were positively controlled by the growth and development however negatively modulated by water deficit stress. Interestingly, some of minor monoterpenes, all sesquiterpenes and other low molecular weight volatiles of essential oil components were induced by water deficit treatment. Camphor which is the major essential oil constituents did not alter much while 1, 8 cineole was modulated during development of plant as well as under water stress conditions. Water deficit stress induces a decrease in glandular trichome density and size as well. The dynamics of various secondary metabolites is discussed in the light of growth responses, trichomes and pathway gene expression in plants grown under two levels of prolonged water stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Flavonoid Biosynthetic Enzyme Chalcone Isomerase Modulates Terpenoid Production in Glandular Trichomes of Tomato1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; McRoberts, John; Shi, Feng; Moreno, Javier E.; Jones, A. Daniel; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and terpenoids are derived from distinct metabolic pathways but nevertheless serve complementary roles in mediating plant interactions with the environment. Here, we show that glandular trichomes of the anthocyanin free (af) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fail to accumulate both flavonoids and terpenoids. This pleiotropic metabolic deficiency was associated with loss of resistance to native populations of coleopteran herbivores under field conditions. We demonstrate that Af encodes an isoform (SlCHI1) of the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI), which catalyzes the conversion of naringenin chalcone to naringenin and is strictly required for flavonoid production in multiple tissues of tomato. Expression of the wild-type SlCHI1 gene from its native promoter complemented the anthocyanin deficiency in af. Unexpectedly, the SlCHI1 transgene also complemented the defect in terpenoid production in glandular trichomes. Our results establish a key role for SlCHI1 in flavonoid production in tomato and reveal a link between CHI1 and terpenoid production. Metabolic coordination of the flavonoid and terpenoid pathways may serve to optimize the function of trichome glands in dynamic environments. PMID:24424324

  12. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  13. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  14. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  15. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  16. Microbe-based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary metabolites and antioxidants in Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. The aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes Trichoderma harzianum ThU, Glomus intraradices and Bacillus subtilis CIM affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in P. graveolens. The results demonstrated a significant (P secondary metabolites, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, free radical-scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of P. graveolens treated with synergistic bioinoculants as compared with the control. Most interestingly, an increase in essential oil by 32% in the treatment with all three microbes was observed. Furthermore, the principal aroma compounds citronellol and geraniol also increased in the same treatment. A positive and direct correlation was observed between essential oil content and number of glandular trichomes in all treatments. The present study highlights an explicit amalgamation of prospective microbes showing potential for synergism that act as biostimulants in enhancing plant production and improving the antioxidant and aroma profile of P. graveolens. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  18. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua: Cloning and heterologous expression of a germacrene A synthase from a glandular trichome cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertea, C.M.; Voster, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Maffei, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is the source of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway and to isolate and characterize genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids including artemisinin in A. annua, glandular trichomes were used as an enriched source for

  19. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  20. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae, an Andean medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schorr

    Full Text Available A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands were obtained by isocratic runs and then compared between the two populations, showing the same qualitative profile. The two main metabolites detected in the glands were later isolated from a leaf rinse extract by preparative separation and identified as the melampolides enhydrin and uvedalin. These compounds, subtypes of sesquiterpene lactones, were used as chemical markers. This technique is applicable to other medicinal plants and can be used for the evaluation of the quality of dried material or leaf rinse extracts.

  1. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  2. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  3. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Structural re-arrangement of depolymerized sodium alginate enriches peltate glandular trichomes and essential oil production of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Yawar; Khan, M Masroor A; Shabbir, Asfia; Ahmad, Bilal; Jaleel, Hassan; Uddin, Moin; Varshney, Lalit

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, radiation-degraded polysaccharides have been used as regulators of growth and development in several crop plants. In quest of the possible reasons of previously established growth-promotion activity of irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), structural parameters of irradiated and un-irradiated sodium alginate were analysed using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) studies to develop an understanding of structure-property relationship. Using foliar application, response to graded concentrations of ISA was tested in terms of yield and quality attributes of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Among different concentrations of ISA [0 (control), 40, 80, 120 and 160mgL-1], 80mgL-1 proved to be the optimum foliar-spray treatment for most of the parameters studied including peltate glandular-trichomes density, which was increased from 20 to 44mm-2. Measurements made at 150days after planting revealed that foliar application of ISA at 80mgL-1 increased the content and yield of spearmint essential oil (EO) by 36.0 and 122.6%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Compared to the control, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed an increase of 18.7% in the carvone content and a decrease of 15.7% in limonene content of the spearmint EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of TPS20-related terpene synthases influences chemical diversity in the glandular trichomes of the wild tomato relative Solanum habrochaites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Hufnagel, David E; Kim, Jeongwoon; Last, Robert L; Barry, Cornelius S

    2012-09-01

    A systematic screen of volatile terpene production in the glandular trichomes of 79 accessions of Solanum habrochaites was conducted and revealed the presence of 21 mono- and sesquiterpenes that exhibit a range of qualitative and quantitative variation. Hierarchical clustering identified distinct terpene phenotypic modules with shared patterns of terpene accumulation across accessions. Several terpene modules could be assigned to previously identified terpene synthase (TPS) activities that included members of the TPS-e/f subfamily that utilize the unusual cis-prenyl diphosphate substrates neryl diphosphate and 2z,6z-farnesyl diphosphate. DNA sequencing and in vitro enzyme activity analysis of TPS-e/f members from S. habrochaites identified three previously unassigned enzyme activities that utilize these cisoid substrates. These produce either the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene, or the sesquiterpene 7-epizingiberene, with the in vitro analyses that recapitulated the trichome chemistry found in planta. Comparison of the distribution of S. habrochaites accessions with terpene content revealed a strong preference for the presence of particular TPS20 alleles at distinct geographic locations. This study reveals that the unusually high intra-specific variation of volatile terpene synthesis in glandular trichomes of S. habrochaites is due at least in part to evolution at the TPS20 locus. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  9. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M; Oliveira, Taísa C; Santiago, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Lilian A; Korndörfer, Gaspar H; Lana, Regina M Q; Rossi, Monica L; Nogueira, Neusa L; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W P; Silva, Deise A O; Mineo, José R

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  10. Effect of external stress on density and size of glandular trichomes in full-grown Artemisia annua, the source of anti-malarial artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Anders; Grevsen, Kai; Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes (GT) of Artemisia annua produce valuable compounds for pharmaceutical and industrial uses, most notably the anti-malarial artemisinin. Our aim was to find out whether the density, number and size of GT can be manipulated to advantage by environmental stress. A range of external stress treatments, including stress response regulators, was therefore given to fully grown plants under field and greenhouse conditions. In a field experiment (Ex1), seed-grown plants were subjected to chemical or physical stress and plants analysed after 5 weeks. In a greenhouse experiment (Ex2), three groups of clonally derived plants were stressed at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Stress treatments included sandblasting, leaf cutting and spraying with jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), H(2)O(2) (HP) and NaCl (SC)at different concentrations. Leaves from an upper and a lower position on the plants were analysed by fluorescence microscopy to determine the density and size of GT. Densities of GT on upper leaves of full-grown A. annua plants generally showed no response to external stress and only plants from one clone of Ex2 supported the hypothesis that increased density of GT was inducible in upper leaves by stress (significant for SC, HP and COS). The density of GT on lower leaves was not affected by stress in any experiment. Glandular trichomes were significantly smaller on the lower leaves in response to stress in Ex2, and a similar non-significant trend was observed in Ex1. The results indicate a dynamic system in which stress treatments of large A. annua plants had a minor promoting effect on the initiation of GT in developing leaves, and a maturing effect of GT later in the lifetime of the individual GT. The hypothesis that applying stress can induce larger GT or more numerous GT was rejected.

  11. Overexpression of a weed (Solanum americanum) proteinase inhibitor in transgenic tobacco results in increased glandular trichome density and enhanced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-04-23

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  12. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Fu Xu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera and tobacco cutworm(Spodoptera litura larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  13. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  14. New approaches for studying and exploiting an old protuberance, the plant trichome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G J; Wang, E; Shepherd, R W

    2004-01-01

    Much recent study of plant trichomes has focused on various aspects of glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) and differentiation of simple trichomes. This Botanical Briefing will highlight: research on various aspects of, and manipulation of glandular secreting trichomes; molecular aspects of the differentiation and development of simple trichomes of arabidopsis and cotton; how methods for manipulation of model systems used in the above work can be applied to expand our understanding of less studied surface structures of plants. The Briefing will cover: established and suggested roles of simple and glandular secreting trichomes; recent results regarding solute and ion movement in trichomes; methods for isolating trichomes; recent studies of trichome differentiation and development; attempts to modify metabolism in secreting trichomes; efforts to exploit trichomes for commercial and agronomic purposes.

  15. Micromorphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munien, Prelina; Naidoo, Yougasphree; Naidoo, Gonasageran

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Withania somnifera contained four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic (branched), non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular trichomes. Major phytochemical compounds present within glandular and non-glandular trichomes were alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the micromorphology of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera as well as to elucidate the location and composition of the secretory products. Trichome density and length was also determined in three developmental stages of the leaves. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic, non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular. The dendritic trichomes exhibited cuticular warts which are involved in the "Lotus-Effect". Glandular capitate and non-glandular dendritic trichomes were aggregated on the mid-vein of young and mature leaves, possibly to protect underlying vasculature. Histochemical staining also revealed the presence of two major classes of phytochemical compounds that are of medicinal importance, i.e. alkaloids and phenolic compounds. These compounds are used to treat a wide variety of ailments and also act as chemical deterrents in plants. The results of this study explain possible roles of four morphologically distinct trichome types based on their morphology, foliar distribution and content.

  16. Leaf Trichome Morphology of Durio Kutejensis Landraces from Kalimantan

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    Priyanti Priyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaf trichome morphology of 19 Durio kutejensis (lai landraces was studied. The observation of cross- and paradermal sections of D. kutejensis leaves showed that all landraces have glabrous leaves on the adaxial surface, while their abaxial surfaces are covered by six trichome types, one glandular (one- or two-celled stalks with a spheroid multicellular glandular head and five non-glandular (complex peltate, simple peltate, cushioned stellate, flat stellate, and four-armed stellate trichome with a central cushion. All landraces were rarely covered by glandular trichomes. The non-glandular trichomes are varied in type, density, number of layers, diameter, and shape and margin color of the complex peltate among landraces. One landrace comprises three non-glandular trichome types, while the other landraces consist of four or five non-glandular trichome types. The shapes and margin color of complex peltate trichomes of D. kutejensis are the specific characteristics which distinguish this species from the other Durio species, however these characteristics cannot be used to differentiate one D. kutejensis landraces from the other. Therefore, other characteristics need to be explored in order to distinguish one D. kutejensis landraces from the other.

  17. RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyropoulou, E.A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glandular trichomes are production and storage organs of specialized metabolites such as terpenes, which play a role in the plant's defense system. The present study aimed to shed light on the regulation of terpene biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum trichomes by identification of

  18. Herbivory-associated degradation of tomato trichomes and its impact on biological control of Aculops lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Y.M.; Glas, J.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Rothe, J.; Bolckmans, K.J.F.; Simoni, S.; van Arkel, J.; Alba, J.M.; Kant, M.R.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato plants have their leaves, petioles and stems covered with glandular trichomes that protect the plant against two-spotted spider mites and many other herbivorous arthropods, but also hinder searching by phytoseiid mites and other natural enemies of these herbivores. This trichome cover creates

  19. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  20. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  1. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

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    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  2. Trichomes related to an unusual method of water retention and protection of the stem apex in an arid zone perennial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusa, Makeli Garibotti; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2014-12-19

    It is well known that trichomes protect plant organs, and several studies have investigated their role in the adaptation of plants to harsh environments. Recent studies have shown that the production of hydrophilic substances by glandular trichomes and the deposition of this secretion on young organs may facilitate water retention, thus preventing desiccation and favouring organ growth until the plant develops other protective mechanisms. Lychnophora diamantinana is a species endemic to the Brazilian 'campos rupestres' (rocky fields), a region characterized by intense solar radiation and water deficits. This study sought to investigate trichomes and the origin of the substances observed on the stem apices of L. diamantinana. Samples of stem apices, young and expanded leaves were studied using standard techniques, including light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical tests were used to identify the major groups of metabolites present in the trichomes and the hyaline material deposited on the apices. Non-glandular trichomes and glandular trichomes were observed. The material deposited on the stem apices was hyaline, highly hydrophilic and viscous. This hyaline material primarily consists of carbohydrates that result from the partial degradation of the cell wall of uniseriate trichomes. This degradation occurs at the same time that glandular trichomes secrete terpenoids, phenolic compounds and proteins. These results suggest that the non-glandular trichomes on the leaves of L. diamantinana help protect the young organ, particularly against desiccation, by deposition of highly hydrated substances on the apices. Furthermore, the secretion of glandular trichomes probably repels herbivore and pathogen attacks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  3. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  4. Effects of N fertilization on trichome density, leaf size and artemisinin production in artemisia annua leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilkova, I.; Kjaer, A.; Kooy, van der F.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only economically viable source of the antimalarial compound artemisinin. Synthesis of artemisinin takes place in glandular trichomes, primarily on the leaves from where artemisinin is extracted. It is not well understood why yields and concentrations of

  5. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  6. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Erinea formation on Quercus ilex leaves: anatomical, physiological and chemical responses of leaf trichomes against mite attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Tooulakou, Georgia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Psaras, George K; Karabourniotis, George; Skaltsa, Helen

    2011-02-01

    Structures on the surfaces of leaves, such as dense layers of non-glandular trichomes, strongly affect phylloplane mite activities. On the other hand the feeding of eriophyoid mites on leaf surfaces can cause hyperplasia of leaf trichomes (erinea formation). In many cases the hyperplasia is accompanied by the accumulation of pigments within trichome cells, causing an impressive red-brown colouration of the erineum. There is no information, however, on the structure of these pigments as well as on the chemical alterations in the phenolic content of plant trichomes in response to mite attack. Erinea formation on the abaxial surface of Quercus ilex leaves upon Aceria ilicis (Acari: Eriophyoidea) attack provides an excellent model on this topic. Differences in the structure and chemical composition of isolated trichomes derived either from healthy (normal trichomes) or mite attacked (hypertrophic trichomes) leaves were examined. Carbon investment was comparable between the two different trichome types, but the cell walls of the hypertrophic trichomes appeared thinner and did not contain microcrystalline cellulose. Observations under the fluorescence microscope showed that the emitted fluorescence was different between the two trichome types, indicating a different composition in fluorescencing phenolic compounds. The chemical analyses confirmed that hypertrophic trichomes contained higher concentrations of the feeding deterrents proanthocyanidin B3 and catechin, as well as of quercetin-3-O-glucoside, but lower concentrations of acylated flavonoid glycosides, than the normal ones. The results showed that the structural and functional changes in leaf trichomes upon mite attack may be an effort of the leaf to compensate the damage caused by the pest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calicinal trichomes of Adenocalymma magnificum (Bignoniaceae producing lipophilic substances: ultrastructural and functional aspects

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    Thália do Socorro Serra Gama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant structures that secrete lipids and phenolic compounds are often associated with the protection and development of organs against desiccation, in addition to the protection they provide against animals, as the capitate trichomes of Adenocalymma magnificum. Understanding the glandular activities that occur in these trichomes has required the study of their ontogeny, structure, ultrastructure and histochemical aspects; the interpretation of their ecological functions or evolutionary history is complicated by the scarcity of reports on calicinal trichomes that are not nectar-secreting. Samples of floral calyx in anthesis and flower buds at different stages of development were fixed and processed according to the methods for light and electron microscopy. The trichomes are randomly distributed throughout the entire inner surface of the calyx and are also visible on the flower buds. These capitate glandular trichomes were composed of a peduncle, having up to nine cells, and a multicellular secretory head with their cells in columnar format and arranged in disc form. The collar cell, which is under the secretory head, divides anticlinally and arranges itself side by side with the mother cell. As they develop, they bend with some of them becoming adpressed to the calyx. Histochemical tests indicate that the secretory head cells produce lipid substances, acidic lipids and phenolic compounds. In the secretory head, the vacuome is dispersed and the cytoplasm possesses a great number of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and leucoplasts, organelles involved in the production of osmiophilic substances. In some regions of the secretory cells, cuticle detachment was observed; however, the accumulation of secretions was not observed. This study describes, for the first time, the origin, development, and secretion process of the calicinal trichomes of Adenocalymma magnificum, showing that production of lipophilic substances is important for this plant, possibly

  9. RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2014-05-27

    Glandular trichomes are production and storage organs of specialized metabolites such as terpenes, which play a role in the plant's defense system. The present study aimed to shed light on the regulation of terpene biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum trichomes by identification of transcription factors (TFs) that control the expression of terpene synthases. A trichome transcriptome database was created with a total of 27,195 contigs that contained 743 annotated TFs. Furthermore a quantitative expression database was obtained of jasmonic acid-treated trichomes. Sixteen candidate TFs were selected for further analysis. One TF of the MYC bHLH class and one of the WRKY class were able to transiently transactivate S. lycopersicum terpene synthase promoters in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Strikingly, SlMYC1 was shown to act synergistically with a previously identified zinc finger-like TF, Expression of Terpenoids 1 (SlEOT1) in transactivating the SlTPS5 promoter. High-throughput sequencing of tomato stem trichomes led to the discovery of two transcription factors that activated several terpene synthase promoters. Our results identified new elements of the transcriptional regulation of tomato terpene biosynthesis in trichomes, a largely unexplored field.

  10. Micromorphology of trichomes and composition of essential oil of Teucrium capitatum

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Teresa; Sevinate-Pinto, Isabel; Barroso, José G.; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia R.

    2004-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of the glandular trichomes of Teucrium capitatum L., as well as the chemical composition of the essential oils, were studied. Important differences were found with regard to the major constituents of the essential oils of five populations of T. capitatum grown in Portugal. The oil isolated from one population was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (33.0%), isomenthone (7.7%) being the major constituent. Another oil from a population coll...

  11. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  12. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  13. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  14. The tomato B-type cyclin gene, SlCycB2, plays key roles in reproductive organ development, trichome initiation, terpenoids biosynthesis and Prodenia litura defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Gao, Yanna; Xiong, Cheng; Yu, Gang; Chang, Jiang; Yang, Qihong; Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2017-09-01

    Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation. Detection of secondary metabolites indicated that the production of monoterpene and sesquiterpene were significantly decreased in SlCycB2-OE plants, which thus resulted in the reduction of the defense against Prodenia litura. Transcriptome profile demonstrated that the differentially expressed genes mainly participate in the biosynthesis of terpenes, cutin, suberine and wax. Furthermore, we identified several homologs of SlCycB2, SlCycB3, NtCycB2, AtCycB2, which have similar regulatory functions in trichome formation. These results indicate that SlCycB2 plays a critical role in reproductive organ development, multicellular trichome initiation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis and Prodenia litura defense in tomato. The similar roles of its homologs in multicellular trichome formation suggest that Solanaceous species may share common regulatory pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relação entre zingibereno, tricomas foliares e repelência de tomateiros a Tetranychus evansi Relationship between zingiberene, foliar trichomes and repellence of tomato plant to Tetranychus evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Donizete Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de zingibereno em populações segregantes (F2 do segundo retrocruzamento para Lycopersicon esculentum a partir da espécie selvagem L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, e verificar a relação entre estes teores e a densidade de tricomas glandulares e a repelência a Tetranychus evansi. Na quantificação do zingibereno, utilizou-se um método espectrofotométrico; os tricomas foram contados a partir de cortes paradérmicos e a resistência a ácaros foi avaliada por um bioteste de repelência. A seleção indireta quanto ao teor de zingibereno promoveu aumentos correlacionados no número de tricomas glandulares e na repelência ao ácaro, e o zingibereno nos tricomas glandulares participou efetivamente na resistência aos ácaros. A densidade de tricomas glandulares influencia de maneira determinante os teores de zingibereno, sendo que o tricoma tipo VI destacou-se por apresentar alta correlação com este aleloquímico. Os teores de zingibereno e a sua relação com tricomas glandulares e com a resistência a artrópodos-pragas se mantiveram ao longo dos retrocruzamentos, evidenciando a possibilidade de obtenção de plantas resistentes via seleção indireta para alto teor de zingibereno nos folíolos.The objective of this work was to quantify zingiberene contents in a segregating population (F2 of the second backcross generation to Lycopersicon esculentum after the initial cross with the wild species L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, and to analyse the relationship between zingiberene and both glandular trichome density on tomato leaves and levels of repellence to spider mites Tetranychus evansi. A spectrophotometric assay was used to quantify zingiberene in leaf disks. Trichome counting was made in paradermic preparations of leaf and mite repellence was accessed by a quick thumbtack assay. Indirect selection for high zingiberene contents increased both glandular trichome density and the level of mite

  16. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  17. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  18. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  19. Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) trichome-specific cDNAs reveal CYP71AV1, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teoh, Keat H; Polichuk, Devin R; Reed, Darwin W; Nowak, Goska; Covello, Patrick S

    2006-01-01

    ...‐celled biseriate glandular trichomes [3,4] . The overall composition of A. annua essential oil is dominated by monoterpenes including artemisia ketone, camphor, α‐pinene and pinocarvone [4] . The sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin accumulates to levels of 0.01–1% of dry weight [5] . Recently, a reasonably clear picture of artemisinin biosynthe...

  20. Proteomics of terpenoid biosynthesis and secretion in trichomes of higher plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Among the specialized (secondary) plant metabolites, terpenoids represent the most diverse family and are often involved in the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Terpenoids can be produced both constitutively and in response to the environment. At the front line of this defense strategy are the glandular trichomes, which are organs dedicated primarily to the production of specialized metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool, which is very useful to investigate enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, such as the synthesis and secretion of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. Here we review the strategies used to investigate the specific roles of these particular organs from non-model plant species, mainly belonging to the Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, and Cannabaceae families. We discuss how proteomics helps to accurately pinpoint candidate proteins to be functionally characterized, and how technological progresses create opportunities for studying low-abundance proteins, such as the ones related to the synthesis and transport of specialized metabolites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biosynthesis and localization of parthenolide in glandular trichomes of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Schulz Bip.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdi, M.; Liu, Q.; Karimzadeh, G.; Malboobi, M.A.; Beekwilder, J.; Cankar, K.; Vos, de C.H.; Todorovic, S.; Simonovic, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a perennial medicinal herb and is a rich source of sesquiterpene lactones. Parthenolide is the main sesquiterpene lactone in feverfew and has attracted attention because of its medicinal potential for treatment of migraine and cancer. In the present work the

  2. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  3. Metabolic engineering of terpene biosynthesis in plants using a trichome?specific transcription factor MsYABBY5 from spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Panicker, Deepa; Mao, Hui?Zhu; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Chua, Nam?Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Summary In many aromatic plants including spearmint (Mentha spicata), the sites of secondary metabolite production are tiny specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Having high commercial values, these secondary metabolites are exploited largely as flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. But, knowledge about transcription factors (TFs) that regulate secondary metabolism in PGT remains elusive. Understanding the role of TFs in secondary metabolism pathway will aid in ...

  4. IRREGULAR TRICHOME BRANCH 2 (ITB2) encodes a putative aminophospholipid translocase that regulates trichome branch elongation in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaoguo; Oppenheimer, David G

    2009-01-01

    ... to result in reduced plant size when plants were grown under cold conditions. During a genetic screen for mutations that affect trichome shape, we isolated several alleles of the irregular trichome branch 2 (itb2) mutation...

  5. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  6. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greese, B.; Huelskamp, M.; Fleck, C.

    2014-01-01

    While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which

  7. Trichomes as models for studying plant cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changxian; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-06-01

    Trichomes, originating from epidermal cells, are present on nearly all terrestrial plants. They exist in diverse forms, are readily accessible, and serve as an excellent model system for analyzing the molecular mechanisms in plant cell differentiation, including cell fate choices, cell cycle control, and cell morphogenesis. In Arabidopsis, two regulatory models have been identified that function in parallel in trichome formation; the activator-inhibitor model and the activator-depletion model. Cotton fiber, a similar unicellular structure, is controlled by some functional homologues of Arabidopsis trichome-patterning genes. Multicellular trichomes, as in tobacco and tomato, may form through a distinct pathway from unicellular trichomes. Recent research has shown that cell cycle control participates in trichome formation. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of unicellular and multicellular trichomes, and discuss the integration of the cell cycle in its initiation and morphogenesis.

  8. Evolution of a flipped pathway creates metabolic innovation in tomato trichomes through BAHD enzyme promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengxiang; Miller, Abigail M; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Last, Robert L

    2017-12-12

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of structurally diverse specialized metabolites via multistep biosynthetic networks, including compounds of ecological and therapeutic importance. These pathways are restricted to specific plant groups, and are excellent systems for understanding metabolic evolution. Tomato and other plants in the nightshade family synthesize protective acylated sugars in the tip cells of glandular trichomes on stems and leaves. We describe a metabolic innovation in wild tomato species that contributes to acylsucrose structural diversity. A small number of amino acid changes in two acylsucrose acyltransferases alter their acyl acceptor preferences, resulting in reversal of their order of reaction and increased product diversity. This study demonstrates how small numbers of amino acid changes in multiple pathway enzymes can lead to diversification of specialized metabolites in plants. It also highlights the power of a combined genetic, genomic and in vitro biochemical approach to identify the evolutionary mechanisms leading to metabolic novelty.

  9. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  10. Mechanisms of hop inhibition: hop ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2009-07-22

    In this work, the mechanism of hop inhibition toward (beer spoiling) bacteria is revised. The mode of action of iso-alpha-acids was investigated via bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) measurements and growth challenges of hop-sensitive and -resistant Lactobacillus brevis strains in the presence of uncouplers of class I and II or a H(+)/Mn(2+) exchanger. The antibacterial action of iso-alpha-acids as proton ionophores could be confirmed by the BLM measurements; however, the reported ionophore properties, as electroneutral H(+)/Mn(2+) exchangers, could not be verified. Potentiometric measurements indicated the manganese-dependent enhancement of transmembrane charge permeation. The origin of high membrane potentials in the presence of manganese, as well as the strongly elevated membrane conductivity with concomitant increase in effectiveness of an uncoupler, suggest a different origin of charge transfer under these conditions. The mode of antibacterial action of hop ionophores can be described as proton ionophores of class I/II, which are capable transporting protons within a wide range of pH due to their inherent complexity of chemical composition. However, growth challenges in the presence of both types of ionophore classes in combination with the measured unusual high BLM potentials in the presence of manganese and at low pH indicate an additional mechanism of inhibition by hop compounds. The latter may be due to the nature/properties of hop compounds, which are known to be highly reactive substances. As a consequence, hop resistance of bacteria can be described as multiple resistance to a heterogeneous mixture of compounds comprising different known and yet unknown charge transport mechanisms, which were dependent on several factors, for example, compound concentrations, cation composition, and pH value. Thus, only specialists such as some L. brevis strains, which can cope with unusually low intracellular manganese levels, can survive hop stress. Accordingly, cross

  11. AaMYB1 and its orthologue AtMYB61 affect terpene metabolism and trichome development in Artemisia annua and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Hernández, Luis; Jiang, Weimin; Yang, Ke; Tang, Kexuan; Brodelius, Peter E; Pelaz, Soraya

    2017-05-01

    The effective anti-malarial drug artemisinin (AN) isolated from Artemisia annua is relatively expensive due to the low AN content in the plant as AN is only synthesized within the glandular trichomes. Therefore, genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches for improving the yield of AN. In this work, the AaMYB1 transcription factor has been identified and characterized. When AaMYB1 is overexpressed in A. annua, either exclusively in trichomes or in the whole plant, essential AN biosynthetic genes are also overexpressed and consequently the amount of AN is significantly increased. Artemisia AaMYB1 constitutively overexpressing plants displayed a greater number of trichomes. In order to study the role of AaMYB1 on trichome development and other possibly connected biological processes, AaMYB1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. To support our findings in Arabidopsis thaliana, an AaMYB1 orthologue from this model plant, AtMYB61, was identified and atmyb61 mutants characterized. Both AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 affected trichome initiation, root development and stomatal aperture in A. thaliana. Molecular analyses indicated that two crucial trichome activator genes are misexpressed in atmyb61 mutant plants and in plants overexpressing AaMYB1. Furthermore, AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 are also essential for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and degradation in both species by positively affecting the expression of the enzymes that convert GA9 into the bioactive GA4 as well as the enzymes involved in the degradation of GA4 . Overall, these results identify AaMYB1/AtMYB61 as a key component of the molecular network that connects important biosynthetic processes, and reveal its potential value for AN production through genetic engineering. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  13. Compositions of essential oils and trichomes of Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayla; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü C

    2009-01-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is a member of the Lamiaceae family and is represented in the Flora of Turkey by six subspecies. The aerial organs of T. chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil. bears numerous eglandular and glandular trichomes. Eglandular trichomes are simple, long-multicellular with cuticular micropapillae, and glandular hairs are of peltate and capitate types. The peltate hairs consist of a basal cell, a short unicellular stalk, and multicellular secretory head, and the capitate ones possess 1-2 stalk cells and one glandular head cell. The aerial parts were subjected to microdistillation for the isolation of volatiles. The analysis was simultaneously performed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were characterized as beta-caryophyllene (18%), nonacosane (12%), germacrene D (11%), caryophyllene oxide (7%), and alpha-pinene (7%) for subsp. trapezunticum, and caryophyllene oxide (23%), alpha-pinene (11%), and caryophyllenol II (5%) for subsp. syspirense.

  14. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-03-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  15. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  16. Trichomes: different regulatory networks lead to convergent structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Laura; Martin, Cathie

    2006-06-01

    Sometimes, proteins, biological structures or even organisms have similar functions and appearances but have evolved through widely divergent pathways. There is experimental evidence to suggest that different developmental pathways have converged to produce similar outgrowths of the aerial plant epidermis, referred to as trichomes. The emerging picture suggests that trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and, perhaps, in cotton develop through a transcriptional regulatory network that differs from those regulating trichome formation in Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species. Several lines of evidence suggest that the duplication of a gene controlling anthocyanin production and subsequent divergence might be the major force driving trichome formation in Arabidopsis, whereas the multicellular trichomes of Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species appear to have a different regulatory origin.

  17. gynaecomastia: management with liposuction and glandular excision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... has been used for certain types of gynaecomastia (3). In this study, a combination of ultrasound assisted liposuction and excision of glandular breast tissue through a periareolar incision was applied. The tissue is pulled through the wound and is removed with scissors or electric cautery. The pull through ...

  18. Gynaecomastia: Management with Liposuction and Glandular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasound assisted liposuction and surgical excision of glandular tissue through an inferior circumareolar incision is currently the best mode of treatment. In this study seven patients varying from the ages 17-45 years were operated on using this technique at the Aga Khan University teaching Hospital. Of these, four had ...

  19. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the

  20. Calcium phosphate in plant trichomes: the overlooked biomineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigend, Maximilian; Mustafa, Adeel; Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-12-12

    Calcium phosphate was unknown as a plant biomineral until recently reported in Neotropical Loasaceae. Here, we demonstrate its widespread occurrence in the trichomes of several plant families, including Brassicaceae. Calcium phosphate is the primary biomineral in, e.g., the bones and teeth of higher animals; in plants, it was only recently discovered in the stinging hairs and scabrid-glochidiate trichomes of South American Loasaceae (Ensikat et al. in Sci Rep UK 6:26073, 2016), where it appears to be deposited highly specifically, often replacing the common plant biomineral silica. We initiated a broader survey in a range of different plant orders to investigate a possibly wider distribution of calcium phosphate biomineralization in plants. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX element analysis and mapping was used for the detection of the biominerals: calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and silica in the trichomes of several common plant species of different orders. Results were authenticated with Raman spectroscopy. Calcium phosphate was found in the trichomes of several species in the orders Malpighiales, Rosales, Boraginales, and Brassicales. It occurred in trichome tips, replacing the more common silica, or together with silica and calcium carbonate at specific locations in the trichome cell walls. Most surprisingly, it was found in the trichomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most studied plant species-where it had been overlooked so far. The wide distribution of calcium phosphate as plant biomineral here demonstrated and the striking mineralization patterns with three different biominerals in the walls of single-celled trichomes underscore an unexpected complexity in plant biomineralization.

  1. Correspondence of trichome mutations in diploid and tetraploid cottons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Paterson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative variation for leaf trichome number is observed within and among Gossypium species, varying from glabrous to densely pubescent phenotypes. Moreover, economically important cotton lint fibers are modified trichomes. Earlier studies have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting leaf pubescence in Gossypium using allotetraploids. In this study, we mapped genes responsible for leaf trichome density in a diploid A genome cross. We were able to map 3 QTLs affecting leaf pubescence based on trichome counts obtained from young leaves (YL) and mature leaves (ML). When the F(2) progeny were classified as pubescent versus glabrous, their ratio did not deviate significantly from a 3:1 model, suggesting that glabrousness is inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. The glabrous mutation mapped to linkage group A3 at the position of major QTL YL1 and ML1 and appeared orthologous to the t1 locus of the allotetraploids. Interestingly, a fiber mutation, sma-4(ha), observed in the same F(2) population cosegregated with the glabrous marker, which indicates either close linkage or common genetic control of lint fiber and leaf trichomes. Studies of A genome diploids may help to clarify the genetic control of trichomes and fiber in both diploid and tetraploid cottons.

  2. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-06-20

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6).

  3. Complex patterns of multiple biomineralization in single-celled plant trichomes of the Loasaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensikat, Hans-Jürgen; Mustafa, Adeel; Weigend, Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Plants of the family Loasaceae are characterized by a usually dense indument of various trichome types, including two basically different types of mineralized, unicellular trichomes (stinging hairs or setae and scabrid-glochidiate trichomes). Mineralized trichomes have long been known to have silicified or calcified walls, but recent studies demonstrated that trichomes of Loasaceae may also contain calcium phosphate. The current study investigates the distribution of different biominerals in the mineralized trichomes across several different taxa. Plants from cultivation were studied with scanning electron microscopy including energy dispersive x-ray analyses and element mapping. The vast majority of the 31 species investigated had at least two different biominerals in their trichomes, and 22 had three different biominerals in their trichomes. Thirty of the species had calcium phosphate in their trichomes. Loasa was mostly free of silica, but contained calcium phosphate in trichome tips and barbs, whereas calcium phosphate and silica were found in representatives of other genera of the family (Blumenbachia, Caiophora, Nasa). Biomineralization is remarkably diversified between species, different trichome types and parts of the same trichome. Individual genera largely had different patterns of biomineralization. The presence of three biominerals in the trichomes of the basally branching Eucnide urens indicates either an early evolution and subsequent loss or several independent origins of multiple biomineralization. Differential biomineralization of the parts of individual, unicellular trichomes clearly indicates an extraordinary degree of physiological control over this process. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Glandularity and mean glandular dose determined for individual women at four regional breast cancer screening units in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoetelief, J.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Thijssen, M. A. O.; Jansen, J. T. M.

    2006-04-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in The Netherlands since 1997. There is concern that the mean glandular doses due to mammography might be differing between different regions of the country due to differences in glandularity and compressed breast thickness. To investigate regional differences, glandularity, compressed breast thickness and mean glandular dose were determined for individual breasts during screening at mammography units at four locations in The Netherlands. Differences in glandularity were observed, which could be related qualitatively to differences in age of the participants at the different locations. Mean glandular dose depends on compressed breast thickness, glandularity and technical conditions of screening. The lowest average value of the mean glandular dose was found for the unit in Amsterdam. This is most likely due to the use of the Mo/Rh anode/filter combination at this unit, in addition to the Mo/Mo combination. At the other three units, almost exclusively the Mo/Mo anode/filter combination was used. Differences in mean glandular dose averaged per unit could be related mainly to differences in tube-current exposure-time product values. Consequently, it is concluded that differences in mean glandular dose at different units are marginal.

  5. Early glandular neoplasia of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra William H

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although bronchogenic carcinomas progress through a very well defined sequence of metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, very little is known about the early progression of glandular neoplasms of the lung. In particular, the early precursor lesion from which fully malignant adenocarcinomas arise has effectively eluded recognition, at least until recently. Several lines of evidence now implicate atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH as an initial morphologic stage in multistep lung tumorigenesis. Despite its small size, AAH can be appreciated at the light microscopic level and characterized at the molecular genetic level. Indeed, the genetic characterization of AAH promises to further our understanding of lung cancer development and might facilitate the design of novel strategies for early detection of lung cancer.

  6. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  7. Hip-Hop Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marcella Runell

    2009-01-01

    Hip-hop music and culture are often cited as being public pedagogy, meaning the music itself has intrinsic educational value. Non-profit organizations and individual educators have graciously taken the lead in utilizing hip-hop to educate. As the academy continues to debate its effectiveness, teachers and community organizers are moving forward.…

  8. Media glandular dose in mammography;Dosis glandular media en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Pinedo S, A.; Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada en Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  9. Modelling the metabolic versatility of a microbial trichome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    A microbial trichome extracts nutrients from its immediate surroundings. It may also oxidize electron donors, reduce electron acceptors, and exude the 'waste' products of endogenous redox metabolism. Finally, it may effect light harvesting. These exchange fluxes are summed up in a generic model,

  10. Control of Plant Trichome Development by a Cotton Fiber MYB GeneW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yu, Nan; Li, Chun-Hong; Luo, Bin; Gou, Jin-Ying; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2004-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif that confer trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis. A cotton MYB protein GaMYB2/Fiber Factor 1 transactivated the RDL1 promoter both in yeast and in planta. Real-time PCR and in situ analysis showed that GaMYB2 is predominantly expressed early in developing cotton fibers. After transferring into Arabidopsis, GL1∷GaMYB2 rescued trichome formation of a gl1 mutant, and interestingly, 35S∷GaMYB2 induced seed-trichome production. We further demonstrate that the first intron of both GL1 and GaMYB2 plays a role in patterning trichomes: it acts as an enhancer in trichome and a repressor in nontrichome cells, generating a trichome-specific pattern of MYB gene expression. Disruption of a MYB motif conserved in intron 1 of GL1, WEREWOLF, and GaMYB2 genes affected trichome production. These results suggest that cotton and Arabidopsis use similar transcription factors for regulating trichomes and that GaMYB2 may be a key regulator of cotton fiber development. PMID:15316114

  11. Control of plant trichome development by a cotton fiber MYB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yu, Nan; Li, Chun-Hong; Luo, Bin; Gou, Jin-Ying; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2004-09-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif that confer trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis. A cotton MYB protein GaMYB2/Fiber Factor 1 transactivated the RDL1 promoter both in yeast and in planta. Real-time PCR and in situ analysis showed that GaMYB2 is predominantly expressed early in developing cotton fibers. After transferring into Arabidopsis, GL1::GaMYB2 rescued trichome formation of a gl1 mutant, and interestingly, 35S::GaMYB2 induced seed-trichome production. We further demonstrate that the first intron of both GL1 and GaMYB2 plays a role in patterning trichomes: it acts as an enhancer in trichome and a repressor in nontrichome cells, generating a trichome-specific pattern of MYB gene expression. Disruption of a MYB motif conserved in intron 1 of GL1, WEREWOLF, and GaMYB2 genes affected trichome production. These results suggest that cotton and Arabidopsis use similar transcription factors for regulating trichomes and that GaMYB2 may be a key regulator of cotton fiber development.

  12. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  13. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayabal Pandiaraja

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a malignancy that develops from melanocytes. Breast is an uncommon site for malignant melanoma. Melanoma of the breast occurs in various situations such as primary melanoma of breast skin, metastatic melanoma of breast, in-transit metastasis to the breast, and primary glandular breast melanoma. Most of the melanoma breast either cutaneous melanoma or metastatic melanoma. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal involvement is rarely reported compared to prima...

  14. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%.

  15. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  16. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammography exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Danielle S.; Barragan, Carolina V.M.; Costa, Katiane C.; Donato, Sabrina; Castro, William J.; Nogueira, Maria S., E-mail: dsg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: sds@cdtn.br, E-mail: wjc@cdtn.br, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Adriana M.L. [Clinica Radiologica Davi Rezende, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pinheiro, Luciana J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials; Oliveira, Marcio A. de [Superintendencia Estadual de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible, however without reducing the standards of image quality necessary for an early detection of breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, detection of small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer becomes more difficult. In order to achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, quality and intensity of the X- ray beam, breast positioning and compression, film-screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study aims at evaluating the average glandular dose in patients undergoing routine tests in a mammography unit in the city of Belo Horizonte. Patient image analysis was done by a radiologist who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. The estimation of each patient's glandular dose and the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mA.s) as well as the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist in order to make the image acceptable for diagnostic purposes. For breast densities of 50%/50%, 70%/30%, 30%/70%, adipose and glandular tissues and the incident air-kerma were measured and the glandular dose calculated taking into account the X-ray output during the test. In the study carried out with 63 patients, the mean glandular dose varied from 30% incidence of CC to MLO. (author)

  17. Hopping in a Molecular Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We utilize the Hubbard model approach in analyzing the effect of the hopping parameter in the transport properties of a two-atom molecular device (Kostyrko & Bulka, 2003. The system consists of a molecule with two identical atoms connecting two metal electrodes. In this model, two important and realistic energy parameters are considered which affects the transport properties. The first is the kinetic energy required to “hop” from one atomic site to the next. We call this parameter the hopping term denoted by t, in arbitrary units of energy. The next is an on-site Coulombic repulsion, U, between two electrons on the same atomic site.

  18. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  19. Hip-Hop and the Academic Canon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Daudi

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the hip-hop movement has risen from the margins to become the preeminent force in US popular culture. In more recent times academics have begun to harness the power of hip-hop culture and use it as a means of infusing transformative knowledge into the mainstream academic discourse. On many college campuses, hip-hop's…

  20. Hip-Hop Pop Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Clarence, Sr.

    2011-01-01

    Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…

  1. Relationship of leaf and bract trichomes to trash content of ginned lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinning efficiency and yarn quality are improved for bales with reduced trash content. Some cotton varieties have been characterized as having smoother leaves (low trichome density) and fewer bract trichomes, and it has been shown that cottons harvested from these varieties is picked with lower tr...

  2. Fast neutron induced structural rearrangements at a soybean NAP1 locus result in gnarled trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) gnarled trichome mutant, exhibiting stunted trichomes compared to wild-type, was identified in a fast neutron mutant population. Genetic mapping using whole genome sequence-based bulked segregant analysis identified a 26.6 megabase interval on chromosome 20 that ...

  3. Correlated evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in Begonia dregei (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tracy

    2005-10-01

    Structural features of leaves, including size, shape, and surfaces, vary greatly throughout the plant kingdom. In both functional and phylogenetic analyses of leaves, the various morphological aspects are often considered independently of each other, although it is likely that many combinations of features do not occur at random due to either functional constraint or genetic correlation. The distribution of variation in leaf morphology in the highly variable Begonia dregei species complex was examined in natural populations and in F(2) offspring from a cross between plants from two populations. Leaf shape was quantified using several morphometric measures, and trichomes on leaves were counted and measured. Correlations between leaf shape and the numbers and size of trichomes were examined. There were significant correlations between the shapes of leaves and the presence, number, and size of trichomes among populations and in hybrid plants. Deeply incised leaves had larger numbers of longer trichomes at the sinuses. Higher numbers of trichomes on upper leaf surfaces occurred together with trichomes at the petiole and on the abaxial surface. The potential for independent evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in this group is limited. Hypotheses to explain the correlated development of leaf shape and trichomes are discussed.

  4. Molecular basis of natural variation and environmental control of trichome patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Theres eHauser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are differentiated epidermal cells on above ground organs of nearly all land plants. They play important protective roles as structural defences upon biotic attacks such as herbivory, oviposition and fungal infections and against abiotic stressors such as drought, heat, freezing, excess of light and UV radiation. The pattern and density of trichomes is highly variable within natural population suggesting tradeoffs between traits positively affecting fitness such as resistance and the costs of trichome production. The spatial distribution of trichomes is regulated through a combination of endogenous developmental programs and external signals. This review summarizes the current understanding on the molecular basis of the natural variation and the role of phytohormones and environmental stimuli on trichome patterning.

  5. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  6. Giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformed glandular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, Boris P.; Stuckmann, Gerd; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Dommann-Scherrer, Corina C. [Insitute of Pathology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Medical Faculty, University of Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50, 58448 Witten (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    A case of a right-sided giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformation of glandular structures causing systemic metastases is described. Plain chest radiography and computed tomography localized the tumor within the heart. Exact depiction of the origin of the tumor using subtracted 2D-projection MR angiography is documented. Radiologic findings and differential diagnosis of this unique tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....

  9. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  10. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  11. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  12. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    De Keukeleire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  13. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  14. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, H. A.; Pérez-Badillo, M. P.; Villaseñor, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the "Quality assurance programme for digital mammography", where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  15. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  16. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  17. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David

    2014-01-01

    normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol...... synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before...

  18. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for i...

  19. Keratin 17 Is a Prognostic Biomarker in Endocervical Glandular Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Daniel; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Akalin, Ali; Romeiser, Jamie; Shroyer, A Laurie; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2017-09-01

    Previous work in our laboratory identified keratin 17 (K17) as a specific and sensitive biomarker for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). K17, however, has not been previously evaluated in endocervical glandular neoplasia. Based on the similar pathogenesis of squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix, we hypothesized that K17 overexpression could also be a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for endocervical neoplasia. Cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma (n = 90), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 32), benign glandular lesions (n = 36), and normal endocervical mucosa (n = 5) were selected from Stony Brook Medicine and the University of Massachusetts from 2002 to 2013. Immunohistochemical staining for K17 was performed by an indirect immunoperoxidase method and was scored based on the proportion of cells that showed strong (2+) staining. K17 was highly expressed in 21 (65.6%) of 32 AIS and in 75 (83.0%) of 90 adenocarcinoma cases. In adenocarcinomas, K17 staining was detected in a mean of 33.9% of malignant cells. Staining tended to be strongest at the periphery of pseudoglandular groups and at the invasive front of tumors. K17 was not detected in the epithelial cells of benign glandular lesions, but groups of cuboidal cells, residing beneath the epithelial layer of benign glands, were frequently positive for K17, especially in cases of microglandular hyperplasia. High levels of K17 expression were significantly associated with decreased patient survival. K17 is highly expressed in most cases of both invasive adenocarcinoma and in AIS and is a powerful, negative prognostic marker for patient survival.

  20. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  1. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  2. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH; Neeta PANDYA; Ashish BHARILLYA; Ashween JHALA; Dharamchand JAIN

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors...

  3. Trichomes that secrete substances of a mixed nature in the vegetative and reproductive organs of some species of Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Noce Schnetzler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to obtain new information about the distribution, morphology and content of secretory trichomes present in the vegetative and reproductive organs of four species of Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Dorstenia cayapia, Maclura tinctoria and Sorocea bonplandii. Stem, leaf, flower and inflorescence samples were processed for scanning electron and light microscopy. The species have secretory trichomes on the leaf blade, petiole and stem and also on the inflorescence and flowers of D. cayapia and S. bonplandii and on the peduncle of the inflorescence in A. heterophyllus. These trichomes are of the capitate type in all species, but A. heterophyllus also possess peltate secretory trichomes. Both trichome types exhibit a multicellular head and a unicellular peduncle. Peduncle size and head cell number varies according to species. Peltate trichomes located in depressions were found only in species of Artocarpus, and so should be of diagnostic value for the genus. In all species the trichomes secrete polysaccharides, alkaloids and lipids; phenolic compounds occur in A. heterophyllus and M. tinctoria trichomes. These trichomes probably act in the protection against herbivores, pathogens, desiccation and/ or UV radiation. Moreover, the trichomes found in the inflorescence of D. cayapia may exert a function in pollen grain adhesion.

  4. Free energy basin-hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Cash, K. H.; Wales, D. J.; Chakrabarti, D.

    2015-04-01

    A global optimisation scheme is presented using basin-hopping with the acceptance criterion based on approximate free energy for the corresponding local minima of the potential energy. The method is illustrated for atomic and colloidal clusters and peptides to examine how the predicted global free energy minimum changes with temperature. Using estimates for the local free energies based on harmonic vibrational densities of states provides a computationally effective framework for predicting trends in structure at finite temperature. The resulting scheme represents a powerful tool for exploration of energy landscapes throughout molecular science.

  5. Fasilitas Pelatihan dan Pergelaran Seni Tari Hip Hop di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Yanuar, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Fasilitas Pelatihan dan Pergelaran Seni Tari Hip Hop di Surabaya merupakan fasilitas yang disediakan bagi semua penari Hip Hop di Surabaya untuk berlatih menari dan mempertunjukan tarian Hip Hop. Fasilitas ini tersedia bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable, mengingat kaum difable juga dapat menari Hip Hop. Namun karena di Surabaya belum memiliki fasilitas yang memadai bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable untuk menari dan memiliki tempat pertunjukan yang berkarakter Hi...

  6. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamulonis

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5 individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  7. Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Lissete; Singh, Bir; Rapp, Ryan A; Wendel, Jonathan F; Marks, M David; Roberts, Alison W; Haigler, Candace H

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Through exploring potential analogies between cotton seed trichomes (or cotton fiber) and arabidopsis shoot trichomes we discovered that CesAs from either the primary or secondary wall phylogenetic clades can support secondary wall thickening. CesA genes that typically support primary wall synthesis, AtCesA1,2,3,5, and 6, underpin expansion and secondary wall thickening of arabidopsis shoot trichomes. In contrast, apparent orthologs of CesA genes that support secondary wall synthesis in arabidopsis xylem, AtCesA4,7, and 8, are up-regulated for cotton fiber secondary wall deposition. These conclusions arose from: (a) analyzing the expression of CesA genes in arabidopsis shoot trichomes; (b) observing birefringent secondary walls in arabidopsis shoot trichomes with mutations in AtCesA4, 7, or 8; (c) assaying up-regulated genes during different stages of cotton fiber development; and (d) comparing genes that were co-expressed with primary or secondary wall CesAs in arabidopsis with genes up-regulated in arabidopsis trichomes, arabidopsis secondary xylem, or cotton fiber during primary or secondary wall deposition. Cumulatively, the data show that: (a) the xylem of arabidopsis provides the best model for secondary wall cellulose synthesis in cotton fiber; and (b) CesA genes within a "cell wall toolbox" are used in diverse ways for the construction of particular specialized cell walls.

  8. Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for medicinal uses. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable ... that are changed by the liver include theophylline, omeprazole, clozapine, progesterone, lansoprazole, flutamide, oxaliplatin, erlotinib, and caffeine. ...

  9. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  10. Pertunjukan Teater Karo Hip Hop Kontemporer KAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Anggreni Purba

    2013-11-01

    Pertunjukan Teater Karo Hip Hop Kontemporer KAI. The performance of Karo Theater collaborated with Hip Hop stems from a simple idea to collaborate Karo cultural traditions with popular culture. The performances can be enjoyed without having limitation on the language and culture. The process of combining two different cultures is a form of hybrid culture, and it may occur due to the globalization process. Through the process of deposition of the observations and strong impression, this performance is then brought into the form of Hip Hop as a preferred form which is energetic, personal and global. This performance is part of a modern tragedy with its destructive character which has explored the emotion and has presented it to the audiences. The exploration of Karo cultural tradition and Hip Hop dance as a language of symbols is able to reinforce words. The movement is not revealed by the verbal phrase but is presented through the movement of Hip Hop dance. The interpretation of the legend and texts into movement is carried out through the training process at the laboratory as a searching process and experiment, and afterward can be realized by considering the basic elements of Hip Hop, Karo cultural elements and performance. Karo Hip Hop Theatre is expected to become a preferred aesthetic form of a modern theater without losing its tradition form. Keyword: a contemporary Karo theater, Hip Hop, hybrid culture.

  11. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannas, Theodoros M; Kellis, Eleftherios; Amiridis, Ioannis G

    2011-12-01

    Kannas, TM, Kellis, E, and Amiridis, IG. Biomechanical differences between incline and plane hopping. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3334-3341, 2011-The need for the generation of higher joint power output during performance of dynamic activities led us to investigate the force-length relationship of the plantar flexors during consecutive stretch-shortening cycles of hopping. The hypothesis of this study was that hopping (consecutive jumps with the knee as straight as possible) on an inclined (15°) surface might lead to a better jumping performance compared with hopping on a plane surface (0°). Twelve active men performed 3 sets of 10 consecutive hops on both an incline and plane surface. Ground reaction forces; ankle and knee joint kinematics; electromyographic (EMG) activity from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA); and architectural data from the MG were recorded. The results showed that participants jumped significantly higher (p plane surface (27.52 ± 4.97 cm). No differences in temporal characteristics between the 2 types of jumps were observed. Incline hopping induced significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion and knee extension at takeoff compared with plane hopping (p propulsion phase were significantly higher during incline compared with that during plane hopping (p plane surface.

  12. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  13. Hip-hop and urban studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2014-01-01

    How can urban studies research engage fruitfully with hip-hop? This contribution responds to the essays by David Beer and Martin Lamotte on ‘street music’, urban ethnography and ghettoized communities. It discusses how a social science engagement with hip-hop texts might differ from cultural studies

  14. Protein sliding and hopping kinetics on DNA

    CERN Document Server

    DeSantis, Michael C; Wang, Y M

    2010-01-01

    Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we deconvolved the sliding and hopping kinetics of GFP-LacI proteins on elongated DNA from their experimentally observed seconds-long diffusion trajectories. Our simulations suggest the following results: (1) in each diffusion trajectory, a protein makes on average hundreds of alternating slides and hops with a mean sliding time of several tens of ms; (2) sliding dominates the root mean square displacement of fast diffusion trajectories, whereas hopping dominates slow ones; (3) flow and variations in salt concentration have limited effects on hopping kinetics, while in vivo DNA configuration is not expected to influence sliding kinetics; furthermore, (4) the rate of occurrence for hops longer than 200 nm agrees with experimental data for EcoRV proteins.

  15. Small polaron hopping transport along DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triberis, G P [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Simserides, C [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Special Laboratory for Non-Invasive Brain Imaging, Brenneckestrasse 6, D-39118 Magdeburg (Germany); Karavolas, V C [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece)

    2005-05-04

    We present a small polaron hopping model for interpreting the strong temperature (T) dependence of the electrical conductivity, {sigma}, observed at high (h) temperatures along DNA molecules. The model takes into account the one-dimensional character of the system and the presence of disorder in the DNA double helix. Percolation-theoretical considerations lead to analytical expressions for the high temperature multiphonon-assisted small polaron hopping conductivity, the hopping distance and their temperature dependence. The experimental data for lambda phage DNA ({lambda}-DNA) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA follow nicely the theoretically predicted behaviour (ln{sigma}{sup h}{proportional_to}T{sup -2/3}). Moreover, our model leads to realistic values of the maximum hopping distances, supporting the idea of multiphonon-assisted hopping of small polarons between next nearest neighbours of the DNA molecular 'wire'. The low temperature case is also investigated.

  16. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  17. Perceived bitterness character of beer in relation to hop variety and the impact of hop aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2017-09-01

    The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic engineering of terpene biosynthesis in plants using a trichome-specific transcription factor MsYABBY5 from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Panicker, Deepa; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In many aromatic plants including spearmint (Mentha spicata), the sites of secondary metabolite production are tiny specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Having high commercial values, these secondary metabolites are exploited largely as flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. But, knowledge about transcription factors (TFs) that regulate secondary metabolism in PGT remains elusive. Understanding the role of TFs in secondary metabolism pathway will aid in metabolic engineering for increased yield of secondary metabolites and also the development of new production techniques for valuable metabolites. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized a novel MsYABBY5 gene that is preferentially expressed in PGT of spearmint. We generated transgenic plants in which MsYABBY5 was either overexpressed or silenced using RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the transgenic lines showed that the reduced expression of MsYABBY5 led to increased levels of terpenes and that overexpression decreased terpene levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of MsYABBY5 in Ocimum basilicum and Nicotiana sylvestris decreased secondary metabolite production in them, suggesting that the encoded transcription factor is probably a repressor of secondary metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Interaction between two timing microRNAs controls trichome distribution in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yi Xue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The miR156-targeted squamosa promoter binding protein like (SPL transcription factors function as an endogenous age cue in regulating plant phase transition and phase-dependent morphogenesis, but the control of SPL output remains poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana the spatial pattern of trichome is a hallmark of phase transition and governed by SPLs. Here, by dissecting the regulatory network controlling trichome formation on stem, we show that the miR171-targeted lost meristems 1 (LOM1, LOM2 and LOM3, encoding GRAS family members previously known to maintain meristem cell polarity, are involved in regulating the SPL activity. Reduced LOM abundance by overexpression of miR171 led to decreased trichome density on stems and floral organs, and conversely, constitutive expression of the miR171-resistant LOM (rLOM genes promoted trichome production, indicating that LOMs enhance trichome initiation at reproductive stage. Genetic analysis demonstrated LOMs shaping trichome distribution is dependent on SPLs, which positively regulate trichome repressor genes TRICHOMELESS 1 (TCL1 and TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Physical interaction between the N-terminus of LOMs and SPLs underpins the repression of SPL activity. Importantly, other growth and developmental events, such as flowering, are also modulated by LOM-SPL interaction, indicating a broad effect of the LOM-SPL interplay. Furthermore, we provide evidence that MIR171 gene expression is regulated by its targeted LOMs, forming a homeostatic feedback loop. Our data uncover an antagonistic interplay between the two timing miRNAs in controlling plant growth, phase transition and morphogenesis through direct interaction of their targets.

  20. Nerve Conduction Through Dendrites via Proton Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont B

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2016-01-01

    , and endometrial thickness were assessed by TAUS. RESULTS: Glandular breast tissue volume was positively associated with Tanner stages (r = 0.858, P ...BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective...... was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating reproductive hormone levels and estrogen-dependent transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) parameters as markers of glandular breast tissue...

  2. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J. T. M.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Thijssen, M. A. O.; van Woudenberg, S.; Zoetelief, J.

    2005-12-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods.

  3. Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium: Surface hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J R; Parandekar, Priya V; Tully, John C

    2008-07-28

    We re-examine the analysis of the equilibrium limits of the fewest switches surface hopping algorithm for mixed quantum-classical dynamics. In contrast with previously reported results, we show that surface hopping does not, in general, exactly yield Boltzmann equilibrium, but that in practice the observed deviations are quite small. We also demonstrate that surface hopping does approach the exact equilibrium distribution in both the limits of small adiabatic splitting and/or strong nonadiabatic coupling. We verify these analytical results with numerical simulations for a simple two-level quantum system connected to a bath of classical particles.

  4. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  5. Cloning and molecular analysis of HlbZip1 and HlbZip2 transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of the lupulin metabolome in hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jaroslav; Kocábek, Tomás; Patzak, Josef; Stehlík, Jan; Füssy, Zoltan; Krofta, Karel; Heyerick, Arne; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Maloukh, Lina; De Keukeleire, Denis

    2010-01-27

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.), the essential source of beer flavor is of interest from a medicinal perspective in view of its high content in health-beneficial terpenophenolics including prenylflavonoids. The dissection of biosynthetic pathway(s) of these compounds in lupulin glands, as well as its regulation by transcription factors (TFs), is important for efficient biotechnological manipulation of the hop metabolome. TFs of the bZIP class were preselected from the hop transcriptome using a cDNA-AFLP approach and cloned from a cDNA library based on glandular tissue-enriched hop cones. The cloned TFs HlbZIP1A and HlbZIP2 have predicted molecular masses of 27.4 and 34.2 kDa, respectively, and both are similar to the group A3 bZIP TFs according to the composition of characteristic domains. While HlbZIP1A is rather neutral (pI 6.42), HlbZIP2 is strongly basic (pI 8.51). A truncated variant of HlbZIP1 (HlbZIP1B), which is strongly basic but lacks the leucine zipper domain, has also been cloned from hop. Similar to the previously cloned HlMyb3 from hop, both bZIP TFs show a highly specific expression in lupulin glands, although low expression was observed also in other tissues including roots and immature pollen. Comparative functional analyses of HlbZip1A, HlbZip2, and subvariants of HlMyb3 were performed in a transient expression system using Nicotiana benthamiana leaf coinfiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains bearing hop TFs and selected promoters fused to the GUS reference gene. Both hop bZIP TFs and HlMyb3 mainly activated the promoters of chalcone synthase chs_H1 and the newly cloned O-methyl transferase 1 genes, while the response of the valerophenone synthase promoter to the cloned hop TFs was very low. These analyses also showed that the cloned bZIP TFs are not strictly G-box-specific. HPLC analysis of secondary metabolites in infiltrated Petunia hybrida showed that both hop bZIP TFs interfere with the accumulation and the composition of flavonol

  6. Quality Assurance and Average Glandular dose Measurement in Mammography Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, C Senthamil; Sureka, C S

    2017-01-01

    To ensure the safe operation of mammography units, acceptance tests and quality assurance (QA) protocols have been developed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Engineers Registration Board, and International Atomic Energy Agency. Eight mammography units manufactured by five different manufacturers located in hospitals in our region were investigated following the AAPM and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) protocols using a solid-state dosimeter-based PTW-NOMEX Multimeter and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. This study evaluated different operating parameters through mechanical test, accelerating voltage (kVp) accuracy test, machine output measurement, half-value layer measurement, calibration of compression device, image quality assessment, measurement of leakage radiation, radiation survey, and average glandular dose (AGD) measurements using stereotactic needle biopsy phantom. The results show that out of eight mammography units, only a single mammography unit (U-1) passed all QA tests and 2 units passed 7 tests, 2 units passed 6 tests, and 3 units passed 5 tests out of 8 QA tests. In unit 5, the AGD value was 4 and 1.93 mGy before and after service, respectively. QA programs as recommended by AAPM and AERB should be carried out periodically to ensure safety in breast cancer screening. This work points to the importance of the regulation and effective compliance and also help in both improving the QA and reduce the glandular dose received by the patients.

  7. Gold and its relationship to neurological/glandular conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Douglas G; McMillin, David L; Mein, Eric A; Nelson, Carl D

    2002-01-01

    Despite increasing sales of gold supplements, and claims of benefits for neurological and glandular conditions, gold has received little attention in modern medical literature except as a drug for rheumatoid arthritis. Historically, however, gold had a reputation as a "nervine," a therapy for nervous disorders. A review of the historical literature shows gold in use during the 19th century for conditions including depression, epilepsy, migraine, and glandular problems such as amenorrhea and impotence. The most notable use of gold was in a treatment for alcoholism developed by Keeley (1897). In the modern medical literature, gold-containing medicines for rheumatoid arthritis are known to have occasional neurotoxic adverse effects. There are also a few studies suggesting a role for gold as a naturally occurring trace element in the reproductive glands. One small recent study demonstrated a possible positive effect of gold on cognitive ability. There is a need for more experimental and clinical research of the neuropharmacology and neurochemistry of gold, and for the exploration of gold's possible role as a trace element.

  8. Hip-hop, Onegin - pop! / Tatjana Aleksandrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aleksandrova, Tatjana, 1945-

    2004-01-01

    Erateatrikooli KS, mida juhib Svetlana Krassman, lavastus A. Pushkini poeemi "Jevgeni Onegin" motiividel. Noortelavastuse muusikalises seades kasutatakse klassikalise muusika aranzheeringuid ja räppi, kostüümidraamat koos hip-hop rõivastiiliga

  9. Collision-based mechanics of bipedal hopping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutmann, Anne K; Lee, David V; McGowan, Craig P

    2013-01-01

    .... Previous studies have found that large bipedal hoppers can elastically store and return a large fraction of the energy required to hop, whereas small bipedal hoppers can only elastically store...

  10. Hydraulic Strategy of Cactus Trichome for Absorption and Storage of Water under Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoong Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being an essential component in various metabolic activities, water is important for the survival of plants and animals. Cacti grown in arid areas have developed intrinsic water management systems, such as water collection through spines, water absorption through trichome, and water storage using mucilage. The water collection method of cactus is well-documented, but its water absorption and storage strategies remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study analyzed the morphology and wettability of cactus trichomes by using advanced bio-imaging techniques and by performing in vitro experiments on an artificial system mimicking these structures, respectively. In addition, the in situ water absorption process through the trichome cluster was quantitatively visualized. This paper proposes a new bio-inspired technique for dew collection based on information about the water management strategies of cactus. This study discusses the underlying water absorption and storage strategies of cactus and provides the experimental database required to develop a biomimetic water management device.

  11. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  12. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  13. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  14. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...

  15. Retinol oxidation to retinoic acid in human thyroid glandular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Gennaro; Gueli, Maria Concetta; Nicotra, Concetta M A; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Carruba, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Retinoic acid is regarded as the retinol metabolite that controls proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human thyroid glandular cells (HTGC). In particular, we observed that cellular retinoids binding proteins (CRBPs) are also implicated in the biosynthetic pathway leading to retinoic acid formation in primary cultures of HTGC, as we have already reported for human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). After partial protein purification, the enzyme responsible for retinoic acid biosynthesis was identified and quantified as XDH by immunoassay, by its ability to oxidize xanthine to uric acid and its sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of oxypurinol. The evidence of XDH-driven formation of retinoic acid in HTGC cultures further corroborates the potential role of XDH in retinoic acid biosynthesis in the epithelia.

  16. HIP HOP for HIV Awareness: Using Hip Hop Culture to Promote Community-Level HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mandy J.; Hallmark, Camden J.; McNeese, Marlene; Blue, Nike; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of the HIP HOP for HIV Awareness intervention, an innovative model utilising an exchange of an HIV test for a hip hop concert ticket, in a metropolitan city among African American youth and young adults. A subset of intervention participants participated in standardised testing, sex…

  17. Solid-phase microextraction of hop volatiles. Potential use for determination and verification of hop varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, M; Kac, M

    2001-05-18

    The composition of hop essential oil is an important tool for evaluation of hop quality. As each hop variety has a typical essential oil pattern (fingerprint), hop oil analyses can be used to distinguish between hop varieties. The headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method as described in this contribution is a simple sample preparation technique and represents an alternative procedure for essential oil fingerprint determination. Different SPME parameters (extraction temperature, extraction time and sample mass) were studied and the results were compared with those obtained by the routine distillation method. It is shown that SPME results can be used for determination and verification of varieties grown in Slovenia by means of principal components analysis.

  18. RAZVOJ OBLAČIL V HIP HOP KULTURI

    OpenAIRE

    Marić, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo raziskovali, kako so se hip hop oblačila razvijala skozi obdobja v hip hop kulturi. V teoretičnem deli smo ugotavljali ozadje in dejavnike, ki so vplivali na razvoj hip hop kulture, v empiričnem delu diplomske naloge pa smo izvedli anketni vprašalnik z glavnimi akterji hip hop kulture na slovenski hip hop sceni. Rezultati, ki smo jih dobili, kažejo da so imela oblačila velik vpliv na prepoznavnost in razvoj hip hop kulture po celem svetu. K temu so največ pripomogli ustv...

  19. Protein structure prediction using basin-hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentiss, Michael C.; Wales, David J.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2008-06-01

    Associative memory Hamiltonian structure prediction potentials are not overly rugged, thereby suggesting their landscapes are like those of actual proteins. In the present contribution we show how basin-hopping global optimization can identify low-lying minima for the corresponding mildly frustrated energy landscapes. For small systems the basin-hopping algorithm succeeds in locating both lower minima and conformations closer to the experimental structure than does molecular dynamics with simulated annealing. For large systems the efficiency of basin-hopping decreases for our initial implementation, where the steps consist of random perturbations to the Cartesian coordinates. We implemented umbrella sampling using basin-hopping to further confirm when the global minima are reached. We have also improved the energy surface by employing bioinformatic techniques for reducing the roughness or variance of the energy surface. Finally, the basin-hopping calculations have guided improvements in the excluded volume of the Hamiltonian, producing better structures. These results suggest a novel and transferable optimization scheme for future energy function development.

  20. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamulonis, C.; Postma, M.; Kaandorp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display

  1. Genome-Wide Survey Reveals Transcriptional Differences Underlying the Contrasting Trichome Phenotypes of Two Sister Desert Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica—which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes—to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P. pruinosa and P. euphratica, respectively; most of these genes possessed high degrees of diversification in their coding sequences, but they were similar in intron/exon structure in the two species. We also found that most of the candidate trichome genes were expressed at higher levels in P. pruinosa, which has dense trichomes, than in P. euphratica, where there are few trichomes. Based on analyses of transcriptional profiles, a total of 195 genes, including many transcription factors, were found to show distinct differences in expression. The results of gene function annotation suggested that the genes identified as having contrasting levels of expression level are mainly associated with trichome elongation, ATPase activity, and hormone transduction. Changes in the expression of these and other related genes with high sequence diversification may have contributed to the contrast in the pattern of trichome phenotypes between the two species.

  2. Agrochemical lead optimization by scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    Scaffold hopping, the exchange of a specific portion of a potential active ingredient with another substructure with the aim of finding isofunctional molecular structures with significantly different molecular backbones, often offers the chance in lead discovery or optimization to mitigate problems related to toxicity, intellectual property, and insufficient potency or stability. Scaffold hopping tools such as isosteric ring replacement including 1,3 nitrogen shift and cyclic imine-amide isosterism, but also ring opening and ring closure approaches, functional group isosterism, reversion of functional groups, chain shortening, chain lengthening, and scaffolds delivered by natural products, have become a permanent fixture of the innovation and optimization process in crop protection research. Their appropriate use will be explained through examples of success stories in the field of agrochemistry. Analogies to, but also differences from, the main categories of scaffold hopping in medicinal drug discovery are discussed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Natural allelic variation defines a role for ATMYC1: trichome cell fate determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vaughan Symonds

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular nature of biological variation is not well understood. Indeed, many questions persist regarding the types of molecular changes and the classes of genes that underlie morphological variation within and among species. Here we have taken a candidate gene approach based on previous mapping results to identify the gene and ultimately a polymorphism that underlies a trichome density QTL in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that natural allelic variation in the transcription factor ATMYC1 alters trichome density in A. thaliana; this is the first reported function for ATMYC1. Using site-directed mutagenesis and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we demonstrate that a single amino acid replacement in ATMYC1, discovered in four ecotypes, eliminates known protein-protein interactions in the trichome initiation pathway. Additionally, in a broad screen for molecular variation at ATMYC1, including 72 A. thaliana ecotypes, a high-frequency block of variation was detected that results in >10% amino acid replacement within one of the eight exons of the gene. This sequence variation harbors a strong signal of divergent selection but has no measurable effect on trichome density. Homologs of ATMYC1 are pleiotropic, however, so this block of variation may be the result of natural selection having acted on another trait, while maintaining the trichome density role of the gene. These results show that ATMYC1 is an important source of variation for epidermal traits in A. thaliana and indicate that the transcription factors that make up the TTG1 genetic pathway generally may be important sources of epidermal variation in plants.

  4. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  5. The MYB transcription factor GhMYB25 regulates early fibre and trichome development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Adriane; Wu, Yingru; Yang, Youming; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2009-07-01

    Little is still known about the developmental control of the long seed coat trichomes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In Arabidopsis, leaf trichome initiation is regulated by a group of well-defined transcription factors that includes MYB and homeodomain types. Many MYBs are expressed in fibres, but their roles in fibre development remain unclear. We analysed the function of one MYB transcription factor, GhMYB25, identified from transcriptome comparisons between wild-type and fibreless cotton mutants. A GhMYB25 promoter-GUS construct in transgenic cotton was expressed in the epidermis of ovules, developing fibre initials and fibres, in the trichomes of a number of tissues including leaves, stems and petals, as well as in the anthers, pollen and the epidermal layers of roots and root initials, but not in root hairs. Cotton is an allotetraploid with two very similar GhMYB25 genes that were silenced by a single RNAi construct. GhMYB25-silenced cotton showed alterations in the timing of rapid fibre elongation, resulting in short fibres, dramatic reductions in trichomes on other parts of the plant, and reductions in seed production. Reciprocal crosses between transgenic and non-transgenic plants indicated that pollen and ovule viability per se were not disrupted. Ectopic over-expression of GhMYB25 had more subtle impacts, with increases in cotton fibre initiation and leaf trichome number. High expression appeared to adversely affect fertility. Our results provide convincing evidence for a role of GhMYB25, like other MIXTA-like MYBS, in regulating specialized outgrowths of epidermal cells, including, in this case, cotton fibres.

  6. Transcriptional profiling of mature Arabidopsis trichomes reveals that NOECK encodes the MIXTA-like transcriptional regulator MYB106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Marc J; Falkenhan, Doris; Mader, Michael T; Brininstool, Ginger; Wischnitzki, Elisabeth; Platz, Nicole; Hudson, Andrew; Hülskamp, Martin; Larkin, John; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-11-01

    Leaf hairs (trichomes) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been extensively used as a model to address general questions in cell and developmental biology. Here, we lay the foundation for a systems-level understanding of the biology of this model cell type by performing genome-wide gene expression analyses. We have identified 3,231 genes that are up-regulated in mature trichomes relative to leaves without trichomes, and we compared wild-type trichomes with two mutants, glabra3 and triptychon, that affect trichome morphology and physiology in contrasting ways. We found that cell wall-related transcripts were particularly overrepresented in trichomes, consistent with their highly elaborated structure. In addition, trichome expression maps revealed high activities of anthocyanin, flavonoid, and glucosinolate pathways, indicative of the roles of trichomes in the biosynthesis of secondary compounds and defense. Interspecies comparisons revealed that Arabidopsis trichomes share many expressed genes with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, making them an attractive model to study industrially important fibers. In addition to identifying physiological processes involved in the development of a specific cell type, we also demonstrated the utility of transcript profiling for identifying and analyzing regulatory gene function. One of the genes that are differentially expressed in fibers is the MYB transcription factor GhMYB25. A combination of transcript profiling and map-based cloning revealed that the NOECK gene of Arabidopsis encodes AtMYB106, a MIXTA-like transcription factor and homolog of cotton GhMYB25. However, in contrast to Antirrhinum, in which MIXTA promotes epidermal cell outgrowth, AtMYB106 appears to function as a repressor of cell outgrowth in Arabidopsis.

  7. CLINICAL PECULIARITIES OF EPSTEIN BARR VIRAL INFECTION AMONG CHILDREN, WHO UNDERWENT GLANDULAR FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Potarskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the findings of the 5byear observation after children, who have undergone glandular fever. The researchers have found out that among the majority of them there are clinical and hematological abnormalities of various degree of manifestation. The application of _b2b interferon contributes to the reduction of the acute period of glandular fever, although it doesn't always warn about the appearance of closest and distant manifestations. Key words: children, glandular fever, 2B interferon.

  8. Determinants of Job Hopping Experience among Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that perceive organizational justice; job stress and job hopping significantly jointly predict employees' turnover intention. Additionally, job stress, job hopping and distributive justice which is one of the dimensions of organizational independently significantly predict employees' turnover intention.

  9. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  10. Bounds on the hop domination number of a tree

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A hop dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of if for every vertex of () \\ D, there exists u ∈ D such that (, ) = 2. The hop domination number of a graph , denoted by ℎ(), is the minimum cardinality of a hop dominating set of . We prove that for every tree of order with leaves and support ...

  11. Hip-Hopping across China: Intercultural Formulations of Local Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catrice

    2012-01-01

    The linguistic dimensions of globalized hip-hop cannot be understood simply as a byproduct of English as an American export. As hip-hop mobilizes, it is common (and arguably necessary) for global hip-hop communities to struggle through purposeful, semiotically rooted dialectics over what constitutes "authentic" and respectable forms of…

  12. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  13. 21 CFR 172.560 - Modified hop extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Modified hop extract. 172.560 Section 172.560 Food... Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.560 Modified hop extract. The food additive modified hop extract may be safely used in beer in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food...

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  15. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  16. The Philippine "Hip Hop Stick Dance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…

  17. Uudised : Ooper. Hip-hop. Madonna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rumeenia sopran Nelly Miricioiu Vincenzo Bellini ooperi "Norma" nimiosas Nederlandse Operas Amsaterdamis 7.-28. märtsini. 4. märtsil Tallinna klubis Hollywood üritusel "Hip-Hop Café" New Yorgi duo Camp Lo. Ameerika poplaulja Madonna võttis vastu filmirolli

  18. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Bridge Hopping on Conducting Polymers in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hone, Daniel W.; Orland, Henri

    2000-01-01

    Configurational fluctuations of conducting polymers in solution can bring into proximity monomers which are distant from each other along the backbone. Electrons can hop between these monomers across the "bridges" so formed. We show how this can lead to (i) a collapse transition for metallic polymers, and (ii) to the observed dramatic efficiency of acceptor molecules for quenching fluorescence in semiconducting polymers.

  20. CYCLIC VARIATIONS IN THE DIGESTIVE GLAND AND GLANDULAR OVIDUCT OF CHITONS (MOLLUSCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAWRENCE, A L; LAWRENCE, J M; GIESE, A C

    1965-01-29

    In Cryptochiton stelleri (Polyplacophora), variation in the size of the glandular oviduct parallels the cyclic variation in the size of the gonad. In Katharina tunicata the digestive gland reaches its maximum size in the fall then decreases to a minimum size in the spring when the gonad is at its maximum size. These variations are not due to changes in the water content of the glandular oviduct and digestive gland.

  1. Featherless Dinosaurs and the Hip-Hop Simulacrum: Reconsidering Hip-Hop's Appropriateness for the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers considerations for music teachers interested in including hip-hop music in their classrooms but who might feel concerned with or overwhelmed by issues of appropriateness. Two concerns related to hip-hop music are examined: language and negative social themes. Commercial interests in hip-hop music have created a simulacrum (or…

  2. The Formation of "Hip-Hop Academicus"--How American Scholars Talk about the Academisation of Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Social activism and education have been associated with hip-hop since it emerged in New York City 38 years ago. Therefore, it might not be surprising that universities have become interested in hip-hop. This article aims to highlight this "hip-hop academisation" and analyse the discursive mechanisms that manifest in these academisation…

  3. Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density Resistência de linhagens de tomateiro à traça Tuta absoluta, relacionada a aleloquímicos e à densidade de tricomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the resistance of improved tomato strains rich in 2-tridecanone (2-TD, zingiberene (ZGB and acyl sugars (AA to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. We also studied whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes, and thus presumably strains with higher concentrations of 2-tridecanone, was effective in promoting greater resistance to the moth. The TOM-584 and TOM-679 strains were used as susceptible controls, which have normal concentrations of the three allelochemicals. The improved strain TOM-687, which has a high AA content, has a widely documented resistance and was used as a standard resistant strain. The wild strain PI134417, which is resistant by means of its high 2-TD content, was also used as a standard resistant strain. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design. The wild strain PI 134417 was confirmed as being highly resistant. TOM-622 (rich in 2-TD, ZGB-703 (rich in ZGB, and TOM-687 (rich in AA showed significant reductions in the oviposition rate of the tomato moth, damage to the plants, injury to the leaflets, and the percentage of leaflets attacked in comparison with the control strains (TOM-584 and TOM-679. The levels of resistance to the moth for the TOM-622, ZGB-703, and TOM-687 strains were similar. In general, the genotypes with higher densities of glandular trichomes had greater resistance than the susceptible controls, with the strain BPX-367D-238-02 being particularly notable in its resistance.Comparou-se a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em 2-tridecanona (2-TD, zingibereno (ZGB e acilaçúcares (AA, em relação aos níveis de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Verificaram-se, também, se linhagens selecionadas para maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares, presumivelmente com maiores níveis de 2-tridecanona, são efetivas em promover maior resistência à traça. Como testemunhas suscetíveis foram utilizadas

  4. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH; Neeta PANDYA; Ashish BHARILLYA; Ashween JHALA; Dharamchand JAIN

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors...

  5. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages.

  6. Phenylbutazone induces equine glandular gastric disease without decreasing prostaglandin E2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S K; Cribb, A E; Read, E K; French, D; Banse, H E

    2017-11-16

    In equids, phenylbutazone at high doses induces gastric disease, primarily in the glandular portion of the stomach. However, the mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric disease in horses has yet to be determined. While phenylbutazone-associated ulceration is often attributed to a decrease in basal gastric prostaglandins, this has not been demonstrated in the horse. Twelve horses were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 6; 4.4 mg/kg phenylbutazone PO in 20 ml molasses q 12 hr for 7 days) or placebo (n = 6; 20 ml molasses PO q 12 hr for 7 days) groups. Before treatment and 3 and 7 days after initiation of treatment, gastroscopy was performed and glandular gastric biopsies were collected and frozen at -80°C. Glandular disease was assessed on a scale of 0-4. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in biopsies were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All phenylbutazone-treated horses developed grade ≥2 glandular disease. Prostaglandin concentrations increased over time (p = .0017), but there was no effect of treatment (p = .49). These findings indicate that despite induction of glandular disease grade ≥2, phenylbutazone did not decrease basal glandular gastric prostaglandin E2 concentration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  8. Tietoista liikettä : Hip hop -kulttuurin merkitys katutanssin opettamisessa

    OpenAIRE

    Pikkarainen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Tutkimuksen lähtökohtana oli saada lisää tietoa siitä, kuinka keskeiseksi hip hop -kulttuurin ym-märtäminen koetaan osana tanssinopettajan ammattitaitoa. Tutkimuskysymykseni ovat: Miksi hip hop -kulttuurin ymmärtäminen on merkityksellistä tanssinopetuksen näkökulmasta? Miten hip hop -kulttuuri ilmenee katutanssinopetuksessa tanssikouluympäristössä? Jotta tutkimuskysymyksiin voidaan vastata, täytyy ymmärtää miten hip hop -kulttuuri on vaikuttanut hip hop -tanssin kehittymiseen ja miten hip...

  9. Endogenous overexpression of Populus MYB186 increases trichome density, improves insect pest resistance, and impacts plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Wilkins, Olivia; Campbell, Malcolm M; Ralph, Steven G; Regan, Sharon

    2010-11-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells that generally play a role in reducing transpiration and act as a deterrent to herbivory. In a screen of activation-tagged Populus tremula × Populus alba 717-1B4 trees, we identified a mutant line, fuzzy, with increased foliar trichome density. This mutant also had a 35% increase in growth rate and a 200% increase in the rate of photosynthesis as compared with wild-type poplar. The fuzzy mutant had significant resistance to feeding by larvae of the white-spotted tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), a generalist insect pest of poplar trees. The fuzzy trichome phenotype is attributable to activation tagging and increased expression of the gene encoding PtaMYB186, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana MYB106, a known regulator of trichome initiation. The fuzzy phenotype can be recapitulated by overexpressing PtaMYB186 in poplar. PtaMYB186 overexpression results in reconfiguration of the poplar transcriptome, with changes in the transcript abundance of suites of genes that are related to trichome differentiation. It is notable that a plant with misexpression of a gene responsible for trichome development also had altered traits related to growth rate and pest resistance, suggesting that non-intuitive facets of plant development might be useful targets for plant improvement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Coexistence of trichome variation in a natural plant population: a combined study using ecological and candidate gene approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiro Kawagoe

    Full Text Available The coexistence of distinct phenotypes within populations has long been investigated in evolutionary ecology. Recent studies have identified the genetic basis of distinct phenotypes, but it is poorly understood how the variation in candidate loci is maintained in natural environments. In this study, we examined fitness consequences and genetic basis of variation in trichome production in a natural population of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera. Half of the individuals in the study population produced trichomes while the other half were glabrous, and the leaf beetle Phaedon brassicae imposed intensive damage to both phenotypes. The fitness of hairy and glabrous plants showed no significant differences in the field during two years. A similar result was obtained when sibling hairy and glabrous plants were transplanted at the same field site, whereas a fitness cost of trichome production was detected under a weak herbivory condition. Thus, equivalent fitness of hairy and glabrous plants under natural herbivory allows their coexistence in the contemporary population. The pattern of polymorphism of the candidate trichome gene GLABROUS1 (GL1 showed no evidence of long-term maintenance of trichome variation within the population. Although balancing selection under fluctuating biotic environments is often proposed to explain the maintenance of defense variation, the lack of clear evidence of balancing selection in the study population suggests that other factors such as gene flow and neutral process may have played relatively large roles in shaping trichome variation at least for the single population level.

  11. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  12. Structure and biomechanics of trapping flower trichomes and their role in the pollination biology of Aristolochia plants (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlägel, Birgit; Gorb, Stanislav; Wanke, Stefan; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    *Catching insects to ensure pollination is one of the most elaborate and specialized mechanisms of insect-plant interactions. Phylogenetically, Aristolochiaceae represent the first angiosperm lineage that developed trap flowers. Here we report the structure and function of specific trichomes contributing to the highly specialized trapping devices. *Investigations were carried out on six Mediterranean Aristolochia species. The morphology and arrangement of the trapping trichomes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cryo-SEM. To demonstrate frictional anisotropy of the trapping trichome array, a microtribological approach was used. *The results of our experiments support a hypothesis long proposed, but never tested, regarding the trapping mechanism in proterogynous Aristolochia flowers: that an array of highly specialized trichomes arranged eccentrically to the underlying surface is responsible for the easy entrance of insects into flowers but impedes their escape. As they enter the male stage of anthesis, flowers significantly modify their inner surface characteristics, allowing insects to leave. *We have demonstrated the substantial contribution of trapping trichomes to the capture, retention and release of pollinators, an important prerequisite for making cross-pollination possible in most Aristolochia species. Finally, we compare trapping trichomes of Aristolochia with similar structures found in other trapping flowers as well as in pitchers of carnivorous plants not optimized for insect release.

  13. [Do Capsicum spp. trichomes influence the biological aspects of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks (Acari: Tarsonemidae)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Cláudia H C; Pallini, Angelo; Venzon, Madelaine; Freitas, Rita C P de; Rezende, Daniela D M; Schoereder, José H

    2009-01-01

    Plant morphology traits can affect the feeding preference, oviposition choice and the vulnerability of herbivores to natural enemies. At long term, these plant variations may influence herbivore population dynamics due to the interference on their development, survival and reproduction. In this paper, the development of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) was evaluated on five species of Capsicum with different density of trichomes. We tested the hypothesis that P. latus population growth has a negative relationship with the increase trichome density on leaves. It was assessed a decrease in the intrinsic growth rate (r m) of P. latus with the increase of trichome density on the leaves tested. The lower r m was measured in leaves of C. praetermissum (r m = 0.46), which has the highest trichome density among the assessed Capsicum species. The highest values of r m were observed on Capsicum species with intermediate densities of trichomes on leaves such as Capsicum frutescens (r m = 0.77) and Capsicum chinense (r m = 0.76). Capsicum spp. trichomes acted as a limiting plant trait for the development of P. latus when they were in higher densities and better distributed on the leaf surface. We also discuss the role of morphologic and chemical plant defenses on P. latus development.

  14. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calciumcarbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  15. Hydraulic Strategy of Cactus Trichome for Absorption and Storage of Water under Arid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwoong Kim; Hyejeong Kim; Sung Ho Park; Sang Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Being an essential component in various metabolic activities, water is important for the survival of plants and animals. Cacti grown in arid areas have developed intrinsic water management systems, such as water collection through spines, water absorption through trichome, and water storage using mucilage. The water collection method of cactus is well-documented, but its water absorption and storage strategies remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study analyzed the morphology and wettability o...

  16. Floral homeotic proteins modulate the genetic program for leaf development to suppress trichome formation in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Stewart, Darragh; Zheng, Beibei; Coupland, George; Wellmer, Frank

    2018-02-13

    As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organ is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which, as described by the ABCE model of flower development, act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) and the related SHATTERPROOF1 / 2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner. We show that AG regulates cytokinin responses and genetically interacts with the organ polarity gene KANADI1 to suppress trichome initiation on gynoecia. Thus, our results show that parts of the genetic program for leaf development remain active during flower formation but have been partially rewired through the activities of the floral homeotic proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Exploiting Multi-user Diversity and Multi-hop Diversity in Dual-hop Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-05-21

    We propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information. The joint scheduling problem is formulated as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates of the users under a stability constraint, which means that in the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum-rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We also show how to extend the scheme into one that allows multiple user scheduling via superposition coding with successive decoding. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared to scheduling schemes that exploit the diversity gains partially.

  18. Uudised : Pop-karneval. Hip-hop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Muusika- ja kunstikarnevalist "Beta Bubble" 1. apr. Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Pärnu taasühinenud hip-hop-bänd Noizmakaz (TommyBoy ja Alko) sõlmis lepingu plaadifirmaga Mindnote ja annab selle alt apr. keskel välja oma teise albumi "Valitud mõtted".1. apr. tuleb müügile Noizmakazi singel "Miski muu ei loe", debüüt "Social Poetry" ilmus aastal 2001

  19. Gender specific strategies in demanding hopping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbüken, Ilkşan; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk; Savelberg, Hans; Meijer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Difference in leg stiffness between females and males is considered to be a cause of higher rates of Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury in female athletes. Females are believed to have lower stiffness and as a consequence different recruitment strategies to adapt functional tasks. The aim of the current study was to evaluate how leg stiffness is tuned to demanding conditions. 22 healthy subjects (11 Male-11 Female; age: 20-43 years) participated in this study. Subjects performed two-legged hopping tasks (at their preferred rate, as fast as possible and with added mass of 10% bodyweight) on a force platform. Leg stiffness was calculated for each condition as the ratio between peak ground reaction force and vertical displacement of center of mass. In the preferred and added mass conditions males showed substantially higher leg stiffness than females (p= 0.006 and p = 0.002, respectively). When hopping as fast as possible the gender bias in leg stiffness disappeared (p = 0.880). Added mass had no significant effect on change in leg stiffness. Results have shown that females increased their leg stiffness more than males indicating they have no gender limiting capacity to reach objectives of higher demanding tasks (i.e.fastest hopping).The relationship between observed gender differences in leg stiffness and increased Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury rate in females requires further study. Key pointsLeg stiffness is an adaptable property of neuro musculoskeletal system to different functional loading conditions.Females can increase their leg stiffness more than males indicating they have no gender limiting capacity to reach objectives of higher demanding tasks as fastest hopping.

  20. Rethinking Pedagogy in Urban Spaces: Implementing Hip-Hop Pedagogy in the Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.; Emdin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of research regarding Hip-Hop Based Education (HHBE) fails to provide insight on how to incorporate elements of Hip-Hop into daily teaching practices; rather Hip-Hop based educators focus mainly on incorporating Hip-Hop culture into curricula. This study explores the benefits of using two specific Hip-Hop pedagogical practices…

  1. Right atrial myxoma with glandular differentiation: A rare entity in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Prasenjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myxomas (CMs account for nearly half of the primary cardiac tumors in the elderly. They arise from sub-endocardial "reserve" or "lepidic" cells, which may show divergent differentiation. We describe a CM with glandular differentiation in the right atrium of a 10-year-old child who presented with respiratory distress on exertion, of 2 months duration. On echocardiography, two large interconnected masses measuring 34Χ30 mm and 20Χ17 mm were seen to arise from the free wall of the right atrium. Cut surface of the excised mass was myxoid with areas of calcification. On microscopy, there were typical features of a myxoma with prominent glandular differentiation and characteristic immunophenotype. The case is being reported due to its rarity in pediatric age group as well as its glandular differentiation, which must be recognized as a spectrum of histomorphologic diversity and must not be mistaken for a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  2. A systems approach reveals regulatory circuitry for Arabidopsis trichome initiation by the GL3 and GL1 selectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Morohashi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Position-dependent cell fate determination and pattern formation are unique aspects of the development of plant structures. The establishment of single-celled leaf hairs (trichomes from pluripotent epidermal (protodermal cells in Arabidopsis provides a powerful system to determine the gene regulatory networks involved in cell fate determination. To obtain a holistic view of the regulatory events associated with the differentiation of Arabidopsis epidermal cells into trichomes, we combined expression and genome-wide location analyses (ChIP-chip on the trichome developmental selectors GLABRA3 (GL3 and GLABRA1 (GL1, encoding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and MYB transcription factors, respectively. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genome-wide expression results contrasting wild type and gl3 or gl1 mutants with changes in gene expression over time using inducible versions of GL3 and GL1. This resulted in the identification of a minimal set of genes associated with the differentiation of epidermal cells into trichomes. ChIP-chip experiments, complemented by the targeted examination of factors known to participate in trichome initiation or patterning, identified about 20 novel GL3/GL1 direct targets. In addition to genes involved in the control of gene expression, such as the transcription factors SCL8 and MYC1, we identified SIM (SIAMESE, encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and RBR1 (RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED1, corresponding to a negative regulator of the cell cycle transcription factor E2F, as GL3/GL1 immediate targets, directly implicating these trichome regulators in the control of the endocycle. The expression of many of the identified GL3/GL1 direct targets was specific to very early stages of trichome initiation, suggesting that they participate in some of the earliest known processes associated with protodermal cell differentiation. By combining this knowledge with the analysis of genes associated with trichome formation, our results

  3. Simulating Muscle-Reflex Dynamics in a Simple Hopping Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Andre; Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Geyer, Hartmut

    In legged systems, springy legs facilitate gaits with subsequent contact and flight phases. Here, we test whether electrical motors can generate leg behaviors suitable for stable hopping. We built a vertically operating sledge actuated by a motor-driven leg. The motor torque simulates either a linear leg spring or a muscle-reflex system. For stable hopping significant energy supply was required after midstance. This was achieved by enhancing leg stiffness or by continuously applying positive force feedback to the simulated muscle. The muscle properties combined with positive force feedback result in spring-like behavior which enables stable hopping with adjustable hopping height.

  4. Prolactin expression and secretion by human breast glandular and adipose tissue explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, Michael; McFarland, Molly; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2003-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a 23-kDa hormone produced by the pituitary and extrapituitary sites. The main target of PRL is the breast, where it affects cellular growth, differentiation, and milk production. Recent evidence suggests that locally produced PRL plays a role in breast tumorigenesis. Our objective was to examine PRL synthesis/release in different tissues of the human breast and determine the effect of ovarian steroids. Breast tissue, obtained from women undergoing mastectomy or breast reduction, was separated into glandular (nonmalignant) and adipose explants and incubated for 10 d. Conditioned media were analyzed for PRL by a bioassay. PRL release from glandular explants decreased by 60% from d 1-3, followed by a 4-fold increase on d 10. PRL release from adipose explants was unchanged from d 1-3 and increased more than 10-fold by d 10. PRL gene expression, determined by RT-PCR, was low on d 0 and markedly increased on d 10 in both types of explants. De novo synthesis of PRL was confirmed by metabolic labeling. Progesterone suppressed PRL release from glandular explants without affecting adipose explants. Estradiol did not alter PRL release from either tissue. In conclusion, the human breast produces and releases bioactive PRL, with a higher release rate by adipose than glandular tissue. The time-dependent rise in PRL release suggests removal from inhibitory control. Progesterone may be one of the factors that suppresses PRL production in the glandular compartment, whereas the factor(s) that regulate adipose PRL are unknown. These data suggest an autocrine/paracrine role for PRL in human glandular and adipose breast tissue.

  5. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  6. Hip-Hop Is the Healer: Sense of Belonging and Diversity among Hip-Hop Collegians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…

  7. Being Hipped to Their Hop: Tapping into Young Minds through Hip Hop Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Adults gain a wealth of knowledge from listening to the voices of children through intentional observations and interactions [Owocki, G., and Y. M. Goodman. 2002. "Kidwatching: Documenting Children's Literacy Development." Portsmouth: Heinemann]. Hip Hop play may provide optimal opportunities for teachers to tap into the young minds of…

  8. Security for multi-hop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Mohamed M E A

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief discusses efficient security protocols and schemes for multi-hop wireless networks. It presents an overview of security requirements for these networks, explores challenges in securing networks and presents system models. The authors introduce mechanisms to reduce the overhead and identify malicious nodes that drop packets intentionally. Also included is a new, efficient cooperation incentive scheme to stimulate the selfish nodes to relay information packets and enforce fairness. Many examples are provided, along with predictions for future directions of the field. Security

  9. Pipefest hip hop -festivaalin markkinointiviestintä

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena oli Pipefest hip hop -festivaalien markkinointiviestinnän toteuttaminen. Olin ollut kävijänä tapahtumassa vuodesta 2003 lähtien, ja aloitettuani opinnot digitaalisen äänen ja kaupallisen musiikin suuntautumisvaihtoehdon linjalla, kiinnostuin tapahtuma- ja festivaalijärjestämisestä. Tutustuin tapahtumaa järjestävään tahoon ja aloin työstää Pipefestin markkinointiviestintää. Opintoihini kuuluneella tapahtumatuotannon kurssilla sain paljon oppia tapahtumatuotannosta t...

  10. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz from South Africa, a junior synonym of Haroldius Boucomont, and a survey of the trichomes in the African species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz, 2000, a genus of South African scarab dung beetle, is synonymised with Haroldius Boucomont, 1914. All four African species of Haroldius, formerly in the genus Afroharoldius Janssens, possess trichomes. Trichome location and degree of development in the African species are discussed. The first record of Haroldius modestus Janssens from Malawi is given.

  13. Hairy Leaf 6, an AP2/ERF transcription factor, interacts with OsWOX3B and regulates trichome formation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Gao, Dawei; Xiong, Yin; Tang, Xinxin; Xiao, Xiongfeng; Wang, Chongrong; Yu, Sibin

    2017-09-28

    Trichome formation has been extensively studied as a mechanistic model for epidermal cell differentiation and cell morphogenesis in plants. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying trichome formation (i.e. initiation and elongation) in rice remain largely unknown. Here, we report an AP2/ERF transcription factor, Hairy Leaf 6 (HL6), which controls trichome formation in rice. Functional characterization of HL6 revealed that HL6 transcriptionally regulates trichome elongation in rice. Furthermore, the regulation of HL6 in trichome elongation is dependent on functional OsWOX3B, which encodes a homeodomain-containing protein that acts as a key regulator in trichome initiation. Using yeast two-hybrid assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation tests, we determined that HL6 interacts with OsWOX3B to regulate trichome formation and form a protein complex, enhancing the binding ability of HL6 with the auxin-related gene OsYUCCA5. Population genetic analysis indicated that HL6 was under negative selection during rice domestication. Our findings provide new insights in the molecular network of HL6 and OsWOX3B involved in the auxin-mediated pathway that regulates trichome formation in rice. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes.

  15. Maser Source-Finding Methods in HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, A. J.; Purcell, C.; Longmore, S.; Jordan, C. H.; Lowe, V.

    2012-12-01

    The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey (HOPS) has observed 100 deg2 of the Galactic plane, using the Mopra radio telescope to search for emission from multiple spectral lines in the 12-mm band (19.5-27.5GHz). Perhaps the most important of these spectral lines is the 22.2-GHz water-maser transition. We describe the methods used to identify water-maser candidates and subsequent confirmation of the sources. Our methods involve a simple determination of likely candidates by searching peak emission maps, utilising the intrinsic nature of water-maser emission, spatially unresolved and spectrally narrow-lined. We estimate completeness limits and compare our method with results from the DUCHAMP source finder. We find that the two methods perform similarly. We conclude that the similarity in performance is due to the intrinsic limitation of the noise characteristics of the data. The advantages of our method are that it is slightly more efficient in eliminating spurious detections and is simple to implement. The disadvantage is that it is a manual method of finding sources and so is not practical on datasets much larger than HOPS, or for datasets with extended emission that needs to be characterised. We outline a two-stage method for the most efficient means of finding masers, using DUCHAMP.

  16. Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analysis showed that these vegetables had protein and crude fibre values comparable to those of commercial hops. Fat content values were however much higher than those for hops with Grongonema latifolium having the highest values of 19.10%. Garcinia cola with a total resin value of 8.24% and an essential ...

  17. Toward Hip-Hop Pedagogies for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Music education scholarship in the areas of popular, vernacular, and participatory musicianship has grown in the past decades; however, music education research concerned specifically with hip-hop has been relatively scarce. Because hip-hop music can differ tremendously from the traditional western genres with which many music educators are most…

  18. Christian Hip Hop as Pedagogy: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…

  19. Factors of Intensification in the Hops Cluster of Chuvashia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Anatoly I.; Evgrafov, Oleg V.; Zakharov, Dmitry A.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Tolstova, Marija L.; Tsaregorodtsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The complex analysis of development of hop-growing for 1971-2015 is carried out. In the conditions of the field experiment made in the Chuvash Republic hop-growing intensification elements--technology of its cultivation, mechanization are fulfilled. Based on researches it is established that the main internal allowance of increase in efficiency of…

  20. Gap solitons in periodic Schrodinger lattice system with nonlinear hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the periodic discrete Schrodinger equation with nonlinear hopping on the infinite integer lattice. We obtain the existence of gap solitons by the linking theorem and concentration compactness method together with a periodic approximation technique. In addition, the behavior of such solutions is studied as $\\alpha\\to 0$. Notice that the nonlinear hopping can be sign changing.

  1. Being Hip-Hop: Beyond Skills and Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer four principles relevant to hip-hop cultures (keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh) and explore how these principles might affect music classrooms. I argue that a music classroom that works to keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh might go beyond teaching hip-hop skills…

  2. Towards a Pedagogy of Hip Hop in Urban Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thurman

    2011-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative study often Black male K-12 teachers from the Hip Hop Generation who are closely connected to Hip Hop culture and have been effective in addressing the academic and social needs of Black boys. Through an analysis of their social, educational and cultural experiences, this article highlights three organizing…

  3. Framing and Reviewing Hip-Hop Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2009-01-01

    Hip-hop has become relevant to the field of education because of its implications for understanding language, learning, identity, curriculum, and other areas. This integrative review provides historical context and cohesion for the burgeoning and discursive body of hip-hop scholarship by framing it according to three heuristic categories and…

  4. Romani Music - Roma and the Hip-hop Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dočkal, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is focused on Romani music and its importance for the Romani culture. It examines the popularity of hip-hop among the young Romani generation and Romani hip- hip production. It attempts to define the role of hip-hop culture in young Romanies' lives.

  5. Hip-Hop, the "Obama Effect," and Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher; Lee, Okhee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: With the ever increasing diversity of schools, and the persistent need to develop teaching strategies for the students who attend today's urban schools, hip-hop culture has been proposed to be a means through which urban youth can find success in school. As a result, studies of the role of hip-hop in urban education have grown…

  6. Investigating Cultural Collision: Educators' Perceptions of Hip-Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachum, Floyd D.

    2013-01-01

    Hip-hop music has been embraced worldwide by youth, pummeled in the media for supposedly increasing social misery and hailed as a significant musical breakthrough. Hip-hop culture has transcended musical boundaries and now impacts speech, clothing, mannerisms, movies, websites, television programming, magazines, and energy drinks (Dyson, 2007;…

  7. Framing Hip Hop: New Methodologies for New Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the central impulse behind early advocacy for ethnographic approaches to hip hop--that critics should try as much as possible to limit their own certainties around what hip hop can and might mean. While ethnographic approaches can engender the kinds of personal dislocations that allow for this negotiation, they do not…

  8. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…

  9. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  10. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Biegala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and measuring tube voltage. On the base of exposure parameters, an average glandular dose for each of 100 female patients was estimated. The images obtained by using AEC system had the acceptable threshold contrast visibility irrespective of the applied anode/filter combination. Mean glandular doses in the females, examined with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination, were on average 23.6% lower than that of the Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh anode/filter combinations. It is recommended to use a combination of the W/Rh anode /filter which exhibited lower mean glandular doses.

  11. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  12. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  13. Breast-Volume Displacement Using an Extended Glandular Flap for Small Dense Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We defined the glandular flap including fat in the subclavicular area as an extended glandular flap, which has been used for breast-conserving reconstruction in the upper portion of the breast. Indication. The excision volume was 20% to 40% of the breast volume, and the breast density was dense. Surgical Technique. The upper edge of the breast at the subclavicular area was drawn in the standing position before surgery. After partial mastectomy, an extended glandular flap was made by freeing the breast from both the skin and the pectoralis fascia up to the preoperative marking in the subclavicular area. It is important to keep the perforators of the internal mammary artery and/or the branches of the lateral thoracic artery intact while making the flap. Results. Seventeen patients underwent remodeling using an extended glandular flap. The cosmetic results at 1 year after the operation: excellent in 11, good in 1, fair in 3, and poor in 2. All cases of unacceptable outcome except one were cases with complications, and more than 30% resection of moderate or large size breasts did not obtain an excellent result for long-term followup. Conclusion. This technique is useful for performing the breast-conserving reconstruction of small dense breasts.

  14. Hip-Hop Is My Passport! Using Hip-Hop and Digital Literacies to Understand Global Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Akesha Monique

    2013-01-01

    Hip-hop has exploded around the world among youth. It is not simply an American source of entertainment; it is a global cultural movement that provides a voice for youth worldwide who have not been able to express their "cultural world" through mainstream media. The emerging field of critical hip-hop pedagogy has produced little…

  15. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  16. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as a dual test of carnivory in semi-desert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, Hervé

    2009-09-01

    Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea parviflora are two American semi-desert species of glandular sticky plants that are suspected of carnivory as they can catch small insects. The same characteristics might also hold for two semi-desert plants with glandular sticky leaves from Israel, namely Cleome droserifolia and Hyoscyamus desertorum. The presence of proteases on foliar hairs, either secreted by the plant or commensals, detected using a simple test, has long been considered proof of carnivory. However, this test does not prove whether nutrients are really absorbed from insects by the plant. To determine the extent to which these four species are potentially carnivorous, hair secretion of phosphatases and uptake of N, P, K and Mg from fruit flies as model prey were studied in these species and in Roridula gorgonias and Drosophyllum lusitanicum for comparison. All species examined possess morphological and anatomical adaptations (hairs or emergences secreting sticky substances) to catch and kill small insects. The presence of phosphatases on foliar hairs was tested using the enzyme-labelled fluorescence method. Dead fruit flies were applied to glandular sticky leaves of experimental plants and, after 10-15 d, mineral nutrient content in their spent carcasses was compared with initial values in intact flies after mineralization. Phosphatase activity was totally absent on Hyoscyamus foliar hairs, a certain level of activity was usually found in Ibicella, Proboscidea and Cleome, and a strong response was found in Drosophyllum. Roridula exhibited only epidermal activity. However, only Roridula and Drosophyllum took up nutrients (N, P, K and Mg) from applied fruit flies. Digestion of prey and absorption of their nutrients are the major features of carnivory in plants. Accordingly, Roridula and Drosophyllum appeared to be fully carnivorous; by contrast, all other species examined are non-carnivorous as they did not meet the above criteria.

  17. Communication devices for network-hopping communications and methods of network-hopping communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttles, John W

    2013-04-23

    Wireless communication devices include a software-defined radio coupled to processing circuitry. The system controller is configured to execute computer programming code. Storage media is coupled to the system controller and includes computer programming code configured to cause the system controller to configure and reconfigure the software-defined radio to operate on each of a plurality of communication networks according to a selected sequence. Methods for communicating with a wireless device and methods of wireless network-hopping are also disclosed.

  18. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  19. Bit-padding information guided channel hopping

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-02-01

    In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Job-hopping and New Firm Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio

    for this theory, little is known about the characteristics of this so called `balanced´ skills set. Do entrepreneurial outcomes of individuals presenting a highly varied work experiences differ from entrepreneurs with a less varied career' In particular, how do the characteristics of the entrepreneurs´ job...... is the right experience that enhances the new ventures´ performances. Fallick, Fleischman and Reibtzer (1996) argue that frequent job-hopping facilitates the rapid reallocation of resources toward firms with the best innovations. This could be the result of the fact that especially high quality individuals who...... employed in the start-up they founded. This initial evidence suggests that successful jack-of-all trades are people who do not wander across industries, but those who accumulate a variety of experiences by occupying different roles in the parent organization....

  1. Control of plant trichome and root-hair development by a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum R3 MYB transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Tominaga-Wada

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana the CPC-like MYB transcription factors [CAPRICE (CPC, TRIPTYCHON (TRY, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1, 2, 3/CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (ETC1, ETC2, ETC3/CPL3, TRICHOMELESS 1, 2/CPC-LIKE MYB 4 (TCL1, TCL2/CPL4] and the bHLH transcription factors [GLABRA3 (GL3 and ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3] are central regulators of trichome and root-hair development. We identified TRY and GL3 homologous genes from the tomato genome and named them SlTRY and SlGL3, respectively. Phylogenic analyses revealed a close relationship between the tomato and Arabidopsis genes. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that SlTRY and SlGL3 were predominantly expressed in aerial parts of developing tomato. After transformation into Arabidopsis, CPC::SlTRY inhibited trichome formation and enhanced root-hair differentiation by strongly repressing GL2 expression. On the other hand, GL3::SlGL3 transformation did not show any obvious effect on trichome or non-hair cell differentiation. These results suggest that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant trichome and root-hair development.

  2. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  3. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-11-01

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  5. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  6. Uncertainties involved in the estimation of mean glandular dose for women in the Norwegian breast cancer screening program (NBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Ingrid Helen Ryste; Olerud, Hilde Merete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on the estimation of the mean glandular dose for women in Norway aged 50–69 y. Estimation of mean glandular dose (MGD) has been conducted by applying the method of Dance et al. (1990, 2000, 2009). Uncertainties in the thickness of approximately ±10 mm adds uncertainties in the MGD of approximately ±10 %, and uncertainty in the glandularity of ±0 % will lead to an uncertainty in the MGD of ±4 %. However, the inherent uncertainty in the air kerma, given by t...

  7. Holstein polarons and triplet bipolarons with NNN hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Taraphder, A.; Berciu, Mona

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground state of 1D Holstein single polaron with next nearest neighbour electron hopping (NNN), employing a variational approximation based on exact diagonalization. Our investigation reveals that, depending upon the sign and magnitude of the NNN hopping integral with respect to nearest neighbour hopping, the polaron band minima may occur at non-zero kGS. We compare the present scenario with the SSH polarons, where a similar feature is also observed, albeit, due to very different mechanism. Our initial investigation of triplet bipolarons, in presence of an attractive extended Hubbard interactions, further substantiates the differences between the present model and the SSH model.

  8. Trichome morphology as an indicator of high rubber bearing guayule (Parthenium argentatum gray) plants in native populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, I.J.; Dhillon, S.P.; Hanson, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Parthenium argentatum Gray (guayule) and P. incanum (mariola) grow in close asociations in their native habitat of Mexico. Variation in rubber concentration and morphology of guayule has been known for a long time. Studies of over 75 native guayule plants indicated the presence of at least three prominent forms of guayule plants. Group I guayule plants have oblanceolate leaves and leaf margins are entire to two-toothed. T-shaped leaf trichomes are with centrally attached stalk and cap cell with two blunt ends. Plants in this group are high in rubber, containing on the average 17% rubber. Group II guayule plants have narrow elliptic leaves and leaf margins are entire to four-toothed. T-shaped trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and straight. Rubber content in these plants averages 10%. Group III guayule plants have ovate leaves and leaf margins are four- to eight-toothed. T-trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and wavy or curved. These plants on the average contain 6% rubber. Morphological as well as biochemical data indicate the presence of mariola genes in the last two groups of plants and this has resulted in an increase in trichome length and a decrease in the rubber content. Group II guayule plants are of more common occurrence than the others. Based on the data presented here, high rubber bearing guayule plants in native stands can be easily selected by analyzing trichome morphology. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Annular floral nectary with oil-producing trichomes in Salvia farinacea (Lamiaceae): Anatomy, histochemistry, ultrastructure, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2014-11-01

    Many angiosperms produce nectar that entices pollinator visits. Each floral nectary tends to embody a singular form, such as the receptacular ring arising beneath the ovary in mint flowers (Lamiaceae). Exceptionally, the annular floral nectary in Salvia farinacea possesses modified stomata plus secretory trichomes. This first study of nectary ultrastructure within the largest genus of Lamiaceae examined this unusual condition. Nectary anatomy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure were investigated from fresh and fixed material using light microscopy and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The annular nectary encircled the ovary plus extended ventrally as a projection. Modified stomata occurred only in the projection's abaxial epidermis. Conversely, peltate trichomes with a basal cell, a stalk cell, and 4-7 head cells were interspersed among the ovary lobes and covered the projection's adaxial surface. Phloem and xylem supplied the nectary interior, where parenchyma cells had numerous mitochondria and plastids with little starch, but few dictyosomes and little endoplasmic reticulum. Nectar accumulated as a drop opposite the projection's abaxial surface, escaping through stomatal pores and probably the cuticle. However, the annular nectary's glistening trichomes secreted a Sudan-positive product largely retained below the distended cuticle, but not nectar. This first ultrastructural study of co-occurring secretory trichomes and modified stomata on a mint nectary suggests multiple interactive functions for this atypical structure. These trichomes-possibly generating a substance informative to pollinators or as an ovarian defense against phytophagy-produced oil in an aqueous milieu, rather than contributing fluid to nectar. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Characterization of hop pectins shows the presence of an arabinogalactan-protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Hop pectins were extracted from spent hops using acid extraction conditions and were characterized chemically. The acid extraction of spent hops resulted in a yield of 2°containing 59 f polysaccharides. The hop pectins under investigation had a relatively high molecular weight and an intrinsic

  11. Let Me Blow Your Mind: Hip Hop Feminist Futures in Theory and Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Treva B.

    2015-01-01

    This essay brings together key theoretical interventions in hip-hop feminism to explore the continued, but undervalued, significance of hip-hop feminism in urban education. More specifically, the essay challenges narrow conceptualizations of the "hip hop subject" as Black and male by using hip-hop feminist theory to incorporate the lived…

  12. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falsoboldo” = Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidademedicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizame quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves,petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species are

  13. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haejoon; Lee, In-Ho

    2018-01-12

    As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  14. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  15. Average glandular dose coefficients for pendant-geometry breast CT using realistic breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Andrew M; Boone, John M

    2017-10-01

    To design volume-specific breast phantoms from breast CT (bCT) data sets and estimate the associated normalized mean glandular dose coefficients for breast CT using Monte Carlo methods. A large cohort of bCT data sets (N = 215) was used to evaluate breast volume into quintiles (plus the top 5%). The average radius profile was then determined for each of the six volume-specific groups and used to both fabricate physical phantoms and generate mathematical phantoms (V1-V6; "V" denotes classification by volume). The MCNP6 Monte Carlo code was used to model a prototype bCT system fabricated at our institution; and this model was validated against physical measurements in the fabricated phantoms. The mathematical phantoms were used to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients for both monoenergetic source photons "DgNCT (E)" (8-70 keV in 1 keV intervals) and polyenergetic x-ray beams "pDgNCT " (35-70 kV in 1 kV intervals). The Monte Carlo code was used to study the influence of breast size (V1 vs. V5) and glandular fraction (6.4% vs. 45.8%) on glandular dose. The pDgNCT coefficients estimated for the V1, V3, and V5 phantoms were also compared to those generated using simple, cylindrical phantoms with equivalent volume and two geometrical constraints including; (a) cylinder radius determined at the breast phantom chest wall "Rcw "; and (b) cylinder radius determined at the breast phantom center-of-mass "RCOM ". Satisfactory agreement was observed for dose estimations using MCNP6 compared with both physical measurements in the V1, V3, and V5 phantoms (R2 = 0.995) and reference bCT dose coefficients using simple phantoms (R2 = 0.999). For a 49 kV spectrum with 1.5 mm Al filtration, differences in glandular fraction [6.5% (5th percentile) vs. 45.8% (95th percentile)] had a 13.2% influence on pDgNCT for the V3 phantom, and differences in breast size (V1 vs. V5) had a 16.6% influence on pDgNCT for a breast composed of 17% (median) fibroglandular tissue. For

  16. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  17. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Eyal; Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. • CT breast glandular tissue diameter correlates with log(b-HCG) • Gynaecomastia in CT is associated with worse prognosis • Gynaecomastia in CT is associated with non-seminoma histological subtype.

  18. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  19. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  20. Solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseda, Kaoru; Horio, Hirotoshi; Harada, Masahiko; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-19

    Solitary papilloma of the lung is thought to be a rare benign epithelial tumor, and complete surgical resection is currently the standard treatment for this pathology. However, some cases of papilloma have reportedly shown malignant potential. We report two cases of solitary glandular papilloma of the peripheral lung that were treated by thoracoscopic partial resection. The first patient presented with a nodular lesion in the lower lobe of the left lung that was detected on a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan after treatment for laryngeal cancer. Partial lung resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. In the second patient, a nodular lesion was incidentally identified in the lower lobe of the left lung during a health check-up. Partial lung resection was again performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The postoperative course in both cases was uneventful, and no recurrences have been observed as of 44 months and 41 months postoperatively, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation has been reported both with the squamous type and the mixed type of solitary papilloma of the lung. The glandular variant has shown no tendency toward local recurrence after local excision and has no apparent malignant potential. Local excision is thus recommended for solitary glandular papilloma in order to preserve pulmonary function.

  1. Morphology of glandular stomach (Ventriculus glandularis and muscular stomach (Ventriculus muscularis of the partrigde Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Juliana Regina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult partridges Rhynchotus rufescens were used for morphologic and histological study. The materials destined to the morphologic study were collected and the lengths of the glandular stomach and of the muscular stomach were measured. For the histological study, fragments of the glandular stomach (gastric proventriculus, Ventriculus glandularis and of the muscular stomach (gastric ventriculus, Ventriculus muscularis were stained routinely with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Masson?s trichrome stain. Glandular stomach is prolonged, with a fusiform format toward craniocaudalis and for the left. It presents a mean length of 3.20cm in the females and 3.65cm in the males. Gastric proventriculus is composed by several lobes and glands. The mucosa is formed by a simple cubic epithelium, which is much folded. Muscular stomach has the format of a biconvex lens, with 4.30cm and 4.35cm of mean length for the females and male, respectively. The mucosa is formed by folds lined by columnar cells and the mucus that forms the cuticula. There are crypts in the base of the folds. Closely, there is a lamina propria and a thick smooth muscle layer, which is placed according to the format of the organ. A dense portion of connective tissue constitutes the serosa, mixed by some smooth muscle cells.

  2. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  3. Glandular object based tumor morphometry in H&E biopsy samples for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Stephen I.; Khan, Faisal M.; Pang, Ho-Yuen H.; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary prostate tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide critical information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. The subjective and variable Gleason grade assessed by expert pathologists in Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained specimens has been the standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We propose a novel morphometric, glandular object-oriented image analysis approach for the robust quantification of H&E prostate biopsy images. We demonstrate the utility of features extracted through the proposed method in predicting disease progression post treatment in a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. The biopsy based features were univariately predictive for clinical response post therapy; with concordance indexes (CI) = 0.6. In multivariate analysis, a glandular object feature quantifying tumor epithelial cells not directly associated with an intact tumor gland was selected in a model incorporating preoperative clinical data, protein biomarker and morphological imaging features. The model achieved a CI of 0.73 in validation, which was significantly higher than a CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice. This work presents one of the first demonstrations of glandular object based morphological features in the H&E stained biopsy specimen to predict disease progression post primary treatment. Additionally, it is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  4. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  5. Field dependence of hopping mobility: Lattice models against spatial disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelerich, J. O.; Nenashev, A. V.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Gebhard, F.; Baranovskii, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical description of the effect of the electric field F on the hopping mobility μ belongs to the not-yet-resolved problems related to charge transport in disordered materials. An often proposed solution is to simulate hopping transport via sites placed on regular grids and to fit the results by phenomenological equations. This approach currently dominates the theoretical research of hopping transport in organic disordered semiconductors. We show that the dependence μ (F ) in the case of regular grids can drastically differ from that in systems with spatial disorder. While μ increases with F on lattices, it can decrease in random systems with the same material parameters. Moreover, the material parameters responsible for the dependence μ (F ) on lattices differ from those responsible for μ (F ) in spatially disordered systems, which makes lattice models inappropriate for studying the field dependence of the hopping mobility.

  6. Two-Hop Secure Communication Using an Untrusted Relay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Xiang; Yener, Aylin

    2009-01-01

    .... Yet, the information it relays needs to be kept secret from it. In this two-hop communication scenario, where the use of the untrusted relay node is essential, we find that a positive secrecy rate is achievable...

  7. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin W Bonny; Jenna C Lindberg; Marc C Pacampara

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability...

  8. Hopping trajectory optimization for surface exploration on small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhu, Shengying; Cui, Pingyuan; Yu, Zhengshi; Zong, Hua

    2017-07-01

    Surface exploration is an important way to improve the understanding of small bodies. Considering the irregular and weak gravity field near a small body, the movement of the surface explorer is generally achieved by hopping. In this paper, a guidance algorithm method based on convex optimization approach for pinpoint hopping movement on a small body is developed in order to improve the stability and accuracy of surface exploration. We formulate a fuel-optimal control problem for the single pinpoint hopping and convert it into a second-order cone programming (SOCP) problem which can be solved effectively by primal-dual-interior points method. A multi-hopping scenario is also proposed for the long-distance transfer. To certificate the performance of the proposed guidance algorithm, a full set of simulations are conducted and the effectiveness are analyzed.

  9. Hip hop jako kulturní styl, jeho spicifika a vliv na teenagery

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves history of hip hop, its specifics and elements, it talks about influence of hip hip subculture on teenagers and points to positive and negative aspects connected to this culture style. In this way is work sectionalized into chapters. First part talks about history of hip hop, connection between religion and hip hop and also about Czech hip hop. Second part specifies on main elements of hip hop culture as DJing, MCing, breakdance, beatbox and graffiti. Last part focuses on...

  10. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls: evaluation of clinical Tanner staging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Fallentin, Eva; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ...) has never been performed. Our objective was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating...

  11. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography: Glandular dose estimation using a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamicha, E; Yakoumakis, E; Tsalafoutas, I A; Dimitriadis, A; Georgiou, E; Tsapaki, V; Chalazonitis, A

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the mean glandular dose of contrast enhanced digital mammography, using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and female adult voxel phantom. Automatic exposure control of full field digital mammography system was used for the selection of the X-ray spectrum and the exposure settings for dual energy imaging. Measurements of the air-kerma and of the half value layers were performed and a Monte Carlo simulation of the digital mammography system was used to compute the mean glandular dose, for breast phantoms of various thicknesses, glandularities and for different X-ray spectra (low and high energy). For breast phantoms of 2.0-8.0 cm thick and 0.1-100% glandular fraction, CC view acquisition, from AEC settings, can result in a mean glandular dose of 0.450 ± 0.022 mGy -2.575 ± 0.033 mGy for low energy images and 0.061 ± 0.021 mGy - 0.232 ± 0.033 mGy for high energy images. In MLO view acquisition mean glandular dose values ranged between 0.488 ± 0.007 mGy - 2.080 ± 0.021 mGy for low energy images and 0.065 ± 0.012 mGy - 0.215 ± 0.010 mGy for high energy images. The low kV part of contrast enhanced digital mammography is the main contributor to total mean glandular breast dose. The results of this study can be used to provide an estimated mean glandular dose for individual cases. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Etxaniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links and scatternets (multi-hop networks. As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.

  13. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  14. Extreme Kinematics in Selected Hip Hop Dance Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Woo, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Hip hop dance has many styles including breakdance (breaking), house, popping and locking, funk, streetdance, krumping, Memphis jookin', and voguing. These movements combine the complexity of dance choreography with the challenges of gymnastics and acrobatic movements. Despite high injury rates in hip hop dance, particularly in breakdance, to date there are no published biomechanical studies in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare representative hip hop steps found in breakdance (toprock and breaking) and house and provide descriptive statistics of the angular displacements that occurred in these sequences. Six expert female hip hop dancers performed three choreographed dance sequences, top rock, breaking, and house, to standardized music-based tempos. Hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during sequences that were 18 to 30 sec long. Hip, knee, and ankle three-dimensional peak joint angles were compared in repeated measures ANOVAs with post hoc tests where appropriate (pHip hop maximal joint angles exceeded reported activities of daily living and high injury sports such as gymnastics. Hip hop dancers work at weight-bearing joint end ranges where muscles are at a functional disadvantage. These results may explain why lower extremity injury rates are high in this population.

  15. Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Josu; Aranguren, Gerardo

    2017-05-19

    Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.

  16. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  17. Hip Hop Syllabus: AME/MUS 303 Hip Hop: Art, Culture, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hentges

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This syllabus represents a course taught online through the University of Maine at Augusta in the fall of 2011 (and every otheryear thereafter. Critical pedagogy can be a challenge in any classroom, and the challenges in an online classroom are compounded. However, the subject matter and approach of Hip Hop can be a powerful tool in teaching students critical thinking skills as well in laying a foundation for interdisciplinary and intersectional theory; here these elements are represented through curriculum—the themes, texts, contexts,approaches, structure, and assignments.

  18. Fast Hopping Frequency Generation in Digital CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Farazian, Mohammad; Gudem, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the agility limitations of conventional frequency synthesizers in multi-band OFDM ultra wideband is a key research goal in digital technology. This volume outlines a frequency plan that can generate all the required frequencies from a single fixed frequency, able to implement center frequencies with no more than two levels of SSB mixing. It recognizes the need for future synthesizers to bypass on-chip inductors and operate at low voltages to enable the increased integration and efficiency of networked appliances. The author examines in depth the architecture of the dividers that generate the necessary frequencies from a single base frequency and are capable of establishing a fractional division ratio.   Presenting the first CMOS inductorless single PLL 14-band frequency synthesizer for MB-OFDMUWB makes this volume a key addition to the literature, and with the synthesizer capable of arbitrary band-hopping in less than two nanoseconds, it operates well within the desired range on a 1.2-volt power s...

  19. Assimilation and Hip-Hop : Interethnic Relations and the Americanization of New Immigrants in Hip-Hop Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aahlin, Audun Kjus

    2013-01-01

    The conflict thesis and the segmented assimilation theory account for two of the most significant trends in American immigration and ethnicity studies. Both of these major theoretical styles are utterly pessimistic towards interethnic relations in the United States and assimilation into African American urban culture. I have asked in this thesis if the experiences and the history of hip-hop culture can counterbalance these negative interpretations of interethnic relations. Hip-hop culture has...

  20. From "They" Science to "Our" Science: Hip Hop Epistemology in STEAM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Maurice E.

    Hip hop has moved from being considered a type of music into being understood as a culture in which a prominent type of music originates. Hip hop culture has a philosophy and epistemological constructs as well. This study analyzed those constructs to determine how conceptions of science factor in hip hop worldviews. Pedagogical models in culturally responsive teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) education were also examined to discern their philosophical connections with hip hop culture. These connections were used to create two theoretical models. The first one, Hip Hop Science, described how scientific thought functions in hip hop culture. The second model, Hip Hop STEAM Pedagogy, proposes how hip hop culture can inform STEAM teaching practices. The study began by using Critical Race Theory to create a theoretical framework proposing how the two theoretical models could be derived from the philosophical and pedagogical concepts. Content analysis and narrative inquiry were used to analyze data collected from scholarly texts, hip hop songs, and interviews with hip hop-responsive educators. The data from these sources were used initially to assess the adequacy of the proposed theoretical framework, and subsequently to improve its viability. Four overlapping themes emerged from the data analyses, including hip hop-resistance to formal education; how hip hop culture informs pedagogical practice in hip hop-responsive classrooms; conceptions of knowledge and reality that shape how hip hoppers conduct scientific inquiry; and hip hop-based philosophies of effective teaching for hip hoppers as a marginalized cultural group. The findings indicate that there are unique connections between hip hop epistemology, sciencemindedness, and pedagogical practices in STEAM education. The revised theoretical framework clarified the nature of these connections, and supported claims from prior research that hip hop culture provides viable sites of

  1. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Fakra, Sirine; Marcus, Matthew A; Birschwilks, Mandy; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  2. 'And then there were three': highly efficient uptake of potassium by foliar trichomes of epiphytic bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Uwe; Zotz, Gerhard

    2010-09-01

    Vascular epiphytes have to acquire nutrients from atmospheric wash out, stem-flow, canopy soils and trapped litter. Physiological studies on the adaptations to nutrient acquisition and plant utilization of nutrients have focused on phosphorus and nitrogen; potassium, as a third highly abundant nutrient element, has received minor attention. In the present study, potassium uptake kinetics by leaves, within-plant distribution and nutrient accumulation were analysed to gain an improved understanding of physiological adaptations to non-terrestrial nutrient supply of plants. Radioactively labelled (86)RbCl was used as an analogue to study uptake kinetics of potassium absorbed from tanks of epiphytes, its plant distribution and the correlation between uptake efficiency and abundance of trichomes, functioning as uptake organs of leaves. Potassium in leaves was additionally analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy to assess plant responses to potassium deficiency. Labelled rubidium was taken up from tanks over a wide range of concentrations, 0.01-90 mm, which was achieved by two uptake systems. In four tank epiphytes, the high-affinity transporters had average K(m) values of 41.2 microm, and the low-affinity transporters average K(m) values of 44.8 mm. Further analysis in Vriesea splenriet showed that high-affinity uptake of rubidium was an ATP-dependent process, while low-affinity uptake was mediated by a K(+)-channel. The kinetic properties of both types of transporters are comparable with those of potassium transporters in roots of terrestrial plants. Specific differences in uptake velocities of epiphytes are correlated with the abundance of trichomes on their leaf surfaces. The main sinks for potassium were fully grown leaves. These leaves thus function as internal potassium sources, which allow growth to be maintained during periods of low external potassium availability. Vascular epiphytes possess effective mechanisms to take up potassium from both highly diluted

  3. Evaluation of effective detective quantum efficiency considering breast thickness and glandularity in prototype digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Lee, Donghoon; Choi, Young-Wook; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a novel imaging modality which is strongly depended on the performance of a detector. Recently, effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) has been introduced to solve the disadvantages of conventional DQE evaluations which do not consider clinical operating conditions. For eDQE evaluation, the variety of patient breast, especially the glandularity and thickness needs to be studied to consider different races of patient. For these reasons, eDQE in a prototype DBT system considering different breast thickness and glandularity was evaluated. In this study, we used the prototype DBT system with CsI(Tl) scintillator/CMOS flat panel digital detector developed by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). A scatter fraction, a transmission factor, an effective modulation transfer function (eMTF) and an effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS) were measured in different thickness and glandularity of breast equivalent phantom. As results, scatter fraction increased and transmission fraction decreased by a factor of 2.09 and 6.25, respectively, as increasing glandularity and thickness. We also found that the breast phantom with small thickness presented high eMTF and low eNNPS. As results, eDQE from 4 cm thick breast phantom with 30% and 70% glandularity showed small changes from 0.20 to 0.19 at 0.1 mm-1, whereas eDQE from 50% glandularity of 3 cm and 5 cm presented relatively significant increase from 0.16 to 0.20 at 0.1 mm-1 spatial frequency. These indicated that eDQE was strongly affected by phantom thickness, but the effect of glandularity seemed to be trivial. According to our study, the whole system evaluation considering the races of patients from standard to abnormal cases is needed to be studied in future works.

  4. RNA-seq discovery, functional characterization, and comparison of sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Diergaarde, Paul J; Volpin, Hanne; De Both, Michiel T J; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Joerg; Falara, Vasiliki; Matsuba, Yuki; Pichersky, Eran; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites (f. typicum) accession PI127826 emit a variety of sesquiterpenes. To identify terpene synthases involved in the production of these volatile sesquiterpenes, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptome of the stem trichomes from these plants. This approach resulted initially in the discovery of six sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from S. lycopersicum and five from S. habrochaites. Searches of other databases and the S. lycopersicum genome resulted in the discovery of two additional sesquiterpene synthases expressed in trichomes. The sesquiterpene synthases from S. lycopersicum and S. habrochaites have high levels of protein identity. Several of them appeared to encode for non-functional proteins. Functional recombinant proteins produced germacrenes, β-caryophyllene/α-humulene, viridiflorene and valencene from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate. However, the activities of these enzymes do not completely explain the differences in sesquiterpene production between the two tomato plants. RT-qPCR confirmed high levels of expression of most of the S. lycopersicum sesquiterpene synthases in stem trichomes. In addition, one sesquiterpene synthase was induced by jasmonic acid, while another appeared to be slightly repressed by the treatment. Our data provide a foundation to study the evolution of terpene synthases in cultivated and wild tomato.

  5. Computer Vision for High-Throughput Quantitative Phenotyping: A Case Study of Grapevine Downy Mildew Sporulation and Leaf Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divilov, Konstantin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce I

    2017-09-28

    Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient. The pipeline was tested on images from leaf disc assay experiments involving two F1 grapevine families, one that had glabrous leaves (Vitis rupestris B38 × 'Horizon' [RH]) and another that had leaf trichomes (Horizon × V. cinerea B9 [HC]). Correlations between computer vision and manual visual ratings reached 0.89 in the RH family and 0.43 in the HC family. Additionally, we were able to use the computer vision system prior to sporulation to measure the percent leaf trichome area. We estimate that an experienced rater scoring sporulation would spend at least 90% less time using the computer vision system compared with the manual visual method. This will allow more treatments to be phenotyped in order to better understand the genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance and of leaf trichome density. We anticipate that this computer vision system will find applications in other pathosystems or traits where responses can be imaged with sufficient contrast from the background.

  6. Mic Power? Connections and the hip hop nation in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneidermann, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...

  7. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  8. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Bonny

    Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  9. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  10. Designing and transgenic expression of melanin gene in tobacco trichome and cotton fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Wu, M; Zhao, Q; Li, R; Chen, J; Ao, G; Yu, J

    2007-01-01

    In Streptomyces antibioticus, there are two genes TYRA and ORF438 required for the melanin biogenesis. To investigate whether expression of these two genes in cotton can change cotton fiber colour, we modified the TYRA and ORF438 genes to make their codon usage closer to the codon preference of cotton fiber genes. The resulting versions of these two genes were referred to as DTYRA and DORF438, respectively. Vacuolar targeting signals were also added to their ends. Under the cotton fiber specific LTP3 promoter, DORF438 and DTYRA were first transformed into model plant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Molecular analyses showed that both the DORF438 and DTYRA genes were successfully expressed in transgenic plants, and the melanin deposition was observed in the trichomes of transgenic tobacco. Excitedly, when the same DORF438 and DTYRA expression cassettes were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by pollen tube pathway, the colour of cotton fiber changed from white to brown. Molecular analyses confirmed that both genes were transformed into cotton and expressed successfully. All these results indicate that the synthesized DOFR438 and DTYRA genes can work well in tobacco and cotton. Our study may provide a potential method for modifying the colour of cotton fiber.

  11. Uncertainties involved in the estimation of mean glandular dose for women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, I H R; Olerud, H M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reflect on the estimation of the mean glandular dose for women in Norway aged 50-69 y. Estimation of mean glandular dose (MGD) has been conducted by applying the method of Dance et al. (1990, 2000, 2009). Uncertainties in the thickness of approximately ±10 mm adds uncertainties in the MGD of approximately ±10 %, and uncertainty in the glandularity of ±0 % will lead to an uncertainty in the MGD of ±4 %. However, the inherent uncertainty in the air kerma, given by the European protocol on dosimetry, will add an uncertainty of 12 %. The total uncertainty in the MGD is estimated to be ∼20 %, taking into consideration uncertainties in compressed breast thickness (±10 %), the air kerma (12 %), change in HVL by -0.05 mm (-9.0 %), uncertainty in the s-factor of ±2.1 % and changing the glandularity to an age-dependent glandularity distribution (+8.4 %).

  12. Discrimination of different hop varieties using headspace gas chromatographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Katia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for characterization of hop varieties include analyses of bitter acids and essential oils, followed by comparison of the chemical composition, particularly chromatographic profiles. In the present work discrimination of different hop varieties was carried out based on their essential oil volatile composition, assessed by headspace gas chromatography, with subsequent statistical treatment of the data. Differences and similarities were determined in samples from USA, New Zealand and Europe, using correlation and cluster analysis. Aroma hops presented low levels of myrcene while bitter samples showed high levels of beta-caryophyllene, aloaromadendrene and also the sum of the marker ratios, independently of being in the form of pellets or extracts. Highly correlated samples with no significant differences have good possibility to substitute each other in the beer manufacture.

  13. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2011-04-29

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station is adopted, wherein single-input single-output antenna configuration is employed. Each of the transmitter and the receiver however employs multiple antennas to improve the overall link performance. Single-phase and two-phase based receive switching strategies are investigated assuming optimum first hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the simple scheme in which the switched diversity is applied independently over the two hops is studied using tight upper bounds. Thorough performance comparisons and switching thresholds optimization for the aforementioned strategies are presented. Simulation results are also provided to validate the mathematical development and to verify the numerical computations.

  14. Lattice Gauge Quantum Simulation via State-Dependent Hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin

    2017-01-01

    We develop a quantum simulator architecture that is suitable for the simulation of U(1) Abelian gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics. Our approach relies on the ability to control the hopping of a particle through a barrier by means of the internal quantum states of a neutral or charged...... impurity-particle sitting at the barrier. This scheme is highly experimentally feasible, as the correlated hopping does not require fine-tuning of the intra- and inter-species interactions. We investigate the applicability of the scheme in a double well potential, which is the basic building block...

  15. Information structure in Wichí: focus marker hop

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Levina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The present paper provides an overview of the functions of the morphological focus marker hop in the grammar of Wichí, a Mataco-Mataguayan language spoken in the North of Argentina and the South of Bolivia. Basing the analysis on the corpus which I have compiled from the existing research which has been published on the language so far, we can conclude that the focus marker hop can but does not have to be used for the focusing of the subject, object, predicate, adverbial as well as ...

  16. PTEN controls glandular morphogenesis through a juxtamembrane β-Arrestin1/ARHGAP21 scaffolding complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Arman; Deevi, Ravi K; Evergren, Emma; Blondel-Tepaz, Elodie; Baillie, George S; Scott, Mark Gh; Campbell, Frederick C

    2017-07-27

    PTEN controls three-dimensional (3D) glandular morphogenesis by coupling juxtamembrane signaling to mitotic spindle machinery. While molecular mechanisms remain unclear, PTEN interacts through its C2 membrane-binding domain with the scaffold protein β-Arrestin1. Because β-Arrestin1 binds and suppresses the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP21, we hypothesize that PTEN controls Cdc42 -dependent morphogenic processes through a β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 complex. Here, we show that PTEN knockdown (KD) impairs β-Arrestin1 membrane localization, β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions, Cdc42 activation, mitotic spindle orientation and 3D glandular morphogenesis. Effects of PTEN deficiency were phenocopied by β-Arrestin1 KD or inhibition of β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP21 enhanced Cdc42 activation and rescued aberrant morphogenic processes of PTEN-deficient cultures. Expression of the PTEN C2 domain mimicked effects of full-length PTEN but a membrane-binding defective mutant of the C2 domain abrogated these properties. Our results show that PTEN controls multicellular assembly through a membrane-associated regulatory protein complex composed of β-Arrestin1, ARHGAP21 and Cdc42.

  17. Benign intestinal glandular lesions in the vagina: a possible correlation with implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lu, Bingjian

    2016-06-17

    Enteric-type glandular lesions are extremely rare in the vagina. Their histological origin remains a matter of speculation at present. We review two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one intestinal-type adenosis in the vagina. Case 1, a 64-year-old woman, presented with a vaginal polypoid lesion with a size of 4 × 3 × 3 cm. Case 2, an 8-year-old girl, had a 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.8-cm pedunculated polyp in the vaginal navicular fossa and a clinically suspected rectovaginal fistula. Case 1 and 3 had an obsolete severe perineal laceration. On histopathological examination, cases 1 and 2 resembled rectal mucosal prolapse or inflammatory cloacogenic polyp (rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyp). Case 3 had an incidental intestinal-type adenosis in the removed vaginal wall. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the intestinal differentiation in all 3 lesions by showing diffuse CDX2-positive, CK20-positive, and scattered chromogranin A-positive neuroendocrinal cells in the lower compartment of the crypt. In summary, we report herein three unusual cases of benign intestinal-type glandular lesions in the vagina including two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one case of intestinal-type adenosis, and discuss possibilities for their histogenetic basis.

  18. Glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: molecular evidence of a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jour, George; Liu, Yajuan; Ricciotti, Robert; Pritchard, Colin; Hoch, Benjamin L

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma has not been described. Our patient was a 64-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer status post-radiation and hormonal therapy. On screening bone scan, he was found to have increased uptake in his right femoral shaft. Biopsy revealed intermediate-grade conventional chondrosarcoma. Subsequent femoral resection was remarkable for an intermediate-grade chondrosarcomatous component juxtaposed to an area composed of anastomosing nests and cords of malignant epithelial cells showing nuclear atypia and increased mitotic activity. A fibroblastic-appearing spindle cell population was intimately associated with the epithelial cells. The epithelial cells labeled with 34bE12, AE1/AE3, EMA, and Vimentin (both spindled and epithelial components) while being negative for prostate-specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor-1, and CDX2. The patient developed local recurrence 9 months after the initial resection but has had no metastatic disease and consistently undetectable prostate-specific antigen levels. Deep parallel sequencing of the dedifferentiated component showed a nonsynonymous mutation at exon 4 of IDH1 gene at codon R132 leading to a substitution of arginine, with serine confirming glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falso-boldo” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445 Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Santos Capel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidade medicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizam e quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves, petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species

  20. Starting with Style: Toward a Second Wave of Hip-Hop Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental breakthrough in the field of hip-hop education in recent years is the shift from understanding hip-hop solely as content to understanding hip-hop also as aesthetic form. In this article, I chart the roots of this shift across disciplines and focus on what it might mean for the future of hip-hop education, pedagogy, and research in…

  1. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  2. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  3. Role of SATB2 in distinguishing the site of origin in glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannico, Giovanna Angela; Gown, Allen M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Revetta, Frank; Bishop, Justin A

    2017-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract can be challenging because of significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between primary lesions and metastasis/direct extension from adjacent organs. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), encoded on chromosome 2q32-33, is a recently described DNA-binding protein involved in osteoblast lineage commitment and expressed in colorectal and appendiceal neoplasms. In this study, we hypothesized that immunohistochemistry for SATB2 may be of value in distinguishing primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder/urinary tract and urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation from gastrointestinal and endocervical primaries. Intensity and distribution of SATB2 nuclear labeling were semiquantitatively scored and compared with those of CDX2. The study included 43 primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder/urinary tract, 20 urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation, 26 adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix, and 22 colorectal adenocarcinomas involving the bladder. Positive SATB2 immunostaining was observed in 21 of 43 (49%) primary bladder/urinary tract adenocarcinomas, in 17 of 22 (77%) colorectal adenocarcinomas, and in the glandular component of 4 of 18 (22%) urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation. SATB2 was negative in 25 of 26 endocervical adenocarcinomas and showed focal weak immunostaining (1+) in 1 of 26 (4%). The results were not significantly different from those seen with CDX2. We conclude that SATB2 immunohistochemistry is not useful in supporting urothelial versus gastrointestinal or endocervical origin in the differential diagnosis of glandular lesions of the bladder/urinary tract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Localization of networks with presence and distance constraints based on 1-hop and 2-hop mass–spring optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Oliva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the localization of a sensor network where the nodes are heterogeneous, in that some of them are able to measure the distance from their neighbors, while some others are just able to detect their presence, and we provide a post-processing algorithm that can be used to improve an initial estimate for the location of the nodes, based on a mass–spring optimization approach, taking into account presence and distance information, as well as one-hop and two-hop information.

  5. Flipping the Misogynist Script: Gender, Agency, Hip Hop and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Excluding Hip Hop culture and rap music from music education misses opportunities for addressing key aspects of popular culture, society, and students' lives. This article addresses intersections of Hip Hop, gender, and music education to forward potential Hip Hop praxis. After tracing related scholarship, I discuss and problematize…

  6. Behind Beats and Rhymes: Working Class from a Hampton Roads Hip Hop Homeplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Aisha S.

    2009-01-01

    The film documentary titled "Hip Hop: beyond beats and rhymes" captures ongoing conversations among scholars, cultural critics, and hip hop insiders about the state of African Americans by interrogating distinct expressive forms associated with hip hop culture. Durham draws from two scenes to describe her memories as the researched…

  7. "Deeper than Rap": Gifted Males and Their Relationship with Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. Sean; Grantham, Tarek C.

    2012-01-01

    One would be hard-pressed to deny the impact that hip hop is having on gifted students. More specifically, because hip hop is a creative and exciting male-dominated culture, gifted males gravitate to hip hop culture. From the perspective of two Black men from two different generations, this article was inspired by discussions about the role of hip…

  8. Beats, Rhymes, and Classroom Life: Hip-Hop Pedagogy and the Politics of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, educators have looked to capitalize on the appeal of hip-hop culture, sampling its language, techniques, and styles as a way of reaching out to students. But beyond a fashionable hipness, what does hip-hop have to offer our schools? In this revelatory new book, Marc Lamont Hill shows how a serious engagement with hip-hop culture…

  9. Wish to Live: The Hip-Hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader. Educational Psychology. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…

  10. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras-Chaverri, M [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Galavis, P [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Bakic, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vetter, J [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8{sup −}+0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9{sup −}105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses

  11. Two-dimensional patterning by a trapping/depletion mechanism: the role of TTG1 and GL3 in Arabidopsis trichome formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bouyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis serves as a model system to study how single cells are selected within a field of initially equivalent cells. Current models explain this pattern by an activator-inhibitor feedback loop. Here, we report that also a newly discovered mechanism is involved by which patterning is governed by the removal of the trichome-promoting factor TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1 from non-trichome cells. We demonstrate by clonal analysis and misexpression studies that Arabidopsis TTG1 can act non-cell-autonomously and by microinjection experiments that TTG1 protein moves between cells. While TTG1 is expressed ubiquitously, TTG1-YFP protein accumulates in trichomes and is depleted in the surrounding cells. TTG1-YFP depletion depends on GLABRA3 (GL3, suggesting that the depletion is governed by a trapping mechanism. To study the potential of the observed trapping/depletion mechanism, we formulated a mathematical model enabling us to evaluate the relevance of each parameter and to identify parameters explaining the paradoxical genetic finding that strong ttg1 alleles are glabrous, while weak alleles exhibit trichome clusters.

  12. Investigación a ritmo de hip-hop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Rivière

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soñando se resiste. Hip-hop; en la calle y al parque. Varios autores. Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Secretaría de Cultura, Recreación y Deporte, Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá, Bogotá, 2010, 180 págs.

  13. Three-Dimensional Tracking of Interfacial Hopping Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Wu, Haichao; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical predictions have suggested that molecular motion at interfaces—which influences processes including heterogeneous catalysis, (bio)chemical sensing, lubrication and adhesion, and nanomaterial self-assembly—may be dominated by hypothetical "hops" through the adjacent liquid phase, where a diffusing molecule readsorbs after a given hop according to a probabilistic "sticking coefficient." Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) single-molecule tracking to explicitly visualize this process for human serum albumin at solid-liquid interfaces that exert varying electrostatic interactions on the biomacromolecule. Following desorption from the interface, a molecule experiences multiple unproductive surface encounters before readsorption. An average of approximately seven surface collisions is required for the repulsive surfaces, decreasing to approximately two and a half for surfaces that are more attractive. The hops themselves are also influenced by long-range interactions, with increased electrostatic repulsion causing hops of longer duration and distance. These findings explicitly demonstrate that interfacial diffusion is dominated by biased 3D Brownian motion involving bulk-surface coupling and that it can be controlled by influencing short- and long-range adsorbate-surface interactions.

  14. Interference-based routing in multi-hop wireless infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Liu, F.; Braun, Torsten; Carle, Georg; Koucheryavy, Yevgeni; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis

    In this paper, multi-hop wireless infrastructures are identified as a way to increase user data rates and/or capacity of wireless systems by means of a high base station density without high base station interconnection costs. For such a system, a new routing algorithm, named Balanced Interference

  15. Maroc-hop: music and youth identities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzah, M.; Herrera, L.; Bayat, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two musical forms highly popular among youths of Moroccan origin in the Netherlands—Maroc-hop and Shaabi—permit youths to express specific and multiple identities in local contexts. Shaabi, a popular form of Moroccan folk music used to be found mainly in the private setting of family celebrations,

  16. Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    During hopping an early burst can be observed in the EMG from the soleus muscle starting about 45 ms after touch-down. It may be speculated that this early EMG burst is a stretch reflex response superimposed on activity from a supra-spinal origin. We hypothesised that if a stretch reflex indeed c...

  17. Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1' Department of Food Science and Nutrition, E.N.S.A.I.. P. O. Box. 455, University ofNgaoundere, Cameroon. 2' Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. "Corresponding author. Abstract. The potential ... Industry (Hough er dl., 1982, Grant,. 1977). Hops contribute to foam stability.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of Tetranychus urticae chemical adaptation in hop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraneo, Tara G; Bull, Jon; Morales, Mariany A; Lavine, Laura C; Walsh, Douglas B; Zhu, Fang

    2015-12-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is a major pest that feeds on >1,100 plant species. Many perennial crops including hop (Humulus lupulus) are routinely plagued by T. urticae infestations. Hop is a specialty crop in Pacific Northwest states, where 99% of all U.S. hops are produced. To suppress T. urticae, growers often apply various acaricides. Unfortunately T. urticae has been documented to quickly develop resistance to these acaricides which directly cause control failures. Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population. Our research revealed that a mutation in the cytochrome b gene (G126S) in 35% tested T. urticae populations and a mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (F1538I) in 66.7% populations may contribute resistance to bifenazate and bifenthrin, respectively. No mutations were detected in Glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits tested, suggesting target site insensitivity may not be important in our hop T. urticae resistance to abamectin. However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance. Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

  19. Interference-based routing in multi-hop wireless infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Liu, F.; Braun, T.; Carle, G.; Koucheryavy, Y.; Tsaoussidis, V.

    In this paper, multi-hop wireless infrastructures are identified as a way to increase user data rates and/or capacity of wireless systems by means of a high base station density without high base station interconnection costs. For such a system, a new routing algorithm, named balanced interference

  20. Hopping in a supercooled binary Lennard-Jones liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    A binary Lennard–Jones liquid has been investigated by molecular dynamics at equilibrium supercooled conditions. At the lowest temperature investigated, hopping is present in the system as indicated by a secondary peak in 4r2Gs(r,t), where Gs(r,t) is the van Hove self correlation function...

  1. Young Children Manifest Spiritualities in Their Hip-Hop Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…

  2. Examining Hip-Hop as Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura

    2015-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…

  3. Morphological and control criteria for self-stable underwater hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, Marcello; Laschi, Cecilia

    2017-10-04

    This paper presents the self-stabilisation features of a hopping gait during underwater legged locomotion. We used a bio-inspired fundamental model of this gait, the underwater spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, to numerically derive quantitative (dimension of the basin of attraction, Floquet multipliers, mean horizontal speed) and qualitative (shape of the basin) features which characterise the self-stability of the system. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained with a terrestrial self-stable running model (i.e. the spring-loaded inverted pendulum with swing-leg retraction) to highlight the role of water-related components in relation to dynamic legged locomotion. The analysis revealed fundamental morphological and actuation parameters that could be used to design self-stabilising underwater hopping machines, as well as elucidating their role with respect to stability and speed. Underwater hopping is a simple and reliable locomotion, as it does not require complex control feedback to reject significant disturbances. Thanks to its high self-stabilising property, underwater hopping appears to be a reliable alternative locomotion for underwater robots. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Exact results on the steady state of a hopping model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. Q.

    1987-03-01

    A hopping model described by Katz, Lebowitz, and Spohn [J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1983)] and by Valles and Marro [J. Stat. Phys. 43, 441 (1986)] is studied analytically for small lattice systems. The dependence of the nonequilibrium steady state on various parameters and transition rate functions is obtained exactly. The results are compared with simulations on large systems.

  5. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Zuo, Guangzheng; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-12-01

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the material's initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

  6. Chicano Hip-Hop as Interethnic Contact Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Pancho

    2008-01-01

    Hip-hop is an interethnic contact zone that allows for the creation of new expressive cultures and new identities for young people. Its openness derives in part from the wide range of expression and interpretation allowed in 182 "McFarland" African musics. Moving beyond the often stifling options offered by an earlier generation that focused on…

  7. Surface hopping modeling of two-dimensional spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Vegte, Cornelis P. van der; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy has become an important tool to unravel the excited state properties of complex molecular assemblies, such as biological light harvesting systems. In this work, we propose a method for simulating 2D electronic spectra based on a surface hopping

  8. Multiple-hopping trajectories near a rotating asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Tian-Jiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Heng-Nian

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of the transfer orbits connecting landing points of irregular-shaped asteroids. The landing points do not touch the surface of the asteroids and are chosen several meters above the surface. The ant colony optimization technique is used to calculate the multiple-hopping trajectories near an arbitrary irregular asteroid. This new method has three steps which are as follows: (1) the search of the maximal clique of candidate target landing points; (2) leg optimization connecting all landing point pairs; and (3) the hopping sequence optimization. In particular this method is applied to asteroids 433 Eros and 216 Kleopatra. We impose a critical constraint on the target landing points to allow for extensive exploration of the asteroid: the relative distance between all the arrived target positions should be larger than a minimum allowed value. Ant colony optimization is applied to find the set and sequence of targets, and the differential evolution algorithm is used to solve for the hopping orbits. The minimum-velocity increment tours of hopping trajectories connecting all the landing positions are obtained by ant colony optimization. The results from different size asteroids indicate that the cost of the minimum velocity-increment tour depends on the size of the asteroids.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  10. Hop pellets as an interesting source of antioxidant active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Holubková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity.  The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples  was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  12. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  14. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  15. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  16. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

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    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  17. The content of vitamine E in hop cones of the Saaz variety

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    Helena Pluháčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vitamin E, total content of tocols and the content of individual isomers: α-tocopherols, β-tocopherols, γ-tocopherols and δ-tocopherols was monitored in samples of hop cones of the world-important Saaz variety. Hop cone samples originated from hop-breeding area Tršice, Czech Republic. The method used for the determination of vitamin E in barley was modified and used for this quantitative analysis. The results indicate that monitored characteristics are influenced by the year of harvest (2010 or 2011 but also by the age of hop-gardens (hop bucks. High values of vitamin E activity (up to 67.79 mg.kg−1 and total content of tocols (up to 76.31 mg.kg−1 in hop cones are worth further attention from the viewpoint of alternative use of hops.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  19. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

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    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  20. Lesions associated with Eucoleus sp. in the non-glandular stomach of wild urban rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L.; Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Lejeune, Manigandan; Treuting, Piper M.; Leighton, Frederick A.

    2014-01-01

    Histological lesions associated with Eucoleus sp. infection of the non-glandular stomach were discovered in a wild, urban population of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped over a 1-year period in Vancouver, Canada. Four distinct categories of histological lesions in the non-glandular stomach were identified in association with infection in a sample of 183 rats. The apparent prevalence of Eucoleus sp. in the upper gastrointestinal tract (ventral tongue, oropharynx, esophagus and non-glandular stomach) was 43.1% (79/183). Infection with Eucoleus sp. was significantly associated with hyperkeratosis, mucosal hyperplasia, keratin pustules and submucosal inflammation in the non-glandular stomach (P < 0.05). Eucoleus sp. infection and/or related stomach pathology was present in 135/183 (73.8%) of rats. Statistical analysis showed the odds of being affected by Eucoleus sp. or associated stomach pathology were greater in heavier (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00–1.12) and sexually mature rats (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.23–17.10). Eucoleus sp. infection is common in wild rats in Vancouver and induces substantial host response. The impact of Eucoleus sp. and associated lesions on the health of individual rats and the population as a whole remains to be investigated. PMID:25161907

  1. Information structure in Wichí: focus marker hop

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    Ekaterina Levina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper provides an overview of the functions of the morphological focus marker hop in the grammar of Wichí, a Mataco-Mataguayan language spoken in the North of Argentina and the South of Bolivia. Basing the analysis on the corpus which I have compiled from the existing research which has been published on the language so far, we can conclude that the focus marker hop can but does not have to be used for the focusing of the subject, object, predicate, adverbial as well as on entire dependent clauses in the language. The focus marker hop can express both the informational focus as well as the contrastive focus. In the case of predicate focusing the verum-focus can also be marked and the focus marker can scope over the complex predicate. Key words: Wichí; Languages of America; Information structure; Focus marker.  Resumo: O presente artigo fornece uma visão geral das funções do marcador morfológico hop na gramática de Wichí, uma linguagem Mataco-Mataguayan falada no norte da Argentina e no sul da Bolívia. Com base na análise do corpus que compilamos a partir das pesquisas existentes e publicadas sobre a língua até agora, podemos concluir que o marcador de foco hop pode, mas não tem que, necessariamente, ser usado para o foco no sujeito, objeto, predicado, advérbio, bem como nas cláusulas inteiramente dependentes na língua. O marcador de foco hop pode expressar tanto o foco informacional quanto o foco contrastante. No caso do predicado com foco no verum-foco, também pode ser marcado e o marcador de foco sobre o predicado complexo pode se estender. Palavras-chave: Wichí; idiomas da América; estrutura de informação; marcador de foco.  Resumen: El articulo presentado ofrece una descripción general de las funciones del marcador morfológico de foco hop en la gramática de la lengua Wichí, hablada en el Norte de Argentina y el Sur de Bolivia. El presente análisis hecho a base del corpus formado de

  2. Hip-Hop Guayaquil: culturas viajeras e identidades locales

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    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available HIP-HOP GUAYAQUIL: CULTURES ITINÉRANTES ET IDENTITES LOCALES. Le hip-hop est un style de musique contemporaine caractérisé par une orchestration d’œuvres lyriques rapées, la superposition de morceaux de musique enregistrés dans le passé par différents artistes, et une instrumentation électronique, tout cela sur des rythmes de basse réguliers et constants. Le hip-hop, musique accompagnée de ses propres danses et de sa mode, est le produit du déplacement et de la transformation d’une variété d’idéologies politiques de la communauté noire qui se constituent à partir de relations qui se modifient entre elles, et en relation avec les cultures dominantes contre lesquelles elles luttent quotidiennement. À l’origine, le hip-hop est lié à des mouvements d’identité de jeunes noirs. Dans cet article, il est intéressant d’étudier le rôle du hip-hop dans la formulation d’une identité entre jeunes métisses et noirs des secteurs populaires de Guayaquil. Cet exemple illustre la nécessité d’inclure dans l’analyse les dimensions politiques des processus de traduction du global au niveau local. El hip-hop es un género de música contemporánea caracterizado por la orquestación de líricas que son rapeadas, superposición de fragmentos de música grabada en el pasado por diferentes artistas, e instrumentación electrónica, todo ello sobre ritmos de bajo regulares y constantes. Como un tipo de música acompañado por sus propias formas de danza y moda, el hip-hop es producto del viaje y la transformación de una variedad de ideologías políticas de la comunidad negra que se constituyen a sí mismas en relaciones cambiantes entre sí y en relación a las culturas dominantes contra las cuales luchan cotidianamente. El hip-hop está ligado, en su contexto originario, a políticas de identidad defendidas por jóvenes negros. Lo que interesa explorar en este artículo es el papel del hip-hop en la formulación de una identidad

  3. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

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    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  5. Influence of the constituent alpha acids of Ukrainian varieties of hops and hop preparations on quality indicators of mash and beer

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    L. Protsenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study is to establish the dependence of the bitterness of mash and the beer intoxication on the quality and quantity of the homologues of alpha acids in the Ukrainian varieties of hops, and on the content of cohumulone in alpha acids in particular. Materials and methods.Aromatic and bitter hop sorts of Ukrainian selection with different content of cohumulone in alpha-acids were investigated and so was the beer, made of these components. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the amount and composition of bitter hop substances and their transformation products in the brewing process; also there were spectrophotometric methods for quality control of bitterness of hopped mash and finished beer in use. Results and discussion. The composition of bitter substances of aromatic and bitter hop sorts of Ukrainian selection was analyzed and so the beer, made of them. It was noted that the alpha-acids of the analyzed sorts incorporate a wide range of cohumulone content rated from 16.7% in the Kumyr sort to 44,1% in the Ruslan sort. The dependences between the quality and quantity of the bitter hop sorts and bitterness and quality of hopped mash and beer were established. The content of cohumulone in alphaacids of hops has to be less than 28% to obtain quality bitter beer. The role of the beta-acid compoundsin the formation of bitter mash, hopped with aroma hop varieties with a ratio of beta to alpha acids acids around one, is much more important compared to the bitter varieties. Conclusions. The conducted researches show that in applying the bitter hops with different compositon of alphaacids for mash intoxication, this usage is more effective in the sorts that have a large content of cohumulone.

  6. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed cotton fuzz fiber development having a similar molecular model as Arabidopsis trichome.

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    Qun Wan

    Full Text Available The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1 and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis.

  7. Morphological variations in stomata, epidermal cells and trichome of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in Caspian ecosystem

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    Moslem Akbarinia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many rare and important species such as sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in Caspian ecosystem which could be regarded as unique characteristics by plant biologists. Habitat destruction had strong adverse effects on sweet chestnut in the Hyrcanian forest. Unfortunately, had been adequate research on the species. In our current research, trichome and stomata morphology of C. sativa in the Hyrcanian forest were surveyed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the results were compared with that of the European C. sativa. Furthermore, phenotypic variation of the three natural populations of the species (Siahmazgi, Ghalerodkhan and Visrod was evaluated by stomata morphometrics. Large and small diameters of stomata, area and frequency of stomata and stomata area index were studied. Finally, nested ANOVA was performed. The results showed that stomata type was anomocytic with simple Unicellular, Stellate and fasciculate trichomes on the abaxial surface. There were clear differences between Caspian and European populations of sweet chestnut. As for population variability, statistical analysis of stomata diameters showed significant differences. The three Hyrcanian populations, however, could not be separated. In line with past research, the Ghalerodkhan population showed clear variation but verifying, the hypothesis molecular markers are necessary.

  8. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed cotton fuzz fiber development having a similar molecular model as Arabidopsis trichome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Ye, Wenxue; Wu, Huaitong; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    The cotton fiber, as a single-celled trichome, is a biological model system for studying cell differentiation and elongation. However, the complexity of gene expression and regulation in the fiber complicates genetic research. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and five naked seed or fuzzless mutants (three dominant and two recessive) during the fuzz initial development stage. More than three million clean tags were generated from each sample representing the expression data for 27,325 genes, which account for 72.8% of the annotated Gossypium raimondii primary transcript genes. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between TM-1 and the mutants. Based on functional enrichment analysis, the DEGs downregulated in the mutants were enriched in protein synthesis-related genes and transcription factors, while DEGs upregulated in the mutants were enriched in DNA/chromatin structure-related genes and transcription factors. Pathway analysis showed that ATP synthesis, and sugar and lipid metabolism-related pathways play important roles in fuzz initial development. Also, we identified a large number of transcription factors such as MYB, bHLH, HB, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, bZIP and C2H2 zinc finger families that were differently expressed between TM-1 and the mutants, and were also related to trichome development in Arabidopsis.

  9. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  10. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  11. Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium in global flux surface hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifain, Andrew E; Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-06-14

    Global flux surface hopping (GFSH) generalizes fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH)—one of the most popular approaches to nonadiabatic molecular dynamics—for processes exhibiting superexchange. We show that GFSH satisfies detailed balance and leads to thermodynamic equilibrium with accuracy similar to FSSH. This feature is particularly important when studying electron-vibrational relaxation and phonon-assisted transport. By studying the dynamics in a three-level quantum system coupled to a classical atom in contact with a classical bath, we demonstrate that both FSSH and GFSH achieve the Boltzmann state populations. Thermal equilibrium is attained significantly faster with GFSH, since it accurately represents the superexchange process. GFSH converges closer to the Boltzmann averages than FSSH and exhibits significantly smaller statistical errors.

  12. Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium in global flux surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun; Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Global flux surface hopping (GFSH) generalizes fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH)—one of the most popular approaches to nonadiabatic molecular dynamics—for processes exhibiting superexchange. We show that GFSH satisfies detailed balance and leads to thermodynamic equilibrium with accuracy similar to FSSH. This feature is particularly important when studying electron-vibrational relaxation and phonon-assisted transport. By studying the dynamics in a three-level quantum system coupled to a classical atom in contact with a classical bath, we demonstrate that both FSSH and GFSH achieve the Boltzmann state populations. Thermal equilibrium is attained significantly faster with GFSH, since it accurately represents the superexchange process. GFSH converges closer to the Boltzmann averages than FSSH and exhibits significantly smaller statistical errors.

  13. Stationary Currents in Particle Systems with Constrained Hopping Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Colangeli, Matteo; Muntean, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    We study the effect on the stationary currents of constraints affecting the hopping rates in stochastic particle systems. In the framework of zero range processes with drift within a finite volume, we discuss how the current is reduced by the presence of the constraint and deduce exact formulae, fully explicit in some cases. The model discussed here has been introduced by Cirillo et al. (Does communication enhance pedestrians transport in the dark? To appear in C. R. Mécanique 344 (2016), 19-23) and is relevant for the description of pedestrian motion in elongated dark corridors, where the constraint on the hopping rates can be related to limitations on the interaction distance among pedestrians, but finds also applications in the modeling of various transport phenomena.

  14. O CIRCUITO HIP HOP NA REGIÃO DE CAMPINAS

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    Cristiano Nunes Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the thickness of the circuit hip hop in the region of Campinas and it’s a part of an inventory made in fifteen cities of the region, between 2003 and 2005. The circuit hip hop growing in Campinas since the decade of 1980, and has been expanding in the context of urbanization and metropolis. We noticed some residual cultural component in places involves, among others, the alternative production involved by a technically and territorial division of labor spurred by circuits upside of information. The culture of the streets and these circuits, survive to the urban division and fragmentation. It is, therefore, a study of the region of Campinas as a place that houses technical, informational and communicational densities. We analyzed geographical conditions of contemporary life in this region, inquiring about the communication and the informational components in the use of the territory.

  15. Cooperative MIMO technology in multiple hops wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The limited lifetime is one of the important factors restricted wireless sensor networks (WSNs), when possible, wireless nodes often operate with small batteries, while battery replacement is a very difficult and expensive. So the nodes must work long hours in the case of no battery replacement. Therefore, in WSNs, minimizing energy consumption is an important design consideration, at the same time, the transmission strategies of energy efficiency must be used for data forwarding. This paper, using cooperative multiple input multiple output(MIMO) technology combined with multiple hops technology, has put forward a new transmission model, i.e., the MIMO-MISO(multi-input multi-output)/MIMO-MIMO model. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed MIMO-MISO/MIMO-MIMO to minimize energy consumption of each node every node for multi-hop WSNs, to save a great deal of energy for a larger transmission distance, which makes the life of the entire network be extended.

  16. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  17. Effects of Powdery Mildew Fungicide Programs on Twospotted Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), Hop Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae), and Their Natural Enemies in Hop Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...

  18. Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…

  19. HipHop Scholastics: Effective Teacher Professional Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Itoco

    2016-01-01

    AbstractHipHop Scholastics: Effective Teacher Professional LearningbyItoco GarcíaDoctor of EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor P. David Pearson, ChairMeeting the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students in order to improve their academic engagement and achievement is a central challenge to American education. A Critical Race analysis and synthesis of academic research on teacher professional learning, Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (CRP), and the mismatch between...

  20. Reconstruction of Frequency Hopping Signals From Multi-Coset Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chia Wei; Wakin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-Coset (MC) sampling is a well established, practically feasible scheme for sampling multiband analog signals below the Nyquist rate. MC sampling has gained renewed interest in the Compressive Sensing (CS) community, due partly to the fact that in the frequency domain, MC sampling bears a strong resemblance to other sub-Nyquist CS acquisition protocols. In this paper, we consider MC sampling of analog frequency hopping signals, which can be viewed as multiband signals with changing band ...

  1. Opportunistic Access in Frequency Hopping Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    frequency hopping radio to mitigate the interference caused by other transmitters in a contentious environment such as the unlicensed 2.4 GHz region...Avionics Circle WPAFB, OH 45433 vasu.chakravarthy@us.af.mil 937- 528 -8269 AFRL/RYWE 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...unlicensed 2.4 GHz region. Additionally, this work demonstrates how dynamic spectrum access techniques can be used not only to prevent interfering with

  2. Nanoscale live cell imaging using hopping probe ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Pavel; Li, Chao; Shevchuk, Andrew I.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Caldwell, Matthew; Hughes, Simon; Smart, Trevor G.; Gorelik, Julia; Ostanin, Victor P.; Lab, Max J.; Moss, Guy W. J.; Frolenkov, Gregory I.; Klenerman, David; Korchev, Yuri E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a major advance in scanning ion conductance microscopy: a new hopping mode that allows non-contact imaging of the complex surfaces of live cells with resolution better than 20 nm. The effectiveness of this novel technique was demonstrated by imaging networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mechanosensory stereocilia of mouse cochlear hair cells. The technique allows studying nanoscale phenomena on the surface of live cells under physiological conditions. PMID:19252505

  3. Simulation of Frequency Hopping Communication System Based On MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Xiaoping; Wang Weiqi; Yi Lan; Rong Jie; Wang Anqi

    2016-01-01

    In today’s information age, how to carry out the accurate information communication is a crucial issue in the field of communication, which is widely used in civil and military fields. Frequency hopping communication system is a typical spectrum communication system, it is in military communication, mobile communication, computer wireless data transmission and wireless LAN and other fields have a very wide range of applications, has become the current short wave communication is one of the im...

  4. Two-legged hopping in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Moran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing deficits are common within autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Deficits have a heterogeneous dispersion across the spectrum and multimodal processing tasks are thought to magnify integration difficulties. Two-legged hopping in place in sync with an auditory cue (2.3, 3.0 Hz was studied in a group of six individuals with expressive language impaired ASD (ELI-ASD and an age-matched control group. Vertical ground reaction force data were collected and discrete Fourier transforms were utilized to determine dominant hopping cadence. Effective leg stiffness was computed through a mass-spring model representation. The ELI-ASD group were unsuccessful in matching their hopping cadence (2.21±0.30 hops•sec-1, 2.35±0.41 hops•sec-1 to either auditory cue with greater deviations at the 3.0 Hz cue. In contrast, the control group was able to match hopping cadence (2.35±0.06 hops•sec-1, 3.02±0.10 hops•sec-1 to either cue via an adjustment of effective leg stiffness. The ELI-ASD group demonstrated a varied response with an interquartile range (IQR in excess of 0.5 hops•sec-1 as compared to the control group with an IQR < 0.03 hops•sec-1. Several sensorimotor mechanisms could explain the inability of participants with ELI-ASD to modulate motor output to match an external auditory cue. These results suggest that a multimodal gross motor task can (1 discriminate performance among a group of individuals with severe autism, and (2 could be a useful quantitative tool for evaluating motor performance in individuals with ASD individuals.

  5. Hip-Hop Development™ Bridging the Generational Divide for Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thandi Hicks Harper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hip-Hop culture in the lives of youth can not be ignored. This research is based on the premise that youth workers who expect ongoing successes must increase their Hip-Hop culture competence. The study examined the knowledge of and attitude towards Hip-Hop by educators who participated in a Hip-Hop 101 workshop. Their perceptions relevant to the importance of Hip-Hop awareness and application for positively influencing youth behaviors were also explored. Results revealed that workshop participants significantly increased their Hip-Hop knowledge. They also demonstrated significantly more favorable attitudes toward Hip-Hop and its use for youth development. Findings suggest that the workshop promoted an environment conducive to bridging the generation gap between youth who embrace Hip-Hop, and educators who have a less favorable view. This research provides insight into Hip-Hop Developmenttm as a core component for establishing the kinds of youth-adult partnerships necessary for today’s Hip-Hop generation’s self-growth, skill enhancement, and leadership development.

  6. Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states.

  7. Lack of association between gastric cancer and hopQ alleles in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi Elham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori use a number of mechanisms to survive in the stomach lumen. The presence of these bacteria in the stomach can lead to gastritis and reduction in stomach acid production. Acute inflammation can directly damage to the peripheral cells that are responsible for the secretion of acid. The risk of developing gastric carcinoma is associated to heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors (such as cagA. The HopQ is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. This gene has been shown in two types. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQ alleles (types I and II and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. For this purpose 58 stomach biopsies the of patients with gastric cancer and 100 saliva samples from healthy individuals were collected. Then genomic DNA was purified and PCR for was done for desired genes via specific primers. The H. pylori infections were diagnosed by PCR for GlmM gene. Then frequencies of hopQI+, hopQII+ and hopQI+ hopQII+ genotypes were determined in H. pylori infected cases. Statistical analysis showed that there were not significant differences between healthy and diseased ones for genotypes hopQI+, hopQII+ and hopQI+ hopQII+.

  8. Duplex Schemes in Multiple Antenna Two-Hop Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Klein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel scheme for two-hop relaying defined as space division duplex (SDD relaying is proposed. In SDD relaying, multiple antenna beamforming techniques are applied at the intermediate relay station (RS in order to separate downlink and uplink signals of a bi-directional two-hop communication between two nodes, namely, S1 and S2. For conventional amplify-and-forward two-hop relaying, there appears a loss in spectral efficiency due to the fact that the RS cannot receive and transmit simultaneously on the same channel resource. In SDD relaying, this loss in spectral efficiency is circumvented by giving up the strict separation of downlink and uplink signals by either time division duplex or frequency division duplex. Two novel concepts for the derivation of the linear beamforming filters at the RS are proposed; they can be designed either by a three-step or a one-step concept. In SDD relaying, receive signals at S1 are interfered by transmit signals of S1, and receive signals at S2 are interfered by transmit signals of S2. An efficient method in order to combat this kind of interference is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, it is shown how the overall spectral efficiency of SDD relaying can be improved if the channels from S1 and S2 to the RS have different qualities.

  9. Performance Analysis of RF-FSO Multi-Hop Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-05-12

    We study the performance of multi-hop networks composed of millimeter wave (MMW)-based radio frequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are obtained in the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). Taking the MMW characteristics of the RF links into account, we derive closed-form expressions for the network outage probability. We also evaluate the effect of various parameters such as power amplifiers efficiency, number of antennas as well as different coherence times of the RF and the FSO links on the system performance. Finally, we present mappings between the performance of RF- FSO multi-hop networks and the ones using only the RF- or the FSO-based communication, in the sense that with appropriate parameter settings the same outage probability is achieved in these setups. The results show the efficiency of the RF-FSO setups in different conditions. Moreover, the HARQ can effectively improve the outage probability/energy efficiency, and compensate the effect of hardware impairments in RF-FSO networks. For common parameter settings of the RF-FSO dual- hop networks, outage probability 10^{-4} and code rate 3 nats-per-channel-use, the implementation of HARQ with a maximum of 2 and 3 retransmissions reduces the required power, compared to the cases with no HARQ, by 13 and 17 dB, respectively.

  10. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Multi-Hop Link Capacity of Multi-Route Multi-Hop MRC Diversity for a Virtual Cellular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Imane; Kudoh, Eisuke; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    In virtual cellular network (VCN), proposed for high-speed mobile communications, the signal transmitted from a mobile terminal is received by some wireless ports distributed in each virtual cell and relayed to the central port that acts as a gateway to the core network. In this paper, we apply the multi-route MHMRC diversity in order to decrease the transmit power and increase the multi-hop link capacity. The transmit power, the interference power and the link capacity are evaluated for DS-CDMA multi-hop VCN by computer simulation. The multi-route MHMRC diversity can be applied to not only DS-CDMA but also other access schemes (i. e. MC-CDMA, OFDM, etc.).

  12. Population dynamics and integrated control of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank on hops in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorenzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious pest in most areas where hops are grown. A field trial was performed on a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in León (Spain in order to analyse the population development of Phorodon humuli and its natural enemies, as well as to determine the most effective integrated program of insecticide treatments. The basic population development pattern of P. humuli was similar in the three years: the population peaked between mid to late June, and then decreased in late June/early July, rising again and reaching another peak in mid-July, after which it began to decline, rising once more in late August; this last rise is characteristic of Spain and has not been recorded in the rest of Europe. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy found on the leaves was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The multiple regression analysis showed that aphids are positively related with the presence of beetle eggs and mean daily temperatures and negatively related with maximum daily temperature integral above 27ºC in plots without insecticide treatment. The most effective program of insecticide (imidacloprid treatments consisted of an initial treatment in June and a second treatment in the second half of July or at the beginning of August. However, a single treatment in June would be sufficient when in this last period the maximum daily temperatures were higher than 27ºC for at least 15 days, avoiding in this way the harmful effects of imidacloprid on predators.

  13. Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 (KCS16) forms C36 /C38 acyl precursors for leaf trichome and pavement surface wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Buschhaus, Christopher; Joubès, Jérôme; Thoraval, Didier; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyses a crucial condensation forming a new C─C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C35 and C37 alkanes derived from C36 and C38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes. Here, KCS16 was found expressed primarily in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, flowers and siliques, and the corresponding protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The cuticular waxes on young leaves and isolated leaf trichomes of ksc16 loss-of-function mutants were depleted of C35 and C37 alkanes and alkenes, whereas expression of Arabidopsis KCS16 in yeast and ectopic overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in accumulation of C36 and C38 fatty acid products. Taken together, our results show that KCS16 is the sole enzyme catalysing the elongation of C34 to C38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes and that it contributes to the formation of extra-long compounds in adjacent pavement cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosticadas com células glandulares atípicas. Foram excluídos os estudos cuja investigação diagnóstica não incluísse o diagnóstico histopatológico. Realizou-se uma busca abrangente de publicações no período de 1966 a 2009, nas bases do LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/Medline e Old Medline. Os artigos omitidos na busca eletrônica também foram incluídos. Estavam de acordo com os critérios de inclusão 19 artigos, que foram selecionados. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar se a atipia celular glandular observada inicialmente na citologia relacionava-se histologicamente com a presença de lesões benignas, pré-neoplásicas ou neoplásicas. Dos 19 estudos selecionados, 11 mostraram maior correlação entre atipia glandular com patologias benignas e seis com lesões escamosas pré-malignas.Atypical glandular cells are a common finding in cervical cytology in cervical cancer screening and its occurrence has increased in the last decades. The identification of these cells is clinically very important due to its association with cervical and endometrial dysplasic lesions and cancer. Using a systematic approach, this article reviewed studies investigating cervical lesions that are characteristic in patients previously diagnosed as having atypical glandular cells. Studies in which diagnostic investigation did not include histopathological diagnosis were excluded. A comprehensive search for available material in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/ Medline

  15. Estudos histológicos nas células glandulares do insetos peçonhentos: III. parte: sôbre as áreas glandulares da largata de Sibine nesea (Stoll-Cramer, 1781 (Lepidoptera, Eucleidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1954-12-01

    Full Text Available a Foram estudados os dois pares de áreas glandulares da largata de Sibine nesea. O primeiro par se localisa no 7° segmento abdominal enquanto o segundo está no 9° segmento abdominal. Estas áreas glandulares são semelhantes entre si em forma e função. São cobertas por espinhos que ficam em posição erecta e representam o aparelho inoculador. b A cerda, pequena, se localisa na ponta do espinho com uma inserção modificada, de modo que sua base se afunila e ela se apoia firmemente sôbre a extremidade do espinho. c O espinho representa uma evaginação da parede do corpo. É longo e apresenta em tôda a sua superfície escaminhas dirigidas para baixo e que aumentam de tamanho caminhando-se da extremidade para a base do espinho. d A hipoderme que desce do espinho forma dentro da parede do corpo uma grande célula glandular que apresenta na extremidade apical uma zona radiada condutora da secreção dentro da célula. e A hipoderme que desce do espinho é que vai formar o canal condutor da secreção que, saindo da célula glandular, vai ser conduzida e encher tôda a cavidade da mesmo e da cerda. f O núcleo é fortemente polimorfo. g A peçonha inoculada ocasiona irritações, queimaduras e mesmo flictenas na epiderme do homem.

  16. Deterministic Multi-hop Controlled Teleportation of Arbitrary Single-Qubit State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia-yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-wen

    2017-10-01

    Multi-hop teleportation is of great significance due to long-distance delivery of quantum information and wireless quantum communication networks. In existing protocols of multi-hop teleportation, the more nodes, the smaller the success probability. In this paper, fusing the ideas of multi-hop teleportation and controlled teleportation, we put forward a scheme for implementing multi-hop controlled teleportation of single-qubit state. A set of ingenious three-qubit non-maximally entangled states are constructed to serve as the quantum channels. The information is perfectly transmitted hop by hop through teleportation under the control of the supervisors. Unit success probability can be achieved independent of channel's entanglement degree and the number of intermediate nodes. Only Pauli operations, single-qubit rotation, Hadamard gate, controlled-NOT gate, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our scheme, so this scheme is easily realized in physical experiment.

  17. Blind Compressed Sensing Parameter Estimation of Non-cooperative Frequency Hopping Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages of a non-cooperative frequency hopping communication system, such as a high sampling rate and inadequate prior information, parameter estimation based on Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS is proposed. The signal is precisely reconstructed by the alternating iteration of sparse coding and basis updating, and the hopping frequencies are directly estimated based on the results. Compared with conventional compressive sensing, blind compressed sensing does not require prior information of the frequency hopping signals; hence, it offers an effective solution to the inadequate prior information problem. In the proposed method, the signal is first modeled and then reconstructed by Orthonormal Block Diagonal Blind Compressed Sensing (OBD-BCS, and the hopping frequencies and hop period are finally estimated. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can reconstruct and estimate the parameters of noncooperative frequency hopping signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Droppin’ Knowledge on Race: Hip-Hop, White Adolescents, and Anti-Racism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Netcoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the author examines how Hip-Hop can be mobilized in anti-racism educational initatives.  The author claims that existing research on Hip-Hop and white adolescents suggests a negative corrleation between white youths' engagement with Hip-Hop and their understanding of how race and racism function in American society.  In response to this research, the author argues Hip-Hop's diverse racial discourses and ideologies must be made the subject of direct and critical inquiry in secondary and post-secondary classrooms to maximize its democratic potential.  The author outlines specific approaches for how teachers can employ Hip-Hop in anti-racism curricula in secondary and post-secondary classrooms.  Collectively, the essay serves as a preliminary investigation of Hip-Hop pedagogies of race and whiteness.

  19. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P glandular hypertrophy in the diabetic parotid sialosis is not directly associated with the ductal and acinar size, amount of fatty tissue and ductal hyperplasy. Nevertheless, these findings show that the ductal dimensions and the proportion of adipose tissue are variables that allow us to establish histopathological differences between diabetic and alcoholic sialosis.

  20. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with regional lymph node metastasis and a glandular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Sho; Horio, Takuya; Sugiura, Yoshiaki; Aiko, Satoshi; Aida, Shinsuke

    2011-02-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is generally considered to be a benign periampullary lesion, although it is unclear whether it should be classified as a hamartoma or as a neoplasm. Here, we present a GP case with lymph node metastasis. A 16-year-old boy complained of exertional dyspnea. Upper endoscopy and imaging studies revealed a polypoid ampullary tumor. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection was performed due to swelling of peripancreatic lymph nodes. Histologically, the tumor consisted of three cell types: epithelioid; spindle; and ganglion cells. In addition to these typical components of GP, a distinct glandular component was also present. There was substantial invasion of tumor cells into the lymphovascular vessels, associated with lymph node metastases. These lymph node metastases were histologically similar to the primary tumor. To judge from these findings GP may be a true neoplasm with metastatic capacity. Pre- and intraoperative investigations for lymph node or distant metastases are required for adequate resection of this kind of tumor. © 2010 The Authors. Pathology International © 2010 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  2. Structural influence on atomic hopping and electronic states of Pd-based bulk metallic glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, X.-P.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Schwarz, R. B.; Johnson, William L.; Wu, Yue

    2005-01-01

    Atomic motion and electronic structures of Pd–Ni–Cu–P bulk metallic glasses were investigated using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The hopping rate of P atoms was determined by the stimulated echo technique. Significant hopping was observed in all alloys well below the glass transition temperature. Increasing the Cu content to above 25 at. % increases P hopping significantly, consistent with the previous finding that the openness of the structure increases with Cu content. In contrast, P h...

  3. Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Yusuf, Abdullahi A

    2017-10-01

    Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days. The results showed that A. m. capensis invasive clones used both mandibular and tergal gland secretions to achieve reproductive dominance and suppress ovarian activation in their A. m. scutellata host workers. The reproductively dominant workers (false queens) produced more queen-like pheromones and inhibited ovarian activation in subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. These results show that tergal gland pheromones working in synergy with pheromones from other glands allow individual workers (false queens) to establish reproductive dominance within these social groups and to act in a manner similar to that of queens. Thus suggesting that, the evolution of reproductively dominant individuals (queens or false queens) and subordinate individuals (workers) in social insects like the honey bee is the result of a complex interplay of pheromonal signals from different exocrine glands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  6. Generalized adiabatic polaron hopping: Meyer-Neldel compensation and Poole-Frenkel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David

    2008-04-25

    The commonly employed adiabatic treatment of polaron hopping is extended to treat the continuous alteration of a carrier wave function with the atoms' movements and a carrier's long-range interaction with a polar surrounding. These features, respectively, introduce carrier-induced softening of the atoms' vibrations and a hopping activation energy that depends on hopping distance. The Meyer-Neldel compensation effect results from carrier-induced softening of vibrations. Poole-Frenkel behavior emerges for electric-field driven polaron hopping in ionic and polar media.

  7. Animal galloping and human hopping: an energetics and biomechanics laboratory exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Stan L; Mineo, Patrick M; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates fundamental principles of mammalian locomotion. It provides opportunities to interrogate aspects of locomotion from biomechanics to energetics to body size scaling. It has the added benefit of having results with robust signal to noise so that students will have success even if not "meticulous" in attention to detail. First, using respirometry, students measure the energetic cost of hopping at a "preferred" hop frequency. This is followed by hopping at an imposed frequency half of the preferred. By measuring the O2 uptake and work done with each hop, students calculate mechanical efficiency. Lessons learned from this laboratory include 1) that the metabolic cost per hop at half of the preferred frequency is nearly double the cost at the preferred frequency; 2) that when a person is forced to hop at half of their preferred frequency, the mechanical efficiency is nearly that predicted for muscle but is much higher at the preferred frequency; 3) that the preferred hop frequency is strongly body size dependent; and 4) that the hop frequency of a human is nearly identical to the galloping frequency predicted for a quadruped of our size. Together, these exercises demonstrate that humans store and recover elastic recoil potential energy when hopping but that energetic savings are highly frequency dependent. This stride frequency is dependent on body size such that frequency is likely chosen to maximize this function. Finally, by requiring students to make quantitative solutions using appropriate units and dimensions of the physical variables, these exercises sharpen analytic and quantitative skills.

  8. A Review of Hip Hop-Based Interventions for Health Literacy, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia

    2017-07-01

    African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.

  9. Helicobacter pylori adhesin HopQ engages in a virulence-enhancing interaction with human CEACAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Anahita; Kruse, Tobias; Moonens, Kristof; Mejías-Luque, Raquel; Debraekeleer, Ayla; Asche, Carmen I; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Kalali, Behnam; Bach, Nina C; Sieber, Stephan A; Hill, Darryl J; Königer, Verena; Hauck, Christof R; Moskalenko, Roman; Haas, Rainer; Busch, Dirk H; Klaile, Esther; Slevogt, Hortense; Schmidt, Alexej; Backert, Steffen; Remaut, Han; Singer, Bernhard B; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-10-17

    Helicobacter pylori specifically colonizes the human gastric epithelium and is the major causative agent for ulcer disease and gastric cancer development. Here, we identify members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family as receptors of H. pylori and show that HopQ is the surface-exposed adhesin that specifically binds human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5 and CEACAM6. HopQ-CEACAM binding is glycan-independent and targeted to the N-domain. H. pylori binding induces CEACAM1-mediated signalling, and the HopQ-CEACAM1 interaction enables translocation of the virulence factor CagA into host cells and enhances the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8. Based on the crystal structure of HopQ, we found that a β-hairpin insertion (HopQ-ID) in HopQ's extracellular 3+4 helix bundle domain is important for CEACAM binding. A peptide derived from this domain competitively inhibits HopQ-mediated activation of the Cag virulence pathway, as genetic or antibody-mediated abrogation of the HopQ function shows. Together, our data suggest the HopQ-CEACAM1 interaction to be a potentially promising novel therapeutic target to combat H. pylori-associated diseases.

  10. Hip-hop as a resource for understanding the urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to his work. First, he contends that students develop communal relationships and collective identities based on the common experiences expressed in hip-hop. Second, he identifies how the conscious recognition of institutional oppression serves a central feature in urban schools. Emdin's rich, and personal call for a greater understanding of hip-hop culture provides the text with an unmatched strength. He skillfully uses personal narratives from his own experience as well as quotes and references from hip-hop songs to make the nuances of hip hop transparent to science educators. Conversely, the limitation of this text is found in its unfulfilled promise to provide pragmatic examples of how to engage in a hip-hop based science education. Emdin's work is ultimately valuable as it extends our current knowledge about urban students and hip-hop in meaningful ways.

  11. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  12. Estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, D R; Young, K C [NCCPM, Medical Physics Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Van Engen, R E, E-mail: daviddance@nhs.net [National Training and Expert Centre for Breast Cancer Screening (LRCB), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 6873, 6532 SZ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    A formalism is proposed for the estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis, which is a simple extension of the UK, European and IAEA protocols for dosimetry in conventional projection mammography. The formalism introduces t-factors for the calculation of breast dose from a single projection and T-factors for a complete exposure series. Monte Carlo calculations of t-factors have been made for an imaging geometry with full-field irradiation of the breast for a wide range of x-ray spectra, breast sizes and glandularities. The t-factors show little dependence on breast glandularity and tables are provided as a function of projection angle and breast thickness, which may be used for all x-ray spectra simulated. The T-factors for this geometry depend upon the choice of projection angles and weights per projection, but various example calculations gave values in the range 0.93-1.00. T-factors are also provided for the Sectra tomosynthesis system, which employs a scanned narrow-beam imaging geometry. In this quite different configuration, the factor (denoted T{sub S}) shows an important dependence on breast thickness, varying between 0.98 and 0.76 for 20 and 110 mm thick breasts, respectively. Additional data are given to extend the current tabulations of g-, c- and s-factors used for dosimetry of conventional 2D mammography.

  13. Administration of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine does not improve healing of glandular gastric ulceration in horses receiving omeprazole: a randomised, blinded, clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Ben W; Sykes, Katja M; Hallowell, Gayle D

    2014-08-23

    Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandular disease and that adjunctive therapies be investigated. Along these lines it has been suggested that the addition of antimicrobials may enhance healing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to omeprazole therapy would result in superior healing of naturally occurring equine glandular ulceration compared with omeprazole monotherapy. Combination therapy of omeprazole plus trimethoprim-sulphadimidine could not be demonstrated to be superior to omeprazole monotherapy. Healing of the glandular mucosa was observed in 7/15 (47%; 95% CI 24 to 71%) and 3/13 (23%; 95% CI 7% to 50%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.32 to 10.0; p = 0.67). Improvement of the glandular mucosa was observed in 12/15 (80%; 95% CI 56 to 94%) and 9/13 (69%; 95% CI 42 to 89%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 0.6 to 15.0; p = 0.25). The results of the present study do not support the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to therapeutic protocols for equine glandular ulceration. Several limitations were present in the study and the use of antimicrobials as an adjunctive treatment warrants further investigation. However, given the potential deleterious consequences associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, the inclusion of antimicrobials in treatment regimes for EGUS is not justified until their efficacy is further validated.

  14. Child-Mediated Stroke Communication: findings from Hip Hop Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Noble, James; Gerin, William

    2012-01-01

    Low thrombolysis rates for acute ischemic stroke are linked to delays in seeking immediate treatment due to low public stroke awareness. We aimed to assess whether "Child-Mediated Stroke Communication" could improve stroke literacy of parents of children enrolled in a school-based stroke literacy program called Hip Hop Stroke. Parents of children aged 9 to 12 years from 2 public schools in Harlem, New York City, were recruited to participate in stroke literacy questionnaires before and after their child's participation in Hip Hop Stroke, a novel Child-Mediated Stroke Communication intervention delivered in school auditoriums. Parental recall of stroke information communicated through their child was assessed 1-week after the intervention. Fifth and sixth grade students (n=182) were enrolled into Hip Hop Stroke. One hundred two parents were approached in person to participate; 75 opted to participate and 71 completed both the pretest and post-test (74% response rate and 95% retention rate). Parental stroke literacy improved after the program; before the program, 3 parents of 75 (3.9%) were able to identify the 5 cardinal stroke symptoms, distracting symptom (chest pains), and had an urgent action plan (calling 911) compared with 21 of 71 parents (29.6%) postintervention (P<0.001). The FAST mnemonic was known by 2 (2.7%) of participants before the program versus 29 (41%) after program completion (P<0.001). Knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms remains low among residents of this high-risk population. The use of Child-Mediated Stroke Communication suggests that school children aged 9 to 12 years may be effective conduits of critical stroke knowledge to their parents.

  15. Exploiting sparsity in free energy basin-hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Cash, Kyle H.; Mantell, Rosemary G.; Wales, David J.

    2017-10-01

    We present acceleration of the vibrational frequency calculations required in free energy basin-hopping (FEBH) global optimisation using sparse Cholesky factorisation. We describe an interface with the SuiteSparse software package that facilitates these calculations, and present results detailing the accuracy and speedups obtained for atomic clusters and biomolecules. For the larger systems, exploiting sparsity reduces the computational cost by factors of ten to thirty, with no significant loss in accuracy. This approach will therefore provide access to the vibrational density of states, and hence to local harmonic free energies, for structure prediction and thermodynamic properties of more complex systems.

  16. Spectral Efficiency of Random Time-Hopping CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Guido Carlo; Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally paired with impulsive communications, Time-Hopping CDMA (TH-CDMA) is a multiple access technique that separates users in time by coding their transmissions into pulses occupying a subset of $N_\\mathsf{s}$ chips out of the total $N$ included in a symbol period, in contrast with traditional Direct-Sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) where $N_\\mathsf{s}=N$. This work analyzes TH-CDMA with random spreading, by determining whether peculiar theoretical limits are identifiable, with both optimal a...

  17. The Analysis Of Slang Words In Selected Hip Hop Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Manalu, Sadrakh Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Slang is a language structure that evolved in modern times that in his particular use by young people. Slang develops in tune with its evolving culture in the environment so that the slang does not have a time, place or community background limit. Slang can also be found in almost every language in the world, in this case the author discusses the use of slang words contained in the English language in specialized its African American Hip Hop culture. In this paper entitled "The Analysis of Sl...

  18. Conscious Hip-Hop, Change, and the Obama Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Forman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies a particular aspect of hip-hop’s range of cultural production—conscious rap—in order to isolate one of the more politicized discursive options available to youth in America and a site where critical perspectives on post-Civil Rights America have emerged most forcefully. It further suggests that Obama’s political rise corresponds with a new phase in hip-hop and has impacted the ways in which its creative artists frame and articulate issues of race, class, and identity.

  19. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  20. Bilateral deficit of spring-like behaviour during hopping in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-12-20

    Unilateral leg stiffness is a key contributor to sprint running speed, thereby great bilateral deficit (BLD) of leg stiffness would be expected to be observed in sprinters. However, it remains clear only BLD of leg stiffness at the preferred hopping frequency in non-sprinters. The purpose of this study was to clarify the BLD of spring-like behaviour in hopping at various frequencies and the effect of chronic adaptation via sprint running experience on BLD during the hopping. Fifteen male experienced sprinters and 12 male novices participated in this study. They were instructed to hop in place at three frequencies (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 Hz), and to perform hopping with maximal effort. Ground reaction forces (GRF) of both legs during the hopping were recorded using two force plates. At higher hopping frequencies during the unilateral and bilateral hopping, smaller peak value of vertical GRF (F max) and greater leg stiffness (K leg) were significantly observed. The BLD index of F max and the BLD index of K leg were significantly smaller at higher hopping frequencies. No significant differences of BLD index of F max and BLD index of K leg were observed between sprinters and novices. Our results demonstrate that neuromuscular inhibition in the contralateral leg changes during the hopping based on hopping frequency. This suggests that plyometric training in the beginning of rehabilitation should involve bilateral jumping at a high frequency. In experienced sprinters, detailed mechanics of chronic neuromuscular adaptation via unilateral facilitation of spring-like behaviour should be assessed by measuring electromyographic activity.

  1. Histological follow-up in patients with atypical glandular cells on Pap smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Boyraz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atypical glandular cells (AGCs result in the Papanicolaou (Pap smear may be associated with significant genital and nongenital neoplastic processes. Aims: To evaluate the underlying histopathology in women who had AGCs on Pap smears. Settings and Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients and Methods: Clinicopathological data of patients who had AGC on Pap smears and underwent histological workup between January 2004 and December 2014 were retrieved from the computerized database of a tertiary care center. Patients with a prior history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or gynecological cancer were excluded. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test or Fisher's exact tests were used as appropriate. Results: Cytological examination of the uterine cervix was carried out in 117,560 patients. We identified 107 patients (0.09% with AGC and 80 of those with histological follow-up were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 47 years (range, 18–79, and 32 women (40% were postmenopausal, while 56 (70% had gynecological symptoms. Significant preinvasive or invasive lesions on pathological examination were detected in 27 (33.8% patients, including 12 endometrial adenocarcinomas (15%, 8 cervical carcinomas (10%, 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II/III (3.75%, 2 ovarian adenocarcinomas (2.5%, and 2 metastatic tumors (2.5%. Univariate analysis showed that postmenopausal status (P 50 years old (P < 0.001, having symptoms at the time of admission (P = 0.041, and AGC “favor neoplasia” smear results (P = 0.041 were the clinical factors associated with significant pathological outcome. Conclusions: Patients with AGC on Pap smears should be evaluated vigilantly with histological workup, especially if they are postmenopausal or symptomatic.

  2. Co-relationships between glandular salivary flow rates and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Guillory, Carolina; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH: SALSA). Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Data from the 1147 participants in the OH: SALSA were analysed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals of European-American ancestry experience less caries. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  4. Evaluation of Progesterone and Ovulation-stimulating Drugs on the Glandular Epithelium and Angiogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human endometrium is a dynamic tissue during the menstrual cycle can be influenced by ovarian hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endometrium angiogenesis under the influence of human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG and HCG that stimulate ovulation and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female mice were randomly divided into three groups as: control, gonadotropin and gonadotropin + progesterone. The mice in the other two groups except the control group received 7.5 IU HMG and later HCG. Subsequently, the mice were placed in a cage for mating. Gonadotropin + progesterone group was administered, 1 mg/mouse progesterone in 24, 48, and 72 h interval, after HMG injection. Ninety-six hours after HMG injection, animals were sacrificed, and their uterine specimens were prepared by immunohistochemistry technique for light microscopic studies, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Endometrium angiogenesis in control group showed that mean ± standard deviation was 24.15 ± 11.15, gonadotropin group was 62.50 ± 24.16, and gonadotropin + progesterone group was 41.85 ± 19.54. Significant difference between the control group and gonadotropin group and between the control group and gonadotropin + progesterone was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in all groups in the endometrial angiogenesis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Ovarian induction with gonadotropins and gonadotropins + progesterone could not change the morphometrically index of endometrial glandular epithelium in mice. Ovarian stimulation followed by progesterone injection could modify the angiogenesis of mice endometrium.

  5. Determination of volatile compounds in different hop varieties by headspace-trap GC/MS--in comparison with conventional hop essential oil analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberl, Anita; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2012-03-21

    A headspace (HS)-trap method in combination with gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the determination of volatile constituents in hops. The highly sensitive HS-trap system reduces the detection limit by using up to four trap enrichment cycles. Seventy hop samples of different varieties and cultivation regions, from the 2008 harvest, were examined using the HS-trap-GC-MS method and the established "European Brewery Convention" (EBC) method for hop essential oil analysis. Twenty-one different volatiles were quantified for each hop sample. For all compounds, except caryophyllene oxide, a strong correlation was found between the results of the HS-trap method and the EBC method. Experiments have revealed that the EBC method using steam distillation is not appropriate for thermolabile compounds, such as caryophyllene oxide, due to decomposition during boiling. The HS-trap method is fast and sensitive, requires small sample amounts and minimal sample preparation, and is easy to apply.

  6. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiancong Qi; Susheng Song; Qingcuo Ren; Dewei Wu; Huang Huang; Yan Chen; Meng Fan; Wen Peng; Chunmei Ren; Daoxin Xie

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes...

  7. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiancong Qi; Susheng Song; Qingcuo Ren; Dewei Wu; Huang Huang; Yan Chen; Meng Fan; Wen Peng; Chunmei Ren; Daoxin Xie

    2011-01-01

    ... [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation...

  8. Communication: Global flux surface hopping in Liouville space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linjun; Sifain, Andrew E.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in the surface hopping (SH) formulation of non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. A generalization of the traditional fewest switches SH (FSSH), global flux SH (GFSH) utilizes the gross population flow between states to derive SH probabilities. The Liouville space formulation of FSSH puts state populations and coherences on equal footing, by shifting the hopping dynamics from Hilbert to Liouville space. Both ideas have shown superior results relative to the standard FSSH in Hilbert space, which has been the most popular approach over the past two and a half decades. By merging the two ideas, we develop GFSH in Liouville space. The new method is nearly as straightforward as the standard FSSH, and carries comparable computational expense. Tested with a representative super-exchange model, it gives the best performance among all existing techniques in the FSSH series. The obtained numerical results match almost perfectly the exact quantum mechanical solutions. Moreover, the results are nearly invariant under the choice of a basis state representation for SH, in contrast to the earlier techniques which exhibit notable basis set dependence. Unique to the developed approach, this property is particularly encouraging, because exact quantum dynamics is representation independent. GFSH in Liouville space significantly improves accuracy and applicability of SH for a broad range of chemical and physical processes.

  9. A decentralized scheduling algorithm for time synchronized channel hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tinka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH is an existing Medium Access Control scheme which enables robust communication through channel hopping and high data rates through synchronization. It is based on a time-slotted architecture, and its correct functioning depends on a schedule which is typically computed by a central node. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first scheduling algorithm for TSCH networks which both is distributed and which copes with mobile nodes. Two variations on scheduling algorithms are presented. Aloha-based scheduling allocates one channel for broadcasting advertisements for new neighbors. Reservation- based scheduling augments Aloha-based scheduling with a dedicated timeslot for targeted advertisements based on gossip information. A mobile ad hoc motorized sensor network with frequent connectivity changes is studied, and the performance of the two proposed algorithms is assessed. This performance analysis uses both simulation results and the results of a field deployment of floating wireless sensors in an estuarial canal environment. Reservation-based scheduling performs significantly better than Aloha-based scheduling, suggesting that the improved network reactivity is worth the increased algorithmic complexity and resource consumption.

  10. Augmented Ehrenfest dynamics yields a rate for surface hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2010-04-01

    We present a new algorithm for mixed quantum-classical dynamics that helps bridge the gap between mean-field (Ehrenfest) and surface-hopping dynamics by defining a natural rate of decoherence. In order to derive this decoherence result, we have expanded the number of independent variables in the usual Ehrenfest routine so that mixed quantum-classical derivatives are now propagated in time alongside the usual Ehrenfest variables. Having done so, we compute a unique rate of decoherence using two independent approaches: (i) by comparing the equations of motion for the joint nuclear-electronic probability density in phase space according to Ehrenfest dynamics versus partial Wigner transform dynamics and (ii) by introducing a frozen Gaussian interpretation of Ehrenfest dynamics which allows nuclear wave packets to separate. The first consequence of this work is a means to rigorously check the accuracy of standard Ehrenfest dynamics. Second, this paper suggests a nonadiabatic dynamics algorithm, whereby the nuclei are propagated on the mean-field (Ehrenfest) potential energy surface and undergo stochastic decoherence events. Our work resembles the surface-hopping algorithm of Schwartz and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 234106 (2005)]—only now without any adjustable parameters. For the case of two electronic states, we present numerical results on the so-called "Tully problems" and emphasize that future numerical benchmarking is still needed. Future work will also treat the problem of three or more electronic states.

  11. Problem Formulation and Analysis of the 1-Hop ARQ Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    2013-08-01

    In space communications, standard link analysis assumes that messages are sent once. For a communication link that uses an error-correction coding scheme, bit-error rate (BER) or frame-error rate (FER), and link margins are common metrics that characterize the quality of a link, and they are used to determine the supportable data rate. With the advent of Automatic Repeat-reQuest (ARQ) protocols, when messages are corrupted during transmission, they can be resent multiple times automatically until they are correctly received and acknowledged. The concept of BER, FER, and link margin cannot be directly applied, and the link analysis approach for ARQ links needs to be reexamined. In this article, we provide the problem formulation and extend the standard link analysis approach to a 1-hop ARQ link (no routing), under the assumption that code-block errors occur independently as in the case of space communications. We develop analytical models that describe the statistical behavior of standard 1-hop ARQ links. By integrating these analytical ARQ protocol models into the standard link analysis, we bypass the need to simulate or emulate the ARQ protocol operations, and generate relevant statistics on effective data rate, effective throughput, latency, and FER.

  12. Surface-hopping dynamics and decoherence with quantum equilibrium structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Robbie; Kim, Hyojoon; Kapral, Raymond

    2008-04-28

    In open quantum systems, decoherence occurs through interaction of a quantum subsystem with its environment. The computation of expectation values requires a knowledge of the quantum dynamics of operators and sampling from initial states of the density matrix describing the subsystem and bath. We consider situations where the quantum evolution can be approximated by quantum-classical Liouville dynamics and examine the circumstances under which the evolution can be reduced to surface-hopping dynamics, where the evolution consists of trajectory segments exclusively evolving on single adiabatic surfaces, with probabilistic hops between these surfaces. The justification for the reduction depends on the validity of a Markovian approximation on a bath averaged memory kernel that accounts for quantum coherence in the system. We show that such a reduction is often possible when initial sampling is from either the quantum or classical bath initial distributions. If the average is taken only over the quantum dispersion that broadens the classical distribution, then such a reduction is not always possible.

  13. Robust hopping based on virtual pendulum posture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Maufroy, Christophe; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Yazdanpanah, Mohammad J; Seyfarth, Andre

    2013-09-01

    A new control approach to achieve robust hopping against perturbations in the sagittal plane is presented in this paper. In perturbed hopping, vertical body alignment has a significant role for stability. Our approach is based on the virtual pendulum concept, recently proposed, based on experimental findings in human and animal locomotion. In this concept, the ground reaction forces are pointed to a virtual support point, named virtual pivot point (VPP), during motion. This concept is employed in designing the controller to balance the trunk during the stance phase. New strategies for leg angle and length adjustment besides the virtual pendulum posture control are proposed as a unified controller. This method is investigated by applying it on an extension of the spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model. Trunk, leg mass and damping are added to the SLIP model in order to make the model more realistic. The stability is analyzed by Poincaré map analysis. With fixed VPP position, stability, disturbance rejection and moderate robustness are achieved, but with a low convergence speed. To improve the performance and attain higher robustness, an event-based control of the VPP position is introduced, using feedback of the system states at apexes. Discrete linear quartic regulator is used to design the feedback controller. Considerable enhancements with respect to stability, convergence speed and robustness against perturbations and parameter changes are achieved.

  14. OFDMA Cellular Networks with Opportunistic Two-Hop Relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcev George

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the benefits of two-hop opportunistic relay in time division duplex (TDD OFDMA cellular network configurations. The paper starts with a short analytical model for the two-hop opportunistic relay. The model expresses the probability of finding a suitable relay node in the presence of lognormal fading and it allows the computation of the expected number of out-of-coverage nodes, as well as the end-to-end spectrum efficiency increase due to opportunistic relaying. The paper then presents results for Monte Carlo simulations of opportunistic relay in some realistic scenarios. Specifically, the simulations consider two scenarios. The first scenario uses the propagation model and a wide-area 19-cell configuration specified in 802.16 OFDMA cellular standard evaluation methodologies. In the second scenario, a Manhattan-like 19-cell topology is used. Our simulations show 11% to 33% in throughput increase when the opportunistic relay technology is used. Our results evaluate the benefits of the opportunistic relay in both scenarios in terms of coverage extension and throughput increase.

  15. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. for Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan

    2006-09-01

    Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.

  16. Results from HOPS: A multiwavelength census of Orion protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Stutz, A. M.; Tobin, J. J.; Ali, B.; Stanke, T.; Osorio, M.; Furlan, E.; HOPS Team; Orion Protostar Survey

    2013-02-01

    Surveys with the Spitzer and Herschel space observatories are now enabling the discovery and characterization of large samples of protostars in nearby molecular clouds, providing the observational basis for a detailed understanding of star formation in diverse environments. We are pursuing this goal with the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS), which targets 328 Spitzer-identified protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, the largest star-forming region in the nearest 500 pc. The sample encompasses all phases of protostellar evolution and a wide range of formation environments, from dense clusters to relative isolation. With a grid of radiative transfer models, we fit the 1-870 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the protostars to estimate their envelope densities, cavity opening angles, inclinations, and total luminosities. After correcting the bolometric luminosities and temperatures of the sources for foreground extinction and inclination, we find a spread of several orders of magnitude in luminosity at all evolutionary states, a constant median luminosity over the more evolved stages, and a possible deficit of high-inclination, rapidly infalling envelopes among the Spitzer-identified sample. We have detected over 100 new sources in the Herschel images; some of them may fill this deficit. We also report results from modeling the pre- and post-outburst 1-870 μm SEDs of V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a known FU Orionis outburster in the sample. It is the least luminous FU Ori star with a protostellar envelope.

  17. Hops 383: an Outbursting Class 0 Protostar in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Emily J.; Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Stutz, Amelia M.; Stanke, Thomas; Billot, Nicolas; Rebull, Luisa M.; Tobin, John J.; Ali, Babar; Allen, Lori E.; Booker, Joseph; Watson, Dan M.; Wilson, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 μm with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 μm. The outburst is also detected in the submillimeter by comparing APEX/SABOCA to SCUBA data, and a scattered-light nebula appeared in NEWFIRM Ks imaging. The post-outburst spectral energy distribution indicates a Class 0 source with a dense envelope and a luminosity between 6 and 14 {{L}⊙ }. Post-outburst time-series mid- and far-infrared photometry show no long-term fading and variability at the 18% level between 2009 and 2012. HOPS 383 is the first outbursting Class 0 object discovered, pointing to the importance of episodic accretion at early stages in the star formation process. Its dramatic rise and lack of fading over a 6 year period hint that it may be similar to FU Ori outbursts, although the luminosity appears to be significantly smaller than the canonical luminosities of such objects.

  18. Effects of compositional defects on small polaron hopping in micas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Kevin M; Ilton, Eugene S

    2005-06-22

    Hartree-Fock calculations and electron transfer (ET) theory were used to model the effects of compositional defects on ET in the brucite-like octahedral sheet of mica. ET was modeled as an Fe(IIIII) valence interchange reaction across shared octahedral edges of the M2-M2 iron sublattice. The model entails the hopping of localized electrons and small polaron behavior. Hartree-Fock calculations indicate that substitution of F for structural OH bridges increases the reorganization energy lambda, decreases the electronic coupling matrix element V(AB), and thereby substantially decreases the hopping rate. The lambda increase arises from modification of the metal-ligand bond force constants, and the V(AB) decrease arises from reduction of superexchange interaction through anion bridges. Deprotonation of an OH bridge, consistent with a possible mechanism of maintaining charge neutrality during net oxidation, yields a net increase in the ET rate. Although substitution of Al or Mg for Fe in M1 sites distorts the structure of adjacent Fe-occupied M2 sites, the distortion has little net impact on ET rates through these M2 sites. Hence the main effect of Al or Mg substitution for Fe, should it occur in the M2 sublattice, is to block ET pathways. Collectively, these findings pave the way for larger-scale oxidation/reduction models to be constructed for realistic, compositionally diverse micas.

  19. Link and route availability for Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In inter-working multi-hop wireless networks, establishing resilient connectivity between source-destination node pairs is a major issue. The issue of connectivity in multi-hop wireless networks have been studied. However, these analyses focused...

  20. Sampling Practices and Social Spaces: Exploring a Hip-Hop Approach to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2010-01-01

    Much more than a musical genre, hip-hop culture exists as an animating force in the lives of many young adults. This article looks beyond the moral concerns often associated with rap music to explore how hip-hop as a larger set of expressions and practices implicates the educational experiences, activities, and approaches for students. The article…

  1. Contributions to the quality control of two crops of economic importance : hops and yerba mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erica Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Quality control of plants is essential and at the same time very challenging.In this thesis, studies involving quality issues of two plants used in the production of two popular beverages, hops (in beer) and Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) were undertaken. Hops are used as bittering agents and to

  2. Hip-Hop and a Hybrid Text in a Postsecondary English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the epistemology present in hip-hop music and its reflection in the writing of one African American student in a postsecondary transitional English class. An integration of hip-hop and academic literacy practices in the student's essay challenges the supremacy of a "standard" academic English and deficit perspectives about…

  3. Effect of storage on the brewing properties of tropical hop substitutes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... conventional hops stored at 25oC for 30 weeks (12-17%) by Marr (1985) and Laws (1983). The reduction in the soft resin content of hops is a common phenomenon which is associated with the oxidative depreciation of the soft resins to hard resins with storage, Hough (1980). However, the low percentage ...

  4. Affiliation and Alienation: Hip-Hop, Rap, and Urban Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The critiques of rap artists and other participants in hip-hop culture provide data for teachers and researchers to investigate the attitudes of US urban youth towards schooling. This study explores the complex relationships between hip-hop and science education by examining how rap lyrics project beliefs about schooling, the relevance of existing…

  5. Characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (PfHop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Grace W; Mandal, Pradipta; Blatch, Gregory L; Przyborski, Jude; Shonhai, Addmore

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is caused by Plasmodium species, whose transmission to vertebrate hosts is facilitated by mosquito vectors. The transition from the cold blooded mosquito vector to the host represents physiological stress to the parasite, and additionally malaria blood stage infection is characterised by intense fever periods. In recent years, it has become clear that heat shock proteins play an essential role during the parasite's life cycle. Plasmodium falciparum expresses two prominent heat shock proteins: heat shock protein 70 (PfHsp70) and heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90). Both of these proteins have been implicated in the development and pathogenesis of malaria. In eukaryotes, Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins are functionally linked by an essential adaptor protein known as the Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (Hop). In this study, recombinant P. falciparum Hop (PfHop) was heterologously produced in E. coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Using specific anti-PfHop antisera, the expression and localisation of PfHop in P. falciparum was investigated. PfHop was shown to co-localise with PfHsp70 and PfHsp90 in parasites at the trophozoite stage. Gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that PfHop was present in a complex together with PfHsp70 and PfHsp90. The association of PfHop with both PfHsp70 and PfHsp90 suggests that this protein may mediate the functional interaction between the two chaperones.

  6. Hegemony, Hope, and the Harlem Renaissance: Taking Hip Hop Culture Seriously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert J., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip hop generation, often have little knowledge and understanding of rap music (also known as gangsta rap) and hip hop culture, and consequently do not take the black popular cultural phenomenon seriously as it relates to adult education. Adult educators,…

  7. Role of next-nearest-neighbour hopping in the internal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermodynamic properties such as entropy and specific heat are studied as functions of temperature with various NNN hopping strength. Results show that with the inclusion of negative NNN hopping, the system becomes more ordered. A qualitative transition temperature region has been estimated. It is shown that with ...

  8. Connectivity model for Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks, establishing resilient connectivity between source-destination node pairs is a major issue. The issues of connectivity in Multi-hop wireless networks have been studied. However, these analyses focused...

  9. Don't Believe the Hype: Hip-Hop Literacies and English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship suggests that many youths identify with hip-hop, especially youths of color. Study of this artistic form has been suggested as a means of helping youths acquire and become fluent in literacy practices. This article explores how the use of a hip-hop literacies curriculum addressed the literacy skills of urban ninth-grade English…

  10. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  11. Student Perceptions of the Hip Hop Culture's Influence on the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wallaert, Kerry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine how identification and engagement with the hip hop culture influenced the educational experiences of undergraduate students at a Midwestern, predominately White university by interviewing 11 students who self-identified as being immersed in the hip hop culture. Through a qualitative, phenomenological investigation,…

  12. Supporting Communication and Argumentation in Urban Science Education: Hip-Hop, the Battle, and the Cypher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on an exploration of communication and argumentation in urban science classrooms, and provides a description of the role that Hip-hop based education plays in supporting these major components of science education. The paper is intended to both support, and critique conventional uses of hip-hop based education, and provide…

  13. Representin': Drawing from Hip-Hop and Urban Youth Culture to Inform Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Jason G.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of drawing from urban youth culture, and hip-hop more specifically, to serve as a bridge to the standard curriculum has been well documented. However, the richness and potential benefits of hip-hop are more far-reaching and present significant implications for teacher education and professional development efforts as well. This…

  14. Hip-Hop's Influence on the Identity Development of Black Female College Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…

  15. Deal with It We Must: Education, Social Justice, and the Curriculum of Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszile, Denise Taliaferro

    2009-01-01

    Although hip hop culture has been one of the most significant urban youth movements over the last three decades, it has only recently gained attention within the educational literature as a force to be reckoned with. And even then, much of the literature seeks to understand how hip hop can be used to engage students in the official school…

  16. Hip-Hop Culture in College Students' Lives: Elements, Embodiment, and Higher Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery

    2011-01-01

    College campuses have become rich sites of hip-hop culture and knowledge production. Despite the attention that campus personnel and researchers have paid to student life, the field of higher education has often misunderstood the ways that hip-hop culture exists in college students' lives. Based upon in-depth interviews, observations of…

  17. Hip-Hop, Social Justice, and Environmental Education: Toward a Critical Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…

  18. HOP/NECC1, a novel regulator of mouse trophoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanoma, Kazuo; Kato, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Shinichiro; Shin, Chong Hyun; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Kato, Kiyoko; Inoue, Takafumi; Miyanari, Yoko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Sonoda, Kenzo; Fukushima, Kotaro; Wake, Norio

    2007-08-17

    Homeodomain-only protein/not expressed in choriocarcinoma clone 1 (HOP/NECC1) is a newly identified gene that modifies the expression of cardiac-specific genes and thereby regulates heart development. More recently, HOP/NECC1 was reported to be a suppressor of choriocarcinogenesis. Here, we examined the temporal expression profile of HOP/NECC1 in wild-type mouse placenta. We found that E8.5-E9.5 wild-type placenta expressed HOP/NECC1 in the giant cell and spongiotrophoblast layers. HOP/NECC1 (-/-) placenta exhibited marked propagation of giant cell layers and, in turn reduction of spongiotrophoblast formation. We demonstrated SRF transcriptional activity increased in the differentiating trophoblasts and forced expression of SRF in a trophoblast stem (TS) cell line induces the differentiation into giant cells. Negative regulation of SRF (serum response factor) by the binding of HOP/NECC1 protein contributed at least in part to the generation of these placental defects. Gradual induction of HOP/NECC1 in response to differentiation stimuli may result in the decision to differentiate into a particular type of trophoblastic cell lineage and result in non-lethal defects shown by the HOP/NECC1 (-/-) placentas.

  19. Expression of HopAI interferes with MAP kinase signalling in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Liu, Wende; Li, Yang; Li, Guotian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-10-01

    The Pmk1 and Mps1 MAP kinases are essential for appressorium formation and plant infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. However, their exact roles during invasive growth are not clear because pmk1 and mps1 mutants are defective in penetration. To further characterize their functions after penetration, in this study we expressed the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopAI known to inactivate plant MAP kinases in M. oryzae. Constitutive expression of HopAI with the RP27 or TrpC promoter resulted in defects in hyphal growth, conidiation, appressorium penetration and pathogenicity, which is similar to the phenotype of the mps1 mutant. HopAI interacted strongly with Mps1 in vivo and expression of dominant active MKK2 partially suppressed the defects of PRP27 -HopAI transformants, which were significantly reduced in Mps1 phosphorylation. When the infection-specific MIR1 (Magnaporthe-infection-related gene-1) promoter was used to express HopAI, PMIR1 -HopAI transformants were defective in the spreading of invasive hyphae and elicited strong defense responses in penetrated plant cells. Expression of HopAI in Fusarium graminearum also mainly affected the activation of Mgv1, an Mps1 orthologue. Taken together, our results showed that Mps1 is the major intracellular target of HopAI when it is overexpressed, and MAP kinase signalling is important for cell-to-cell movement of invasive hyphae in M. oryzae. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. We Got Next: Hip-Hop Pedagogy and the Next Generation of Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Using daily experiences and existing identities as the subject matter, a hip-hop-centered class encourages students to develop a critical lens so that they can "envision a social order which supports their full humanity" (Shor, 1987, p. 48) and embraces the idea that hip-hop culture provides context for students to develop critical…

  1. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Transmission Power on Selecting Tall Vehicles as Best Next Communication Hop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Yu; Klein Wolterink, W.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    The relatively low height of antennas on communicating vehicles in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) makes one hop and as well multi-hop Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication susceptible to obstruction by other vehicles on the road. When the transmitter or receiver (or both) is a Tall vehi- cle,

  3. Proust, Hip-Hop, and Death in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirc, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Hip-hop as content in a first-year writing course offers students a powerful way to connect with their worlds. This article draws on Marcel Proust as a kind of rhyme to legitimate hip-hop as a substantive expressive medium to achieve artistry in writing.

  4. Hip-Hop as a Resource for Understanding the Urban Context: A Review of Christopher Edmin's--Science Education for the Hip-Hop Generation, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to…

  5. Throw Yo' Voice Out: Disability as a Desirable Practice in Hip-Hop Vocal Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Porco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disabled bodies and disabling spaces— especially the recording studio— shape the sound iconicity of hip-hop vocal performances. The disabled voice is the audible sign by which hip-hop artists trouble cultural definitions of the self and other; exceptionalism and failure; the natural and techno-mediated; comedy and tragedy; and aesthetic play and seriousness. Hip-hop vocal performances also function as self-conscious acts of transvaluation that challenge the discursive dominance of ableism. A materialist approach to vocal performance resists reducing voice to a silent metaphor for race, oppositionality, or liberation; and it emphasizes, instead, the physiological and social processes that render hip-hop voices unique, particular, and audible. It emphasizes the agency hip-hop artists possess in seeking out disabled bodies and assuming disabled identities for aesthetic and political ends. Thus, the body is returned to the analysis of style.

  6. Comparative transcriptional analysis of hop responses to infection with Verticillium nonalfalfae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, Vasja; Jakše, Jernej; Štajner, Nataša; Radišek, Sebastjan; Javornik, Branka; Berne, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic transcriptome profiling revealed excessive, yet ineffective, immune response to V. nonalfalfae infection in susceptible hop, global gene downregulation in shoots of resistant hop and only a few infection-associated genes in roots. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production is hampered by Verticillium wilt, a disease predominantly caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium nonalfalfae. Only a few hop cultivars exhibit resistance towards it and mechanisms of this resistance have not been discovered. In this study, we compared global transcriptional responses in roots and shoots of resistant and susceptible hop plants infected by a lethal strain of V. nonalfalfae. Time-series differential gene expression profiles between infected and mock inoculated plants were determined and subjected to network-based analysis of functional enrichment. In the resistant hop cultivar, a remarkably low number of genes were differentially expressed in roots in response to V. nonalfalfae infection, while the majority of differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in shoots. The most significantly affected genes were related to cutin biosynthesis, cell wall biogenesis, lateral root development and terpenoid biosynthesis. On the other hand, susceptible hop exhibited a strong defence response in shoots and roots, including increased expression of genes associated with plant responses, such as innate immunity, wounding, jasmonic acid pathway and chitinase activity. Strong induction of defence-associated genes in susceptible hop and a low number of infection-responsive genes in the roots of resistant hop are consistent with previous findings, confirming the pattern of excessive response of the susceptible cultivar, which ultimately fails to protect the plant from V. nonalfalfae. This research offers a multifaceted overview of transcriptional responses of susceptible and resistant hop cultivars to V. nonalfalfae infection and represents a valuable resource in the study of this plant

  7. Complex Personhood of Hip Hop & the Sensibilities of the Culture That Fosters Knowledge of Self & Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2016-01-01

    Hip hop music and culture have a complex identity in that hip hop is based in self-determination, resistance, and the long enduring fight for Black freedom, but was also created alongside the seductiveness of the material and psychological conditions of capitalism, sexism, and patriarchy. Hip hop pedagogy (HHP) as a pedagogical framework is…

  8. Characteristics of compounds in hops using cyclic voltammetry, UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Anna; Chrzescijanska, Ewa; Kosmalska, Anna; Zaborski, Marian

    2014-08-01

    The article presents the antioxidant properties of the extracts of hop EI and EII, by the electrochemical methods on a platinum electrode and comparative analysis of the composition of the extracts of hops using UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS methods. The hops extract EI, was obtained from the waste of the hops cone. The hops extract EII, was obtained from the hops cone itself. Hops contain a wide range of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties divided in various chemical classes. Flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds contained in hops show antioxidant capacity because of the presence of hydroxyl groups in various configurations and numbers within their molecules. The electrochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of hop samples were determined to select the most effective antioxidant. Based on the cyclic and pulse voltammograms, it was observed that hop extract EI contains polyphenols that are oxidised at a less positive potential than extract EII, i.e., it shows better antioxidant capacity. From the analysis of the UV-VIS and FTIR spectra and the GC-MS analysis, it was observed that extract EI contains less phenyl compounds than EII. In addition to flavonoids, EII contains hop acids and chlorophyll. The solutions of hop extracts show very good antioxidant capacities; therefore, they can effectively inhibit or slow negative oxidation reactions and scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bringing Back Sweet (and Not so Sweet) Memories: The Cultural Politics of Memory, Hip-Hop, and Generational Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the salience of collective "memory" and "remembering" among a group of students in Hip-Hop Lit, a hip-hop centered English literature course that I co-taught at "Howard High School," an urban high school in the Northeastern United States. Specifically, this article examines the memory work that occurred within Hip-Hop Lit in…

  10. RNAi knockdown of Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein) decreases invasion via MMP-2 down regulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2011-07-28

    We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70\\/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  11. Engaging Black Males on Their Own Terms: What Schools Can Learn from Black Males Who Produce Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau J.; Petchauer, Emery; Kirkland, David

    2013-01-01

    Education scholars and practitioners have much to learn about engagement and motivation of Black males by directing their inquiries to more organic sites of hip-hop cultural production outside of schools. One such site is the hip-hop's informal labor economy where Black males engage in earning money through hip-hop cultural production. Labor…

  12. Involvement of Vacuolar Sequestration and Active Transport in Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Hop Iso-?-Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelwood, L.A.; Walsh, M.C.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., has an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop -acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties, including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso--acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  14. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-09-21

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in

  15. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  16. miR828 and miR858 regulate homoeologous MYB2 gene functions in Arabidopsis trichome and cotton fibre development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xueying; Pang, Mingxiong; Nah, Gyoungju; Shi, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenxue; Stelly, David M; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Although polyploidy is common in plants and some animals, mechanisms for functional divergence between homoeologous genes are poorly understood. MYB2 gene promotes cotton fibre development and is functionally homologous to Arabidopsis GLABROUS1 (GL1) in trichome formation. The most widely cultivated cotton is an allotetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) that contains GhMYB2A and GhMYB2D homoeologs. Here we show that GhMYB2D mRNA accumulates more than GhMYB2A during fibre initiation and is targeted by miR828 and miR858, generating trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs) in the TAS4 family. Overexpressing GhMYB2A but not GhMYB2D complements the gl1 phenotype. Mutating the miR828-binding site or replacing its downstream sequence in GhMYB2D abolishes ta-siRNA production and restores trichome development in gl1 mutants. Moreover, disrupting Dicer-like protein 4 or RDR6, the biogenesis genes for ta-siRNAs, in the gl1 GhMYB2D overexpressors restores trichome development. These data support a unique role for microRNAs in functional divergence between target homoeologous genes that are important for evolution and selection of morphological traits.

  17. SU-F-I-01: Normalized Mean Glandular Dose Values for Dedicated Breast CT Using Realistic Breast-Shaped Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A [Department of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Boone, J [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engeering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate normalized mean glandular dose values for dedicated breast CT (DgN-CT) using breast CT-derived phantoms and compare to estimations using cylindrical phantoms. Methods: Segmented breast CT (bCT) volume data sets (N=219) were used to measure effective diameter profiles and were grouped into quintiles by volume. The profiles were averaged within each quintile to represent the range of breast sizes found clinically. These profiles were then used to generate five voxelized computational phantoms (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 for the small to large phantom sizes, respectively), and loaded into the MCNP6 lattice geometry to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients (DgN-CT) using the system specifications of the Doheny-prototype bCT scanner in our laboratory. The DgN-CT coefficients derived from the bCT-derived breast-shaped phantoms were compared to those generated using a simpler cylindrical phantom using a constant volume, and the following constraints: (1) Length=1.5*radius; (2) radius determined at chest wall (Rcw), and (3) radius determined at the phantom center-of-mass (Rcm). Results: The change in Dg-NCT coefficients averaged across all phantom sizes, was - 0.5%, 19.8%, and 1.3%, for constraints 1–3, respectively. This suggests that the cylindrical assumption is a good approximation if the radius is taken at the breast center-of-mass, but using the radius at the chest wall results in an underestimation of the glandular dose. Conclusion: The DgN-CT coefficients for bCT-derived phantoms were compared against the assumption of a cylindrical phantom and proved to be essentially equivalent when the cylinder radius was set to r=1.5/L or Rcm. While this suggests that for dosimetry applications a patient’s breast can be approximated as a cylinder (if the correct radius is applied), this assumes a homogenous composition of breast tissue and the results may be different if the realistic heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue is considered

  18. Nonregenerative Dual-Hop Cooperative Links with Selection Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiannidis George K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end-to-end performance of dual-hop cooperative diversity systems equipped with nonregenerative relays and a selection combining receiver at the destination terminal over independent and nonidentical Nakagami- fading channels is studied. Closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function and the probability density function of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio ( are presented, while analytical formulae are derived for the moments and the moment generating function. Using these statistical results, closed-form expressions for the outage probability are presented for both channel state information and fixed gain relays. Furthermore, for the case of fixed gain relay, the average end-to-end , the amount of fading, and the average bit error rate can be numerically evaluated. The proposed mathematical analysis is complemented by numerical examples, including the effects on the overall performance of the s unbalancing as well as the fading severity.

  19. SDN-Based Double Hopping Communication against Sniffer Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sniffer attack has been a severe threat to network communication security. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, which provides convenience to sniffer attack. In this paper, an SDN-based double hopping communication (DHC approach is proposed to solve this problem. In DHC, ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths are changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic will be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. Moreover, the data from multiple users will be mixed, bringing difficulty for attackers in obtaining and recovering the communication data, so that sniffer attack will be prevented effectively. It is concluded that DHC is able to increase the overhead of sniffer attack, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.

  20. Systematic network coding for two-hop lossy transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Blostein, Steven; Chan, Wai-Yip

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we consider network transmissions over a single or multiple parallel two-hop lossy paths. These scenarios occur in applications such as sensor networks or WiFi offloading. Random linear network coding (RLNC), where previously received packets are re-encoded at intermediate nodes and forwarded, is known to be a capacity-achieving approach for these networks. However, a major drawback of RLNC is its high encoding and decoding complexity. In this work, a systematic network coding method is proposed. We show through both analysis and simulation that the proposed method achieves higher end-to-end rate as well as lower computational cost than RLNC for finite field sizes and finite-sized packet transmissions.