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Sample records for hood thysanoptera thripidae

  1. Effects of heat stress on survival of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J C; Zhang, B; Wang, J P; Li, H G; Wang, S F; Sun, L J; Zheng, C Y

    2014-08-01

    Temperature is known to play a crucial role in the population dynamics of insects. Insects have evolved different mechanisms to resist unfavorable extreme temperatures. In recent years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), have caused significant damage to vegetable crops. Because of global warming and expanding areas of vegetable cultivation, a study of the effects of heat stress on these thrips species is warranted. We exposed the various developmental stages of western flower thrips and onion thrips to temperatures of 41, 43, or 45 degrees C for 2, 6, 12, 24, or 36 h to determine the effects of heat stress on survival. Our results showed that the heat resistance of nonadult western flower thrips was greater than that of the nonadult onion thrips, and that the natural heat resistant ability was the primary factor in heat resistance in western flower thrips. In contrast, the heat resistance of adult onion thrips was greater than that of the adult western flower thrips, which was primarily the result of the ability of searching suitable microenvironment that enabled the onion thrips to mitigate the effects of high temperatures more efficiently than the western flower thrips. Our analysis of the differences in heat resistance between western flower thrips and onion thrips provides important information for the development of thermal treatments for controlling western flower thrips and onion thrips.

  2. Grass-thrips of the genus Oelschlaegera (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with the first description of a male.

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    Fekrat, Lida; Hosseininejad, Marziyeh; Derakhshan, Ali; Minaei, Kambiz

    2016-04-21

    The Chirothrips-like species are grass-living members of the Thysanoptera family Thripidae. All of these species were assigned to the genus Chirothrips Haliday (1836) until Hood (1954) erected Agrostothrips for a single species from South Africa, and Knechtel (1960) described a new monotypic genus Ereikethrips from Romania. An extensive identification key to the 52 species of Chirothrips then known was published by zur Strassen (1960), and the generic classification remained stable for the next 30 years. However, Bhatti (1990) erected five new genera for several species of this genus (Afrothripella, Arorathrips, Konothrips, Longothrips and Oelschlaegera). Bhatti also included three further species in Agrostothrips, but Minaei & Mound (2010) regarded Agrostothrips as a synonym, and returned all four species to Chirothrips. In the most recent study of the group, Nakahara & Foottit (2012) added one monobasic genus, Unilobothrips, and provided an identification system to the 36 Chirothrips-group species known from the Americas. Thus, eight genera are currently included in this genus group (Table 1).

  3. Primera cita de la familia Merothripidae Hood (Insecta: Thysanoptera) para la República Argentina

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    Verónica BACA; María I. Zamar; Susana Muruaga de L'Argentier; Quintana de Quinteros, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    Se cita por primera vez para la Argentina a Merothrips floridensis Watson (Thysanoptera: Merothripidae). El ejemplar hembra fue recolectado de la corteza de una rama caída de Pinus patula en la provincia de Jujuy. Con este nuevo registro se amplía la diversidad del orden Thysanoptera de la Argentina, quedando ahora representado por seis familias (Merothripidae, Aeolothripidae, Melanthripidae, Heterothripidae, Thripidae y Phlaeothripidae).

  4. Primera cita de la familia Merothripidae Hood (Insecta: Thysanoptera para la República Argentina

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    Verónica BACA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la Argentina a Merothrips floridensis Watson (Thysanoptera: Merothripidae. El ejemplar hembra fue recolectado de la corteza de una rama caída de Pinus patula en la provincia de Jujuy. Con este nuevo registro se amplía la diversidad del orden Thysanoptera de la Argentina, quedando ahora representado por seis familias (Merothripidae, Aeolothripidae, Melanthripidae, Heterothripidae, Thripidae y Phlaeothripidae.

  5. Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) preference for thrips-damaged leaves over fresh leaves enables uptake of symbiotic gut bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; Vos, R.A.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the evolution of insect gut symbionts it is important to determine how they are passed on to the next generation. We studied this process in Erwinia species bacteria that inhabit the gut of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This is

  6. Symbiotic bacteria (Erwinia sp.) in the gut of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) do not affect its ability to transmit tospovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; van de Wetering, F.; van der Hoek, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most harmful plant viruses and one of its most important vectors is the western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)]. Recently, we reported the close association of Erwinia sp. gut bacteria with this species of

  7. Japanski cvjetni trips (Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) – prvi nalaz u Hrvatskoj

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    Šimala, Mladen; Pintar, Maja; Masten Milek, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Japanski cvjetni trips (Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nađen je u svibnju 2016. na ulončenim biljkama hortenzije (Hydrangea spp.) iz domaćeg uzgoja. Štetnik je zabilježen na otvorenom, u vrtnom centru u Turnju (N 43°58'18.5“ E 15°25'1.5“). Ovo je prvi nalaz te invazivne vrste u Hrvatskoj. Trips je detektiran tijekom fitosanitarnog nadzora bilja, kada su na listovima hortenzija uočene nespecifične štete. Pregledom naličja listova određena je niska populacija odraslih s...

  8. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice

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    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September ...

  9. Temporal Dynamics of Iris Yellow Spot Virus and Its Vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Seeded and Transplanted Onion Fields

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    Hsu, Cynthia L.; Hoepting, Christine A.; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M.; Nault, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferent...

  10. Life-stage variation in insecticide resistance of the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

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    Contreras, J; Espinosa, P J; Quinto, V; Abellán, J; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Bielza, P

    2010-12-01

    The life-stage variations in insecticide resistance of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), to selective insecticides (acrinathrin, formetanate, and methiocarb) were studied using resistant laboratory strains. In each strain, the second-instar larva was less susceptible to the insecticides tested than the adults. The lower the resistance level of the adults, the higher the difference between larva and adult susceptibility: 32-fold to methiocarb, 15.4-fold to formetanate, and 180-fold to acrinathrin in the reference strain. In laboratory-selected resistant strains, these differences were much lower: 5.8-fold to methiocarb, 4.8-fold to formetanate, and 2.0-fold to acrinathrin. In selected strains, higher resistance levels for each insecticide were found, both for larvae and adults, compared with the reference strain. These results show that after insecticide resistance selection in adults, the resistance is carried over to the larvae, but at lower levels.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) contains triplicate putative control regions.

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    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Fan, Jiaqin

    2012-09-10

    To investigate the features of the control region (CR) and the gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Thysanoptera insects, we sequenced the whole mt genome of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The mt genome is a circular molecule with 14,889 nucleotides and an A+T content of 76.6%, and it has triplicate putative CRs. We propose that tandem duplication and deletion account for the evolution of the CR and the gene translocations. Intramitochondrial recombination is a plausible model for the gene inversions. We discuss the excessive duplicate CR sequences and the transcription of the rRNA genes, which are distant from one another and from the CR. Finally, we address the significance of the complicated mt genomes in Thysanoptera for the evolution of the CR and the gene arrangement of the mt genome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Injuries caused by frankliniella spp. (thysanoptera: thripidae on seedless grapes

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    Andréa Nunes Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thrips of the genus Frankliniella cause significant reduction on grape production. Little is known about its decision making approach in integrated pest management and information on thrips injuries to the vine is scarce, hindering the control of this pest. This study aimed to determine the species of thrips and injuries that cause damage to berries in seedless grapes clusters. The trial was conducted in an area cultivated with Vitis vinifera L., variety Thompson Seedless, using a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of artificial infestation (zero, two, four and eight thrips per inflorescence, and treatment determined by the monitoring system of the grower. Each replication consisted of three plants with 10 inflorescences, which were artificially infested with thrips and covered with nonwoven fabric bags. During the cluster thinning, pre-harvest cleaning and harvest, the numbers of injuried berries and the berries with injuries were evaluated. The thrips species identified were: Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, and Frankliniella sp. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of injuries per fruit and the level of thrips infestation, obtained by the equation y = 2.55 + 48.54x (F= 59.98; P= 0.0001; r²= 0.51. The results suggest that the presence of a whitish halo around a small scar on fruit is associated with the presence of adult Frankliniella spp.

  13. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae em morangueiro Biology and fertility life table of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae in strawberry

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    Aline Nondillo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae, considerando que no Brasil quase nada se sabe sobre a fauna de tripes associada à cultura do morangueiro. Larvas recém-eclodidas foram individualizadas em placas de Petri contendo uma flor ou um folíolo de morangueiro, mantidas em câmaras climatizadas (25 ± 1 ºC; 60 ± 10% U.R.; fotofase de 12 horas e observadas diariamente até a morte. A duração média do período de larva-adulto e a viabilidade não diferiram entre os insetos mantidos em flores (8,49 ± 0,18 e 68,52% e folíolos (8,85 ± 0,15 e 75,47%. A fecundidade média diária e a total foram mais elevadas quando flores foram fornecidas como alimento (7,4 ± 0,69 e 70,0 ± 9,18 ovos/fêmea respectivamente, em comparação com folíolos (2,4 ± 0,35 e 8,5 ± 1,13 ovos/fêmea, respectivamente. A duração média, em dias, do período embrionário foi distinta entre os indivíduos mantidos em flores (3,7 ± 0,03 e em folíolos (4,4 ± 0,09. A viabilidade dos ovos depositados sobre flores e folíolos foi de 65,5 ± 0,01 e 74,3 ± 0,03%, respectivamente. Com base na tabela de vida de fertilidade, o desempenho dos indivíduos de F. occidentalis que se desenvolveram em flores foi melhor, com uma geração (ovo-adulto completada a cada 20,92 dias, a 25 °C.This work aimed to study biological aspects of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae considering that almost nothing is known about the thrips fauna associated with strawberry crop. Newly hatched larvae were individualized into Petri dishes, containing a flower or a foliole of strawberry and kept in chambers (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH; 12 hours photophase. Daily observations were conducted until the insect death. The average time of the biological cycle (larva-adult and viability did not differ between the insects maintained in flowers (8.49 ± 0.18 and 68.52% and folioles (8.85 ± 0.15 and

  14. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

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    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising.

  15. Grass thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population dynamics and sampling method comparison in timothy.

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    Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B

    2010-10-01

    Sampling studies were conducted on grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in timothy, Phleum pratense L. These studies were used to compare the occurrence of brachypterous and macropterous thrips across sampling methods, seasons, and time of day. Information about the population dynamics of this thrips was also revealed. Three absolute and two relative methods were tested at three different dates within a season and three different daily times during four harvest periods. Thrips were counted and different phenotypes were recorded from one of the absolute methods. Absolute methods were the most similar to one another over time of day and within seasonal dates. Relative methods varied in assessing thrips population dynamics over time of day and within seasonal dates. Based on thrips collected from the plant and sticky card counts, macropterous individuals increased in the spring and summer. Thrips aerially dispersed in the summer. An absolute method, the beat cup method (rapping timothy inside a plastic cup), was among the least variable sampling methods and was faster than direct observations. These findings parallel other studies, documenting the commonality of diel and diurnal effects on sampled arthropod abundance and the seasonal effects on population abundance and structure. These studies also demonstrate that estimated population abundance can be markedly affected by temporal patterns as well as shifting adult phenotypes.

  16. Sampling Plans for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Three Lettuce Varieties.

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    Silva, Alisson R; Rodrigues-Silva, Nilson; Pereira, Poliana S; Sarmento, Renato A; Costa, Thiago L; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-12-05

    The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important lettuce pest worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the first step in implementing decision-making systems into integrated pest management programs. However, this tool is not available for F. schultzei infesting lettuce crops. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a conventional sampling plan for F. schultzei in lettuce crops. Two sampling techniques (direct counting and leaf beating on a white plastic tray) were compared in crisphead, looseleaf, and Boston lettuce varieties before and during head formation. The frequency distributions of F. schultzei densities in lettuce crops were assessed, and the number of samples required to compose the sampling plan was determined. Leaf beating on a white plastic tray was the best sampling technique. F. schultzei densities obtained with this technique were fitted to the negative binomial distribution with a common aggregation parameter (common K = 0.3143). The developed sampling plan is composed of 91 samples per field and presents low errors in its estimates (up to 20%), fast execution time (up to 47 min), and low cost (up to US $1.67 per sampling area). This sampling plan can be used as a tool for integrated pest management in lettuce crops, assisting with reliable decision making in different lettuce varieties before and during head formation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Standardized Sampling Plan for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Watermelon Crops.

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    Barbosa Pinto, Cleovan; Almeida Sarmento, Renato; Visintin da Silva Galdino, Tarcísio; Silvestre Pereira, Poliana; Gomes Barbosa, Breno; Henrique Oliveira Lima, Carlos; Rodrigues da Silva, Nilson; Coutinho Picanço, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Sampling plans are essential components of integrated pest management programs. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an important pest of watermelon crops. Despite the importance of sampling plans and of F. schultzei as a pest of watermelon crops, no research has been previously conducted on this subject for this crop. The objective of this work was to create a standardized sampling plan for F. schultzei in watermelon crops. Over two consecutive years, weekly samplings were performed in commercial watermelon crops. The aim of these assessments was to select the best sampling unit and the best sampling technique for F. schultzei assessment and to determine the number of samples necessary for a standardized sampling plan for this pest. In watermelon crops in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, the ideal location for sampling F. schultzei was the most apical leaf of the branches. The best sampling technique was a direct count of F. schultzei individuals. The F. schultzei sampling plan involved the evaluation of 69 samples per plot. The execution duration of this sampling plan in 1- to 15-ha plots was sampling). This has not been reported for watermelon before. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

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    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  19. Management of spotted wilt vectored by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Virginia market-type peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C A; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Kennedy, G G; Bailey, J E

    2005-10-01

    Field tests were conducted during 2001 and 2002 in northeastern North Carolina to evaluate the impact of cultural practices and in-furrow insecticides on the incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, TSWV), which is transmitted to peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., primarily by tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Treatments included in row plant populations of 7, 13, and 17 plants per meter; the virginia market-type 'NC V-11' and 'Perry'; planting dates of early and late May; and phorate and aldicarb insecticide applied in-furrow. The incidence of plants expressing visual symptoms of spotted wilt was recorded from mid-June through mid-September. Treatment factors that reduced the incidence of symptoms of plants expressing spotted wilt symptoms included establishing higher plant densities, delaying planting from early May until late May, and applying the in-furrow insecticide phorate. Peanut cultivar did not have a consistent, significant effect on the incidence of symptomatic plants in this experiment.

  20. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed.

  1. Impact of production system on development of insecticide resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J

    2008-10-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most difficult insects to control in the intensive agriculture of southeastern Spain. However, resistance problems are quite different in two neighboring areas, Murcia and Almeria, with distinct production systems. Thirty-six field populations of western flower thrips from sweet pepper crops were collected in two different dates in Murcia and Almeria in 2005 and 2006. Western flower thrips populations collected were exposed to a diagnostic concentration of spinosad, methiocarb, acrinathrin, and formetanate. The results allowed the recognition of higher levels of resistance in Almeria compared with Murcia throughout the growing season. The mortality at the diagnostic concentration for spinosad (120 ppm) in western flower thrips populations ranged from 34 to 81% in Almeria, and from 73 to 100% in Murcia. The mortalities at the diagnostic concentration to acrinathrin (800 ppm) and formetanate (8000 ppm) were 17-31% in Almeria and 77-100% in Murcia, and 14-41% in Almeria and 48-99% in Murcia, respectively, indicating large geographic variations. Toxicity of methiocarb was higher for western flower thrips populations from both areas. However, mortality at the diagnostic concentration of methiocarb (2000 ppm) varied from 56 to 90% in Almeria, and it was from 94 to 100% in Murcia. The impact of production systems and agricultural practices of each area on the development and stability of insecticide resistance is discussed.

  2. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

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    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.

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    Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

    2014-08-01

    Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf

  4. Within-Plant Distribution and Dynamics of Thrips Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Herbert, D Ames; Jacobson, Alana L; Kennedy, George G; Reisig, Dominic D; Roberts, Phillip M

    2017-08-01

    A 2-yr study in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted to determine the abundance and species composition of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on different plant parts throughout the season in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Plant parts sampled included seedlings, terminals with two expanded leaves, leaves from the upper, middle, and lower sections of the canopy, white flowers, and medium-sized bolls. Adult thrips were significantly more abundant on seedlings and flowers in 2014, and on flowers followed by seedlings and leaves from the middle canopy in 2015. Immature thrips were significantly more abundant on seedlings, followed by flowers in 2014, and on seedlings followed by leaves from the lower canopy and flowers in 2015. Across locations and plant parts, thrips consisted of Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (46.8%), Frankliniella fusca Hinds (23.5%), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (17.1%), Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (7.4%), Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (1.8%), and other species (3.4%). Frankliniella fusca represented 86.7% of all thrips on seedlings, while F. tritici was more abundant on terminals (51.6%), squares (57.5%), and flowers (75.1%). Across all leaf positions, F. fusca was the most abundant species (28.8%), followed by F. tritici (19.2%), N. variabilis (18.8%), F. occidentalis (12.9%), and T. tabaci (5.2%), as well as other species (15.0%). As neonicotinoid insecticides remain a primary tool to manage seedling infestations of F. fusca, our data indicate that mid- to late-season applications of neonicotinoid insecticides targeting other insect pests will intensify selection pressure for resistance on F. fusca, the primary pest of seedling cotton. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Tian, Jun-Ce; Naranjo, Steven E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2014-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate tritrophic transfer of insecticidal Cry proteins from transgenic cotton to an herbivore and its predator, and to examine effects of these proteins on the predator's development, survival, and reproduction. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced in Bollgard-II (BG-II, Event 15985) cotton plants were acquired by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important sucking pest of cotton, and its generalist predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The average protein titers in BG-II cotton leaves were 1,256 and 43,637 ng Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab per gram fresh leaf tissue, respectively. At the second trophic level, larvae of T. tabaci reared on BG-II cotton for 48-96 h had 22.1 and 2.1% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab levels expressed in leaves, respectively. At the third trophic level, O. insidiosus that fed on T. tabaci larvae had 4.4 and 0.3% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels, respectively, expressed in BG-II plants. O. insidiosus survivorship, time of nymphal development, adult weight, preoviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and adult longevity were not adversely affected owing to consumption of T. tabaci larvae that had fed on BG-II cotton compared with non-Bt cotton. Our results indicate that O. insidiosus, a common predator of T. tabaci, is not harmed by BG-II cotton when exposed to Bt proteins through its prey. Thus, O. insidiosus can continue to provide important biological control services in the cotton ecosystem when BG-II cotton is used to control primary lepidopteran pests.

  6. Aplikasi fosfin formulasi cair terhadap Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae pada bunga potong krisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufan Tanto Setyawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum as one of horticultural commodities has a good prospect to be developed as source of country revenue. The export of cut flowers of chrysanthemum from Indonesia tends to increase year by year. However, Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae which is major insect pest of chrysanthemum often attacks this flower in the field until postharvest causing the decrease of quality of flowers. The poor quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemum including the presence of T. parvispinus will be rejected by foreign businesses. Therefore, control measures of this insect pest by quarantine officers are important. Treatment can be done using liquified formulation phosphine fumigant. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of liquified formulation phosphine and exposure time which will were effectively kill T. parvispinus and to evaluate the quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemums treated with phosphine fumigant. T. parvispinus was exposed to liquied formulation phosphine at 9 concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 ppm with 3 exposure times (1, 3, and 6 hours. Moreover,  validation test of concentration nd exposure time of liquified formulation phosphine on cut flowers of chrysanthemum was conducted to evaluate the quality of chrysanthemum cut flowers of treated with phosphine fumigant. Results showed that liquified formulation of phosphine at concentration  of 200 ppm  and on 1 hour of exposure time completely killed T. parvispinus by 100%  mortality. At 200 ppm and exposure time until 6 hours did not affect the quality of cut flowers of chrysanthemum.

  7. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV.

  8. Türkiye’de yeni zararlı bir thrips türü: Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan, 1913) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ATAKAN, Ekrem; ÖLÇÜLÜ, Murat; PEHLİVAN, Serkan; Satar, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian flower thrips, Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan, 1913) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the first time reported from Mersin province in Turkey, on lemons in 2015. T. hawaiiensis caused silvery spots on young fruits and dissertations of the fruits, and also silvered plant tissue on nectarine fruits. Its typical damage on lemon fruits was widely observed in “Yediveren” limon group, which they are flowering throughout a year in the region. After its first detection, it quickly spread over the sou...

  9. Control integrado de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) con insecticidas y liberaciones de Orius insidiosus (Say)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) sobre pimiento en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Viglianchino, Liliana Ester; Viglianchino, Liliana Ester

    2015-01-01

    El "trips de las flores", Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)(Thysanoptera: thripidae), es el principal vector del virus de la "marchitez manchada del tomate" (TSWV), y la "chinche" Orius insidiosus (Say) es un eficiente predador. Para evaluar el control de F. occidentalis, con insecticidas y liberaciones inoculativas de O. insidiosus en cultivos de pimiento bajo cubierta, durante 2009-2010, se estudió la fluctuación poblacional del predador-presa con las temperaturas reinantes en invernade...

  10. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P < 0.018; for 2009: P < 0.000; for 2010: P < 0.008). In 2008, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatments with pyrethrins and Neemex was 9.6 (19.2%) and 9.7 (19.5%) respectively, compared with 12.2 (24.3%) in the untreated control. In 2009, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatment with pyrethrins was 3.7 (7.3%) and 3.9 (7.8%) in treatment with Neemex compared with 8.6 (17.3%) in the untreated control, while in 2010 the mean damaged fruits in these treatments was recorded at 18.7 (37.5%) and 19.6 (39.2), respectively, compared with 29.6 fruits (59.2%) in the control. Oikos 10 EC showed significant effect only in 2009 and 2010. In these years, the mean number of damaged fruits was recorded at 5.5 and 21.2 compared with 8.6 and 29.6 fruits in the untreated control, respectively. Garlic extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control.

  11. Flower-inhabiting Frankliniella Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), pesticides, and Fusarium hardlock in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osekre, Enoch A; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Funderburk, Joe

    2009-06-01

    Cotton hardlock caused by Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg) can reduce cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., yields > 70% in the southeastern United States. The spores infect flowers on the day of pollination, resulting in hardlock, which is the failure of the fiber to fluff as the boll opens at maturity. Frankliniella spp. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) inhabiting the flowers are hypothesized to increase hardlock by spreading the conidia or by creating entranceways for the germinating Fusarium conidia. Experiments were conducted at Marianna and Quincy in Florida in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether there was a relationship between the number of adult and larval thrips inhabiting the flowers of cotton and the incidence of cotton hardlock. Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) was > 98% of the adult thrips in the samples at both locations each year. The adults of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) also were collected. There were no significant regression relationships between weekly mean densities of thrips in the flowers and the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest in any of the experiments. Additional experiments were conducted at each location in 2006 and 2007 to determine whether weekly applications during flowering of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, the fungicide thiophanate methyl, and the combination of the two reduced the incidence of cotton hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide significantly reduced the numbers of adult F. tritici, the number of thrips larvae, and the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide were as affective as applications of the insecticide plus fungicide. In one experiment, applications of the fungicide reduced the incidence of hardlock at harvest. Applications of the insecticide usually significantly increased the number of adult F. occidentalis. None of the pesticide treatments significantly affected the numbers of the key thrips predator Orius

  12. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified.

  13. Integrated management of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion in north-western Italy: basic approaches for supervised control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Giulia C; Bosco, Lara; Tavella, Luciana

    2012-02-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major pest on onion, Allium cepa L., worldwide. In 2010, research was conducted in a commercial onion field in north-western Italy in order (i) to evaluate the efficacy of different insecticides and of the SAR activator acibenzolar-S-methyl, (ii) to correlate thrips infestation levels with bulb size and weight at harvest and (iii) to implement a reliable thrips sampling method. Efficacy of the three active ingredients spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin and acibenzolar-S-methyl on local thrips populations were also evaluated in laboratory bioassays. During field surveys, the highest and the lowest thrips infestations were observed in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and with spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl respectively. The effectiveness of spinosad was also confirmed in laboratory bioassays. At harvest, bulb size and weight did not significantly differ between treatments. A high correlation with visual inspection made plant beating a suitable sampling method for routine practice, enabling a good estimate of thrips infestation. Damage caused by thrips is often not severe enough to warrant the frequent pesticide applications the crops receive in north-western Italy. The use of spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl is suggested as an alternative to conventional insecticides for the preservation of natural enemies. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV.

  15. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  16. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  17. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A new synonym of Sericothrips from China and Japan (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirab-Balou, Majid; Minoura, Kazushige; Tong, Xiao-li

    2013-01-01

    Nine species are listed in the genus Sericothrips (Thripidae: Sericothripinae) (Mound 2013), and all of these species have the abdominal tergites completely covered with microtrichia medially (Mound & Tree 2009). S. marginalis Kud6 was described from Japan on a large number of specimens, including a micropterous holotype and macropterous females and micropterous males. These specimens were collected from plants in the families Poaceae and Fabaceae (Kudô 1991). Specimens from Japan were examined by the first author (including one paratype in SCAU), and three paratypes were also checked by the second author and compared with Chinese specimens of S. houji (Chou & Feng 1990). We were not able to find any character differences between these two species, and therefore place S. marginalis in synonymy with S. houji.

  19. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Fenpropathrin on the Biological Performance of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    affected the biological characteristics of treated females of S. longicornis, the most noticeable effects being a shortening of female life span by >70% accompanied by large reductions in oviposition period and fecundity. The offspring of females treated with low-lethal concentrations of fenpropathrin...... likewise had significantly reduced longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity, although not to the same extent as experienced by their mothers. Their juvenile development time was, however, not affected. These effects on the offspring were reflected in reduced rates of population increase and increased......: Thripidae) fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 6.53 and 5.47 μg a.i./ml, respectively. Exposure to low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20, and LC30) of fenpropathrin significantly...

  20. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  1. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  2. A new species of the genus Tameothrips Bhatti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with four new records of thrips from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas; Chauhan, Neena

    2015-08-27

    A new thrips species of the grass-inhabiting Anaphothrips genus-group, Tameothrips arundo sp. n., is described from specimens collected on Arundo donax (Poaceae) from high altitude in Himachal Pradesh State of India. Four species of thrips in two subfamilies of family Thripidae are also reported for the first time from India, all of them well outside their known range: Helionothrips aino Ishida and Panchaetothrips noxius Priesner in the Panchaetothripinae, and Parabaliothrips takahashii Priesner and Scirtothrips kenyensis Mound in the Thripinae. This is the first record of Parabaliothrips Priesner from India. Diagnostic features and data on material studied for these species are provided.

  3. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.

  5. Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

    2005-12-01

    In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for

  6. Hoods

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Hoods is a concert-length chamber opera based on Euripides' Hekabe and Little Red Riding Hood, parallel stories of women in extremis. Setting myth and fairytale in the context perpetual war, the opera explores themes of violence, gender, and metamorphosis. Three singers each play multiple roles from the alternating stories. Recordings of helicopters, animals, stomachs, and voices accompany live chamber music by an ensemble of flute/bass flute, clarinet, French horn, percussion, cello, and con...

  7. HOODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleja, Albert; Jensen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    Clustering algorithms are often used to find groups relevant in a specific context; however, they are not informed about this context. We present a simple algorithm, HOODS, which identifies context-specific neighborhoods of entities from a similarity matrix and a list of entities specifying the c...

  8. Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of China

    OpenAIRE

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Tong, Xiao-li; Feng,Ji-Nian; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    A new checklist of Thysanoptera from China (including Taiwan) is provided. In total 566 species in 155 genera are listed, of which there are 313 species in the suborder Terebrantia, comprising 290 species in 74 genera in family Thripidae, 18 species in three genera in Aeolothripidae, two species in one genus in Melanthripidae and three species in one genus in Merothripidae. In the suborder Tubulifera 253 species in 76 genera are listed in the single family Phlaeothripidae. Two species, Aeolot...

  9. KUNCI IDENTIFIKASI ORDO THYSANOPTERA PADA TANAMAN PANGAN DAN HORTIKULTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Sartiami

    2008-01-01

    Thysanoptera is a minute insect. It acts as pest, plant virus vector and predator. In this research, the thrips on crop and horticulture have been collected at Bogor and its surrounding. The result of this research was found 16 specieses which is consist of two suborders, that are Tubulifera and Terebrantia. On this two subordos, there are three families, Phalaeothripide, Aeolothripidae and Thripidae. This research also present an identification key of Thysanoptera which is built from these 1...

  10. Preferencia de los Trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae Hacia Trampas de colores en un Invernadero de Flores de la Sabana de Bogotá Color preference of Trhips (Thysanoptera: tripidae in crysanthemum crops at the Bogotá plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con un total de 36 trampas, 6 colores y 6 replicaciones por color, se les adicionó un pegante y se distribuyeron completamente al azar dentro de un invernadero comercial ubicado en Chía Cundinamarca. Los colores probados fueron: blanco, morado, amarillo, rojo, naranja y verde, Los colores blanco y morado mostraron la más alta eficiencia en la captura de adultos de Frsnkliniette oeeidentalis (Pegande
    mientras que el color verde capturó el menor número de esta especie. Se capturaron además adultos de F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood y Thrips tabaei Lindeman pero en menor cantidad.White, violet, yellow, red, orange and green colors with six replicates were tried. This study was done in a green house
    grown chrysantemum crop. White and violet showed the highest efficiency by capturing the greatest number of adults of Frankliniella oeeidentalis, the most abundant species during the experimento Green color captured the lowest number of F. oeeidentalis. Other species captured were F. panamensis Hood,
    F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood and Tbrips tabaei Lindeman.

  11. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  12. A preliminary study on fauna of Thysanoptera in Qazvin province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mirab-balou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of Thysanoptera was studied in Qazvin Province, during 2013–2014. In this study, 38 species from 4 families and 20 genera were collected and identified; of which 27 species are recorded for fauna of Qazvin Province for the first time, that shown by asterisks (*. Amongst them, 5 species are predator and other species are phytophagous; and among phytophagous species, Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella intonsa are widely distributed. Their scientific names are as follow: I. Suborder TEREBRANTIA: Family AEOLOTHRIPIDAE: Aeolothrips albicinctus Haliday*, A. collaris Priesner*, A. fasciatus (L.*, A. intermedius Bagnall; Family MELANTHRIPIDAE: Melanthrips fusus (Sulzer*, M. knechteli Priesner*; Family THRIPIDAE: Dendrothrips phyllirea (Bagnall*, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche*, Neohydatothrips gracilipes Hood*, Anaphothrips obscures (Muller, A. sudanensis Trybom*, Aptinothrips elegans Priesner*, A. rufus (Haliday*, Chirothrips kurdistanus zur Strassen*, Ch. manicatus (Haliday*, Ch. meridionalis Bagnall*, Drepanothrips reuteri Uzel*, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, F. occidentalis (Pergande, F. pallid (Uzel, F. tenuicornis (Uzel*, Limothrips transcaucasicus Savenko*, Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford*, Mycterothrips tschirkunae (Yakhontov*, M. weii Mirab-balou, Shi & Chen*, Odontothrips confusus Priesner, Rubiothrips vitis (Priesner*, Scolothrips longicornis Priesner*, Tenothrips discolor (Karny*, T. frici (Uzel, Thrips atratus Haliday*, T. hawaiiensis (Morgan*, T. meridionalis (Priesner*, T. tabaci L., T. trehernei Priesner; II. Suborder TEREBRANTIA: Family PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE: Bagnalliella yuccae (Hinds*, Haplothrips reuteri (Karny, and Haplothrips tritici (Kurdjumov.

  13. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  14. Thysanoptera of bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniellaoccidentalis, Thripstabaci and Haplothripstritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  15. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Trap Color, Height, and Orientation on the Capture of Yellow and Stick Tea Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Nontarget Insects in Tea Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, L; Yang, P X; Yao, Y J; Luo, Z X; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2016-02-03

    Two thrips species-the yellow tea thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and the stick tea thrips (Dendrothrips minowai Priesner)-are serious pests affecting tea plants in southern China. Although the stick tea thrips is primarily restricted to southern China, the yellow tea thrips is gradually proliferating worldwide. Colored sticky card traps may be useful for monitoring and capturing these species, but a systematic analysis has not been conducted to identify the most effective trap color, height, and orientation. We performed indoor experiments using an orthogonal experimental design, as well as field tests in tea gardens, to identify the color most attractive to the two thrips species. Field tests were then conducted using color-optimized traps-lawngreen (RGB: 124, 252, 0) for yellow thrips and lime (RGB: 0, 255, 0) for stick tea thrips-to determine the most effective trap height and orientation. The greatest numbers of both yellow and stick tea thrips were captured on traps positioned 0-20 cm above the tea canopy in an east-west orientation. We also evaluated the performance of the color-optimized sticky card traps compared with commercially available yellow ones. Significantly more yellow and stick tea thrips and fewer natural enemies were captured on the color-optimized traps than on commercial ones. Although additional research is needed to explain the responses of the two different species and to increase trap effectiveness, our findings should assist in the control of these harmful insects. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. KUNCI IDENTIFIKASI ORDO THYSANOPTERA PADA TANAMAN PANGAN DAN HORTIKULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartiami

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Thysanoptera is a minute insect. It acts as pest, plant virus vector and predator. In this research, the thrips on crop and horticulture have been collected at Bogor and its surrounding. The result of this research was found 16 specieses which is consist of two suborders, that are Tubulifera and Terebrantia. On this two subordos, there are three families, Phalaeothripide, Aeolothripidae and Thripidae. This research also present an identification key of Thysanoptera which is built from these 16 specieses. The images of thrips characters were captured with digital camera to complete the explanation of identification key

  18. Thrips (Thysanoptera) identification using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, P; Malenovský, I; Vanhara, J; Sierka, W; Havel, J

    2008-10-01

    We studied the use of a supervised artificial neural network (ANN) model for semi-automated identification of 18 common European species of Thysanoptera from four genera: Aeolothrips Haliday (Aeolothripidae), Chirothrips Haliday, Dendrothrips Uzel, and Limothrips Haliday (all Thripidae). As input data, we entered 17 continuous morphometric and two qualitative two-state characters measured or determined on different parts of the thrips body (head, pronotum, forewing and ovipositor) and the sex. Our experimental data set included 498 thrips specimens. A relatively simple ANN architecture (multilayer perceptrons with a single hidden layer) enabled a 97% correct simultaneous identification of both males and females of all the 18 species in an independent test. This high reliability of classification is promising for a wider application of ANN in the practice of Thysanoptera identification.

  19. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.Espécies de tripes (Insecta, Thysanoptera associadas à cultura do morangueiro em dois sistemas de produção no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tripes são insetos diminutos responsáveis pela redução da qualidade dos frutos do morangueiro. O trabalho objetivou registrar e quantificar a tisanopterofauna presente em dois sistemas de produção de morangueiro, túnel baixo e semihidropônico. Folhas, flores e frutos foram coletados semanalmente, de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006 em Caxias do Sul e Bom Princípio, RS. Foram coletados 664 indivíduos pertencentes a duas famílias, quatro gêneros e 10 espécies: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910

  20. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  1. Genome size and ploidy of Thysanoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A L; Johnston, J S; Rotenberg, D; Whitfield, A E; Booth, W; Vargo, E L; Kennedy, G G

    2013-02-01

    Flow cytometry was used to study the genome sizes and ploidy levels for four thrips species: Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, Frankliniella fusca Hinds, and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). F. orizabensis males and females had 1C genome sizes of 426 Mb and 422 Mb, respectively. Male and female F. fusca had 1C genome sizes of 392 Mb and 409 Mb, whereas F. occidentalis males and females had smaller 1C genomes that were 345 Mb and 337 Mb, respectively. Male F. orizabensis, F. occidentalis and F. fusca were haploid and females diploid. Five isofemale lines of T. tabaci, initiated from parthenogenetic, thelytokous females and collected from different locations in North Carolina, were included in this study; no males were available. One isofemale line was diploid with a genome size of 1C = 310 Mb, and the other four had a mean genome size of 1C = 482 Mb, which is consistent with evidence from microsatellite data of diploidy and polyploidy, respectively, in these same five thelytokous lines. This is the first study to produce genome size estimates for thysanopteran species, and report polyploidy in T. tabaci populations. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Towards understanding thysanoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce L. Parker; Margaret Skinner; Trevor Lewis; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-one papers and three posters on the systematics, biology, behavior and management of Thysanoptera, with particular reference to Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), pear thrips, presented at an international conference in Burlington, Vermont.

  3. Rapid cold hardening of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Cold tolerance of the palm thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, was investigated to predict its survival in field during winter. Supercooling points of T. palmi were varied among the developmental stages and ranged from -26.4 to -18.4°C. However, the cold injuries occurred above supercooling points in terms of higher mortality. The exposure to subzero temperatures (-5° to -15°C) resulted in significant mortalities to all developmental stages of T. palmi. A preexposure to a low temperature (4°C) for 7 h significantly increased the cold tolerance of all stages of T. palmi with respect to survival at -10°C and supercooling capacity. The rapid cold hardening (RCH) was dependent on the duration of the preexposure period at 4°C in adult stage. Polyol and sugar analysis using an high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that 4°C preexposure caused accumulation of glycerol, trehalose, mannitol, and mannose in the adults. The increase in trehalose levels was more significant than the others. This study suggests that all stages of T. palmi are able to become cold-hardy by RCH, in which several polyols and sugars may play crucial roles as cryoprotectants.

  4. Structure of the mouthparts of Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Childers; Diann S. Achor

    1991-01-01

    Thrips are increasingly recognized as potentially serious pests in a number of different agricultural, ornamental and sylvan commodities worldwide as indicated by the papers presented at this conference. The small size of thrips, their large numbers, capacity for flight and wind dispersal, wide host ranges, poorly understood life histories and probable potential for...

  5. The first record of Dendrothrips aspersus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Minaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Dendrothrips aspersus Bhatti, 1971 is reported for the first time from Iran, based on the materials collected on grasses. This species was endemic to their originated region and is recorded for the first time outside their native range. The host records of D. aspersus in both India and Iran are discussed. Moreover, the number of thrips species that have been recently recorded from Iran are tabulated.

  6. Mechanisms associated with methiocarb resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S E

    2000-04-01

    Biochemical mechanisms associated with methiocarb resistance were examined in laboratory-selected and field populations of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Seven populations were examined and they differed in their susceptibility to methiocarb by 30 times. Including the synergists piperonyl butoxide, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inhibitor, or S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate, an esterase inhibitor, in the methiocarb bioassays partially suppressed resistance in the most resistant populations. In vitro assays of general esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities showed increased activity in some of the resistant populations and increased activity of the enzymes after methiocarb selection on one of the populations. Assays of acetylcholinesterase sensitivity to inhibition by methiocarb, dichlorvos, and eserine suggested insensitive acetylcholinesterase in two of the resistant populations. These results indicate that methiocarb resistance in F. occidentalis was polyfactorial and involved detoxification and altered target site. None of the biochemical assays showed interpopulation enzymatic differences strongly correlated with the level of methiocarb resistance. The possibilities for developing rapid biochemical diagnostic assays to detect methiocarb resistance in F. occidentalis are discussed.

  7. Checklist of terebrantian thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A consolidated systematic list of 333 species of terebrantian thrips, belonging to 118 genera (Insecta: Thysanoptera recorded so far from India, is provided in this article.  The list reveals that the family Thripidae has the lion’s share of 307 species, while Aeolothripidae, Melanthripidae, Merothripidae and Stenurothripidae contain very few species.  Further, analysis of the present study shows that around 40% of the listed 333 terebrantian species appear to be endemic based on the comparison of Indian fauna with that of the published data of thrips of adjoining regions.  Reports on the occurrence of exotic flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande and Neohydatothrips samayunkur (Kudo are of concern to the country, as they are notorious for damage to the cultivated plants.  

  8. Estudio bioecológico y de control del Trips Neohydatothrips opuntiae (Hood) que daña al nopal tuna en la región del Valle de Teotihuacán, Estado de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Navarro, Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Los Thysanoptera: Thripidae son considerados la principal causa de la baja productividad en el cultivo del nopal -tuna (Opuntia ficus indica) en la región del Valle de Teotihuacán, Estado de México. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las especies de thripidae presentes en el cultivo. Este trabajo de campo se realizó en dos huertos de nopal - tuna de la variedad Alfajayucan, uno en San Martín de las Pirámides y el otro en Nopaltepec, mediante 12 recolectas realizadas cada quince día...

  9. 'Cobra Hoods'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation flips back and forth between left and right eye images of the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center top). The images were taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. These pictures was captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  10. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  11. Ocorrência de Frankliniella schultzei (trybom (thysanoptera: thripidae em plantas daninhas Ocurrence of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae at weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. A. Lima

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se levantamentos de plantas daninhas, no Campus da UNESP em Jaboticabal/SP, com o objetivo de identificar espécies de plantas daninhas hospedeiras do tripes Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. As plantas foram coletadas semanalmente utilizando-se o método de ensacamento. A separação dos tripes foi feita mediante emprego do funil de Berlese. Entre as 43 espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas nas áreas amostradas, 19 são hospedeiras do tripes. Rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., nabiça (R. raphanistrum L. e mostarda (Sinapsis arvensis L. foram as que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de F. schultzei, 45, 27 e 17% do total de fêmeas coletadas respectivamente.A monitoring of weeds was carried out on the UNESP Campus in Jaboticabal, SP, with the objective of indentifying host weed species of Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom. The plants were collected weekly and transported to the laboratory inside paper bags. The Berlese funnel method was used to separate the insects from the plants. Thrips were found in 19 of the 43 weed species studied: Raphanus sativus L., R. raphanistrum L., and Sinapsis arvensis L. presented the highest percentage of thrips, consisting of 45, 27, and 17% respectively of the total females that were collected.

  12. An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Statement on hooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2011-01-01

    Hooding and other equivalent practices are intentional forms of sensory deprivation which constitute cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment and should be prohibited in interrogations and detention. When hooding is practiced in conjunction with other acts that may be considered cruel...

  14. Meniscus ascent by thrips (Thysanoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Jiménez, Victor Manuel; Arriaga-Ramirez, Sarahi; Dudley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus climbing using a fixed body posture has been well documented for various aquatic and neustonic insects, but is not known from small flying insects that inadvertently become trapped on water surfaces. Here, we show that thrips (order Thysanoptera) can ascend a meniscus by arching their non-wetting bodies to translate head-first and upward along a water surface; if initially oriented backwards, they can turn by 180° to ascend head-first, and climb upward on a surrounding boundary. Usin...

  15. Hætten af for Robin Hood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2010-01-01

    En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen.......En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen....

  16. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana for management of citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in California blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Deane K; Haviland, David R; Stanghellini, M E; Morsel, Joseph G

    2013-10-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus and mango fruits. This insect has broadened its host range to become a significant pest of commercial blueberries grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We evaluated Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of citrus thrips in blueberries grown under two watering regimes (drip irrigation with and without overhead sprinklers) and using two fungal formulations (commercially available spores in suspension vs. colonized seed) over two sampling periods, that is, for two 3-d periods after treatment. We found significant differences in thrips densities as a function of water regime treatment and fungal formulation. Thrips levels were reduced significantly with both fungal treatments at 3 d after treatment, but at 6 d, only results with colonized seed differed from the control treatment. These data suggest entomopathogenic fungi might be useful for control of citrus thrips on blueberries in particular situations (in organic production or as a resistance management tool) but that traditional pesticides will likely remain the preferred management option.

  18. Biology, behavior and management of chilli thrips, and other invasive thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rich vegetation and Neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna. In the past two decades, there are multiple thrips species which have invaded Florida and are considered serious pests owing to the economic or aesthetic damag...

  19. Impact of Abiotic Factors on Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Aerial Dispersal in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2016-10-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a significant pest of onion crops worldwide, but little is known about its patterns of aerial dispersal in the context of abiotic environmental factors. Thrips tabaci adults were passively collected from the air column above onion fields in western New York using clear sticky cards over a series of sampling periods in 2012, 2013, and 2014 while on-site weather conditions were recorded. Results indicated that T. tabaci adult densities on aerial traps during daylight averaged 279 times greater per hour than densities on similar traps at night. Adult dispersal also tended to spike during presunset, indicating that thrips initiated flight diurnally and within 1 h before sunset. Densities of T. tabaci on aerial traps increased significantly as temperature increased above 17 °C and 90% of the thrips were captured between 20.8 and 27.7 °C; no thrips were captured above 30.6 °C. Densities of T. tabaci on aerial traps decreased significantly as wind speed increased, with no thrips captured at winds exceeding 3.8 m/s (13.7 kph). In 2013 and 2014, T. tabaci densities on aerial traps prior to the passage of a cold front (relatively high atmospheric pressure and temperature with low wind speed) were significantly greater than densities after passage of the front, suggesting that T. tabaci disperses on synoptic weather systems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biotic resistance limits the invasiveness of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai

    2016-04-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has resulted in the world-wide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. It is hypothesized that frequent exposure to insecticides in intensive agriculture selected for resistant populations, which allowed invasive populations in the eastern USA to overcome biotic resistance from the native community of species. Research conducted in Florida to understand the role of biotic factors in limiting the abundance of the western flower thrips is reviewed. Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are effective predators that suppress populations of thrips on crop and non-crop hosts in southern and northern Florida. Orius are more effective predators of the western flower thrips than the native flower thrips, F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan). The native species are competitors of the western flower thrips. Excessive fertilization and the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in crop fields further enhances populations of the western flower thrips. Interactions with native species clearly limit the abundance of western flower thrips in Florida, but populations are abundant in fertilized crop fields where application of insecticides excludes predators and competitor species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Discrimination of reproductive forms of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by PCR with sequence specific primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2012-04-01

    In agriculture, although it is important to identify species of pest insects, the morphological identification is often difficult. DNA genotyping is useful for the identification of species in morphologically indiscriminable species. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) can be divided into two reproductive forms (arrhenotoky and thelytoky, each of which different in pesticide resistance) but morphological discrimination is not possible. Here, we establish a simple method to discriminate the strains based on their mitochondrial DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis including the T. tabaci and congeneric species provided ancestor sequences of each strain of T tabaci. Based on the ancestor sequences, we developed a primer set that include strain specific primers on sense strand and common primer on anti sense strand. Using this primer set, the strains of 196 individuals of T. tabaci were successfully assigned to each ofgenotypic forms. As the phylogeny and ancestor sequences were based on worldwide samples, this method will work well on most populations around the world.

  2. Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Feeding Promotes Infection By Pantoea ananatis in Onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grode, Ari; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-12-05

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a primary insect pest of onions (Allium cepa) worldwide. Onion thrips cause feeding damage by destroying epidermal tissue. They are also vectors of Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, the bacteria that causes center rot. Onions with center rot develop white streaks with water-soaked margins along the onion leaves, which turn necrotic and lead to bulb rot during storage. The role of thrips feeding on the establishment and progression of bacterial infection in onions has not been investigated. Onions infested with thrips and inoculated with P. ananatis had more necrotic tissue and symptoms were more severe with increasing thrips density. We conducted a fluorescence microscopy study that examined how P. ananatis (expressing a fluorescence protein gene) colonized a control group of onions without thrips in comparison to a test group of onions with thrips. We found that P. ananatis colonized some onions in the control group because of naturally existing wounds in the epidermal tissue but more colonization was found in the thrips infested group because of the increased presence of entry points caused by thrips feeding. Overall, our results demonstrate that wounds caused by thrips feeding facilitate center rot development by providing entry sites for the bacteria into leaf tissue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The anatomy of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and its specific features caused by miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, Alexey A; Shmakov, Alexey S

    2016-09-01

    A new set of data on the internal and external structure of the adult and larva of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833) is presented. The structure of the internal systems of this thrips was revealed using modern methods of 3D computer modelling. The changes in shape and relative size are discussed as an outcome of miniaturization in comparison to the supposed ancestor of this species. The layout of the internal systems of thrips is compared to those of other insects similar in size: beetles of the families Ptiliidae and Corylophidae and wasps of the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  5. Assessing abundance and distribution of an invasive thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, G; Seal, D R; Kumar, V

    2012-06-01

    Within-plant and within-field distribution of larvae and adults of an invasive thrips species, Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. was studied in 2008 and 2009 in Homestead, Florida. The majority of thrips were found inhabiting flowers of cucumber plants and little or none was found on the other parts of the plant. Thrips were aggregated in the field, as indicated by the two regression models, Taylor's power and Iwao's patchiness regression. Iwao's patchiness regression provided a better fit than Taylor's power law. The distribution was clumped during the initial stages of infestation at the edges of the field and became random thereafter. However, with increase in population density, thrips again formed aggregates in the field. Based on the average pest density per flower in a ∼0.25-ha field, minimum sample size (number of flowers) required at the recommended precision level (0.25) was 51. The number of samples required at two levels of predetermined pest density was also calculated, which would help growers in collecting optimum number of samples required to determine the correct threshold level of pest in fields. Results from seasonal abundance indicated that density of thrips peaked during the fifth week of sampling with an average of 25 and 34 adults per ten flowers during autumn 2008 and 2009, respectively. Results from these studies will help growers and extension personnel in understanding the abundance and distribution of F. schultzei in the field, which are important components required in developing a sound management program.

  6. Review of the genus Thrips and related genera (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shûji

    2013-01-01

    Members of Thrips genus-group from Japan are reviewed, and 45 species in seven genera are recognized. Nine species and one genus are newly described: Stenchaetothrips amamiensis sp. n., S. dentatus sp. n., S. pleioblasti sp. n., Thrips nonakai sp. n., T. ogasawarensis sp. n., T. shiranesanus sp. n., T. syringae sp. n., T. typicus sp. n. and Tsutsumiothrips ryukyuensis gen. et sp. n. Moreover, 14 species of two genera are newly recorded from Japan: S. langkawiensis Ng & Mound, S. undatus Wang, Thrips alni Uzel, T. aspinus Mound & Masumoto, T. brevicornis Priesner, T. brunneus Ishida, T. extensicornis Priesner, T. minutissimus Linnaeus, T. pini (Uzel), T. subnudula (Karny), T. sukki Bhatti & Lee, T. trehernei Priesner, T. urticae Fabricius and T. vitticornis Karny. A previously recorded species, Stenchaetothrips bambusae (Shumsher) is excluded from the Japanese fauna.

  7. A new species of the genus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachana, R R; Varatharajan, R

    2017-01-19

    Thrips laurencei sp.n. is described from specimens collected on flowers of Hydrangea macrophylla in Western Ghats range of Tamil Nadu, India. This new species shows sexual dimorphism in colour, with the females brownish yellow with brown shadings but the males uniformly yellow.

  8. Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-12-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves.

  9. Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2013-02-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality.

  10. Predator or plant pest? Observations on Parascolothrips priesneri Mound (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in Israeli apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ben-David

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory observations on Parascolothrips priesneri failed to confirm previous reports that this insect is a predator of mites, but instead demonstrated that it can cause severe feeding damage to the leaves of apple trees.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Moulton (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Population and Its Damage on Lemon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goane, L; Casmuz, A; Salas, H; Lizondo, M; Gastaminza, G; Vera, M T

    2013-01-01

    .... Seasonal occurrence and canopy distribution of C. orchidii in lemon orchards were evaluated, and field experimental manipulations of thrips populations were performed to analyze how the length...

  12. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andnet Abtew; Sevgan Subramanian; Xavier Cheseto; Serge Kreiter; Giovanna Tropea Garzia; Thibaud Martin

    2015-01-01

      Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M...

  13. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  14. Variation in tospovirus transmission between populations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de F.; Hoek, van der M.; Goldbach, R.; Mollema, C.; Peters, P.

    1999-01-01

    Fourteen populations of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalisPergande, originating from different hosts and countries in Asia, Europe, North America and New Zealand, were analysed for their competency and efficiency to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). All populations

  15. Variation in tospovirus transmission between populations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wetering, van de, HMM Huub; Hoek, van, A.; Goldbach, R; Mollema, C.; Peters, P.

    1999-01-01

    Fourteen populations of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalisPergande, originating from different hosts and countries in Asia, Europe, North America and New Zealand, were analysed for their competency and efficiency to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). All populations acquired and subsequently transmitted the virus, and were thus competent to transmit. They show marked differences in their efficiency, expressed as the percentage of transmitting adults. Efficiencies var...

  16. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction and thelytoky (asexual reproduction. Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction.

  17. Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Sundaraj, Sivamani; Pappu, Hanu R; Diffie, Stan; Riley, David G; Gitaitis, Ron D

    2012-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) affects onion production in the United States and worldwide. The presence of IYSV in Georgia was confirmed in 2003. Two important thrips species that transmit tospoviruses, the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Lindeman)) and the tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) are known to infest onion in Georgia. However, T. tabaci is the only confirmed vector of IYSV. Experiments were conducted to test the vector status of F. fusca in comparison with T. tabaci. F. fusca and T. tabaci larvae and adults reared on IYSV-infected hosts were tested with antiserum specific to the nonstructural protein of IYSV through an antigen coated plate ELISA. The detection rates for F. fusca larvae and adults were 4.5 and 5.1%, respectively, and for T. tabaci larvae and adults they were 20.0 and 24.0%, respectively, indicating that both F. fusca and T. tabaci can transmit IYSV. Further, transmission efficiencies of F. fusca and T. tabaci were evaluated by using an indicator host, lisianthus (Eustoma russellianum (Salisbury)). Both F. fusca and T. tabaci transmitted IYSV at 18.3 and 76.6%, respectively. Results confirmed that F. fusca also can transmit IYSV but at a lower efficiency than T. tabaci. To attest if low vector competency of our laboratory-reared F. fusca population affected its IYSV transmission capability, a Tomato spotted wilt virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) transmission experiment was conducted. F. fusca transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus at a competent rate (90%) suggesting that the transmission efficiency of a competent thrips vector can widely vary between two closely related viruses.

  18. Reestablecimiento de los géneros Frankliniella, Exophtalmothrips y Bolbothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P. Retana Salazar

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species are described in Frankliniella genus Frankliniella marinae sp. n., moundi sp. n., sandovalensis sp. n. and orlandoi sp. n. The later synonyms of Frankliniella (Exophtalmothrips and Bolbothrips are discussed upon phylogenetical criteria, these criteria support the redescription of these genera because they are independent evolutionary lineages. The three genera are redescribed and resurrected Exophtalmothrips and Bolbothrips following the actual phylogenetics of the generic group. The genus Exophtalmothrips was a little genus with only three species, some studies on Mexico fauna, and the analysis of the species of Frankliniella from Costa Rica described in the last years increase the number of species for this genus. Bolbothrips is considered a monospecific genus with the single species aztecus misidentified as Frankliniella aztecus by some writers.

  19. Temperature influence on the life cycle and forming of various forms of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Slobodenyuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results of forming various forms of the western flower thrips in greenhouse’s vegetable phytocenoses and of the temperature influence on the life cycle of Frankliniella occidentalis are presented. It was established that dark forms of the thrips species predominate in phytocenosis of Lycopersicon genus but light forms of the pest predominate in phytocenosis of Cucumis genus. It was proved experimentally in laboratory that when the temperature decreases, the percentage of the dark forms of Frankliniella occidentalis substantially increases and full development cycle from an egg to imago becomes longer.

  20. [A new species of thrip, genus Frankliniella (group Cephalica; Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Salazar, Axel P; Soto-Rodriguez, Gerardo A

    2005-01-01

    A new species of the Frankliniella cephalica group, from Central Costa Rica, is described under the name "Frankliniella morerai n.sp.". It is closely related to Frankliniella sandovalensis. Both species have translucent bodies, but the new species can be distinguished by these characteristics: setae io II in position 1/2, a complete comb on abdominal segment VIII, antennal segments without coloration and setae po IV longer. It was found in low density in crops of chilli, tomato, lettuce, sweet potato and coriander. A comparative table with other species of this group is included to facilitate diagnosis.

  1. Cross-resistance and baseline susceptibility of spirotetramat in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Navarro, Miguel; Bielza, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest all over the world. New products against thrips are necessary, as there are few effective compounds exhibiting cross-resistance among them. Lethal effects, cross-resistance, and baseline susceptibility to spirotetramat were evaluated in this study. A new bioassay method for testing thrips against spirotetramat was developed. Spirotetramat showed a significant mortality effect on larvae after 7 d of exposure, but a low effect was observed on adults. Baseline results for larval instars showed LC50 values ranging from 11.59 to 49.81 mg AI/liter, with a low natural variability (3.2-fold). Cross-resistance studies showed overlapping confidence limits of the LC50 values for laboratory-selected (against acrinathrin, methiocarb, formetanate, and spinosad) resistant and susceptible strains, and low resistance factors, from 0.5 to 1.9, suggesting no cross-resistance to conventional insecticides previously used. A slight ovicidal effect (21-40% reduction) was also detected. Despite presenting low effects on adults, spirotetramat showed high but slow efficacy on F. occidentalis larvae. Field populations in southeast Spain showed a consistent susceptibility to spirotetramat. Given the scarcity of effective products and the lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides, spirotetramat can be considered as a good chemical tool to control F. occidentalis.

  2. Paroxythrips gen. n. (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), associated with the gymnosperm order Araucariales in Japan and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shûji

    2017-02-22

    An Oxythrips-like new genus and species, Paroxythrips podocarpi, is described from Podocarpus macrophyllus in Japan. An Australian species, Oxythrips agathidis Morison, that is associated with Agathis is transferred to Paroxythrips.

  3. Significance of mite prey in the diet of the onion thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter GH; Milne M

    1998-01-01

    .... This possible relationship between T. tabaci and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) was examined in laboratory experiments in the context of the relative suitability of cotton and turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum...

  4. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  5. Biological control of thrips pests (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in a commercial greenhouse in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous thrips, like western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and onion thrips Thrips tabaci, are major pests in various ornamental and vegetable crops in greenhouses throughout the world. In Hungary, both of these polyphagous thrips species frequently cause severe damage in many greenhouse crops, especially in commercial sweet pepper. Chemical control is not always feasible because of certain ecological characteristics of these thrips species. The commercially available phytoseiid predatory mites like Amblyseius swirskii and anthocorid flower bugs like Orius laevigatus are often used simultaneously for the biological control of severe thrips infestation in sweet pepper cultivation in Hungary. Our observations demonstrated that the polyphagous thrips assemblages were effectively controlled by the combined release of natural enemies, despite the fact that the establishment of O. laevigatus did not seem to be successful in the first year. Overall, the thrips population density remained below the economic threshold in both years. However, the low infestation level of thrips suggests that a single predator release strategy could be applied effectively and still maintain the thrips below the damage threshold in greenhouse sweet pepper.

  6. Meniscus ascent by thrips (Thysanoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jiménez, Victor Manuel; Arriaga-Ramirez, Sarahi; Dudley, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Meniscus climbing using a fixed body posture has been well documented for various aquatic and neustonic insects, but is not known from small flying insects that inadvertently become trapped on water surfaces. Here, we show that thrips (order Thysanoptera) can ascend a meniscus by arching their non-wetting bodies to translate head-first and upward along a water surface; if initially oriented backwards, they can turn by 180° to ascend head-first, and climb upward on a surrounding boundary. Using variable-concentration sucrose solutions, we show that translational and climbing speeds during meniscus ascent vary inversely with fluid viscosity. Becoming trapped in water is a frequent event for flying insects, and given that most of them are very small, dedicated behaviours to escape water may be commonplace among pterygotes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-06-02

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n.

  8. MIMIC en Robin Hood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans); F. van der Ploeg (Ploeg)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractVerlaging van het belastingtarief in de eerste schijf, gefinancierd met verhoging van het tarief in de andere schijven, is in het MIMIC-model van het Centraal Planbureau goed voor de werkgelegenheid. Onlangs werd .in E5B betwijfeld of het CPB de gevolgen van zo'n 'Robin Hood'- beleid

  9. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  10. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Management Observation Facility Fume Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundsmo, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    I reviewed all the hoods used for AS&I work in buildings 253, 254, and 255. All have had the minimum annual surveys conducted and some have had semi-annual reviews. The operating parameter labels are posted consistent to the right or above right (with the only exception the perchloric acid hood in 1734- on the left) which facilitates users knowing where to check for information. All hoods with sash doors (except the SE one in 1734 have a note on the Operating Parameters label to "keep sash doors closed". Again, this was checking consistency. No surveys were missed.

  12. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  13. Interview with Leroy Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-06-01

    Leroy Hood has an MD from Johns Hopkins and a PhD from Caltech. He was a professor at Caltech for 22 years, at the University of Washington for 8 years, and has been President and co-founder of the Institute for Systems Biology for the past 13 years. His interests include technology development, molecular immunology, genomics, systems biology, cancer and neurodegeneration. He has published more than 700 papers, has 36 patents and has been involved in the start-up of 13 different companies. He has won numerous awards including the Lasker Award (1987), the Kyoto Prize (2002), the Russ Prize (2011) and, most recently, the Medal of Science (2011). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer and the Institute of Medicine. He is currently focused on taking a systems approach to disease. Here he talks to Lisa Parks, Assistant Commissioning Editor of Bioanalysis.

  14. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-03-26

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory.

  15. The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2012-05-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided.

  16. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  17. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DE INSETICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO Thrips tabaci LIND., 1888 (THYSANOPTERA, THRIPIDAE NA CULTURA DO ALHO AGRONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INSECTICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF Thrips tabaci LIND., 1888 (THYSANOPTERA, THRIPIDAE ON GARLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Caetano Braz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi conduzido em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil, entre maio e agosto de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar a eficiência agronômica dos inseticidas thiacloprid 480 SC, methiocarb 500 SC, imidacloprid 200 SC, betacyflutrin 50 EC, thiametoxan 25 WG e chlorpirifos 450 EC no controle de tripés (Thrips tabaci, na cultura do alho. Os produtos foram aplicados três vezes consecutivas a partir do surgimento do inseto, com intervalos de dez dias. As avaliações foram realizadas aos dois, sete e quinze dias após a terceira pulverização. Concluiu-se que, com exceção do chlorpirifos 450 EC, todos os demais inseticidas foram eficientes no controle do tripes, até quinze dias após a última aplicação. Destacaram-se o methiocarb nas duas dosagens avaliadas, 250 e 375 g.ha-1 do ingrediente ativo, que apresentaram, em média, 95% e 97,3% de eficiência, respectivamente, e o betacyflutrin 50 EC, com 95,7% de eficiência média.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; tripes; controle químico.

    A trial was carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, to test the efficiency of insecticides in controlling onion thrips (Thrips tabaci on garlic. The treatments applied were thiacloprid 480 SC; methiocarb 500 SC; imidacloprid 200 SC; betacyfluthrin 50 EC; thiametoxan 25 WG; chlorpiriphos 450 EC, plus an untreated check. The insecticides were sprayed three times at ten-day intervals. Data showed that thiacloprid, methiocarb, imidacloprid, betacyfluthrin and thiametoxan were efficient in controlling the T. tabaci up to 15 days after treatment application. Chlorpiriphos with the tested dosage did not control the T. tabaci efficiently.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; thrips; chemical control.

  18. Thrips Species (Thysanoptera thripidae more common in cut flower greenhouse in Bogotá plateau Especies de trips (Thysanoptera:Thripidae mas comunes en invernaderos de flores de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor Dario

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We report sorne species found in and around greenhouses at the Bogotá plateau, whith keys and drawings to make an easier identification. Three genera were found: Taeniothrips, Thrips and
    FrankDniella; this last genus has the highest number of species found inthe greenhouses. A key to identify F. occidentalis, F. auripes, F.panamensís, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex and thrips tabaci, and a list of hosts for each species in and out of the greenhouses are presented.Se registran algunas especies de trips hallados dentro y alrededor de invernaderos en la sabana de Bogotá, se proponen claves y esquemas para facilitar su determinación. Se encontraron tres géneros a saber: Taeniothrips, Thrips y Frank#niella; este último género presenta el mayor número de especies en los invernaderos de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se propone una clave para las especies de F. occidentaKs, F.
    auripes, F. panamensis, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex y Thrips tabaci. También, se presenta una lista de plantas hospedantes para cada especie de trips, dentro y fuera de invernaderos.

  19. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae on Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.. El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las hembras fecundadas se obtuvo una generación
    de 87,5% hembras y 12% machos. La fecundidad por partenogénesis fue de 325,7 huevos por hembra y la sexual de
    303,1 huevos por hembra.F. occidentelis (Pegande was found to be an important pest in chrysanthemum green houses at the Bogotá Plateau.
    We studied its biology under lab conditions (24 ± 2.50C and 66 ± 12% R.H.. Its life cycle was egg 4-5 days, first instar nymph 3-4 days, second instar nymph 5-3 day prepupa 4-6 days, pupa 3-5 days and the adults had a longevity between 60 and 121
    days. Females reproduce by parthenogenesis (Arrhenotoky in the absence of males. Fertilized females produced 87.5% females and 12% males. Fecundity of parthenogenetic females was 325.7 eggs per female. Fecundity of sexually reproduced females was 303.1 eggs per female.

  20. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  1. Presencia de Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Thripidae en fincas de limonero en Tucumán, Argentina Presence of Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Thripidae in lemon orchards in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Goane

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los trips son importantes plagas en algunos cultivos, incluyendo los cítricos. La presencia de ciertos síntomas en plantaciones de limonero en la provincia de Tucumán, planteó la necesidad de realizar muestreos específicos en distintas localidades de la provincia. Los monitoreos efectuados resultaron en el hallazgo de adultos de Chaetanaphotrips orchidii. Esta nota representa la primera cita de esta especie para la Argentina.Thrips are important pests for some crops, including citrus. Damage observed in lemon orchards in Tucumán province led to perform field evaluations to determine the possible causal agent. Sampling allowed finding Chaetanaphotrips orchidii adults. This note represents the first report on the presence of this species in Argentina.

  2. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  3. Application of the LAMP Assay as a Diagnostic Technique for Rapid Identification of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrat, Lida; Zaki Aghl, Mohammad; Tahan, Vahid

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of potentially invasive taxa that may cause high economic losses or environmental damage is of critical importance. The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, ranks as one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests and commonly found in imported agricultural products and field samples, but is prone to undetected transport because of its minute size as well as cryptic behavior. Although traditional taxonomic methods are pretty useful in straightforward assignment of specimens to the genus Thrips, identification in the species level is much more difficult and requires expertise, knowledge, and experience. Furthermore, it is often difficult or impossible to identify or distinguish this species from other thrips by using material from other stages of development. Based on the foregoings, use of a molecular technique known as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a rapid and robust alternative species diagnostic tool would be valuable. In this study, a relatively quick and simple method was used to detect the presence of onion thrips DNA rapidly and discriminate it from other species, by using material from different stages of development. Not only LAMP itself required less than 1 h to complete but also amounts of DNA as little as that recovered from a single specimen were adequate for the detection. Another advantage of this identification system is that nonspecialists will be able to make faster and cheaper identifications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Morphological and DNA Barcoding Evidence for Invasive Pest Thrips, Thrips parvispinus (Thripidae: Thysanoptera), Newly Recorded From India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas; Singha, Devkant; Chakraborty, Rajasree

    2015-01-01

    South East Asia pest thrips species, Thrips parvispinus (Karny), is a serious pest on a number of agricultural and horticultural crops in a number of plant families. Based on an integrated approach of morphology and DNA barcoding, invasion of this serious pest is reported first time from India on papaya plantations. Molecular data have corroborated with the morphological identification. Haplotyping data suggested that the Indonesia may be a probable source of invasion of this pest to India. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Effect of Spinosad Resistance on Transmission of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wan, Yanran; Xie, Wen; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wei, Guoshu; Zhou, Xiaomao; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in a persistent-propagative manner. We previously observed significant results in terms of feeding behavior of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and -resistant (Spin-R) strains of F. occidentalis using electrical penetration graph. TSWV transmission by the two strains was compared in the present study. The results showed that the titer of TSWV-N RNA (a part of S RNA of TSWV and encoding the nucleocapsid protein) in Ivf03 and Spin-R strains was not significantly different after a 48-h inoculation access period. The TSWV transmission rate did not significantly differ between the two strains and was 51.0% for Ivf03 and 44.4% for Spin-R. The virus transmission rate was significantly higher for males than females of both strains. The virus transmission rate for males and females of Ivf03 was 68.1 and 33.8%, respectively; however, in case of Spin-R, it was 60 and 28.8% for males and females, respectively. Additionally, number of probes and duration of probes were generally greater for viruliferous females of Ivf03 than for viruliferous females of Spin-R but the total number and duration of noningestion probes did not significantly differ between males of the two strains. The latter finding behavior may help explain the similar transmission rates for the susceptible and resistant strains. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Abamectin on the Biological Performance of the Predatory Thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-04-01

    Determination of sublethal and transgenerational effects of pesticides on natural enemies is necessary for successful implementation of biocontrol in integrated pest management programs. In this study, these effects of abamectin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch were estimated under laboratory conditions in which adult predators were exposed to pesticide residues on bean leaves. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 0.091 and 0.067 µg a.i./ml, respectively. Low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20 and LC30) of abamectin severely affected fecundity and longevity of treated females of S. longicornis. In addition, transgenerational effects on reproductive and life table parameters of the subsequent generation were observed. The results from this research can be used to develop guidelines for the use of abamectin to minimize the impact on S. longicornis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impact of Citrus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on the Growth and Productivity of Southern Highbush Blueberries in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Rill, Stephanie M; Morse, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton), is a foliage-feeding pest of blueberries in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We conducted a 4-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by this species. Using pesticides, we established gradients of citrus thrips in commercial blueberry fields near Richgrove, CA, in the fall of 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2014. Thrips densities were evaluated weekly for ∼1 mo to determine cumulative thrips-days and correlate levels with the average length of new growth. During all four years of the study, there were significant negative correlations between thrips-days and shoot length (for every 100 thrips-days over a period of 4-5 wk there were reductions in the length of new shoot growth of 0.41 to 2.45 cm, 6.4-10.3%). During the spring following each trial, we evaluated the impact of thrips-days on blueberry yield and quality. During the 2006 trial, there was a significant negative correlation between thrips-days and yield as well as the number of berries per plant, but no yield effect was observed in the other three years of the study. No impacts on fruit quality were found any year. A discussion of the complexity of economic injury levels in blueberries is provided, especially considering that the cost of spraying for citrus thrips (estimated at US$150/ha) is almost irrelevant given crop values often in excess of US$100,000/ha. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impact of neonicotinoid seed treatments on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and soybean yield in Virginia and North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, D Ames; Malone, Sean

    2012-06-01

    Currently there are several neonicotinoid insecticide seed treatments registered for use on soybean (Glycine max L.), with disparity in adoption rates in the eastern United States. A complex of seedling insect pests is found in mid-south soybean, but thrips are the primary early season pest of soybean in Virginia and North Carolina. Published knowledge regarding their impact on soybean yield is minimal, as is the impact of thrips on soybean yield; thrips species composition is also understudied. In 2008 through 2010, nine field experiments in Virginia and North Carolina were conducted to evaluate the impact on thrips population dynamics; the influence on yield of neonicotinoid seed treatments, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, was reported from nine of these experiments. Moreover, thrips species abundance was recorded in three of these experiments. Both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam reduced thrips densities compared with untreated soybean. Thiamethoxam was more effective than imidacloprid in reducing adult thrips densities at 5 wk after planting. Adult densities peaked at 3 wk after planting, followed by larval densities, which peaked at 4 wk after planting. The most abundant thrips species was Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), followed by Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach). Other common species included F. occidentalis (Pergande) and F. tritici (Fitch). In general, F. fusca was more common earlier in the season, while N. variabilis was more common later in the season. There were no significant differences in yield among any of the treatments or in the untreated controls. Although neonicotinoid insecticides reduced thrips abundance, data collected in these studies demonstrated that there was no positive yield response.

  9. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  10. Phylogeographic structure, outbreeding depression, and reluctant virgin oviposition in the bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, P F; Hoddle, M S; Amrich, R; Heraty, J M; Stouthamer-Ingel, C E; Stouthamer, R

    2012-12-01

    Bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus, is native to western North America. Once considered a pest of several crops in its native area, its pest status has waned over recent decades. However, due to its habit of aggregating in the navel of navel oranges, bean thrips remains economically important because some countries importing oranges from California have designated it a quarantine pest. Despite continued propagule pressure, bean thrips has never established outside North America. We examined genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA among Californian populations of C. fasciatus and found that potentially two cryptic species are present (supported by Kimura 2-P distances): a common widespread form B and a rarer form A with a very limited distribution. Form B showed strong phylogeographic structure, with many haplotypes having a limited geographic distribution. Inter-population crossing experiments between three geographically isolated populations of form B resulted in the production of some female offspring, indicating a degree of compatibility between these populations of this haplodiploid species. However, substantial outbreeding depression was also detected. A low frequency of offspring production by hetero-population pairs was evidence of pre-mating isolation, while post-mating isolation was also evident in the elevated mortality of fertilized eggs in successful hetero-population crosses. One surprising finding was the total lack of offspring production by virgin females when isolated individually. However, virgin females did produce sons in the presence of other virgin females. A test for the presence of Wolbachia showed that form B was not infected, but that some populations of the rarer form A were.

  11. Field-evolved resistance to insecticides in the invasive western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Li, Bing-Yan; Chen, Jin-Cui; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Lin; Reitz, Stuart; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of the invasive western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in China, the responses of six field populations to six commonly used insecticides, i.e. spinosad, spinetoram, cyantraniliprole, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, were evaluated in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain. Field populations tended to be less susceptible than the laboratory strain. The population from Shouguang, Shandong Province, showed the lowest levels of susceptibility. A 15.64-fold and 17.29-fold resistance to spinosad and spinetoram was detected in the Shouguang population. A 11.74-fold and 13.64-fold resistance to cyantraniliprole was detected in populations from Daxing in the Beijing area and Shouguang. All populations showed a low level of resistance to imidacloprid, acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen, except for the Shouguang population, which was 127.58-fold more resistant to pyriproxyfen. Variations in resistance to the tested insecticides were observed among the sampled population. Spinosad and spinetoram were the most efficient insecticides and are recommended for use in an integrated management programme. Resistance management strategies should be implemented to reduce the potential for resistance evolving. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The Thrips formosanus group from Asia and Australia with a new species of the genus Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-04-15

    A new species-group in the genus Thrips is designated as Thrips formosanus group from Asia and Australia. This includes the following six species: T. floreus Kurosawa from Japan, T. formosanus Priesner from Taiwan, T. obscuripes Priesner and T. rostratus Priesner from Java, T. tanicus Bhatti from India and T. hoddlei Mound and Masumoto from Australia. One new species, Thrips moundi sp. n., is described in this group from specimens collected on grasses in Himachal Pradesh State of India. A key to the seven species of Thrips formosanus group is also provided. Partial sequence data for the gene mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (mtCOI) from the holotype and paratype of this new species is provided.

  13. The Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShuQi, He; Ying, Lin; Lei, Qian; ZhiHua, Li; Chao, Xi; Lu, Yang; FuRong, Gui

    2017-06-01

    Development and fecundity were investigated in an invasive alien thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and a related native species, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), under high CO2 concentration. Results show that the two thrips species reacted differently toward elevated CO2 concentration. Developmental duration decreased significantly (11.93%) in F. occidentalis at the CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter; survival rate of all stages also significantly increased (e.g., survival rate of first instar increased 17.80%), adult longevity of both female and male extended (e.g., female increased 2.02 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were higher at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter than at 400 µl/liter. Developmental duration of F. intonsa decreased, insignificantly, at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter. Unlike F. occidentalis, survival rate of F. intonsa declined considerably at higher CO2 concentration level (e.g., survival rate of first instar decreased 19.70%), adult longevity of both female and male curtailed (e.g., female reduced 3.82 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were reduced to 24.86 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that there exist significant differences between the two CO2 levels. Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

    2001-01-01

    The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality.

  15. Morphological and DNA Barcoding Evidence for Invasive Pest Thrips, Thrips parvispinus (Thripidae: Thysanoptera), Newly Recorded From India

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas; Singha, Devkant; Chakraborty, Rajasree

    2015-01-01

    South East Asia pest thrips species, Thrips parvispinus (Karny), is a serious pest on a number of agricultural and horticultural crops in a number of plant families. Based on an integrated approach of morphology and DNA barcoding, invasion of this serious pest is reported first time from India on papaya plantations. Molecular data have corroborated with the morphological identification. Haplotyping data suggested that the Indonesia may be a probable source of invasion of this pest to India.

  16. Sequential sampling of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cotton crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M G; Spessoto, R R; Degrande, P E; Rodrigues, T R

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use the sequential probability ratio test to establish a sequential sampling plan for Aphis gossypii Glover and Frankliniella schultzei Trybom infesting cotton. Field work was conducted at the agricultural experimental station of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 agricultural years. Aphid colonies and individual thrips in the sampling area were counted and their numbers were recorded. The spatial distribution pattern of A. gossypii and F. schultzei in the cotton culture was aggregated. Sequential sampling plans were developed for aphids and thrips with type I and type II errors set at 0.1, common Kc = 0.6081 (aphids) and = 0. 9449 (thrips), and safety and management levels of 20% (aphids) and 40% (thrips) of infested plants. The sampling plans resulted in two decision boundaries for each species, as follows: the upper boundary, indicating when management (population control) is recommended: S1 = 4.6546 + 0.2849n (aphids), and S1 = 3.6514 + 0.1435n (thrips); and the lower boundary, indicating when population control is not necessary: S0 = -4.6546 + 0.2849n (aphids) and S0 = - 3.6514 + 0.1435n (thrips). The highest probability of error when making a decision was 3% for aphids and 2% for thrips, respectively. The maximum number of samples required to reach a decision was 63 for aphids and 95 for thrips.

  17. Host plant, temperature, and photoperiod effects on ovipositional preference of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisuekul, C; Riley, D G

    2005-12-01

    Host plant effects of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., and chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Vill., foliage infected and uninfected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) on the ovipositional preferences of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were investigated for whole plants in the greenhouse. In addition, the preference for leaf disks from the same host plants was investigated under a range of temperatures, 15-30 degrees C at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, and at three photoperiods, 6:18, 12:12, and 18:6, at 20 degrees C in no-choice and choice studies conducted in growth chambers. In a choice test, F. fusca oviposited significantly more eggs per whole plant foliage over a 7-d period than F. occidentalis by an average ratio of 3:1 over both tomato and chickweed. The optimum temperature for oviposition of F. occidentalis and F. fusca was 24.5 and 24.9 degrees C, respectively. Both species laid significantly more eggs under the longest daylight hours tested, 18:6, in the choice study. Temperature and photoperiod did not significantly interact in terms of thrips ovipositional preference. Ovipositional preference for chickweed or tomato foliage was different for each thrips species in the choice and no-choice tests. However, both thrips species laid significantly more eggs per square centimeter of leaf area in chickweed than in tomato in the whole plant choice test.

  18. Tomato plant and leaf age effects on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, P Houston; Riley, David G

    2008-02-01

    The effect of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., plant and leaf age on the probing and settling behavior of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) was studied using electrical penetration graph technique and whole plant bioassays. Male and female F. fusca probed and ingested more and for longer periods of time on 3- and 4-wk-old plants compared with 6- and 8-wk-old plants. Female F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently than males in the plant age experiment, but not in the leaf age experiment. F. fusca probed and ingested more frequently on 2- and 4-wk-old leaves compared with 1-wk-old leaves. Plant age did not affect the probing frequency or duration of F. occidentalis; however, males probed and ingested longer than females in the plant age experiment and on the oldest leaf in the leaf age experiment. Both thrips species preferred to settle on 3-wk-old plants. F. fusca preferred to settle on 4-wk-old leaves after settling randomly for an hour. F. occidentalis showed no settling preference relative to leaf age. The preference of F. fusca for young plants suggests that this species could attack tomato plants at a very early stage, which is important for understanding its role as a vector in the transmission of Tospovirus in the field.

  19. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  20. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  1. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tao Zheng

    Full Text Available Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ΔCt method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects.

  2. Abundance and distribution of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. grown in single- and mixed-cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitta Pankeaw

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance and distribution of thrips in a farmer’s mangosteen orchard by comparing single- andmixed-cropping systems at Nakhon Sri Thammarat province, the main planting area in southern Thailand, between April2005 and January 2006. A monitoring program at two-week-intervals was done to measure the number of thrips by usingtwenty yellow sticky traps per each cropping system. The mean number (223.5±23.4 thrips/trap of thrips throughout theperiod of study in the monocrop mangosteen sites was significantly (P<0.01 higher than 69.1±8.3 thrips/trap in the mixedcropmangosteen sites. Scarring on the fruit surfaces damaged by thrips was visually quantified, with average percentages ofscarring 32.2% and 19.8% in the mono- and mixed-cropping systems, respectively. Distribution of thrips in the upper andlower halves of the plant canopy in the four cardinal directions was studied by assessing scarring on the fruit surfaces. Thepercentage of scarring occurring in the upper canopy was significantly (P<0.01 higher than in the lower canopy. In thesingle-crop system, the average percentages of scarring were 46.6% and 25.4% on the upper and lower canopies, respectively.In the mixed-cropping system results obtained were similar to those in the single cropping system, with 31.5% and 20.4% onthe upper and lower canopies, respectively. The severity of damage to the fruits caused by thrips seemed to be higher in theNorth and East directions than in the South and West. In conclusion, mixed-cropping mangosteen orchards are recommendedfor reducing fruit damage caused by thrips. Fruits occurring on the upper canopy, in the North and East sides, should beunderlined for thrip control to meet the criteria for high quality mangosteen production from the south of Thailand.

  3. The role of weeds in the spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus by thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in tobacco crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Katis, N.I.

    2007-01-01

    Oviposition of Thrips tabaci, larval development and their potential to acquire Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) from infected Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Lactuca serriola, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus plants and the ability of the adults to transmit this virus to these weeds

  4. Intraguild predation among Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Neoseiulus californicus and Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farazmand, Azadeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Kamali, Karim

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out on the ability of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner to feed on 2 phytoseiid species and vice versa. Also the effect of predation of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) on Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein and Arutunjan and vice versa was evaluated. The larvae, prepupae, and pupae of thrips and the eggs, larvae, and protonymphs of phytoseiids were selected as intraguild prey. The intraguild predation (IGP) among S. longicornis and 2 phytoseiid species was unidirectional and in favor of phytoseiids, i.e., S. longicornis was not able to feed on larval stages of 2 phytoseiids. However, N. californicus and T. bagdasarjani fed on the 1st instar larvae (1.39 and 0.80 per day), 2nd instar larvae (0.87 and 0.55 per day), prepupae (0.51 and 0.48 per day), and pupae of thrips (0.51 and 0.49 per day, respectively). Both phytoseiids fed on eggs, larvae, and protonymphal stages of each other. Females of N. californicus consumed more phytoseiid larvae (2.49 per day) than T. bagdasarjani, which consumed 1.08 N. californicus larvae per day. When Tetranychus urticae was presented as an extraguild prey, intensity of IGP between 2 species of phytoseiids and on larval stages of S. longicornis reduced significantly. Therefore, it is concluded that (i) IGP existed among the 3 examined species and lack of feeding of S. longicornis on 2 phytoseiid species can be justified by its feeding type (monophagy), (ii) N. californicus was much more prone to IGP than was T. bagdasarjani. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Anaphothrips genus-group: key to world genera, with two new species and three new records from Japan (Thysanoptera, Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shûji

    2017-05-29

    An identification key is provided to the 40 genera worldwide that comprise the Anaphothrips genus-group of Thripinae. Oxythrips japonicus sp.n. and Rubiothrips galii sp.n. are described from Japan, and the members of Anaphothrips genus-group from Japan are reviewed, with 15 species in eight genera. Anaphothrips swezeyi Moulton, Caprithrips insularis Beshear and C. melanophthalmus (Bagnall) are newly recorded from Japan.

  6. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the rotation program. Therefore, by incorporating entomopathogenic organisms into insecticide rotation programs, greenhouse producers can decrease costs without affecting suppression, as well as diminish selection pressure on western flower thrips adult populations, which may avoid or delay resistance development. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  8. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  9. Una especie nueva de tisanóptero del género Frankliniella (grupo cephalica;Thysanoptera:Thripidaede Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Frankliniella para el grupo cephalica: Frankliniella morerai. La nueva especie es similar a F. sandovalensis en el cuerpo translúcido, pero se distingue por las setas io III en posición 1/2, su peine completo en el segmento abdominal VIII, los segmentos antenales sin coloración y la seta po IV de mayor longitud. Se encontró en baja densidad en cultivos de chile, tomate, lechuga, camote y culantro. Se presenta un cuadro comparativo con las especies del grupo y se incluyen ilustraciones de la nueva especieA new species of thrip,genus Frankliniella (group cephalica ; Thysanoptera: Thripidae from Costa Rica. A new species of the Frankliniella cephalica group, from Central Costa Rica, is described under the name "Frankliniella morerai n.sp.". It is closely related to Frankliniella sandovalensis. Both species have translucent bodies, but the new species can be distinguished by these characteristics: setae io III in position 1/2, a complete comb on abdominal segment VIII, antennal segments without coloration and setae po IV longer. It was found in low density in crops of chilli, tomato, lettuce, sweet potato and coriander. A comparative table with other species of this group is included to facilitate diagnosis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:191-194.Epub 2005 Jun 24

  10. 'Cobra Hoods' Coming At You

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image taken by the left and right eyes of the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center). Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. The stereo pictures making up this image were captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  11. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  12. RECONOCIMIENTO E IDENTIFICACION DE TRIPS FITOFAGOS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE Y DEPREDADORES (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASOCIADOS A CULTIVOS COMERCIALES DE AGUACATE Persea spp. EN LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DE CALDAS Y RISARALDA (COLOMBIA RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PHYTOPHAGOUS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE AND PREDATORS (THYSANOPTERA: PHLAEOTHRIPIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL CULTIVATIONS OF AVOCADO Persea spp. IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF CALDAS AND RISARALDA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri Florez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se consideraron tres cultivos comerciales de aguacate (Persea sp. en los municipios de Palestina (Caldas y Pereira y Marsella (Risaralda evaluando árboles en producción entre cinco y ocho años de edad, incluyendo para los tres lugares las variedades: Santana, Choquette, Booth 8, Trinidad y Trapp; además en el huerto de Pereira se incluyó la variedad Fucsia, en las que se constataron los daños y distorsiones atribuidas a la acción de los trips. Para los materiales considerados se efectuaron diez muestreos por localidad con una frecuencia quincenal, escogiendo en cada muestreo un árbol por variedad. En cada árbol seleccionado se tomaron 36 muestras así: tres por estrato (alto, medio y bajo cuatro por punto cardinal (oriente occidente, norte y sur y tres estructuras de la planta (hojas tiernas, flores y frutos en desarrollo, para un total de 360 muestras por cada variedad de aguacate, por cada una de las tres localidades consideradas. A cada muestra se le extrajeron los trips, separando los morfos de acuerdo con la colección de referencia previamente establecida; se cuantificaron y se efectuó el proceso de identificación. En total se determinaron cuatro morfos asociados al cultivo de aguacate, dos de hábito fitófago: Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard y Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, según Mound, (1993 nuevo reporte como especie fitófaga asociada al aguacate y los géneros Leptothrips y Karnyothrips de hábito depredador. Se encontró para las tres localidades un amplio predominio de F. gardeniae con relación a los otros tres morfos, hospedándose principalmente en las estructuras florales, y en menor proporción en brotes tiernos y frutos en desarrollo. No se encontró preferencia de los trips por un punto específico con relación a la distribución vertical y horizontal en el dosel del árbol Se constataron los daños atribuidos a los trips en aguacate, encontrando en las plantaciones: En fruto: Pericarpio deforme, partenocarpia, halos blanquecinos. En flores: Abundante caída y flores necrosadas. En hojas lamina foliar deforme y manchas rojizas y en ramas: Deformaciones, reducción de la longitud de entrenudos, hiperplasia y la llamada "rama látigo”. Con relación a la susceptibilidad de los diferentes materiales a la acción del daño, la variedad Santana fue en la que más se perciben los síntomas de afección atribuidos a los trips, y las variedades Choquette y Fucsia las que presentaron menores síntomas de afección.Three commercial avocado (Persea sp. cultivars were studied in the municipalities of Palestine (Caldas and Pereira and Marseilles (Risaralda, evaluating trees in production of ages of five to eight years, including for the three places the varieties Santana, Choquette, Booth 8, Trinidad and Trapp. Also, in the orchard of Pereira the variety Fuchsia was included. In all, the damage and distortions attributed to the action of thrips was verified. For the material considered, ten samples were made in each locality with a biweekly frequency, choosing in each sample one tree per variety. In each tree selected, 36 samples were taken as follows: three per stratum (high, intermediate and low, four per cardinal point (north, south, east and west, and from three structures of the plant (tender leaves, flowers, and developing fruits, for a total of 360 samples for each avocado variety in each of the three sampling localities. Thrips were extracted from each sample, separating the morphs according to a reference collection previously established; morphs were quantified and the identification process was undertaken. In total, four morphs associated with avocado cultivation were identified; including two phytophagous species: Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard and Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, the latter a new report for a phytophagous species associated with avocado, according to Mound (1998, and the genera Leptothrips and Karnyothrips with predatory habits. A widespread prevalence of F. gardeniae was found for the three localities, as compared to the other three morphs, occurring mainly in the floral structures and, to a lesser degree, in tender buds and developing fruits. Thrips did not exhibit a preference for specific locations in terms of their vertical and horizontal distribution in the tree canopy. Damage to avocado attributable to thrips was verified, demonstrating in the plantations: In fruit: Deformed pericarp, parthenocarpus, whitish halos. In flowers: Abundant flower dropping and necrosis. In leaves: Leaf blade and rust stains, and in branches: Deformations, internode length reductions, hyperplasia and the so called "branch whip". With relationship to the susceptibility of the different materials to damage, the Santana variety was the one that showed the greatest symptoms attributable to thrips, and the Choquette and Fuchsia varieties were those that showed fewer symptoms.

  13. Systematics of Thysanoptera, pear thrips and other economic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueo Nakahara

    1991-01-01

    The systematics of the Thysanoptera, and several economic species in the United States and Canada (North America) are discussed briefly. Morphological characters to distinguish the six families in North America and the following economic species, pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel)), basswood thrips (Thrips calcaratus...

  14. An introduction to the Thysanoptera a survey of the group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Lewis

    1991-01-01

    I acknowledge with gratitude the invitation of Bruce L. Parker, Margaret Skinner and the organizers of this meeting to open the proceedings. It is a great pleasure to be asked to enthuse about a group of insects for which I have long had a particular affection - the Thysanoptera. My problem is that relatively few of the world's entomologists - less than 0.2% -...

  15. Lijst van Nederlandsche Thysanoptera. Met korte aanteekeningen over nieuwe soorten voor de fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeksen, J.

    1936-01-01

    Over het voorkomen van Thysanoptera in Nederland handelen, afgezien van eenige korte mededeelingen in het Tijdschrift voor Entomologie en de Entomologische Berichten, alleen twee werken van R. van Eecke: „Eerste Bijdrage tot de kennis der Nederlandsche Thysanoptera", Haarlem, 1922 en het deeltje

  16. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  18. Population dynamics of banded thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae) and its potential prey Thysanoptera species on white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdan, S; Rifelj, M; Valic, N

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the occurrence of banded thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall) and some other Thysanoptera species on white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was monitored at two locations in the continental part of Slovenia. White clover presents in many countries important intercrop in integrated vegetable production. Light blue sticky boards were placed on grasslands (one parcel on each location) with high percentage of white clover. Sticky boards were changed in about 10-days intervals from the end of April till the beginning of October. Number of caught individuals on the boards was counted. They were classified in three different groups: 1. Aeolothrips intermedius, 2. representatives of Haplothrips, Odontothrips and Frankliniella genera, 3. representatives of Thrips genus. We stated that, compared with the other Thysanoptera species in the open, predatory thrips occurs in lower number. Predatory species Aeolothrips intermedius was the most numerous during the flowering of white clover. It was established that other Thysanoptera species (the most of them are facultative phytophagous species) were more numerous also in the periods of less favourable weather conditions and during the non-flowering growing stages of white clover. Based on the results of present research we concluded that A. intermedius has a potential to control onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman), especially in July and August, when in the open both species occur in high numbers.

  19. Do phototherapy hoods really protect the neonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, G; Pye, S D; Laing, I A

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the protection given to the eyes of neonates by an Amber 300 phototherapy hood during blue-light phototherapy from Drager Phototherapie 800 units, and to make recommendations for clinical practice. Hazard-weighted blue-light radiance of phototherapy lamps was measured inside neonatal incubators, with and without the use of a protective phototherapy hood. The study was carried out in a tertiary referral neonatal unit. No patients were involved. A mannequin was used as model of a jaundiced neonate being treated with blue-light phototherapy. The study shows that hazard-weighted blue-light radiance levels detectable from within the space enclosed by the hood may be several times greater than accepted industrial threshold limits for adults. Nursing and medical staff must ensure meticulous care in the positioning of infants, so that the caudal edge of the shadow cast by the hood is always at least 30 mm inferior to the infants' lower eyelids. The vulnerability of the neonatal retina and the relatively high levels of blue-light radiance visible from within the shadow of the hood may make it advisable to use more effective eye protection. Triple phototherapy using lamps at the foot-end of the incubator is clearly hazardous and should not be carried out unless the infant's eyes are protected by eye-patches.

  20. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  1. Species composition and structure of Thysanoptera communities in different microhabitats at the Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinent, S M J; Romanowski, H P; Redaelli, L R; Cavalleri, A

    2006-08-01

    Although thrips are known as inhabitants of flowers, they are also abundant and diverse in other microhabitats. There is an information gap concerning them, especially related to the native fauna in southern Brazil. The structure and composition of the thysanopteran community in different microhabitats was studied at the "Parque Estadual de Itapuã" (30 degrees 22' S 51 degrees 02' W), RS, southern Brazil. Between June 1999 and May 2001, branches (n = 1,274), flowers (n = 774), grass tussocks (n = 596) and leaf litter (n = 603) were sampled systematically in 20 points of four trails (T1 - Pedreira beach, T2 - Araçá beach, T3 - Lagoinha, and T4 - Grota hill). We found 2,197 adult thrips determined in 73 species in 41 genera, of which 37 could be nominated. Four families are represented, Thripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Heterothripidae and Merothripidae, with the first the most abundant (N = 1,599) and with the highest species richness (S = 32). The highest thrips abundance occurred in flowers N = 1,224 and the highest number of exclusive species occurred in the leaf litter (27). Frankliniella rodeos Moulton, 1933, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, 1919 and Smicrothrips particula Hood, 1952 comprise 49.4% of the total sampled. Regarding T2, we obtained the highest abundance (N = 935) and highest species richness (S = 43). The composition of the faunas in each kind of environment proved very particular.

  2. Species composition and structure of Thysanoptera communities in different microhabitats at the Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Pinent

    Full Text Available Although thrips are known as inhabitants of flowers, they are also abundant and diverse in other microhabitats. There is an information gap concerning them, especially related to the native fauna in southern Brazil. The structure and composition of the thysanopteran community in different microhabitats was studied at the "Parque Estadual de Itapuã" (30° 22' S 51° 02' W, RS, southern Brazil. Between June 1999 and May 2001, branches (n = 1,274, flowers (n = 774, grass tussocks (n = 596 and leaf litter (n = 603 were sampled systematically in 20 points of four trails (T1 - Pedreira beach, T2 - Araçá beach, T3 - Lagoinha, and T4 - Grota hill. We found 2,197 adult thrips determined in 73 species in 41 genera, of which 37 could be nominated. Four families are represented, Thripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Heterothripidae and Merothripidae, with the first the most abundant (N = 1,599 and with the highest species richness (S = 32. The highest thrips abundance occurred in flowers N = 1,224 and the highest number of exclusive species occurred in the leaf litter (27. Frankliniella rodeos Moulton, 1933, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, 1919 and Smicrothrips particula Hood, 1952 comprise 49.4% of the total sampled. Regarding T2, we obtained the highest abundance (N = 935 and highest species richness (S = 43. The composition of the faunas in each kind of environment proved very particular.

  3. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; van der Wurff, A.W.G.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar

  4. Optimization of the Hood of Diesel Electric Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr TOMEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The new construction of hood of diesel electric locomotive is analyzed in this paper. The whole construction is loaded by inertia effects caused by prescribed acceleration. The parts of the hood are subject to the standards for railway applications CSN EN 12663-1 [1]. Numerical analyses are performed by FEM computer program COSMOSWorks [2]. The original construction of hood is analyzed in first part of this paper. Structural changes are proposed in the next part of this article. Carrying capacity of the new construction of hood is verified by a numerical analysis. The results of the new construction are compared with the original construction of hood.

  5. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  6. New records of thrips (Thysanoptera) species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalleri, A; Lima, M G A; Melo, F S; Mendonça, Milton de S

    2011-10-01

    This study reports four thrips species from Brazil for the first time: the terebrantians Aptinothrips rufus (Haliday) and Echinothrips caribbeanus Hood; and the tubuliferans Androthrips ramachandrai Karny and Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann). New data about biological aspects of some of these new records are presented.

  7. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  8. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of thrips (Thrips tabaci) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) transmitters of iris yellow spot virus: a serious viral pathogen of onion bulb and seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Sudeep; Rondon, Silvia I; Druffel, Keri L; Riley, David G; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-02-01

    Thrips-transmitted Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important economic constraint to the production of bulb and seed onion crops in the United States and many other parts of the world. Because the virus is exclusively spread by thrips, the ability to rapidly detect the virus in thrips vectors would facilitate studies on the role of thrips in virus epidemiology, and thus formulation of better vector management strategies. Using a polyclonal antiserum produced against the recombinant, Escherichia coli-expressed nonstructural protein coded by the small (S) RNA of IYSV, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed for detecting IYSV in individual as well as groups of adult thrips. The approach enabled estimating the proportion of potential thrips transmitters in a large number of field-collected thrips collected from field-grown onion plants. Availability of a practical and inexpensive test to identify viruliferous thrips would be useful in epidemiological studies to better understand the role of thrips vectors in outbreaks of this economically important virus of onion.

  10. Reflective mulch and acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments relative to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus incidence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Joseph, S V; Srinivasan, R

    2012-08-01

    Management of thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt (TSW) virus typically relies on tactics that either reduce the thrips vector numbers or change the plant's response to the virus to reduce economic loss. We attempted to quantify the interaction between two such tactics, reflective mulch and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), respectively, on a TSW-susceptible tomato hybrid. A split plot experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010 where main-plots were three types of plastic mulch (two metalized reflective vs. black) and subplots consisted of a range of plant defense activator applications. TSW pressure varied over year with 80% of untreated plants having TSW in 2009 where as thrips and marketable yield in either year. In 2009, the seasonal average of Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) populations and incidence of TSW were significantly lower and yield significantly higher on both reflective mulches than on black mulch. Seasonal averages of thrips and fruit yield differed significantly among treatments of acibenzolar-S-methyl. However, there was a significant acibenzolar-S-methyl by mulch interaction relative to TSW incidence. In 2009, a minimum of acibenzolar-S-methyl at transplant plus foliar treatments at 10 and 20 d after transplant was required to significantly reduce TSW incidence compared with untreated plants before harvest. Under lower TSW pressure in 2010, average TSW incidence was significantly less in all plots treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl treated plots compared with the check. Acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments functioned better with the thrips reducing tactic, ultraviolet-reflective mulch. We propose that acibenzolar-S-methyl is less effective than metalized reflective mulch in reducing the incidence of TSW in tomato.

  11. Sternal gland structures in males of bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, and Poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus, in comparison with those of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Stephanie; Subramanian, Sevgan; Niassy, Saliou; Moritz, Gerald B

    2015-09-01

    Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E. americanus and M. sjostedti males, in comparison with those of Frankliniella occidentalis using light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pore plates of F. occidentalis were ellipsoid and medial on sternites III-VII, while in E. americanus they were distributed as multiple micro pore plates on sternites III-VIII. In M. sjostedti they appeared as an extremely small pore in front of the posterior margin of each of sternites IV-VII. Pore plate and pore plate area were distributed similarly on sternites III-VII in F. occidentalis. However, in E. americanus the total pore plate area increased significantly from sternites III to VIII. Ultrastructure of cells associated with sternal glands showed typical characteristics of gland cells that differ in size, shape and number. The function of sternal glands is further discussed on the basis of morphological comparisons with other thrips species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prey consumption rates and compatibility with pesticides of four predatory mites from the family Phytoseiidae attacking Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Mathers, James J; Croft, Pat; Nattriss, Nicola; Blackburn, Lisa F; Luo, Weiqi; Northing, Phil; Murai, Tamotsu; Jacobson, Robert J; Walters, Keith F A

    2012-09-01

    Predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, Typhlodromips montdorensis Schicha, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Iphiseius degenerans Berlese) were investigated for their potential to act as control agents for Thrips palmi Karny. Prey consumption rates and compatibility with pesticides were assessed. Second-instar larvae were the preferred life stage. Typhlodromips montdorensis consumed the most larvae (2.8) and also an average of 1.2 adult T. palmi per 5 day period. Both 24 and 48 h assessments following application of abamectin, spinosad and imazalil demonstrated mortality of predatory mites (across all species), which was significantly higher than with the other treatments (P < 0.001). Spraying with pymetrozine did not provide any increased mortality when compared with the water control. Application of thiacloprid proved detrimental only to I. degenerans. Following indirect exposure of predatory mites to pymetrozine and imazalil, no significant differences in mite mortality were obtained. Indirect exposure to spinosad was identified as the most detrimental treatment (P < 0.001) to all mites. Abamectin also proved detrimental, with only T. montdorensis showing any potential tolerance. All predatory mites investigated offer potential for controlling T. palmi. Compatibility with chemicals varied between the mites. The potential of incorporating the mites into eradication strategies for T. palmi is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Incidence and characterization of resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A; Khajehali, J; Van Leeuwen, T

    2016-05-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is the main pest of onion-growing fields in Isfahan and is mainly controlled by frequently spraying several insecticides. To investigate the resistance status and mechanisms, the susceptibility of ten field populations collected from Isfahan onion-growing regions were tested to several currently used pesticides. Resistance to the tested insecticides was observed in most populations when compared with the susceptible reference population. Enhanced detoxification, implicated by the use of inhibitors of major metabolic detoxification enzymes, was observed in the populations resistant to profenofos and chlorpyrifos. In the deltamethrin resistant populations, the amino acid substitution T929I was detected in the voltage gated sodium channel, which is known to confer pyrethroid resistance. These data are a first step towards more efficient resistance management tactics through early detection of resistant onion thrips in Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. X-ray Irradiation Control of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the Exportation of Freshly Cut Lily Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2017-04-01

    Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is the most representative bulb flower, and it is the third most important flower in the flower industry of South Korea after rose and chrysanthemum. To determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation for use in quarantine processing, two species of flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) were placed in the top, middle, and bottom locations of lily boxes and irradiated with different X-ray doses. After irradiation with an X-ray dose of 150 Gy, the egg hatching of the two flower thrips was completely inhibited at every location in the lily boxes, and the irradiated F. intonsa and F. occidentalis nymphs failed to emerge as adult in every location of the lily boxes. When the adults were irradiated at 150 Gy, the fecundity of the two flower thrips was markedly lower than that of the untreated control groups. The F1 generation failed to hatch at the top and middle locations, whereas the F1 generation of both F. intonsa and F. occidentalis was not suppressed at the bottom locations, even at 200 Gy. However, hatching was perfectly inhibited at 300 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Also, X-rays did not affect the postharvest physiology of cut lilies. Therefore, a minimum dose of 300 Gy is recommended for the control of F. intonsa and F. occidentalis for the exportation of lily. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, a new insect pest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Li

    Full Text Available Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species.

  16. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed.

  17. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  18. Manipulation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (Tospovirus) Via the Host Plant Nutrients to Enhance Its Transmission and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalileh, Sheida; Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or -TSWV) during vector's development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults' diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (-TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector's biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Two years research on efficiency of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory, to reduce damage caused by onion thrips(Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on leek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombac, P; Trdan, S

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2011, a field experiment was carried out at the Laboratory Field at the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the aim to investigate suitability of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), for reducing damage caused by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) on leek (Allium porrum L.). Four leek cultivars--'Columbus', 'Forrest', 'Lancelot' and 'Lincoln'--were used in the research (Bejo Zaden B.V., Netherlands). In both years, the mean index of damage caused by feeding of the pest on the leek leaves increased from the first evaluation (13 July 2009 and 18 June 2011) in both treatments with intercrops and in control treatment (without intercrop). Leek grown with birdsfoot trefoil as intercrop was in both years statistically the least damaged from thrips. Also summer savory was efficient in the same context in comparison with control treatment. In year 2009 cultivar 'Lancelot' was the least damaged in all treatments, and in year 2011 'Lancelot' and 'Forrest'. In both years intercrop and cultivar also had a significant influence on the yield of leek. The highest yield was obtained on the control plots, meanwhile birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory were pretty competitive and yield of leek grown with them as intercrops was therefore significantly lower.

  1. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  2. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  3. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  4. Evaluación de la capacidad de depredación de la especie de stratiolaelaps sp. (Acari: Laelapidae) en poblaciones de thrips palmi karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Bermudez, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    El trips del melón Thrips palmi Karny, es una plaga cosmopolita y polífaga introducida al país desde 1997 y reportada afectando los cultivos de habichuela, melón y pimentón. El control químico es la herramienta más utilizada por los agricultores, sin embargo su eficacia se ve limitada por la resistencia a los insecticidas adquirida por el insecto. Ante esta problemática el control biológico puede ser una buena opción con base en acaros Laelapidae, dado que son depredadores promisorios, las c...

  5. Resistance development, stability, cross-resistance potential, biological fitness and biochemical mechanisms of spinetoram resistance in the Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Buli; Li, Qiang; Qiu, Haiyan; Tang, Liangde; Zeng, Dongqiang; Liu, Kui; Gao, Yulin

    2018-02-09

    Spinetoram, a new type of spinosyns with novel modes of action, has provided effective thrips control programs, but resistance remains a threat. In the present study, a laboratory T. hawaiiensis population was subjected to spinetoram for resistance selections to determine resistance development, stability, cross-resistance potential, biological fitness and underlying biochemical mechanisms. The resistance to spinetoram in T. hawaiiensis rapidly increased 103.56-fold (for 20 generations selection with spinetoram) compared to a laboratory susceptible population, and the average realized heritability (h 2 ) of resistance was calculated as 0.1317. Maintaining the resistant population for five generations without any further selection pressure resulted in a decline in the resistance ratio from 19.42- to 9.50-fold, suggesting that spinetoram resistance in T. hawaiiensis is unstable. Moeover, the spinetoram-resistant population exhibited a lack of cross-resistance to other classes of insecticides, and showed a biological fitness costs. The results of synergism experiments using enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that metabolic mechanisms might not be responsible for developing spinetoram resistance in T. hawaiiensis. The current study expands understanding of spinosyn resistance in thrips species, providing the basis for proposing better IPM strageties for thrips control programs and defining the most appropriate tools to such resistance management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of key factors responsible for the pest status of the bean flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tamò, M.; J. Baumgärtner; Delucchi, V.; Herren, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in West Africa. Three key factors assumed to be responsible for its pest status are analysed, the survival on alternative host-plants during the dry season, the inefficient biotic mortality factors regulating population growth, and the effect of larval feeding on the development of cowpea flower buds. Extensive surveys indicate clearly that M. sjostedti survives the dry season on a wide range of alternative h...

  7. Observations on the flight pattern of some Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species by using suction trap in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal flight activity of the Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species was studied by using suction trap, in South-East Hungary, in the years 2000 and 2004 from April to October. The flight period of two dominant species, namely Haplothrips angusticornis Priesner and Haplothrips aculeatus Fabricius (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae, was observed in high number in Europe. Also, it was the first record of mass flight observation of H. angusticornis. In addition, the effect of meteorological factors, such as temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, air pressure, and their influences, were evaluated.

  8. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  9. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hooded Vulture breeding failure was linked to two species only: camera-trap imagery recorded one case of predation of a vulture egg by a Chacma Baboon Papio ursinus, and one case of a Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus predating a vulture nestling. We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring ...

  10. Removal (and attempted removal) of material from a Hooded Vulture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is documented about nest material theft in vultures. We used camera traps to monitor Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus nests for a year. We report camera trap photographs of a starling Lamprotornis sp. removing what appeared to be dung from an inactive Hooded Vulture nest on Cleveland Game ...

  11. Robin Hood as self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, S. I.

    1992-11-01

    It is shown that a wide class of physical processes named low-temperature creep (or Robin Hood systems) has to demonstrate self-organized criticality. At least “real” and “toy” models (1D and 2D) demonstrate long range (restricted by the model size only) spatial correlation in Monte Carlo simulation. The models can be used for investigation of such phenomena as dislocation glide, movement of flux in superconductors, movement of domain walls in magnetics, grain boundaries in polycrystals, plastic deformation and so on.

  12. Alternatif Material Hood dan Side Panel Mobil Angkutan Pedesaan Multiguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobil merupakan sarana transportasi yang banyak digunakan oleh manusia baik untuk kepentingan pribadi maupun umum. Pada tahun 2013 Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. Karya Tugas Anda membuat sebuah prototype mobil pick up multiguna pedesaan. Berat total prototype mobil dan box tersebut adalah 1200 Kg. Sedangkan dengan engine 650 cc dan daya 38,23 - 43,33 HP, berat mobil terlalu berat (rancangan beban total maksimum mobil dan penumpang/ barang adalah 1500 Kg. Untuk itu dilakukan kajian terhadap hood dan side panel mobil tersebut pada body bagian depan maupun box (body bagian belakang. Setelah perancangan tersebut selesai, dilanjutkan dengan merancang sambungan hood dan side panel mobil tersebut. Sambungan menggabungkan antara material pelat dengan komposit dan material komposit dengan komposit. Sambungan dianalisa kekuatannya terhadap gaya-gaya/ beban yang mungkin terjadi saat mobil digunakan. Selanjutnya dilakukan perancangan proses pembuatan hood dan side panel mobil dari bahan komposit. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah hood berdimensi 1176 mm x 453 mm dan side panel mobil dengan dimensi 558 mm x 430,5 mm. Bahan kedua komponen adalah komposit tipe E-Glass yang memiliki keuntungan lebih ringan daripada bahan sebelumnya, yaitu mild steel. Ketebalan hood yang dipilih sebesar 2 mm. Ketebalan hood tersebut aman, yaitu mampu menerima tegangan ekuivalen maksimum 7,9769 MPa dan lebih kecil daripada tegangan ijin material komposit yaitu 1020 MPa. Deformasi yang pada hood adalah sebesar 0,0247 mm. Berat dari hood mengalami perubahan, dimana dengan menggunakan bahan mild steel berat hood adalah 7,536 kg. Jika menggunakan bahan komposit berat hood menjadi 2,327 kg, hampir 69,12% lebih ringan dari sebelumnya.

  13. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Thysanoptera intercepted in the Netherlands on plant products from Ethiopia, with description of two new species of the genus Thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierbergen, Gijsbertus

    2014-02-18

    An overview is given of 18 Thysanoptera species found on Ethiopian cut flowers, cuttings and vegetables during import inspection in the Netherlands. Consignments consisted mostly of cut flowers, in total belonging to twelve plant genera. Details on geographical distribution and host plants of the thrips encountered are given, and two are newly described: T. cacuminis sp. n. and T. dezeeuwi sp. n. The results do not give any serious indication of increased invasiveness by Ethiopian Thysanoptera

  15. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  16. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  17. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  18. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  19. Transportation observations, considerations and recommendations for Mt. Hood National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-24

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and operations at Mt. Hood : National Forest (MHNF) by the interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted June : 24-26, 2009, on behalf of the U.S. Forest Service (US...

  20. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  1. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  2. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S K; Graves, D C; Rohrer, M D; Bulard, R A

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  3. Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) Survey Work 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Humboldt Open Ocean Disposal Site (HOODS) is a dredged material disposal site located 3 nautical miles (nm) offshore of Humboldt Bay in Northern California....

  4. Rapid calculation of the compression wave generated by a train entering a tunnel with a vented hood: Short hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M. S.; Winslow, A.; Iida, M.; Fukuda, T.

    2008-03-01

    A numerical procedure for the rapid prediction of the compression wave generated by a high-speed train entering a tunnel was presented and validated by Howe et al. [Rapid calculation of the compression wave generated by a train entering a tunnel with a vented hood, Journal of Sound and Vibration 297 (2006) 267-292]. The method was devised to deal principally with compression wave generation in long hoods typically of length ˜10 times the tunnel height and 'vented' by means of a series of windows distributed along the hood walls. Hoods of this kind will be needed to control wave generation by newer trains operating at speeds U exceeding about 350 km/h. In this paper experimental results are presented and compared with predictions in order to extend the range of applicability of the numerical method of Howe et al. (2006) to include short hoods with lengths as small as just twice the tunnel height (the situation for most hoods currently deployed on the Japanese Shinkansen) and for U as large as 400 km/h.

  5. Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta).

    OpenAIRE

    Arakaki, N; Miyoshi, T.; Noda, H.

    2001-01-01

    Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They cause thelytoky, which is a form of parthenogenesis in which females produce females without males, in hymenopteran insects. Infection of this parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia has been restricted to the order Hymenoptera, but was found in another insect order, Thysanoptera. A parthenogenetic colony of a predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Aeolothripidae) possessed B-group Wolbachia. Male progeny were ...

  6. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  7. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  8. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  9. The phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid J Tehrani

    Full Text Available Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into "international types" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.

  10. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  11. Large declines of the Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is not currently listed on the IUCN Red List of threatened species, yet recent email discussions amongst a group of African raptor experts suggests this species may be in rapid decline. Information was solicited from raptor experts, as well as from published and unpublished ...

  12. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  13. Assessment of the occurrence and threats to Hooded Vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We surveyed seven western Kenyan towns and one neighbouring Ugandan market centre to assess the occurrence and threats to this species using opportunistic observations and interviews with employees at slaughterhouses and dumpsite facilities. We observed 23 Hooded Vultures, 20 in Bungoma Town and 3 in ...

  14. An apparent increase in Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leptoptilos crumeniferus- slaughterhouses enclosed within walls. It is. In additiOn t0 the resident HOOded the country'sbiggestslaughteringpointwere. Vulture, Carswell (1986) reported f0ur several hundreds of cattle and other small species of vultures frequenting Kampala ruminants, mainly goats, are slaughtered although ...

  15. The decline of an urban Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (2) increased poisoning of feral dogs with strychnine sulphate due to an upsurge of rabies and (3) increased disappearance of suitable trees for nesting and roosting. Keywords: cutting of trees, Hooded Vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus, poisoning, population estimate, slaughterhouse sanitation, urban development ...

  16. Hooded vultures Neophron monachus at Kamfinsa farm | Routledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hooded vultures Neophron monachus at Kamfinsa farm. Anthony Routledge. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 57-58. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  17. Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, N; Miyoshi, T; Noda, H

    2001-05-22

    Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They cause thelytoky, which is a form of parthenogenesis in which females produce females without males, in hymenopteran insects. Infection of this parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia has been restricted to the order Hymenoptera, but was found in another insect order, Thysanoptera. A parthenogenetic colony of a predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Aeolothripidae) possessed B-group Wolbachia. Male progeny were produced from this thrips by heat and tetracycline treatments. Males produced motile sperm, which were transferred to the female spermatheca by mating. However, the mating did not affect the sex ratios of the next generation, suggesting that the sperm do not fertilize the eggs.

  18. Evaluation of factors affecting the containment performance of traditional and nanomaterial fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin Holden

    This research was conducted to: 1) evaluate different methods for measuring containment effectiveness of a nanomaterial handling enclosure; 2) to evaluate design and operational factors which may impact containment performance for a traditional constant air volume (CAV) and nano fume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and; 3) to assess the impact on the operator body and arm motion on nanoparticle containment of the CAV and nano fume hoods. The research approach to address these objectives starts with an evaluation of the containment effectiveness of a new nanomaterial handling enclosure using tracer gas, nanoparticle and nanoparticle handling methodologies in a real-world laboratory setting. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well-correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. However, the nanoparticle method was more sensitive than the tracer gas test showing leakage in situations not indicated by the tracer gas tests. These experiments also identified substantial leaks near the sides of the hood sides even when the tracer gas concentration in the manikin breathing zone was not elevated. This result was consistent with new research showing that sampling in the manikin breathing zone may not be adequate to describe containment of fume hood devices. The second phase of this project provides an assessment of the internal flow patterns of a nano fume hood and a traditional CAV chemical fume hood. The impacts of design and operational differences between these hoods are investigated using both experimental measurements and numerical simulations with CFD. An investigation of the airflow patterns inside the hoods showed that large scale recirculation zones develop behind the sash for both hoods. However, the design of the side airfoils of the nano hood resulted in a secondary recirculation pattern along the sides of the hood which impacts interior contaminant dispersion and potential for leakage. The

  19. A female hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A female hooded merganser swims solo in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male is distinguished by a fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  20. A male hooded merganser swims in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest and striped breast identify this hooded merganser, swimming in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  1. Hooded mergansers swim in the waters of KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A male and two female hooded mergansers swim in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. The male displays its distinctive fan-shaped, black-bordered crest. Usually found from Alaska and Canada south to Nebraska, Oregon and Tennessee, hooded mergansers winter south to Mexico and the Gulf Coast, including KSC. The open water of the refuge provides wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  2. Lobbyisten bekræfter teorien: en omvendt Robin Hood!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere.......Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere....

  3. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  4. New approach to reducing water consumption in commercial kitchen hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, N.; Pairan, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Water mist sprays are used in wide range of application. However it is depend to the spray characteristic to suit the particular application. The modern commercial kitchen hood ventilation system was adopted with the water mist nozzle technology as an additional tool to increase the filtration efficiency. However, low level of filtration effectiveness and high water consumption were the major problems among the Commercial Kitchen Ventilation expert. Therefore, this study aims to develop a new mist spray technology to replacing the conventional KSJB nozzle (KSJB is a nozzle’s name). At the same time, an appropriate recommended location to install the nozzle in kitchen hood system was suggested. An extensive simulation works were carried out to observe the spray characteristics, ANSYS (FLUENT) was used for simulation wise. In the case of nozzle studies, nozzles were tested at 1 bar pressure of water and air. In comparison with conventional nozzles configuration, this new approach suggested nozzle configuration was reduce up to 50% of water consumption, which by adopted 3 numbers of nozzles instead of 6 numbers of nozzles in the commercial kitchen hood system. Therefore, this nozzle will be used in industry for their benefits of water consumption, filtration efficiency and reduced the safety limitations.

  5. Effects of ground-water development in the North Fort Hood area, Coryell County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeen, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is studying the adequacy of the existing ground-water supplies of North Fort Hood, located in Coryell County in central Texas and an important part of the U.S. Army's Fort Hood Military Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey was requested to compile the available ground-water data, collect additional data, and assess the effects of the long-term development of ground water in the North Fort Hood area.

  6. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies and Hood River Fish Habitat Project, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    1999-12-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin.

  7. Deploying time investigation of automotive active hood lift mechanism with different design parameters of hinge part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the change in deploying time of an active hood lift mechanism of a passenger vehicle activated by a gunpowder actuator. Especially, in this work, the deploying time is investigated by changing the principal design parameters of the hinge part of the hood mechanism. After briefly introducing the working principle of the active hood lift mechanism operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing dynamic equations of the active hood lift mechanism are formulated for deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations of motion, the response time for deploying the hood lift mechanism is investigated by changing several geometric locations such as the location of actuator. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift mechanism with the existing conventional hood lift mechanism and the proposed active hood lift mechanism. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed active hood lift mechanism is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  8. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  9. Time allocation of Orius sauteri in attacking Thrips palmi on an eggplant leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yano, E.; Jiang, N.; Hemerik, L.; Mochizuki, M.; Mitsunaga, T.; Shimoda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a polyphagous predator used as a biological control agent of palm thrips, Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). We studied O. sauteri's searching efficiency, time allocation on a leaf, leaving tendency, and attacking of prey.

  10. (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude experimentale de quelques parametres biologiques de ceranisus femoratus (gahan) (hymenoptera : eulophidae) un nouvel ennemi naturel Pour le controle de megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom) (thysanoptera : thripidae) ravageur du niebe au benin.

  11. Engineered multidomain cysteine protease inhibitors yield resistance against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) in greenhouse trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outchkourov, N.S.; Kogel, de W.J.; Wiegers, G.L.; Abrahamson, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), cause very large economic damage on a variety of field and greenhouse crops. In this study, plant resistance against thrips was introduced into transgenic potato plants through the expression of novel,

  12. Population structure and genetic diversity in Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): is there a correlation between genetic and geographic proximity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, A L S; Waldschmidt, A M; Silva, J C

    2015-08-19

    Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is a minuscule insect species, which forms galls, is subsocial, and parthenogenetic. It is associated with Ficus benjamina L. (Moraceae) and has a pantropical occurrence. The paucity of genetic studies on the order Thysanoptera led us to use inter-simple sequence repeat molecular marker to assess intra- and inter-gall, as well as intra- and inter-site, genetic variability and population structure of G. uzeli. Analyses indicated low genetic variability, probably related to haplodiploidy, genetic drift, the galling habit, and the low dispersal ability of G. uzeli. Populations were highly structured, with higher variation within populations than among them. Geographic distance does not appear to affect structure and genetic diversity, the latter being influenced by G. uzeli's bioecological traits, by numerous introductions during a short period, and by a possible recent, common ancestry.

  13. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  14. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  15. Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carness, Jeffrey M; Winchester, Jonathan C; Oras, Michael J; Arora, Navin S

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Subsequent thorough patient evaluation and history, literature review, immunization status reconciliation, entomological assessment, site survey, and skin biopsy were performed. This case series is one of the largest reported to date of a cluster outbreak of a papular dermatitis secondary to bites from thrips (ie, insects of the order Thysanoptera).

  16. Natural history of G ynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae in galls of Ficus benjamina (Rosales, Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz S. Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls induced by thrips are simple structures when compared to those of other groups of arthropods, and little is known regarding many of their aspects. This study aimed to investigate aspects of the natural history of Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann, 1900 in galls of Ficus benjamina L., 1753 using seasonal sampling (summer and winter. Twenty trees were sampled and divided into quadrants. From each of them, five galls were collected, forming a total of 400 galls per collection. Thrips showed greater abundance at higher temperatures (25.7°C and no precipitation. Sex ratio was biased towards females (0.022 males per female, pointing to an inbred mating structure. Arthropod fauna associated with galls was more abundant (N=798 in winter, and it included representatives of the orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Araneae, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Psocoptera, Thysanoptera, Diptera and Blattodea.

  17. Revisión taxonómica del grupo Haplothrips-Karnyothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel P Retana-Salazar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el estado taxonómico del grupo Haplothrips y al mismo tiempo del grupo Karnyothrips, separándose este en varios nuevos géneros por considerarse parafilético; se describen los nuevos géneros Vargasia, Willeia y Aguilaria separados del antiguo Karnyothrips. Se describe un nuevo género de Thysanoptera-Phlaeothripidae procedente del Pacífico Central de Costa Rica. Este género se distingue por los estiletes maxilares muy apartados entre sí, carece de puente maxilar, la forma de la pelta y la seta B1 que es 2/3 la longitud del tubo. Se presenta el análisis crítico de este género y los posibles táxones emparentados, estableciendo un nuevo grupo a partir de las condiciones presentadas por Jironiella gen. n.Taxonomic revision of the Haplothrips-Karnyothrips group (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae. The generic group ("ensemble" Haplothrips-Karnyothrips is reviewed, following the most recently published criteria for distinguishing generic characters. We establish a new diagnosis for each genus. A review of a Central American collection is included and a new genus of Phlaeothripidae is described from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica from specimens collected on Cyperaceae flowers during the dry season. The genus can be distinguished by widely separated maxillary stylets, absent maxillary bridge, pelta shape and the setae B1, which measures two thirds of the tube length. We include a key based on characters of phylogenetic importance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 627-635. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

  18. Impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow in the fawn-hooded rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.E. van Dokkum (Richard); M. Alonso-Galicia; A.P. Provoost (Abraham); H.J. Jacob (Howard); R.J. Roman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe responses to changes in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) were compared in 12-wk-old fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH), fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL), and August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats to determine whether autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF)

  19. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  20. Efficiency of recirculation hoods with regard to PM2.5 and NO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Cornelissen, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation hoods equipped with carbon and plasma filters are becoming more and more popular. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of recirculation hoods with regard to PM2.5 and NOx removal in a 26 m3 lab kitchen with a gas furnace. With the carbon filter PM2.5 is reduced for

  1. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up.

  2. Oblique effects on the capture ability of a hood under crosswind environments - numerical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Feng-Chin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tung Nan Institute of Technology, Shenkeng, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ren-Horn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Taiwan Institute of Science and Technology, Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-11-15

    The flow field of industrial ventilation hood induced by the combination of extract-flow and crosswind will be affected by the oblique angle of the hood's set-up. This text is aimed at the oblique effects of a hood computed numerically by the I-DEAS ESC software. The size and scope of the capture zone of toxic gases upon the flow simulation are highly influenced by the variables of the extract velocity at the opening to the extract duct and the angle of the opening of the duct to the direction of the environmental air flow. The streamline extending from the hood's central axis is changed. The efficiencies of gas capture are altered not only by the momentum ratio u/v but also by the relation between the direction of the hood's inclination and crosswind vector. (author)

  3. Molecular differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and development of a species-specific marker for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and melon thrips, T. palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), vectors of tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Krishna Kumar, N K; Kumar, Vikas; Ranganath, H R

    2007-10-01

    A quick and developmental-stage non-limiting method of the identification of vectors of tospoviruses, such as Thrips tabaci and T. palmi, is important in the study of vector transmission, insecticide resistance, biological control, etc. Morphological identification of these thrips vectors is often a stumbling block in the absence of a specialist and limited by polymorphism, sex, stage of development, etc. Molecular identification, on the other hand, is not hampered by the above factors and can easily be followed by a non-specialist with a little training. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) exhibits reliable inter-species variations as compared to the other markers. In this communication, we present the differences in the mtCOI partial sequence of morphologically identified specimens of T. tabaci and T. palmi collected from onion and watermelon, respectively. Species-specific markers, identified in this study, could successfully determine T. tabaci and T. palmi, which corroborated the morphological identification. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both T. tabaci and T. palmi formed different clades as compared to the other NCBI accessions. The implication of these variations in vector efficiency has to be investigated further. The result of this investigation is useful in the quick identification of T. tabaci and T. palmi, a critical factor in understanding the epidemiology of the tospoviruses, their management and also in quarantine.

  4. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of stomach contents analyses of harp and hooded seals collected in West Greenland waters in the period 1986-1993 are reviewed, and compared with published data and circumstantial information from local hunters.  The diet of harp seals in this region is variable but consists mainly of pelagic crustaceans (Thysanoessa spp. and Parathemisto libellula and small fish species like capelin (Mallotus villosus, sandeel (Ammodytes spp., polar cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctic cod (Arctogadus glacialis. Species of importance for commercial fisheries in Greenland, such as Northern prawn (Pandalus borealis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides play a minor role in the diet of harp seals in this area. Variation in the diet of hooded seals is less well documented, but in addition to the species also taken by harp seals, larger demersal fishes like Greenland halibut, redfish (Sebastes spp., cod, and wolffish (Anarhichas minor are apparently important prey items.

  5. Vitamin D metabolism in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiver, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Phocid seals appear to ingest vitamin D at levels toxic to most mammals, without suffering from vitamin D toxicity. Vitamin D metabolism was investigated in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) to examine this phenomenon. Hooded seal pups and adults were either fasted, fed herring or fed herring supplemented with 400,000 IU vitamin D{sub 3} daily. They were injected IV with a tracer amount of {sup 3}H-D{sub 3} after 2 weeks on their respective diets and serial blood samples, urine and faeces were collected for 168 h. Plasma, tissues, urine and faeces were analyzed for radioactivity. Plasma was also analyzed for calcium, vitamin D, 25-OH-D, 24,25(OH){sub 2}D and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D. Seals receiving the vitamin D{sub 3} supplements showed no evidence of vitamin D intoxication as indicated by kidney calcification or plasma calcium levels. Plasma 25-OH-D levels did not increase in response to high vitamin D intake to the same extent as in other mammals. Plasma 25-OH-D at high levels is believed to be the causative agent in vitamin D toxicity. The ability of the seals to tolerate higher vitamin D intakes than other mammals appeared to be due to shorter half-lives of vitamin D, its main circulatory metabolite 25-OH-D and the purported catabolic metabolite 24,25(OH){sub 2}D in the plasma.

  6. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  7. On the design of a tunnel-entrance hood with multiple windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    An analysis is made to determine the optimal distribution of 'windows' in the wall of a long tunnel-entrance hood used to suppress the micro-pressure wave produced when the compression wave generated by an entering high-speed train reaches the far end of the tunnel. An ideally designed hood causes the pressure to rise linearly across a compression wavefront of thickness equal approximately to the ratio of the hood length to the train Mach number. At moderate train Mach numbers the hood length can be assumed to be 'acoustically compact', and the initial form of the compression wave can then be expressed in terms of an equivalent source distribution representing the train and the compact Green's function for sources in the hood. The requirement that the wavefront profile be linear imposes certain conditions on the Green's function that permits the determination of the hood window dimensions. Our calculations take no account of the influence on compression wave formation of separated air flow over the train, from the hood portal and from the peripheries of the windows. The explicit predictions of the optimum window sizes given in this paper may therefore be too small, and should be refined by using model scale tests that allow window dimensions to be varied from their predicted optimal values to incorporate the effects of flow separation.

  8. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-02

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).

  9. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  10. Rupture of the extensor hood of the fifth toe: a rare injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Sara; Gaba, Suchi; Mangwani, Jitendra

    2017-02-27

    Closed injuries of the extensor hood of the lesser toes are rare and seldom reported in the literature. We present the case of a woman aged 25 years who presented to the orthopaedic fracture clinic with a 2-week history of pain in the left fifth toe and inability to extend following a ballet dancing session. Investigations showed no fracture on plain radiographs, but an ultrasound scan demonstrated rupture to the extensor hood of the little toe. Successful surgical repair of the extensor hood was performed, and the patient made a good recovery with return to dancing activities. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Numerical simulations of the 2-dimensional Robin-Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwilich, Gabriel; Fox, Perry; Zypman, Fredy; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    The Robin Hood, or Zaitsev model [1] has been successfully used to model depinning of interfaces, friction, dislocation motion and flux creep, because it is one of the simplest extremal models for self-organized criticallity Until now, its properties have been well understood theoretically in one dimension and its scaling laws numerically verified. It is important to extend the range of validity of these laws into higher dimensions, to find precise values for the scaling exponents, and to investigate how they depend on the details of the model (like anisotropy). The case of two dimensions is of particular importance when studying surface friction [2]. Here, we numerically evaluate high precision scaling exponents for the avalanche size distribution, the avalanche fractal dimension, and the Levy flight-like distribution of the jumps between extremal active sites. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A 189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E (accepted)

  12. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D

    2006-03-01

    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  13. Spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor's position in terms of coordinates based on each individual's motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.

  14. Spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yomosa

    Full Text Available We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor's position in terms of coordinates based on each individual's motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.

  15. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a steam power plant low-pressure turbine downward exhaust hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindell, R.H.; Alston, T.M. [Northrop-Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center; Sarro, C.A.; Stegmann, G.C. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., NY (United States); Gray, L.; Davids, J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to the analysis of a low-pressure turbine exhaust hood at a typical steam power generating station. A Navier-Stokes solver, capable of modeling all the viscous terms, in a Reynolds-averaged formulation, was used. The work had two major goals. The first was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the complex three-dimensional flow fields that exist in the exhaust hood at representative operating conditions. The second was to evaluate the relative benefits of a flow guide modification to optimize performance at a selected operating condition. Also, the influence of simulated turbine discharge characteristics, relative to uniform hood entrance conditions, was evaluated. The calculations show several interesting and possibly unique results. They support use of an integrated approach to the design of turbine exhaust stage blading and hood geometry for optimum efficiency.

  17. The fusion of the imagination and the material universe: Hugh Hood, Flying a red kite (1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first weeks of January 1957 Hugh (John Blagdon Hood moved to Hartford, Connecticut, U. S. A, where he became Professor at Saint Joseph College. At the time Hood did not know that he was going to become one of Canada's greatest stylists and contemporary short story writers. Between January 1957 and March 1962, when he was going through a final selection o short stories for his first book, Flying a Red Kite (FRK, Hugh Hood wrote thirty-eight short stories and two novels (God Rest You Merry and Hungry Generations. The numbers show that Hood was an extremely productive writer in that period. From the thirty-eight stories he chose eleven for FRK, fourteen of them were published in subsequent collections, in various journals and short story anthologies, while thirteen of them have not been published yet.

  18. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3. Definitions. Hood means any exterior movable body panel forward of the windshield that is used to cover an...

  19. Theoretical and numerical predictions of two-dimensional Aaberg slot exhaust hoods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen, X; Ingham, D B

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and computational fluid dynamical techniques are employed to predict the two-dimensional turbulent air flows which are created by an Aaberg slot exhaust hood, which is reinforced by a two...

  20. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  1. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  3. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  4. Novel insights into mitochondrial gene rearrangement in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) from the grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hangrui; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Gu, Wenyi; Feng, Jinian; Cai, Wanzhi; Shao, Renfu

    2017-06-27

    We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus, which is highly rearranged and differs from the four thrips species reported previously in the arrangement of both tRNA genes and a protein-coding gene, nad3, and in the copy number of the control region (CR). We reconstructed the phylogeny of the thrips with mt genome sequences, and used it as a framework to gain insights into mt genome evolution in thrips. It is evident that A. obscurus is less rearranged in mt genome organization than the other four known thrips. nad3 is in its ancestral location in A. obscurus but was translocated in other four thrips. Also, A. obscurus has one CR, which is ancestral to hexapods whereas other thrips have two or three CRs. All of the five thrips whose mt genomes have been sequenced to date are from the subfamily Thripinae, which represents about a quarter of the species richness in the order Thysanoptera. The high variation in mt genome organization observed in a subfamily challenges our knowledge about animal mt genomes. It remains to be investigated why mt genomes evolved so fast in the subfamily Thripinae and how mt genomes evolved in other lineages of thrips.

  5. Holopothrips molzi sp.n. (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae): natural history and interactions in Myrtaceae galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Mariana Flores; Mendonça, Milton De Souza Jr; Cavalleri, Adriano

    2016-05-23

    Holopothrips molzi sp. n. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is described from southern Brazil inducing leaf galls on Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae). Field observations revealed that the numbers of this thrips were highly variable within galls, and two other insect species were recorded living in these galls: Myrciathrips variabilis Cavalleri et al. (Phlaeothripidae) and an eulophid wasp (Hymenoptera). We investigated here if morphological traits of leaf and gall and abundance of the invader thrips were correlated with the gall inducer's abundance. In order to determine the feeding habit and behaviour of M. variabilis and its interactions with the gall inducer we performed observations ad libitum and attack simulation tests on both thrips species to observe their response to possible invaders. Our results showed that leaf size is not related to H. molzi abundance, and gall size is relevant only when total numbers of both thrips species are considered. Myrciathrips variabilis was observed feeding on gall tissues, and no direct antagonistic interactions between the two thrips were recorded. The results of the behavioural tests simulating attacks were remarkably different in the two thrips species, indicating different strategies when threatened or disturbed. The interaction between the two thrips species is probably a case of inquilinism.

  6. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Aaron M; Kumar, Vivek; Morgan, J Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G; McKenzie, Cindy L; Osborne, Lance S

    2015-06-09

    Multipartite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multipartite mitochondrial genome architecture in a third order with highly rearranged genomes: Thysanoptera (thrips). We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of two divergent members of the Scirtothrips dorsalis cryptic species complex. The East Asia 1 species has the single circular chromosome common to animals while the South Asia 1 species has a genome consisting of two circular chromosomes. The fragmented South Asia 1 genome exhibits extreme chromosome size asymmetry with the majority of genes on the large, 14.28 kb, chromosome and only nad6 and trnC on the 0.92 kb mini-circle chromosome. This genome also features paralogous control regions with high similarity suggesting a very recent origin of the nad6 mini-circle chromosome in the South Asia 1 cryptic species. Thysanoptera, along with the other minor paraenopteran insect orders should be considered models for rapid mitochondrial genome evolution, including fragmentation. Continued use of these models will facilitate a greater understanding of recombination and other mitochondrial genome evolutionary processes across eukaryotes.

  7. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  8. Reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Sharma, Vijay K; Lao, Annabelle Y; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Malkoff, Marc D; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent hemodynamic and neurological changes with persisting arterial occlusions may be attributable to cerebral blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. Transcranial Doppler monitoring with voluntary breath-holding and serial NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained in patients with acute middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusions. The steal phenomenon was detected as transient, spontaneous, or vasodilatory stimuli-induced velocity reductions in affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. The steal magnitude (%) was calculated as [(MFVm-MFVb)/MFVb]x100, where m=minimum and b=baseline mean flow velocities (MFV) during the 15- to 30-second period of a total 30 second of breath-holding. Six patients had steal phenomenon on transcranial Doppler (53 to 73 years, NIHSS 4 to 15 points). Steal magnitude ranged from -15.0% to -43.2%. All patients also had recurrent neurological worsening (>2 points increase in NIHSS scores) at stable blood pressure. In 3 of 5 patients receiving noninvasive ventilatory correction for snoring/sleep apnea, no further velocity or NIHSS score changes were noted. Our descriptive study suggests possibility to detect and quantify the cerebral steal phenomenon in real-time. If the steal is confirmed as the cause of neurological worsening, reversed Robin Hood syndrome may identify a target group for testing blood pressure augmentation and noninvasive ventilatory correction in stroke patients.

  9. An overview of the 2009 Fort Hood Robotics Rodeo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth

    2010-04-01

    The Robotics Rodeo held from 31 August to 3 September 2009 at Fort Hood, Texas, had three stated goals: educate key decision makers and align the robotics industry; educate Soldiers and developers; and perform a live market survey of the current state of technologies to encourage the development of robotic systems to support operational needs. Both events that comprised the Robotics Rodeo, the Extravaganza and the robotic technology observation, demonstration and discussion (RTOD2) addressed these stated goals. The Extravaganza was designed to foster interaction between the vendors and the visitors who included the media, Soldiers, others in the robotics industry and key decision makers. The RTOD2 allowed the vendors a more private and focused interaction with the subject matter experts teams, this was the forum for the vendors to demonstrate their robotic systems that supported the III Corps operational needs statements that are focused on route clearance, convoy operations, persistent stare, and robotic wingman. While the goals of the Rodeo were achieved, the underlying success from the event is the development of a new business model that is focused on collapsing the current model to get technologies into the hands of our warfighters quicker. This new model takes the real time data collection from the Rodeo, the Warfighter Needs from TRADOC, the emerging requirements from our current engagements, and assistance from industry partners to develop a future Army strategy for the rapid fielding of unmanned systems technologies.

  10. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin in north-central Oregon consists of about a 1 ,035-square-mile area underlain by Miocene to Holocene age volcanic, volcaniclastic, sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated surficial deposits. The most important aquifer is the Columbia River Basalt Group, a unit that underlies most of the basin and probably exceeds a thickness of 2,000 feet wherever it is present. By 1980, only the upper 1,000 feet or less of the formation has been developed for water supplies. Most of this development is in the semiarid eastern half of the basin. Wells in the aquifer unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute. Other aquifer units in the basin have more limited areal extent and smaller saturated thickness than does the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a few hundred gallons per minute to wells. Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of iron (0.3 to 6.4 mg/l) and manganese (0.05 to 1.2 mg/l) or is moderately hard to very hard (60 to 260 mg/l) as calcium carbonate. (USGS)

  11. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  13. Inequitable distribution of general practitioners in Australia: estimating need through the Robin Hood Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Symon, B

    2000-02-01

    From Census data, to document the distribution of general practitioners in Australia and to estimate the number of general practitioners needed to achieve an equitable distribution accounting for community health need. Data on location of general practitioners, population size and crude mortality by statistical division (SD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The number of patients per general practitioner by SD was calculated and plotted. Using crude mortality to estimate community health need, a ratio of the number of general practitioners per person: mortality was calculated for all Australia and for each SD (the Robin Hood Index). From this, the number of general practitioners needed to achieve equity was calculated. In all, 26,290 general practitioners were identified in 57 SDs. The mean number of people per general practitioner is 707, ranging from 551 to 1887. Capital city SDs have most favourable ratios. The Robin Hood Index for Australia is 1, and ranges from 0.32 (relatively under-served) to 2.46 (relatively over-served). Twelve SDs (21%) including all capital cities and 65% of all Australians, have a Robin Hood Index > 1. To achieve equity per capita 2489 more general practitioners (10% of the current workforce) are needed. To achieve equity by the Robin Hood Index 3351 (13% of the current workforce) are needed. The distribution of general practitioners in Australia is skewed. Nonmetropolitan areas are relatively underserved. Census data and the Robin Hood Index could provide a simple means of identifying areas of need in Australia.

  14. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  15. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood... area will be used intermittently by the Navy for non-explosive torpedo ranging. Launching will be...

  16. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  17. Tabla de vida y patrón de distribución de Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thripidae:Panchaetothripinaeen condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A Soto-Rodríguez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron datos obtenidos en el laboratorio para la construcción de la tabla de vida de Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard (Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae. Se obtuvo una alta mortalidad en los estados de huevo (72.5% y larva II (18.4%. En los patrones de distribución observados en las hojas, los estados inmaduros presentaron una distribución subvascular y la pupa presentó una distribución submarginalLife table for Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae under laboratory conditions. The tropical thrip Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard is a polyphagous species sometimes found in commercially important crops that include cocoa and cotton. Laboratory data from specimens collected in Psidium friedrichsthalianum trees in Costa Rica were used to prepare a life table. There was a high mortality in the egg (72.5% and larva II (18.4% stages. On leaves, inmature stages presented subvascular distribution and pupae presented submarginal distribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:187-190. Epub 2005 Jun 24

  18. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  19. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  20. The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) as an environmental bioindicator species of heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, Mauro; Quatto, Piero; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to examine the possible presence of lead and cadmium in the liver and kidneys of hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Liver and kidneys of hooded crow carcasses were collected in Province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy) in order to detect lead and cadmium content. Significant differences were found in lead and cadmium levels between areas of intensive cultivation versus areas where meadows are prevalent. Moreover, age greatly influenced the burden of heavy metals, while sex did not seem to affect the level of contamination. The source of contamination may be phosphate fertilizers used for intensive cultivation in the study area.

  1. Identification and pest status of Holopothrips fulvus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G.A. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae.

  2. Mount Hood volcano: phase zero study. Final report, January 1, 1977--June 30 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, D.A.

    1977-08-04

    A base of earth science data was developed for an area centered on Mt. Hood Volcano as the first step in a systematic geothermal resource assessment. A comprehensive technical plan for the assessment was developed and is also described. A preliminary bibliography is included.

  3. Remembering the outlaw in Medieval England: the emergence of the Robin Hood legend.

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Charles Robert

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the origins and development of the legends about Robin Hood between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. It argues that they were shaped by memories of political and social events and of particular individuals in the early thirteenth century, subsequently transformed over time.

  4. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  5. 42 CFR 84.1136 - Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements. 84.1136 Section 84.1136 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.1139 Section 84.1139 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  7. On the die face design for stamping an automotive engine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Shi-Wei; Lin, Ching-I.; Chen, Fuh-Kuo

    2017-09-01

    Since the engine hood is mainly manufactured in the drawing operation, the die addendum design is the key to the success of manufacturing a defect free product. In this study, the existing die addendum designs corresponding to those engine hoods were reviewed and the design parameters were constructed. The preliminary study was then performed to examine the influences of the stamping die angle, binder surface shape, and die open line shape on the defects occurred in the part. Based on the simulation results, the optimum design for the die addendum face was then investigated and a systematic design guideline was proposed. In order to validate the proposed design guideline, actual engine hoods were stamped according to the finite element analysis and the production part shapes, thickness distributions, and the stretch at the central region were compared with those obtained from the finite element simulations. The consistent agreement between the product parts and the simulation results confirms the validity of the design guideline proposed in the present study for stamping an engine hood.

  8. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  9. The effect of turbulent structures on hood design -- A review of CFD and flow visualization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, J.O.; Ghorashi, B. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews separate flow visualization studies and numerical techniques as related to the fluid behavior of industrial ventilation systems and hood design. The results of these separate studies re brought together in order to shed some light on the fluid behavior in these systems. It is observed that empirically-derived velocity contours continue to be the standard for the design of ventilation systems. However, the practice of sizing exhaust hoods based on velocity contours neglects the existence of events that would inevitably influence the exhaust hood performance. For example, the turbulent structures created by the presence of crossdrafts, room air turbulence, and flow separation around objects within the vicinity of the hood are all but ignored when one solely relies on the velocity-contour technique. This review study presents methods that can be utilized to account for and evaluate the influences of these events. It is concluded that CFD is the most valuable tool for modeling the flow for ventilation systems. In addition, a paradigm is identified and suggested for future research in this area.

  10. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system.

  11. Investigating Annual Diving Behaviour by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julie M.; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F.; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O.; Stenson, Garry B.

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004−2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals’ diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August–October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods. PMID:24282541

  12. Antioxidant capacity develops with maturation in the deep-diving hooded seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Burns, Jennifer M.; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Maturation in hooded seals is characterized by the rapid development of their physiological diving capacity and is accompanied by increases in oxidant production but not oxidative damage. To test the hypothesis that the antioxidant system of hooded seals develops as they transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic environment, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence that encodes the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and compared Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression levels in muscle samples from neonate, weaned pups and adult hooded seals, along with glutathione (GSH) levels and the activity/protein content of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxyredoxin VI (PrxVI), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1), glutathione disulphide reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glutamate-cysteine ligase. The Nrf2 of the hooded seal is 1822 bp long and encodes a protein of 606 amino acids with a leucine zipper domain and Keap1-mediated proteosomal degradation residues, which are key for Nrf2 function and regulation. Although neither Nrf2 mRNA nor Nrf2 nuclear protein content are higher in adults than in pups, GSH levels along with GPx, PrxVI, Trx1, TrxR and Glrx1 activity/protein content increase with maturation, suggesting that the potential for peroxide removal increases with development in hooded seals, and that these enzymes contribute to the regulation of the intracellular redox state and the prevention of oxidative damage in these deep-diving mammals. PMID:21832133

  13. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs to 51 Northwest (NW Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008. Using General Additive Models (GAMs we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding. Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  14. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julie M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Boehme, Lars; Wiersma, Yolanda F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Hammill, Mike O; Stenson, Garry B

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to 51 Northwest (NW) Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males) during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008). Using General Additive Models (GAMs) we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT) and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult) and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding) but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding). Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  15. Species composition and population dynamics of thrips (Thysanoptera) in mango orchards of northern peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, H; Che Salmah, M R; Dieng, H

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are key pests of mango, Mangifera indica (L.), in Malaysia, including the Northern Peninsular. As Penang has year-round equatorial climate and high of rainfall, the populations of thrips may be subject to variations in composition and size. With a goal of developing an appropriate control strategy, a survey was conducted in Penang to determine species composition and abundance in relation to some environmental factors. Sprayed and unsprayed orchards were sampled on weekly basis through two flowering seasons of 2009 using CO(2) collection technique. Larval population falling into the ground to pupate and adults emerging from the soil were investigated in both orchards. Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood) were the most prevalent species in the sprayed and the unsprayed orchards, respectively. The abundance of thrips was high during the flowering period of the dry season and decreased during the flowering period of the rainy season. This latter period coincided with decreased temperature and increased relative humidity. Percentage of adult emergence from the soil was lower in the rainy season than recorded in the dry season in both orchards. Taken together, these observations suggest that T. hawaiiensis and S. dorsalis are the main thrips species pests of mango panicles in Penang. Direct control with insecticides focusing on these two species may help to reduce cosmetic injuries and other damages on mango fruits.

  16. Leaf-litter thrips of the genus Adraneothrips from Asia and Australia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li-hong; Mound, Laurence A; Qiao, Ge-xia

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental genus Stigmothrips Ananthakrishnan is synonymised with A draneothrips Hood, a genus in which most species have been described from the Neotropics. Problems with descriptions by T.N. Ananthakrishnan of species from India are discussed, but cannot be fully resolved without access to the holotypes. A key is provided to 23 species of Adraneothrips from Asia and Australia, including four new species: darwini sp. n. from Northern Territory, Australia; hani sp. n. from Taiwan, China; yunnanensis sp. n. from Yunnan, China as well as Java, Indonesia; and waui sp. n. from Papua New Guinea. One species from the Philippines, Adraneothrips makilingensis (Reyes) comb. n., is transferred from Apelaunothrips, and the male of Adraneothrips russatus (Haga) is described and illustrated for the first time, from Yunnan, China. Two species are newly recorded from Australia: coloratus (Mound) previously known only from the Solomon Islands, and russatus (Haga) previously known from southern Japan and southern China but with one female recorded here from Fiji. Further new records are, coloratus from Java, and chinensis (Zhang & Tong) from Malaysia. Colonies of species in this genus are commonly found living on dead leaves, as fungus-feeders, and many species are brightly coloured or bicoloured in patterns of yellow and brown.

  17. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  18. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.

  19. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  20. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  1. Entry and elimination of marine mammal Brucella spp. by hooded seal (Cystophora cristata alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett K Larsen

    Full Text Available A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata; however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890 from harbor seal (Phocavitulina, B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891 from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus isolate (M83/07/1, to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains

  2. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  3. Modeling and measuring sound propagation of hooded crow calls in open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    , an optimal frequency range between approximately 500 Hz and 2 kHz. The hearing system of crows enables the most sensitive detection of signals in noise within this range. From modeling, noise measurements, and hearing data we estimate hooded crow active space to be roughly 1 km, but with great variance...... In a study of territorial communication distance of hooded crows we find an excellent correspondence between model predicted crow call transmission and re-recorded crow calls. Modeling average transmission characteristics within a spatial matrix of sender/receiver distances and heights...... representative of crow territorial communication and taking into account ground effect and air turbulence, we predict an optimal transmission frequency range between 0,5-1.6 kHz. In a natural open field crow habitat we measure, with sender and receiver heights of 2.8 m and transmission distances up to 320 m...

  4. Maternal transfer and biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Karl Johan Ullavik

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic has in the later years become a final destination for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are, due to long-range atmospheric transport, river outlets and ocean currents, brought into the pristine arctic region from southern latitudes. POPs can accumulate in biota and reach high concentrations in the upper trophic levels in the arctic food webs due to biomagnification. The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) is a top-predator in the arctic marine food web and is susceptible to ...

  5. Geochemical studies of rocks, water, and gases at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Bowen, R.E.; Bowman, H.R.; Strisower, B.

    1979-02-01

    Mr. Hood, a composite andesitic volcano, located near Portland, Oregon, is one of several large eruptive centers which dominate the Cascade Mountains of the western United States. As part of a program of geologic, geophysical and geochemical studies to examine Mt. Hood's geothermal resource potential, samples of warm-and cold-spring water, water from a geothermal test well in Old Maid Flat, fumarolic gases, and rocks were collected and analyzed for major chemical constituents and trace elements. The only warm-spring area on Mt. Hood is Swim Springs, located on the south flank. Orifices at Swim were sampled repeatedly with little overall change noted in water chemistry between summer and winter. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data and mixing calculations based on analyses of Swim Springs and numerous cold springs, indicate that a large component of the warm water at Swim is from near-surface runoff. Chemical geothermometry suggests that temperatures at depth in the Swim Springs system are within the range 104 to 170/sup 0/C; the temperature of unmixed hot water may exceed 200/sup 0/C. Higher-than-background chloride contents and specific conductances of cold springs on the south flank of the mountain suggest that there is a small component of thermal water in these sources. A geothermal model of Mt. Hood is proposed wherein snow- and glacier-melt water near the summit comes in close promimity to the hot central neck of the mountain, manifested by the summit-crater fumaroles.Iridium was detected in warm and cold spring waters and in a sample of altered andesite.

  6. A Shock Mitigation of Pedestrian-Vehicle Impact Using Active Hood Lift System: Deploying Time Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deploying time (or response time of an active hood lift system (AHLS of a passenger vehicle activated by gunpowder actuator. In this work, this is accomplished by changing principal design parameters of the latch part mechanism of the hood system. After briefly introducing the working principle of the AHLS operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing equations of the AHLS are formulated for each different deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations, the response time for deploying the hold lift system is determined by changing several geometric distances such as the distance from the rotational center of the pop-up guide to the point of the latch in the axial and vertical directions. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift system with the existing conventional AHLS and proposed AHLS. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed AHLS is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  7. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  8. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  9. Development of a dust collector inlet hood for enhanced surface mine drill dust capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Organiscak; Steven J. Page [National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    2005-03-01

    Surface mine drill operators have the highest frequency of overexposure to quartz dust, and drilling is one of the occupations associated with the highest incidence of silicosis. Previous field assessment studies of drilling machines indicate that they can emit some of the highest airborne respirable quartz dust concentrations found at surface mining operations. Typically, the surface mine drills are equipped with dry dust collector systems to capture the dust being flushed with compressed air from the hole during the drilling process. The overall control effectiveness of the dust collector system is initially dependent on capturing the dust cloud at the source via the collector inlet. To assist the initial capture of the dust being flushed from the drill hole, the bottom of the drill deck is typically shrouded or enclosed on all sides to help contain the dust for the collector inlet plenum located on the underside perimeter of the drill deck. Openings, gaps and breaches in the shroud enclosure permit dust to escape dust collector capture. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed a collector inlet hood that reconfigures the inlet plenum around the drill steel and above the hole to enhance dust capture. Laboratory development and testing show that this inlet hood improves dust capture by an average of nearly 50% over a wide range of collector flows and shroud leakage areas. This report describes the laboratory and subsequent field testing of this inlet hood concept.

  10. Clave ilustrada para los géneros de Thysanoptera y especies de Frankliniella presentes en cuatro zonas hortícolas en Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo A. Soto R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una clave ilustrada para 15 géneros de Thysanoptera que han sido localizados en 4 zonas hortícolas de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se encontró 2 géneros de Aeolothripidae: Franklinothrips y Erythrothrips. También se encontró 2 géneros de Panchaetothripinae (Heliothrips y Selenothrips, 6 géneros de Thripinae (Bregmatothrips, Chirothrips, Neohydatothrips, Microcephalothrips, Frankliniella y Thrips y 5 géneros de Tubulifera (Karnyothrips, Haplothrips, Leptothrips, Liothrips y Adraneothrips. Se incluye una clave ilustrada para 5 especies de Frankliniella (parvula, fallaciosa, insularis, invasor y cubensis.

  11. Clave ilustrada para los géneros de Thysanoptera y especies de Frankliniella presentes en cuatro zonas hortícolas en Alajuela, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo A. Soto R.; Axel P. Retana S.

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta una clave ilustrada para 15 géneros de Thysanoptera que han sido localizados en 4 zonas hortícolas de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se encontró 2 géneros de Aeolothripidae: Franklinothrips y Erythrothrips. También se encontró 2 géneros de Panchaetothripinae (Heliothrips y Selenothrips), 6 géneros de Thripinae (Bregmatothrips, Chirothrips, Neohydatothrips, Microcephalothrips, Frankliniella y Thrips) y 5 géneros de Tubulifera (Karnyothrips, Haplothrips, Leptoth...

  12. Controls on long-term low explosivity at andesitic arc volcanoes: Insights from Mount Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleszar, Alison M.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Wallace, Paul J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-03-01

    The factors that control the explosivity of silicic volcanoes are critical for hazard assessment, but are often poorly constrained for specific volcanic systems. Mount Hood, Oregon, is a somewhat atypical arc volcano in that it is characterized by a lack of large explosive eruptions over the entire lifetime of the current edifice (~ 500,000 years). Erupted Mount Hood lavas are also compositionally homogeneous, with ~ 95% having SiO2 contents between 58 and 66 wt.%. The last three eruptive periods in particular have produced compositionally homogeneous andesite-dacite lava domes and flows. In this paper we report major element and volatile (H2O, CO2, Cl, S, F) contents of melt inclusions and selected phenocrysts from these three most recent eruptive phases, and use these and other data to consider possible origins for the low explosivity of Mount Hood. Measured volatile concentrations of melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole from pumice indicate that the volatile contents of Mount Hood magmas are comparable to those in more explosive silicic arc volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens, Mount Mazama, and others, suggesting that the lack of explosive activity is unlikely to result solely from low intrinsic volatile concentrations or from substantial degassing prior to magma ascent and eruption. We instead argue that an important control over explosivity is the increased temperature and decreased magma viscosity that results from mafic recharge and magma mixing prior to eruption, similar to a model recently proposed by Ruprecht and Bachmann (2010). Erupted Mount Hood magmas show extensive evidence for mixing between magmas of broadly basaltic and dacitic-rhyolitic compositions, and mineral zoning studies show that mixing occurred immediately prior to eruption. Amphibole chemistry and thermobarometry also reveal the presence of multiple amphibole populations and indicate that the mixed andesites and dacites are at least 100 °C hotter than the high-SiO2

  13. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP

  14. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild.

  15. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebjørg Helena Nymo

    Full Text Available Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890 and hooded seal (17a-1 strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild.

  16. Ambaeolothrips: a new genus of Neotropical Aeolothripidae (Thysanoptera), with observations on the type-species from mango trees in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence; Cavalleri, Adriano; O'donnell, Cheryle; Infante, Francisco; Ortiz, Antonio; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-06-30

    Ambaeolothrips gen. n. is diagnosed for three Neotropical species: the type species romanruizi Ruiz-De la Cruz et al. comb. n. from Mexico, microstriatus Hood comb. n. from Panama, and pampeanus sp. n. from southern Brazil. Variation is discussed among character states that are used in the generic classification of the family Aeolothripidae, including segmentation of the antennae and maxillary palps, sculpture of the metanotum and presence of sternal discal setae. New field observations on the biology of romanruizi indicate that this species is phytophagous in flowers and on leaves, with no evidence of predation on the larvae of other thrips.

  17. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  19. Asociación Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina Thysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Zamar

    2012-03-01

    . occidentalis utilizan la planta en forma temporal y oportunista en Prepuna, mientras que la presencia de F. gemina en Puna es esporádica. Se amplía el número de especies de tisanópteros asociadas al cultivo de haba en ArgentinaThysanoptera (Insecta-Vicia faba (Fabaceae association in Prepuna and Puna in Jujuy, Argentina. The different phenological stages of Vicia faba provide food resources and substrates for the development of a significant diversity of insects. This study aimed to identify the complex of anthophyllous thrips, analyze the species population fluctuations, to obtain some bioecological aspects and the role they play in this association. The study and sampling was conducted during the flowering-fruiting bean crop stages in two phytogeographical regions of Jujuy: Prepuna (2 479m asl on a weekly basis, from October-December 1995-1996 and Puna (3 367m asl every two weeks, from December 2007-March 2008. Each sample consisted of 25 flowers taken at random; only at Prepuna a complementary sampling of three hits per plant (n=10 plants was conducted. Observations were made on oviposition sites, admission to the flower, pupation sites, feeding behavior and injuries caused. In Prepuna, the Thysanoptera complex consisted of Frankliniella australis, F. occidentalis, F. gemina, F. schultzei and Thrips tabaci; in Puna, the specific diversity was restricted to F. australis and F. gemina. Although the planting-harvest period in both areas did not match, the fluctuations in populations showed the same pattern: as flowering progressed, the number of thrips coincided with the availability of food resources. In both areas, F. australis was the dominant species and maintained successive populations; it layed eggs in flower buds, and larvae hatched when flowers opened; feeding larvae and adults brought about silvery stains with black spots. In Prepuna, F. australis went through the mobile immature stages on flowers, while quiescent stages were on the ground; in the Puna, all

  20. The Greedy Hippo and Red Riding Hood: The grotesque in fairy tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineke van der Walt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative reading of two folktales that are also characterised as children’s stories (one from Venda folklore and the other a popular European narrative in order to explore a number of similarities between these stories. These similarities include the grotesque activity of eating human flesh, the way that overly trusting people are tricked by means of a masquerade and other ‘unethical’ and ‘immoral’ activities that occur in both narratives. In The Greedy Hippo (Hippopotamus throws his weight around, the monster for instance mimics the voice of a little boy in order to trick his sister and gain access to the children’s hut, whilst in Little Red Riding Hood the wolf tricks the grandmother in the same way to gain access to her house, in order to later trick Red Riding Hood. Furthermore, in both stories, the little girls (as well as the grandmother in Little Red Riding Hood are swallowed by vicious wild animals (either a hippopotamus or a wolf. As is often the case in fairy tales; however, the victims are saved or escape and live happily ever after. In this article, I argue that, although it seems absurd for children’s stories to deal with the grotesque, the presence of the grotesque actually serves an elevating purpose. I conclude that, because of the shock value of the grotesque, these stories not only intrigue children emotionally, but that the shocking quality of the grotesque also serves as a source of fascination for them. Therefore, the warning messages contained in the stories are more persuasively communicated and better remembered by the child audience.

  1. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Local ventilation systems are widely used in industrial production processes to capture heat release and/or gaseous/particulate contaminants. The primary objective of this study was to determine important empirical factors on local pollutant capture efficiency and characteristics of thermal...... efficiency. Hood performance was also evaluated by thermal stratification heights in the plants. This study could help improve the capture efficiency of local ventilation systems used in industrial plants. Safe operation heights are recommended in the upper space of industrial plants based on the thermal...... stratification in the working areas of industrial plants. Investigated factors were confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods, source strengths, airflow obstacles and distances between sources and exhaust hoods. Reduced-scale experiments were conducted with a geometric scale of 1...

  2. Solving for Micro- and Macro- Scale Electrostatic Configurations Using the Robin Hood Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggio, J A; Corona, T J; Stefancic, H; Abraham, H; Gluck, F

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique by which highly-segmented electrostatic configurations can be solved. The Robin Hood method is a matrix-inversion algorithm optimized for solving high density boundary element method (BEM) problems. We illustrate the capabilities of this solver by studying two distinct geometry scales: (a) the electrostatic potential of a large volume beta-detector and (b) the field enhancement present at surface of electrode nano-structures. Geometries with elements numbering in the O(10^5) are easily modeled and solved without loss of accuracy. The technique has recently been expanded so as to include dielectrics and magnetic materials.

  3. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  4. Digital data for preliminary geologic map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina Ma,; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle covers the axis and east flank of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. Its namesake, Mount Hood volcano, dominates the view in the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but the entire area is underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Since the time of the Columbia River Basalt Group about 15 million years (m.y.) ago, the locus and composition of Cascade Range volcanism have shifted sporadically across the map area. Andesitic eruptions were predominant in the western part from about 14 to 10 m.y. ago (Salmon and Sandy Rivers area), producing the Rhododendron Formation and overlying lava flows. From about 8 to 6.5 m.y. ago, lithic pyroclastic debris of the Dalles Formation was shed by chiefly andesitic volcanoes in the north-central part of the map area (Hood River valley escarpment). Andesitic to dacitic volcanism was again predominant about 5 to 3 m.y. ago, with known eruptive centers located from Lookout Mountain westward to Lolo Pass, probably including the area now occupied by Mount Hood. A major episode of mafic volcanism-basalt and basaltic andesite-began about 3-4 m.y. ago and lasted until about 2 m.y. ago. Volcanism since about 2 m.y. ago has been concentrated along the axis of the High Cascades. North and south of Mount Hood these youngest rocks are predominantly basaltic andesite lava flows; whereas at Mount Hood itself, andesite is predominant, forming pyroclastic and debris-flow deposits and lava flows.

  5. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  6. Theoretical and numerical predictions of two-dimensional Aaberg slot exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Ingham, D B

    2000-08-01

    Theoretical and computational fluid dynamical techniques are employed to predict the two-dimensional turbulent air flows which are created by an Aaberg slot exhaust hood, which is reinforced by a two-dimensional wall jet flow. The aim of the two-dimensional model is to numerically reveal the characteristics of the air flow in the central plane of the Aaberg workbench. A further development of the potential model is through the inclusion of the finite slot. We have found that the numerical results for the streamlines and the lines of constant speed produced by the potential flow model are in good agreement with those obtained when using the full turbulent flow model and the air velocity distribution predicted by both the potential and turbulent models agree very well with all the available experimental data. The comparison between the potential and the turbulent models reveals that the potential model has the advantage over the turbulent model in that there is much less uncertainty in the results obtained due to the more accurate specification of the boundary conditions on the open boundaries at large distances from the hood.

  7. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  9. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.1135 Section 84.1135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...

  10. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably

  11. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  12. Contrast fluoroscopic evaluation of gastrointestinal transit times with and without the use of falconry hoods in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate gastrointestinal transit times in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) by use of contrast fluoroscopic imaging and investigate the effect of falconry hooding in these hawks on gastrointestinal transit time. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. ANIMALS 9 healthy red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Hawks were gavage-fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg [11.3 mL/lb]) into the crop. Fluoroscopic images were obtained at multiple time points after barium administration. Time to filling and emptying of various gastrointestinal tract organs and overall transit time were measured. The effect of hooding (hooded vs nonhooded) on these variables was assessed in a randomized complete crossover design. RESULTS In nonhooded birds, overall gastrointestinal transit time ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (mean ± SD, 100 ± 52 min). Time to complete crop emptying ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (83 ± 49 min). Contrast medium was present in the ventriculus in all birds within 5 minutes of administration and in the small intestines within 5 to 15 minutes (median, 5 min). Hooding of red-tailed hawks resulted in a significant delay of complete crop emptying (no hood, 83 ± 49 minutes; hood, 133 ± 48 minutes), but no significant effects of hooding were found on other measured variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These results indicated that overall gastrointestinal transit times are faster in red-tailed hawks than has been reported for psittacines and that the use of a falconry hood in red-tailed hawks may result in delayed crop emptying. Hooding did not exert significant effects on overall gastrointestinal transit time in this raptorial species.

  13. Thrips management program for ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 5,500 (or more) well-described species of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) worldwide, nearly 1% are known as economically important pests Owing to their polyphagous nature and damage potential to nursery and greenhouse production, thrips inflict millions of dollars loss annually. Thrips ca...

  14. Impacts of pear thrips on a Pennsylvania sugarbush: third year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Kolb; Larry H. McCormick

    1993-01-01

    Pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were first positively identified as causing damage to sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in forest environments in the United States in 1980. Damage in Pennsylvania from this insect has occurred consistently since 1980, with the most extensive impact in 1988...

  15. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  16. Effects of thrips feeding on tospovirus transmission in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de F.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction and rapid spread of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Western Europe since the 1980s led to a considerable increase of losses in different, mainly ornamental crops due to tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infections.

  17. The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzman, A.; Gera, A.; Raccah, B.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura

  18. Plant odours with potential for a push-pull strategy to control the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; James, D.E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of four plant essential oils to repel onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in the presence of an attractive odour, ethyl iso-nicotinate in a pasture field. Four horizontal white sticky plates were placed adjacent to (directions: N, S, E, W) a

  19. Resistance factors in pepper inhibit larval development of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maharijaya, A.; Vosman, B.J.; Verstappem, F.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Mumm, R.; Purwito, A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] is a major pest in pepper cultivation. Therefore, host plant resistance to thrips is a desirable trait. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of resistance on the development of thrips and

  20. Life history characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on cucumber leaves with and without supplemental food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, J.; Ketoja, E.; Vänninen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The development time, fecundity, longevity, and resultant intrinsic growth rate of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) [Thysanoptera: Thripidae] encaged on a cucumber leaf were compared among seven types of food supplied: six pollen species and a mixture of milk powder

  1. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world.

  2. Are you ready?--lessons learned from the Fort Hood shooting in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, James; Gerdes, Clint; Nipper, Michael; Naul, L Gill

    2011-04-01

    On November 5, 2009, a US Army psychiatrist allegedly opened fire with one or more handguns, killing 12 military personnel and one civilian at Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas. The most severely wounded casualties were transported to Scott and White Memorial Hospital, a Level I trauma center and tertiary care teaching hospital in Temple, Texas associated with the Texas A&M University College of Medicine. Ten victims arrived in a 1-h period with another two arriving in the second hour, necessitating an emergency response to a mass casualty event. Our radiology department's response was largely unplanned and was therefore the result of many spontaneous actions and ideas. We share our experiences and from them formulate guidelines for a general radiology surge model for mass casualty events. It is our hope to raise awareness and help other radiology departments to prepare for such an unexpected event.

  3. Volatile components in defensive spray of the hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William F; Sollers, Brian G; Dragoo, Gwen A; Dragoo, Jerry W

    2002-09-01

    GC-MS analysis of the anal sac secretion from the hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura, showed the following seven major components comprised 99% of the volatiles in this secretion: (E)-2-butene-1-thiol, 3-methyl-1-butanethiol, S-(E)-2-butenyl thioacetate, S-3-methylbutenyl thioacetate, 2-phenylethanethiol, 2-methylquinoline, and 2-quinolinemethanethiol. Minor volatile components identified in this secretion are phenylmethanethiol, S-phenylmethyl thioacetate. S-2-phenylethyl thioacetate, bis[(E)-2-butenyl] disulfide, (E)-2-butenyl 3-methylbutyl disulfide, bis(3-methylbutyl) disulfide, and S-2-quinolinemethyl thioacetate. This secretion is similar to that of the striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis, differing only in that it contains four compounds not reported from the striped skunk: phenylmethanethiol, S-phenylmethyl thioacetate, 2-phenylethanethiol, and S-2-phenylethyl thioacetate.

  4. Bleeding Diathesis in Fawn Hooded Rats—Possible Implications for Invasive Procedures and Refinement Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon W. H. Schaap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fawn hooded (FH rat is commonly used in biomedical research. It is widely acknowledged that the FH rat has a bleeding disorder; leading to abundant bleedings. Although this bleeding disorder is investigated to model the storage pool defect; its impact on commonly performed invasive laboratory procedures has not yet been described. Our research group experienced clinically significant consequences of this bleeding disorder following invasive procedures (including intraperitoneal injections and neurocranial surgery in the Rjlbm: FH stock. The clinical consequences of the surgical and anesthetic protocols applied; are described including the subsequent procedural refinements applied to minimize the impact of this disorder. It is strongly recommended to take the bleeding diathesis into account when performing invasive procedures in FH rats and to apply the suggested refinement of procedures.

  5. Use of wood for space heating: Analysis of Hood River Conservation project submetered homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; White, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    This report analyzes wood use in the 100 homes that had wood channel submeters installed as part of the Hood River Conservation project. In addition to wood heat output data, data were also available on electricity use, house characteristics, household demographics, and weatherization measures installed. The data indicate that in wood using homes, space heat produced by wood burning is approximately twice as much as provided by electricity. Woodusers tend to have larger homes and families, and use wood for strictly economic reasons. Patterns of wood and electricity use for space heating do not vary much by day of week, but are strongly correlated with outdoor temperatures. The large residential demand for wood may present difficult power planning problems for the Bonneville Power Administration if households suddenly switch back to electricity. However, conservation programs provide Bonneville benefits by dampening the magnitude of any potential swings.

  6. Thermomechanical modeling of cooling slabs under a hood after continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Patrik; Nilsson, Christer; Berntsson, Fredrik

    2017-11-01

    Subsequent cooling of slabs after continuous casting is an important step to control before further processing such as hot-rolling. In this work the stresses that occur in slabs during the cooling process were investigated by using a finite element model. In the specific situation that we model a stack of slabs are left to cool under a hood, insulated by a ceramic material, which makes the cooling slower and the temperature distribution more even during the cooling process. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated by a comparison with temperature measurements, and also by a comparison with hot tensile tests for the specific cooling situation under investigation. The results show that the highest stress levels achieved during cooling did not exceed the mechanical strength of the material at the temperatures investigated.

  7. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  8. The Robin Hood method A novel numerical method for electrostatic problems based on a non-local charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Predrag; Štefančić, Hrvoje; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2006-03-01

    We introduce a novel numerical method, named the Robin Hood method, of solving electrostatic problems. The approach of the method is closest to the boundary element methods, although significant conceptual differences exist with respect to this class of methods. The method achieves equipotentiality of conducting surfaces by iterative non-local charge transfer. For each of the conducting surfaces, non-local charge transfers are performed between surface elements, which differ the most from the targeted equipotentiality of the surface. The method is tested against analytical solutions and its wide range of application is demonstrated. The method has appealing technical characteristics. For the problem with N surface elements, the computational complexity of the method essentially scales with Nα, where α Robin Hood method could prove useful in other classical or even quantum problems. Some future development ideas for possible applications outside electrostatics are addressed.

  9. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P red-tailed hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  10. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  11. Agriculture and Rural Development on Fort Hood Lands, 1849-1942: National Register Assessments of 710 Historic Archeological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    sorghum, and various fruit ing contest, tournament, crowning of a May trees, vines, and ornamentals-only cotton re- queen, and ball. Participants included a... fenestration . Commercial properties unambiguous in the context "Agriculture on Fort that were constructed in the late nineteenth and Hood Lands, 1849-1942... fenestration patterns. Commercial properties tially eligible under Criterion D will be the site that were constructed in the late-nineteenth of a

  12. Leak Detection for Potable Water Lines at Fort Hood: Final Report on Project AR-F-313 for FY05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Conservation Systems Xmic, was used at Fort Hood. This instrument consists of a battery pow- ered control console, a “ground microphone” sensor, and headphones ...of magnification. In addition, borrowed pipe lo- cation equipment (see Figure 2) allowed a pipeline’s route to be traced by inducing an RF carrier ... headphones . This type of sensor can detect sounds coming through the ground and can be used to find the exact spot along the pipeline where the leak

  13. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymo Ingebjørg H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.

  14. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  15. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  16. Ultrasound follow-up of posttraumatic injuries of the sagittal band of the dorsal hood treated by a conservative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willekens, Inneke, E-mail: Inneke.willekens@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Kichouh, Mimoun; Boulet, Cedric; De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Clarys, Jan Pieter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mey, Johan de [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Dorsal Hood. • Extensor Hood. • Ultrasound. • Rupture. - Abstract: Traumatic dislocation of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is a rare problem in patients without rheumatoid disorders. The common extensor tendon is stabilized on the metacarpal head by components of the dorsal hood (DH). A tear in the sagittal bands, allows (sub)luxation of the tendon. To ensure appropriate treatment, the identification of the damaged structures is essential. Ultrasound (US) is a valuable method in the evaluation of DH injuries and in the follow-up for evaluation of healing or lack of healing of the lesions. We report three cases with partial rupture of the sagittal band of the DH: two cases in the index finger and one case in the long finger, which caused pain and swelling and was diagnosed with US. The patients were treated conservatively and the pain resolved after 9 months in case 1, 3 months in case 2 and 6 months in case 3. The follow-up at one year revealed painless full range of motion and no residual subluxation during the dynamic ultrasound.

  17. Descripción de los estados adultos e inmaduros y aspectos bioecológicos de Heterothrips cacti (Thysanoptera: Heterothripidae Description of adult and immature stages and bioecological aspects of Heterothrips cacti (Thysanoptera: Heterothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Zamar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Heterothrips cacti Hood y se discuten las características biológicas y ecológicas de esta especie en las zonas semiáridas y de altura de Jujuy (Argentina. Los muestreos de frecuencia quincenal se realizaron en San Pedrito durante el período de floración de Opuntia sulphurea var. hildmannii en la temporada 2006-2007. La muestra consistió en cinco flores tomadas al azar de cada condición de evolución de las mismas. Para conocer las plantas hospedadoras y la distribución de H. cacti, se realizaron muestreos periódicos de la vegetación silvestre en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy. Los estudios biológicos se llevaron a cabo en el laboratorio, acondicionando flores de O. sulphurea con huevos de H. cacti en cajas de cría, para controlar la evolución del ciclo de vida. Heterothrips cacti es una especie antófila, oligófaga asociada a cactáceas, de amplia distribución en la Prepuna y Puna jujeñas. La biología de H. cacti está correlacionada con la de su planta hospedadora, O. sulphurea que presenta dos generaciones al año. Asimismo, el ciclo de vida está asociado con la evolución de la flor de la cactácea. El tiempo de desarrollo de los estados inmaduros de la primera y segunda generación fue de 45 ± 1.5 días y 287 ±3 días respectivamente. El estadio de desarrollo por el que la especie atraviesa el período entre floraciones es larva II quiescente, envuelta en un capullo de seda en el suelo. A 5 ºC y 0 hs luz se inhibe el estado de quiescencia de H. cacti. Se registró la incidencia de Ceranisus sp. parasitoide larvi-pupal durante la segunda generación de H. cacti.The immature stages of Heterothrips cacti Hood are described and illustrated and the biological and ecological features of this species in semi arid and high elevation zones of Jujuy province, Argentina, are discussed. Samplings were carried out every fifteen days in San Pedrito during the Opuntia sulphurea var

  18. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leuco-geranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Qin; Guo, Hong; Jiang, Jian-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65 ± 0.53 (n=43) and 3.09 ± 0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09 ± 24.94 (n=23) and 28.94 ± 27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes.

  19. The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hogg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian visual range is approximately 400–700 nm, although recent evidence suggests varying ultraviolet (UV extensions in diverse terrestrial species. UV sensitivity may have advantages in the dim, blue light shifted environment experienced by submerged marine mammals. It may also be advantageous when seals are on land as UV is reflected by snow and ice but absorbed by fur, enhancing visual contrast. Here we show that the pelagic hooded seal (Cystophora cristata has a highly UV permissive cornea and lens. Seals like other carnivores have a tapetum lucidum (TL reflecting light back through the retina increasing sensitivity. The TL in this seal is unusual being white and covering almost the entire retina unlike that in other carnivores. Spectral reflectance from its surface selectively increases the relative UV/blue components >10 times than other wavelengths. Retinal architecture is consistent with a high degree of convergence. Enhanced UV from a large TL surface with a high degree of retinal convergence will increase sensitivity at a cost to acuity. UV electrophysiological retina responses were only obtained to dim, rod mediated stimuli, with no evidence of cone input. As physiological measurements of threshold sensitivity are much higher than those for psychophysical detection, these seals are likely to be more UV sensitive than our results imply. Hence, UV reflections from the TL will afford increased sensitivity in dim oceanic environments.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Nguyen, Huy Thang; Rubiera, Marta; Alexandrov, Anne W; Zhao, Limin; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Robinson, Alice; Dewolfe, Jennifer; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2009-08-01

    Early deterioration can occur after acute stroke for a variety of reasons. We describe a hemodynamic steal and associated neurological deterioration, the reversed Robin Hood syndrome (RRHS). We aimed to investigate the frequency and factors associated with RRHS. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent serial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring with breathholding. Steal magnitude (%) was calculated from transient mean flow velocity reduction in the affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. Excessive sleepiness and likelihood of sleep apnea were evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Berlin Questionnaire. Among 153 patients (age, 61+/-14 years; 48% women; 21% transient ischemic attack) admitted within 48 hours from symptom onset, 21 (14%) had steal phenomenon (median steal magnitude, 20%; interquartile range, 11%; range, 6% to 45%), and 11 (7%) had RRHS. RRHS was most frequent in patients with proximal arterial occlusions (17% versus 1%; P<0.001). The following factors were independently (P<0.05) associated with RRHS (multivariate logistic regression model): male gender, younger age, persisting arterial occlusions, and excessive sleepiness (P<0.001). A 1-point increase in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was independently related to an increased likelihood of RRHS of 36% (95% CI, 7% to 73%). RRHS and hemodynamic steal can be found in 7% and 14%, respectively, of consecutive patients with stroke without other known causes for deterioration. Patients with persisting arterial occlusions and excessive sleepiness can be particularly vulnerable to the steal.

  1. Contact lens wear with the USAF protective integrated hood/mask chemical defense ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, R.J.; Miller, R.E. II; Peterson, R.D.; Jackson, W.G. Jr. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, six rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and five nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the three Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3 percent), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant effects. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. 19 refs.

  2. Elevated Aminopeptidase P Attenuates Cerebral Arterial Responses to Bradykinin in Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Hye Khan

    Full Text Available Cerebral arterial myogenic and autoregulatory responses are impaired in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH rats. Cerebral autoregulatory responses are restored in the congenic rat strain in which a segment of chromosome 1 from the Brown Norway (BN rat was transferred into the FHH genetic background (FHH.1BN. The impact of this region on cerebral arterial dilator responses remains unknown. Aminopeptidase is a gene that was transferred into the FHH genetic background to generate the FHH.1BN rats and is responsible for degradation of the vasodilator bradykinin. Thus, we hypothesized that FHH rats will have increased aminopeptidase P levels with impaired cerebral arterial responses to bradykinin compared to BN and FHH.1BN rats. We demonstrated higher cerebral arterial expression of aminopeptidase P in FHH compared to BN rats. Accordingly, we demonstrated markedly impaired cerebral arterial dilation to bradykinin in FHH compared to BN rats. Interestingly, aminopeptidase P expression was lower in FHH.1BN compared to FHH rats. Decreased aminopeptidase P levels in FHH.1BN rats were associated with increased cerebral arterial bradykinin-induced dilator responses. Aminopeptidase P inhibition by apstatin improved cerebral arterial bradykinin dilator responses in FHH rats to a level similar to FHH.1BN rats. Unlike bradykinin, cerebral arterial responses to acetylcholine were similar between FHH and FHH.1BN groups. These findings indicate decreased bradykinin bioavailability contributes to impaired cerebral arterial dilation in FHH rats. Overall, these data indicate an important role of aminopeptidase P in the impaired cerebral arterial function in FHH rat.

  3. Drift diving by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available Many pinniped species perform a specific dive type, referred to as a 'drift dive', where they drift passively through the water column. This dive type has been suggested to function as a resting/sleeping or food processing dive, and can be used as an indication of feeding success by calculating the daily change in vertical drift rates over time, which reflects the relative fluctuations in buoyancy of the animal as the proportion of lipids in the body change. Northwest Atlantic hooded seals perform drift dives at regular intervals throughout their annual migration across the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. We found that the daily change in drift rate varied with geographic location and the time of year and that this differed between sexes. Positive changes in buoyancy (reflecting increased lipid stores were evident throughout their migration range and although overlapping somewhat, they were not statistically associated with high use areas as indicated by First Passage Time (FPT. Differences in the seasonal fluctuations of buoyancy between males and females suggest that they experience a difference in patterns of energy gain and loss during winter and spring, associated with breeding. The fluctuations in buoyancy around the moulting period were similar between sexes.

  4. Enhanced anorexic responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine during lithium administration to fawn-hooded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, C S; Hill, J L; Murphy, D L

    1994-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether functional adaptational changes in the serotonergic neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating food intake following long-term lithium treatment in Fawn-Hooded rats (a rat strain suggested to represent a genetic model of depression) were different or similar to those previously observed in Wistar rats. Long-term (21-25 days) lithium treatment accentuated m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP, a 5-HT agonist) induced decreases in food intake. There was no significant difference in either brain m-CPP concentrations or hypothalamic norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations between control and long-term lithium-treated rats following m-CPP. However, hypothalamic serotonin concentrations were significantly higher in long-term lithium-treated compared to saline-treated animals. This finding contrasts with our previous report demonstrating attenuation of m-CPP-induced anorexia in Wistar rats following similar long-term lithium treatment, and therefore suggests a differential adaptation in the serotonergic neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating food intake in a genetic animal model of depression.

  5. Reversed Robin Hood Syndrome in the Light of Nonlinear Model of Cerebral Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechna, A.; Cieslicki, K.

    2017-05-01

    The brain is supplied by the internal carotid and vertebro-basilar systems of vessels interconnected by arterial anastomoses and forming at the base of the brain a structure called the Circle of Willis (CoW). An active intrinsic ability of cerebral vascular bed maintains constant Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in a certain range of systemic pressure changes. This ability is called autoregulation and together with the redundant structure of the CoW guarantee maintaining CBF even in partial occlusion of supplying arteries. However, there are some situations when the combination of those two mechanisms causes an opposite effect called the Reversed Robin Hood Syndrome (RRHS). In this work we proposed a model of the CoW with autoregulation mechanism and investigated a RRHS which may occur in the case of Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) stenosis combined with hypercapnia. We showed and analyzed the mechanism of stealing the blood by the contralateral side of the brain. Our results were qualitatively compared with the clinical reports available in the literature.

  6. Efficiency Assessment of Local Exhaust Ventilation Hoods System for Control of Fe2O3 Dust in the process of Oxide Screen Unit at iron making in steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Rastani Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Local exhaust ventilation system (LEV is one of the most common engineering controls methods for the chemical agents in workplaces. This study aimed to determine the efficiency assessment of the LEV system for control of Fe2O3 dust in the process of oxide screen unit at iron making in steel industry . Methods : The LEV system with an extensive network of ducting including 17 hoods was investigated in a cross-sectional study. The First, variations and contradictions of the system and process were compared versus documentation (system plans, then hood Efficiency Assessment accomplished by using of the dust concentration measurement besides of the each hood (source, at two status ON and OFF of LEV system (Repeat three times, by NIOSH 500 method. Results : Result of statistical test between the concentration of pollutants at two status ON/OFF of LEV system, in 7 of 17 hoods, didn’t show significantly different (P <0.05. Enclosed hood at the material falling from the tank to the feeder, with 85% efficiency and 3.3±1.5mg/m3 concentration at ON status was the highest efficiency. Two hoods, one enclosed hood at material falling from the Feeder into the screen and other unenclosed at material falling from conveyor to conveyor (small size at below screen, both with 2% efficiency and the 243.2±73.5 and 3462.4±1339 mg/m3 concentration demonstrated the lowest efficiency at ON status. Also the highest concentration of contaminants was at the unenclosed hood installed in the place of pellets falling from the conveyor into the tank with 5.03g/m3 and efficiency of 7%. Conclusion : The few hoods of the investigated LEV did not have appropriate performance and had different efficiency. Even, some hoods (branches show negative efficiency due to return of contaminant from the hood to workplace area.

  7. Lidar-enhanced geologic mapping, examples from the Medford and Hood River areas, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, T. J.; McClaughry, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar-based 3-foot digital elevation models (DEMs) and derivatives (slopeshade, hillshade, contours) were used to help map geology across 1700 km2 (650 mi2) near Hood River and Medford, Oregon. Techniques classically applied to interpret coarse DEMs and small-scale topographic maps were adapted to take advantage of lidar's high resolution. Penetration and discrimination of plant cover by the laser system allowed recognition of fine patterns and textures related to underlying geologic units and associated soils. Surficial geologic maps were improved by the ability to examine tiny variations in elevation and slope. Recognition of low-relief features of all sizes was enhanced where pixel elevation ranges of centimeters to meters, established by knowledge of the site or by trial, were displayed using thousands of sequential colors. Features can also be depicted relative to stream level by preparing a DEM that compensates for gradient. Near Medford, lidar-derived contour maps with 1- to 3-foot intervals revealed incised bajada with young, distal lobes defined by concentric contour lines. Bedrock geologic maps were improved by recognizing geologic features associated with surface textures and patterns or topographic anomalies. In sedimentary and volcanic terrain, structure was revealed by outcrops or horizons lying at one stratigraphic level. Creating a triangulated irregular network (TIN) facet from positions of three or more such points gives strike and dip. Each map area benefited from hundreds of these measurements. A more extensive DEM in the plane of the TIN facet can be subtracted from surface elevation (lidar DEM) to make a DEM with elevation zero where the stratigraphic horizon lies at the surface. The distribution of higher and lower stratigraphic horizons can be shown by highlighting areas similarly higher or lower on the same DEM. Poor fit of contacts or faults projected between field traverses suggest the nature and amount of intervening geologic structure

  8. Association of reversed Robin Hood syndrome with risk of stroke recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, P; Balucani, C; Barlinn, K; Tsivgoulis, G; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Dewolfe, J; Toaldo, B; Stamboulis, E; Vernieri, F; Rossini, P M; Alexandrov, A V

    2010-11-30

    Reversed Robin Hood syndrome (RRHS) has recently been identified as one of the mechanisms of early neurologic deterioration in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients related to arterial blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. We sought to investigate the association of RRHS with risk of stroke recurrence in a single-center cohort study. Consecutive patients with AIS or TIA affecting the anterior circulation were prospectively evaluated with serial NIH Stroke Scale assessments and bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring with breath-holding test. RRHS was defined according to previously validated criteria. A total of 360 patients (51% women, mean age 62 ± 15 years) had an ischemic stroke (81%) or TIA (19%) in the anterior circulation, and 30 (8%) of them had RRHS. During a mean follow-up period of 6 months (range 1-24), a total of 16 (4%) recurrent strokes (15 ischemic and 1 hemorrhagic) were documented. The cumulative recurrence rate was higher in patients with RRHS (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1-37) compared to the rest (15%; 95% CI 0-30; p = 0.022 by log-rank test). All recurrent strokes in patients with RRHS were cerebral infarcts that occurred in the ipsilateral to the index event anterior circulation vascular territory. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, and secondary prevention therapies, RRHS was independently associated with a higher stroke recurrence risk (hazard ratio 7.31; 95% CI 2.12-25.22; p = 0.002). Patients with AIS and RRHS appear to have a higher risk of recurrent strokes that are of ischemic origin and occur in the same arterial territory distribution to the index event. Further independent validation of this association is required in a multicenter setting.

  9. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  10. The 1980 Polallie Creek debris flow and subsequent dam-break flood, East Fork Hood River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallino, Gary L.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    At approximately 9 p.m. on December 25, 1980, intense rainfall and extremely wet antecedent conditions combined to trigger a landslide of approximately 5,000 cubic yards at the head of Polallie Creek Canyon on the northeast flank of Mount Hood. The landslide was transformed rapidly into a debris flow, which surged down the channel at velocities between about 40 and 50 ft/s, eroding and incorporating large volumes of channel fill and uprooted vegetation. When it reached the debris fan at the confluence with the East Fork Hood River, the debris flow deposited approximately 100,000 cubic yards of saturated, poorly sorted debris to a maximum thickness of 35 ft, forming a 750-ft-long temporary dam across the channel. Within approximately 12 minutes, a lake of 85 acre-feet formed behind the blockage, breached the dam, and sent a flood wave down the East Fork Hood River. The combined debris flow and flood resulted in one fatality and over $13 million in damage to a highway, bridges, parks, and a water-supply pipeline. Application of simple momentum- and energy-balance equations, and uniform flow equations resulted in debris flow peak discharges ranging from 50,000 ft3/s to 300,000 ft3/s at different locations in the Polallie Creek Canyon. This wide range is attributed to temporary damming at the boulder- and log-rich flow front in narrow, curving reaches of the channel. When the volume of the solid debris was subtracted out, assuming a minimum peak debris-flow discharge of 100,000 ft3/s at the canyon mouth, a minimum peak-water discharge of 40,000 ft3/s was obtained. A computer dam-break model simulated peak flow for the outbreak flood on the East Fork Hood River in the range of 20,000 to 30,000 ft3/s using various breach shapes and durations of breach between 5 and 15 minutes. A slope conveyance computation 0.25 mi downstream from the dam gave a peak water discharge (solids subtracted out) for the debris-laden flood of 12,000 to 20,000 ft3/s, depending on the channel

  11. Ontogeny of sex differences in response to novel objects from adolescence to adulthood in lister-hooded rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrenne, De-Laine; Brown, Gillian Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This work was supported by The Wellcome Trust [grant 078405/Z/05/Z] n humans, novelty-seeking behavior peaks in adolescence and is higher in males than females. Relatively, little information is available regarding age and sex differences in response to novelty in rodents. In this study, male and female Lister-hooded rats were tested at early adolescence (postnatal day, pnd, 28), mid-adolescence (pnd 40), or early adulthood (pnd 80) in a novel object recognition task (n = 12 males/females ...

  12. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the project implementation and monitoring of all habitat activities in the Hood River basin that occurred over the October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003 period (FY 03). Some of the objectives in the corresponding statement of work for this contract were not completed within FY 03. A description of the progress during FY 03 and reasoning for deviation from the original tasks and timeline are provided. OBJECTIVE 1 - Provide coordination of all activities, administrative oversight and assist in project implementation and monitoring activities. Administrative oversight and coordination of the habitat statement of work, budget, subcontracts, personnel, implementation, and monitoring was provided. OBJECTIVE 2 - Continue to coordinate, implement, and revise, as needed, the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan. The Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was completed in 2000 (Coccoli et al., 2000). This document was utilized for many purposes including: drafting the Watershed Action Plan (Coccoli, 2002), ranking projects for funding, and prioritizing projects to target in the future. This document has been reviewed by many, including stakeholders, agencies, and interested parties. The Hood River Watershed Group Coordinator and author of the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan, Holly Coccoli, has updated and revised the plan. Changes will be reflected in the Hood River Subbasin Plan, and after submission of the Subbasin Plan, a formally revised version of the Monitoring Plan will be put out for review. This will more specifically address changes in the Hood River subbasin since 2000, and reflect changes to fish habitat and needs in the Hood River subbasin regarding monitoring. OBJECTIVE 3 - Evaluate and monitor the habitat, accessibility, and presence of winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout upstream of the Middle Fork Irrigation District water

  13. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  14. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N W; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C; Ali, Syed A; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Vonk, Freek J; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-03-13

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras ( Ophiophagus ). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja , once within the Asian Naja , and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata , which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine

  15. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N.W.; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P.; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C.; Ali, Syed A.; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C.; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M.I.; Vonk, Freek J.; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A.; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G.

    2017-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine sea

  16. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Panagides

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus. There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e

  17. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1996-04-20

    To determine the effect of income inequality as measured by the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient on all cause and cause specific mortality in the United States. Cross sectional ecological study. Households in the United States. Disease specific mortality, income, household size, poverty, and smoking rates for each state. The Robin Hood index was positively correlated with total mortality adjusted for age (r = 0.54; P < 0.05). This association remained after adjustment for poverty (P < 0.007), where each percentage increase in the index was associated with' an increase in the total mortality of 21.68 deaths per 100,000. Effects of the index were also found for infant mortality (P = 0.013); coronary heart disease (P = 0.004); malignant neoplasms (P = 0.023); and homicide (P < 0.001). Strong associations were also found between the index and causes of death amenable to medical intervention. The Gini coefficient showed very little correlation with any of the causes of death. Variations between states in the inequality of income were associated with increased mortality from several causes. The size of the gap between the wealthy and less well off--as distinct from the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor--seems to matter in its own right. The findings suggest that policies that deal with the growing inequities in income distribution may have an important impact on the health of the population.

  18. Variation in the early marine survival and behavior of natural and hatchery-reared Hood Canal steelhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A; Tezak, Eugene P

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced selection and direct effects of the culture environment can both cause captively bred fish populations to survive at low rates and behave unnaturally in the wild. New approaches to fish rearing in conservation hatcheries seek to reduce hatchery-induced selection, maintain genetic resources, and improve the survival of released fish. This study used acoustic telemetry to compare three years of early marine survival estimates for two wild steelhead populations to survival of two populations raised at two different conservation hatcheries located within the Hood Canal watershed. Steelhead smolts from one conservation hatchery survived with probabilities similar to the two wild populations (freshwater: 95.8-96.9%, early marine: 10.0-15.9%), while smolts from the other conservation hatchery exhibited reduced freshwater and early marine survival (freshwater: 50.2-58.7%, early marine: 2.6-5.1%). Freshwater and marine travel rates did not differ significantly between wild and hatchery individuals from the same stock, though hatchery smolts did display reduced migration ranges within Hood Canal. Between-hatchery differences in rearing density and vessel geometry likely affected survival and behavior after release and contributed to greater variation between hatcheries than between wild populations. Our results suggest that hatchery-reared smolts can achieve early marine survival rates similar to wild smolt survival rates, and that migration performance of hatchery-reared steelhead can vary substantially depending on the environmental conditions and practices employed during captivity.

  19. Owning the Journey: Using Collaborative Revisions of Little Red Riding Hood in Teaching Introduction to Literature at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of a collaborative course project, using Little Red Riding Hood (LRRH) to teach and discuss the concepts of orality, cultural legacy, archetypes, adaptation/appropriation, and social criticism in an Introduction to Literature course at Historically Black Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama. The student groups…

  20. Feeding habits of harp (Phoca groenlandica and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata during late winter, spring and early summer in the Greenland Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Potelev

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Diet data were collected in the Greenland Sea pack ice (the West Ice from March to June from harp seals (Phoca groenlandica in 1987, 1990-1992 and 1997, and from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata in 1992 and 1994, during Soviet Russian commercial sealing and on Norwegian scientific expeditions. The majority of both harp and hooded seal stomachs were empty but intestinal contents were found in most of the seals. The harp seal diet was totally dominated by the amphipods Parathemisto sp. and Gammarus sp., but krlll (Thysanoessa sp. and polar cod (Boreogadus saida were also eaten quite frequently. Hooded seals had been feeding mainly on the squid Gonatus fabricii, which was found most frequently in the intestines, but which also dominated in the few stomachs with contents. Polar cod also occurred quite frequently in the hooded seal diet, while crustaceans, such as amphipods and krill, occurred only sporadically.

  1. Measurements and predictions of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. Sound propagation predictions and background noise...... measurements are used to predict an optimal frequency range for communication ("sound communication window") from an average of crow call spectra predicted for every possible combination of the sender/receiver separations 300, 600, 900, and 1200  m and heights 3,6,9  m thereby creating a matrix assumed...... relevant to crow interterritorial communication. These predictions indicate an optimal frequency range for sound communication between 500  Hz and 2  kHz. Since this corresponds to the frequency range in which crow calls have their main energy and crow hearing in noise is particularly sensitive...

  2. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Metabolic Changes in the Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata Brain in Response to Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff

    Full Text Available The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons. Here, we used RNA-Seq to compare the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro on brain slices from the visual cortex of hooded seals. We saw no general reduction of gene expression, suggesting that the response to hypoxia and reoxygenation is an actively regulated process. The treatments caused the preferential upregulation of genes related to inflammation, as found before e.g. in stroke studies using mammalian models. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed a downregulation of genes involved in ion transport and other neuronal processes, indicative for a neuronal shutdown in response to a shortage of O2 supply. These differences may be interpreted in terms of an energy saving strategy in the seal's brain. We specifically analyzed the regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Hypoxia and reoxygenation caused a similar response, with upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism and downregulation of the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We also observed upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter Mct4, suggesting increased lactate efflux. Together, these data indicate that the seal brain responds to the hypoxic challenge by a relative increase in the anaerobic energy metabolism.

  4. Classical experiments in whole-body metabolism: open-circuit respirometry-diluted flow chamber, hood, or facemask systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffelen, P F M; Plasqui, G

    2018-01-01

    For over two centuries, scientists have measured gas exchange in animals and humans and linked this to energy expenditure of the body. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of open-circuit diluted flow indirect calorimetry and to help researchers to make the optimal choice for a certain system and its application. A historical perspective shows that 'open circuit diluted flow' is a technique first used in the 19th century and applicable today for room calorimeters, ventilated hood systems, and facemasks. Room calorimeters are a classic example of an open-circuit diluted flow system. The broadly applied ventilated hood calorimeters follow the same principle and can be classified as a derivative of these room calorimeters. The basic principle is that the subject breathes freely in a passing airflow that is fully captured and analyzed. Oxygen and CO2 concentrations are measured in inlet ambient air and captured outlet air. The airflow, which is adapted depending on the application (e.g., rest versus exercise), is measured. For a room indirect calorimeter, the dilution in the large room volume is also taken into account, and this is the most complex application of this type of calorimeter. Validity of the systems can be tested by alcohol burns, gas infusions and by performing repeated measurements on subjects. Using the latter, the smallest CV (%) was found for repeated VO2max tests (1.2%) with an SD of approximately 1 kJ min-1. The smallest SD was found for sleeping metabolic rate (0.11 kJ min-1) with a CV (%) of 2.4%.

  5. Intertidal organism and habitat data from the D. W. HOOD as part of Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 01 August 1980 to 15 August 1980 (NODC Accession 8200036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Intertidal organism and habitat data were collected from the D. W. HOOD from 01 August 1980 to 15 August 1980. Data were collected by Western Washington University...

  6. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae......%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio...

  7. Expression and Characterization of a Soluble Form of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoprotein GN

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.; German, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, is an economically important plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV is transmitted to plants via thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), which transmit the virus in a persistent propagative manner. The envelope glycoproteins, GN and GC, are critical for the infection of thrips, but they are not required for the initial infection of plants. Thus, it is assumed that the envelope glycoproteins play ...

  8. Spatial characterization of common blossom thrips (Frankliniella schultzei) in smallholder avocado orchards along slopes of Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Odanga, James J.; Mohamed, Samira; Olubayo, Florence; Nyankanga, Richard; Otieno, Irene A.; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Mwachala, Geoffrey; Johansson, Tino Petri

    2017-01-01

    Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) is an important flower pest of avocado crop (Persea americana Mill) at Taita Hills in South-eastern Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in North-eastern Tanzania. However, its geographical distribution is not known in the East African avocado cropping systems. In order to generate the spatial data of the common blossom thrips (Frankliniella schultzei), a survey was carried out in smallholder avocado orchards along altitudinal gradient (900 -1800...

  9. Room-temperature dual-wavelength erbium-doped fibre laser based on a sampled fibre Bragg grating and a photonic Robin Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Tongyi; Sun, Chuandong; Wang, Yishan; Hou, Xun; Chen, Guofu

    2006-12-01

    With the assistance of a kind of photonic Robin Hood that is originated from four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened high-nonlinearity photonic-crystal fibre, a novel dual-wavelength erbium-doped fibre (EDF) laser is proposed and demonstrated by using a sampled fibre Bragg grating. The experiments show that, due to the contribution of the photonic Robin Hood, the proposed fibre laser has the advantage of excellent uniformity, high stability and stable operation at room temperature. Our dual-wavelength EDF laser has the unique merit that the wavelength spacing remains unchanged when tuning the two wavelengths of laser, and this laser is simpler and more stable than the laser reported by Liu et al. [Opt. Express, 13 142 (2005)].

  10. Residential and service-population exposure to multiple natural hazards in the Mount Hood region of Clackamas County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Amy M.; Wood, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to document residential and service-population exposure to natural hazards in the rural communities of Clackamas County, Oregon, near Mount Hood. The Mount Hood region of Clackamas County has a long history of natural events that have impacted its small, tourism-based communities. To support preparedness and emergency-management planning in the region, a geospatial analysis of population exposure was used to determine the number and type of residents and service populations in flood-, wildfire-, and volcano-related hazard zones. Service populations are a mix of residents and tourists temporarily benefitting from local services, such as retail, education, or recreation. In this study, service population includes day-use visitors at recreational sites, overnight visitors at hotels and resorts, children at schools, and community-center visitors. Although the heavily-forested, rural landscape suggests few people are in the area, there are seasonal peaks of thousands of visitors to the region. “Intelligent” dasymetric mapping efforts using 30-meter resolution land-cover imagery and U.S. Census Bureau data proved ineffective at adequately capturing either the spatial distribution or magnitude of population at risk. Consequently, an address-point-based hybrid dasymetric methodology of assigning population to the physical location of buildings mapped with a global positioning system was employed. The resulting maps of the population (1) provide more precise spatial distributions for hazard-vulnerability assessments, (2) depict appropriate clustering due to higher density structures, such as apartment complexes and multi-unit commercial buildings, and (3) provide new information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of people utilizing services within the study area. Estimates of population exposure to flooding, wildfire, and volcanic hazards were determined by using overlay analysis in a geographic information system

  11. ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Military Large-Scale Experiment (LSE-1): system design and support activities. Final report, November 23, 1976-November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy System will include a concentrating solar collector field of several acres. During periods of direct insolation, a heat-transfer fluid will be circulated through the collector field and thus heated to 500 to 600/sup 0/F. Some of the fluid will be circulated through a steam generator to drive a turbine-generator set; additional fluid will be stored in insulated tanks for use when solar energy is not available. The electrical output will satisfy a portion of the electrical load at Fort Hood's 87,000 Troop Housing Complex. Heat extracted from the turbine exhaust in the form of hot water will be used for space heating, absorption air conditioning, and domestic water heating at the 87,000 Complex. Storage tanks for the hot water are also included. The systems analysis and program support activities include studies of solar availability and energy requirements at Fort Hood, investigation of interfacing LSE-1 with existing energy systems at the 87,000 Complex, and preliminary studies of environmental, health, and safety considerations. An extensive survey of available concentrating solar collectors and modifications to a computerized system simulation model for LSE-1 use are also reported. Important program support activities are military liaison and information dissemination. The engineering test program reported involved completion of the Solar Engineering Test Module (SETM) and extensive performance testing of a single module of the linear-focusing collector.

  12. Differences in basal cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in selective brain areas and vulnerability to voluntary alcohol consumption in Fawn Hooded and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Oliva, José M; Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Palomo, Tomás; Manzanares, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    To specify the functional activity of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in alcohol-preferring Fawn Hooded and alcohol nonpreferring Wistar rats under naïve conditions. Cannabinoid CB1 (WIN-55,212)-stimulated [35S]-GTPgammas binding autoradiography, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene expression were measured in rats of both strains that received only water. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulated [35S]-GTPgammas binding was significantly lower in cingulate cortex (Cg), caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (Acc), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), amygdaloid area (AMG), fields (CA1, CA3) of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) in Fawn Hooded than in Wistar rats, whereas no differences were found either in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) nor CA2 field of the hippocampus. In addition, cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene expression was lower in Cg, CPu, VMN and CA3 field of the hippocampus in Fawn Hooded than in Wistar rats. We speculate that lower cannabinoid function appears to be related to greater vulnerability to alcohol consumption. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor may represent a key target in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  13. Robin Hood Gardens: una interpretación desde el pensamiento topográfico de los Limites Romani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El estrecho vínculo con el territorio que poseían los Limites Romani demostraba, según Alison Smithson, un profundo “pensamiento topográfico”: un compromiso con el lugar basado en un posicionamiento estratégico en el paisaje, una constante adaptación a las condiciones cambiantes del terreno y un intenso modelado de la superficie del suelo. Aspectos fundamentales de estas fortificaciones fronterizas romanas cuya esencia podemos identificar en algunos proyectos clave de Alison y Peter Smithson. Proyectos enraizados que centraban su atención en el plano del suelo, en articular el contacto de los edificios con el terreno y en configurar sus espacios exteriores. Entre estos, los Robin Hood Gardens mostraban de un modo elocuente la fascinación que sentían los Smithson por la condición topográfica de aquellas obras de ingeniería romana. Un interés que les llevaría a explorar conceptos como “límite” y “protección”, así como a recuperar el conjunto de alteraciones topográficas defensivas convirtiéndolas —despojadas de su naturaleza militar— en operaciones clave para radicar en el lugar (del latín radicare: echar raíces, enraizar: una sofisticada apropiación que gravitó “de la defensa al enraizamiento”

  14. The regeneration of a multi-ethnic mixed-use area: The case of Robin Hood Chase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban designers show increasing interest in promoting community participation in urban regeneration and especially housing regeneration. However, effective participation has proved difficult in multi-ethnic mixed-use areas, with their wide range of different (and often conflicting interest groups. This paper, presented in case-study form, analyses a project in one such area: the Robin Hood Chase local centre in St. Ann’s area of Nottingham. It pays particular attention to the identification of different interest groups and their associated institutions, the use of local media and social events to involve these groups in the urban design process, the use of rearrangeable models in a process of “enquiry by design”, and the production of a widely acceptable urban design strategy for the area. Analysis of feedback from participants indicates a high level of satisfaction both with the final physical design proposal and with the process itself; and also identifies directions for further development in the approach and techniques employed.

  15. Quantitative differences in the pineal ultrastructure of perinatal and adult harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Jo Jorem; Stokkan, Karl-Arne

    2003-10-01

    Seals are unique among mammals in that newborns have a large pineal gland and extremely high plasma levels of melatonin at birth. Melatonin levels are also high in the seal fetus but decline rapidly during the first few days of life. The aim of the present study was to provide quantitative information about the ultrastructure of the seal pineal gland using fetal, newborn, and adult hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), and newborn and adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). The relative and absolute volumes of pinealocytes (Pi), arteries and veins, nerves, connective tissue, capillaries and glial cells, as well as mitocondria and lipid droplets in Pi, were calculated by use of point count analysis. Whereas the pineal ultrastructure was similar in fetuses and newborns, both seal species showed a pronounced and particular reduction in the volume of Pi and a similar reduction in pinealocyte mitochondria. There was also a shift from unmyelinated to myelinated pineal nerves in adults compared with fetal/newborns. The selective and marked reduction of Pi may explain the zonated pineal structure typical of the adult seal. The results demonstrate that the fetal gland is as large and active as that of the newborn seal and support the notion that the large size and high activity of the pineal gland in the newborn seal is a fading consequence of its prenatal condition.

  16. Ultrasound follow-up of posttraumatic injuries of the sagittal band of the dorsal hood treated by a conservative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Inneke; Kichouh, Mimoun; Boulet, Cedric; De Maeseneer, Michel; Clarys, Jan Pieter; de Mey, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic dislocation of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is a rare problem in patients without rheumatoid disorders. The common extensor tendon is stabilized on the metacarpal head by components of the dorsal hood (DH). A tear in the sagittal bands, allows (sub)luxation of the tendon. To ensure appropriate treatment, the identification of the damaged structures is essential. Ultrasound (US) is a valuable method in the evaluation of DH injuries and in the follow-up for evaluation of healing or lack of healing of the lesions. We report three cases with partial rupture of the sagittal band of the DH: two cases in the index finger and one case in the long finger, which caused pain and swelling and was diagnosed with US. The patients were treated conservatively and the pain resolved after 9 months in case 1, 3 months in case 2 and 6 months in case 3. The follow-up at one year revealed painless full range of motion and no residual subluxation during the dynamic ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influência de sistemas de plantio e armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood na cultura do milho = Influence of planting systems and adhesive trap on the incidence of Frankliniella williamsi Hood in crop maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a influência de diferentes sistemas de plantio de milho e o efeito de armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood. Os tratamentos consistiram no plantio direto do milho sobre aveia dessecada com glyphosate, aveia tombada, aveia roçada e plantas daninhas, aveia incorporada e plantio convencional. Alguns tratamentos foram associados a armadilha adesiva de coloração azul, colocada horizontalmente no centro da parcela. Verificou-se que tanto a presença de armadilha quanto os diferentes sistemas de plantio influíram significativamente na infestação das plantas de milho pelo tripes, sendo que os tratamentos “aveia dessecada” e “aveia roçada e plantas daninhas” apresentaram menor incidência do inseto, com esse efeito diminuindo com o desenvolvimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different systems of corn planting and the effect of adhesive trap on the incidence ofFrankliniella williamsi. The treatments consisted of sowing the corn seed directly on oats dried by glyphosate, tilt oats, cut oats and weeds, incorporated oats, and also conventional planting. Some treatments were associated with adhesive trap of blue coloration, puthorizontally in the center of the plot. Results showed that the presence of traps, as well as the different planting systems influenced significantly on the thrips infestation, and the treatmentswith "dry oats" and "cut oats and weeds" presented smaller incidence of the insect with a decreasing effect along the plants growth.

  18. A Geochemical and Geophysical Examination of Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nutrient Loading Estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P. W.; Simonds, F. W.; Paulson, A. J.; Kruse, S.; Reich, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemical tracer data (i.e., 222Rn and four naturally occurring Ra isotopes), electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter results, and high-resolution, stationary electrical resistivity images were used to examine the bi-directional (i.e., submarine groundwater discharge and recharge) exchange of a coastal aquifer with sea water. Our study site for these experiments was Lynch Cove, the terminus of Hood Canal, WA, where fjord- like conditions dramatically limit water column circulation that can lead to recurring summer-time hypoxic events. In such a system a precise nutrient budget may be particularly sensitive to groundwater-derived nutrient loading. Shore-perpendicular time-series subsurface resistivity profiles show clear, decimeter-scale tidal modulation of the coastal aquifer in response to large, regional hydraulic gradients, hydrologically- transmissive glacial terrain, and large (4-5m) tidal amplitudes. A 5-day 222Rn time-series shows a strong inverse covariance between 222Rn activities (0.5 - 29 dpm L-1) and water level fluctuations, and provides compelling evidence for tidally-modulated exchange of groundwater across the sediment / water interface. Mean Rn-derived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates of 85±84 cm d-1 agree closely in the timing and magnitude with EM seepage meter results that showed discharge during low tide and recharge during the high tide events. To evaluate the importance of fresh versus saline SGD, Rn-derived SGD rates (as a proxy of total SGD) were compared to excess 226Ra-derived SGD rates (as a proxy for the saline contribution of SGD).

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in informal payments for health care: An assessment of the 'Robin Hood' hypothesis in 33 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu, Hyacinthe Tchewonpi; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    In almost all African countries, informal payments are frequently made when accessing health care. Some literature suggests that the informal payment system could lead to quasi-redistribution among patients, with physicians playing a 'Robin Hood' role, subsidizing the poor at the expense of the rich. We empirically tested this assumption with data from the rounds 3 and 5 of the Afrobarometer surveys conducted in 18 and 33 African countries respectively, from 2005 to 2006 for round 3 and from 2011 to 2013 for round 5. In these surveys, nationally representative samples of people aged 18 years or more were randomly selected in each country, with sizes varying between 1048 and 2400 for round 3 and between 1190 and 2407 for round 5. We used the 'normalized' concentration index, the poor/rich gap and the odds ratio to assess the level of inequality in the payment of bribes to access care at the local public health facility and implemented two decomposition techniques to identify the contributors to the observed inequalities. We obtained that: i) the socioeconomic gradient in informal payments is in favor of the rich in almost all countries, indicating a rather regressive system; ii) this is mainly due to the socioeconomic disadvantage itself, to poor/rich differences in supply side factors like lack of medicines, absence of doctors and long waiting times, as well as regional disparities. Although essentially empirical, the paper highlights the need for African health systems to undergo substantial country-specific reforms in order to better protect the worse-off from financial risk when they seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex-specific tonic 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling at inhibitory inputs onto dopamine neurons of Lister Hooded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eMelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Addiction as a psychiatric disorder involves interaction of inherited predispositions and environmental factors. Similarly to humans, laboratory animals self-administer addictive drugs, whose appetitive properties result from activation and suppression of brain reward and aversive pathways, respectively. The ventral tegmental area (VTA where dopamine (DA cells are located is a key component of brain reward circuitry, whereas the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg critically regulates aversive behaviors. Reduced responses to either aversive intrinsic components of addictive drugs or to negative consequences of compulsive drug taking might contribute to vulnerability to addiction. In this regard, female Lister Hooded (LH rats are more vulnerable than male counterparts to cannabinoid self-administration. We, therefore, took advantage of sex differences displayed by LH rats, and studied VTA DA neuronal properties to unveil functional differences. Electrophysiological properties of DA cells were examined performing either single cell extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats or whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in slices. In vivo, DA cell spontaneous activity was similar, though sex differences were observed in RMTg-induced inhibition of DA neurons. In vitro, DA cells showed similar intrinsic and synaptic properties. However, females displayed larger depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI than males. DSI, an endocannabinoid-mediated form of short term plasticity, was mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG activating type 1-cannabinoid (CB1 receptors. We found that sex-dependent differences in DSI magnitude were not ascribed to CB1 number and/or function, but rather to a tonic 2-AG signalling. We suggest that sex specific tonic 2-AG signaling might contribute to regulate responses to aversive intrinsic properties to cannabinoids, thus resulting in faster acquisition/initiation of cannabinoid taking and, eventually, in

  1. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  2. A Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Three Cranial Nerves in Two Phocids: The Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) and the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Dennis; Kröger, Jürgen; Witt, Martin; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Czech-Damal, Nicole; Siebert, Ursula; Folkow, Lars; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-03-01

    While our knowledge about the senses of pinnipeds has increased over the last decades almost nothing is known about the organization of the neuroanatomical pathways. In a first approach to this field of research, we assessed the total number of myelinated axons of three cranial nerves (CNs) in the harbor (Phoca vitulina, Pv) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, Cc). Axons were counted in semithin sections of the nerves embedded in Epon and stained with toluidine blue. In both species, the highest axon number was found within the optic nerve (Pv 187,000 ± 8,000 axons, Cc 481,600 ± 1,300 axons). Generally, considering absolute axon numbers, far more axons were counted within the optic and trigmenial nerve (Pv 136,700 ± 2,500 axons, Cc 179,300 ± 6,900 axons) in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. The axon counts of the vestibulocochlear nerve are nearly identical for both species (Pv 87,100 ± 8,100 axons, Cc 86,600 ± 2,700 axons). However, when comparing cell density, the cell density is almost equal for all nerves for both species except for the optic nerve in which cell density was particularly higher than in the other nerves and higher in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. We here present the first comparative analysis of three CNs in two phocid seals. While the CNs of these closely related species share some general characteristics, pronounced differences in axon numbers/densities are apparent. These differences seem to reflect differences in e.g. size, habitat, and/or functional significance of the innervated sensory systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Thysanoptera biodiversity in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence A. Mound

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that descriptive taxonomy of thrips must be integrated into biological studies if we are to understand patterns of evolutionary and ecological diversity. Collecting and describing new taxa is easy, but understanding their position in ecosystems and how they have contributed to the origin and maintenance of biological diversity is more important yet more difficult. Many authors fail to appreciate that individual thrips species are commonly highly polymorphic, both within and between sexes, with the result that 20% of species names and 30% of generic names are currently placed into synonymy. The biological significance of such polymorphism has been little studied, but the presence of large and small males in a species is presumed to indicate some form of male/male competition for resources; this is particularly common in fungus feeding species. Amongst phytophagous species, the recognition of the host plants on which thrips actually breed is a prerequisite to understanding patterns of diversity, some thrips lineages being associated with particular groups of plants whereas others exploit a diverse range of plants. Attempts to understand the diversity of thrips, including the application of cladistic methods, are severely limited by the lack of studies on the biology of individual species, although thrips exhibit a wide range of interesting biological phenomena, including various levels of sociality, gallinduction, specific pollination associations, virus transmission, and ectoparasitismSe ha sugerido que la taxonomía descriptiva de los tisanopteros (trips debe integrarse dentro de los estudios biológicos si queremos ser capaces de entender los patrones de diversidad evolutiva y ecológica. Recolectar y describir nuevos datos es fácil, pero entender su posición en los ecosistemas y como ellos contribuyen al origen y mantenimiento de la diversidad biológica es más importante y aún más difícil. Muchos autores han fallado al apreciar que es común que las especies individuales de trips son altamente polimórficas, tanto dentro como entre sexos, con el resultado de que el 20% de los nombres específicos y el 30% de los genéricos son actualmente considerados como sinonimias. El significado biológico de tal polimorfimo ha sido poco estudiado, pero se presume que la presencia de machos grandes y pequeños en una especie indica alguna forma de competencia entre machos por los recursos; lo cual es muy común en las especies que se alimentan de hongos. Dentro de las especies fitófagas, el reconocimiento de la planta hospedera sobre la cual los trips realmente se crían es un prerrequisito para entender los patrones de diversidad, algunos linajes de tisanopteros están asociados con grupos particulares de plantas mientras que otros utilizan un diverso ámbito de plantas. Los intentos de entender la diversidad de los trips, incluyendo la aplicación de métodos cladistas, están limitados severamente por la carencia de estudios sobre la biología de especies individuales, aunque los trips exhiben un amplio ámbito de fenómenos interesantes biológicos, que incluye varios niveles de comportamiento social, inducción de irritación, asociaciones específicas de polinización, transmisión de virus y ectoparasitismo

  4. Descripción de los estados adultos e inmaduros y aspectos bioecológicos de Heterothrips cacti (Thysanoptera: Heterothripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. ZAMAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Heterothrips cacti Hood y se discuten las características biológicas y ecológicas de esta especie en las zonas semiáridas y de altura de Jujuy (Argentina. Los muestreos de frecuencia quincenal se realizaron en San Pedrito durante el período de floración de Opuntia sulphurea var. hildmannii en la temporada 2006-2007. La muestra consistió en cinco flores tomadas al azar de cada condición de evolución de las mismas. Para conocer las plantas hospedadoras y la distribución de H. cacti, se realizaron muestreos periódicos de la vegetación silvestre en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy. Los estudios biológicos se llevaron a cabo en el laboratorio, acondicionando flores de O. sulphurea con huevos de H. cacti en cajas de cría, para controlar la evolución del ciclo de vida. Heterothrips cacti es una especie antófila, oligófaga asociada a cactáceas, de amplia distribución en la Prepuna y Puna jujeñas. La biología de H. cacti está correlacionada con la de su planta hospedadora, O. sulphurea que presenta dos generaciones al año. Asimismo, el ciclo de vida está asociado con la evolución de la flor de la cactácea. El tiempo de desarrollo de los estados inmaduros de la primera y segunda generación fue de 45 ± 1.5 días y 287 ±3 días respectivamente. El estadio de desarrollo por el que la especie atraviesa el período entre floraciones es larva II quiescente, envuelta en un capullo de seda en el suelo. A 5 oC y 0 hs luz se inhibe el estado de quiescencia de H. cacti. Se registró la incidencia de Ceranisus sp. parasitoide larvi-pupal durante la segunda generación de H. cacti.

  5. Nucleotide divergence vs. gene expression differentiation: comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Bayer, Till; Haubold, Bernhard; Schilhabel, Markus; Rosenstiel, Philip; Tautz, Diethard

    2010-03-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology promise to provide new strategies for studying population differentiation and speciation phenomena in their earliest phases. We focus here on the black carrion crow (Corvus [corone] corone), which forms a zone of hybridization and overlap with the grey coated hooded crow (Corvus [corone] cornix). However, although these semispecies are taxonomically distinct, previous analyses based on several types of genetic markers did not reveal significant molecular differentiation between them. We here corroborate this result with sequence data obtained from a set of 25 nuclear intronic loci. Thus, the system represents a case of a very early phase of species divergence that requires new molecular approaches for its description. We have therefore generated RNAseq expression profiles using barcoded massively parallel pyrosequencing of brain mRNA from six individuals of the carrion crow and five individuals from a hybrid zone with the hooded crow. We obtained 856 675 reads from two runs, with average read length of 270 nt and coverage of 8.44. Reads were assembled de novo into 19 552 contigs, 70% of which could be assigned to annotated genes in chicken and zebra finch. This resulted in a total of 7637 orthologous genes and a core set of 1301 genes that could be compared across all individuals. We find a clear clustering of expression profiles for the pure carrion crow animals and disperse profiles for the animals from the hybrid zone. These results suggest that gene expression differences may indeed be a sensitive indicator of initial species divergence.

  6. Methane Sources and Migration Mechanisms in the Shallow Trinity Aquifer in Parker and Hood Counties, Texas - a Noble Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, T.; Castro, C.; Nicot, J. P.; Hall, C. M.; Mickler, P. J.; Darvari, R.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of elevated methane in groundwaters within the Barnett Shale footprint in Parker and Hood counties, Texas has caused public concern that hydrocarbon production may facilitate migration of natural gas into a critical groundwater resource. This study places constraints on the source of methane in these groundwaters by analyzing water and stray gas data from groundwater wells and gas production wells from both the Barnett Shale and Strawn Group for methane content and noble gases, both of crustal and atmospheric origin. Particular emphasis is given to the atmospheric heavier noble gases 84Kr and 132Xe, which are significantly less affected by the presence of excess air, commonly present in modern Texas groundwaters (e.g., [1]). Dissolved methane concentrations are positively correlated with crustal 4He, 21Ne and 40Ar and suggest that noble gases and methane in these groundwaters originate from a common source, likely the Strawn Group, which the sampled aquifer overlies unconformably. This finding is further supported by the noble gas isotopic signature of stray gas when compared to the gas isotopic signatures of both Barnett Shale and the Strawn Group. In contrast to most samples, four groundwater wells with the highest methane concentrations unequivocally show heavy depletion of the atmospheric noble gases 20Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr and 132Xe with respect to freshwater recharge equilibrated with the atmosphere (ASW). This is consistent with predicted noble gas concentrations in a residual water phase in contact with a gas phase with initial ASW composition at 18°C-25°C, assuming a closed-system and suggest a highly localized gas source. All these four wells, without exception, tap into the Strawn Group and it is likely that shallow gas accumulations, as they are known to exist, were reached. Additionally, lack of correlation between 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar fractionation levels and distance to the nearest production wells does not support the notion that methane

  7. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  8. Robin Hood in reverse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla; Panduro, Toke Emil; Lundhede, Thomas

    We analyse the housing markets in a suburb north of the Danish capital Copenhagen. We find that households sort themselves in relation to nature area. The concentration of affluent households decreases rapidly with distance to nature. This indicates that a welfare change generated by a change in ...

  9. XML under the Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML (extensible markup language), particularly as it relates to libraries. Topics include organizing information; cataloging; metadata; similarities to HTML; organizations dealing with XML; making XML useful; a history of XML; the semantic Web; related technologies; XML at the Library of Congress; and its role in improving the…

  10. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)]. E-mail: linn.anne.brunborg@nifes.no; Graff, Ingvild Eide [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Julshamn, Kare [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2006-08-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 {mu}g/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 {mu}g/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 {mu}g/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 {mu}g/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were

  11. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    The homeodomain of the knotted classes of transcription factors from plants differs from the well characterized Antp/En type homeodomains from Drosophila at key amino acid residues contributing to the DNA binding. A cDNA, Hvh21, derived from the hooded gene and encoding a full length homolog...... of knotted1 from maize was isolated from barley seedlings and expressed as a maltose binding protein fusion in E. coli. The purified HvH21-fusion protein selected DNA fragments with 1-3 copies of the sequence TGAC. Gel shift experiments showed that the TGAC element was required for binding and the results...... further indicate that the HvH21-fusion protein binds DNA as a monomer. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-May-12...

  12. Eruption-related lahars and sedimentation response downstream of Mount Hood: Field guide to volcaniclastic deposits along the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Tom C.; Scott, William E.; Vallance, James W.; Pringle, Patrick T.; O'Connor, Jim; Dorsey, Rebecca; Madin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Late Holocene dome-building eruptions at Mount Hood during the Timberline and Old Maid eruptive periods resulted in numerous dome-collapse pyroclastic flows and lahars that moved large volumes of volcaniclastic sediment into temporary storage in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. During each eruptive period, accelerated sediment loading to the river through erosion and remobilization of volcanic fragmental debris resulted in very high sediment-transport rates in the Sandy River during rain- and snowmelt-induced floods. Large sediment loads in excess of the river's transport capacity led to channel aggradation, channel widening, and change to a braided channel form in the lowermost reach of the river, between 61 and 87 km downstream from the volcano. The post-eruption sediment load moved as a broad bed-material wave, which in the case of the Old Maid eruption took ~2 decades to crest 83 km downstream. Maximum post-eruption aggradation levels of at least 28 and 23 m were achieved in response to Timberline and Old Maid eruptions. In each case, downstream aggradation cycles were initiated by lahars, but the bulk of the aggradation was achieved by fluvial sediment transport and deposition. When the high rates of sediment supply began to diminish, the river degraded, incising the channel fills and forming progressively lower sets of degradational terraces. A variety of debris-flow, hyperconcentrated-flow, and fluvial (upper and lower flow regime) deposits record the downstream passage of the sediment waves that were initiated by these eruptions. The deposits also presage a hazard that may be faced by communities along the Sandy River when volcanic activity at Mount Hood resumes.

  13. Molecular and morphological phylogeny of hooded shrimps, genera Betaeus and Betaeopsis (Decapoda, Alpheidae): testing the center of origin biogeographic model and evolution of life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Baeza, J Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the alpheid shrimp genera Betaeus (Dana, 1852) (15 species) and Betaeopsis (Yaldwyn, 1971) (three species), collectively known as hooded shrimps, are analyzed with morphological, molecular (16S and H3) and combined "total evidence" (morphology+DNA) datasets. The tree topology resulting from morphological and combined analyses places Betaeus jucundus as sister to all the remaining species of Betaeus and Betaeopsis, rendering Betaeus paraphyletic. On the other hand, Betaeopsis is recovered as monophyletic. Betaeus australis is positioned as sister to the remaining species of Betaeus s. str. (excluding B. jucundus), which is composed of three well-supported and resolved clades. Mapping of biogeographic traits on the combined tree suggests at least two possible historic scenarios. In the first scenario, the North-East Pacific harboring the highest diversity of hooded shrimps (seven species of Betaeus), acted as the "center of origin", where species appeared, matured and eventually migrated toward peripheral regions. In the second scenario, Betaeus+Betaeopsis originated in the southern Indo-West Pacific and subsequently colonized the North-East Pacific, where a major radiation involving dispersal/vicariance events took place. The mapping of life history traits (symbiosis vs. free living and gregariousness vs. single/pair living) in the combined tree suggests (1) that different types of symbioses with dissimilar host organisms (sea urchins, abalones, other decapods, spoon worms) evolved independently more than once in the group (in B. jucundus and in various lineages of Betaeus s. str.), and (2) that gregariousness was ancestral in the Betaeus s. str. -Betaeopsis clade and later shifted toward single/pair living in several lineages. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Robin Hood: A cost-efficient two-stage approach to large-scale simultaneous inference with non-homogeneous sparse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecanka, Jakub; Goeman, Jelle

    2017-04-25

    A classical approach to experimental design in many scientific fields is to first gather all of the data and then analyze it in a single analysis. It has been recognized that in many areas such practice leaves substantial room for improvement in terms of the researcher's ability to identify relevant effects, in terms of cost efficiency, or both. Considerable attention has been paid in recent years to multi-stage designs, in which the user alternates between data collection and analysis and thereby sequentially reduces the size of the problem. However, the focus has generally been towards designs that require a hypothesis be tested in every single stage before it can be declared as rejected by the procedure. Such procedures are well-suited for homogeneous effects, i.e. effects of (almost) equal sizes, however, with effects of varying size a procedure that permits rejection at interim stages is much more suitable. Here we present precisely such multi-stage testing procedure called Robin Hood. We show that with heterogeneous effects our method substantially improves on the existing multi-stage procedures with an essentially zero efficiency trade-off in the homogeneous effect realm, which makes it especially useful in areas such as genetics, where heterogeneous effects are common. Our method improves on existing approaches in a number of ways including a novel way of performing two-sided testing in a multi-stage procedure with increased power for detecting small effects.

  15. Prenova področja z mešano narodnostno sestavo ter večstransko namembnostjo: primer Robin Hood Chasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanisti kažejo vse več zanimanja za pospeševanje soudeležbe prebivalcev pri urbanistični prenovi, zlasti stanovanjskih naselij. Toda učinkovitost soudeležbe se je izkazala kot problematična na področjih z mešano narodnostno sestavo ter večstransko namembnostjo (med seboj pogosto konfliktnih interesov. Razprava analizira projekt prenove na takšnem področju: krajevno središče Robin Hood Chase na področju St. Ann’s v Nottinghamu. Posebna pozornost je bila namenjena opredelitvi različnih interesnih skupin in z njimi povezanih institucij, uporabi lokalnih medijev in družabnih dogodkov pri vključevanju teh skupin v proces urbanističnega načrtovanja, uporabi prilagodljivih modelov ter izdelavi vsem sprejemljive urbanistične strategije prenove področja. Analiza odzivov udeležencev na končni predlog urbanističnega načrta, je pokazala visoko raven zadovoljstva, identificirala pa je tudi smernice za nadaljnji razvoj pristopa in tehnik, ki so bile uporabljene.

  16. Effects of leaf compounds, climate and natural enemies on the incidence of thrips in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Germano Leão Demolin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rainfall, temperature, sunlight and relative humidity, as well as predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition and levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium on the intensity of Scirtothrips manihoti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae attack on cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz var. Cacau. The leaf compounds (E-farnesene/trans-farnesol and D-friedoolean-14-en-3-one correlated significantly with the population of S. manihoti. Insect population decreased in the dry and cold season probably due to leaf senescence. Significative correlation was observed between Syrphidae with S. manihoti populations.

  17. Effect of different temperatures on consumption of two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, eggs by the predatory thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae...... Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15º C to 37º C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L...

  18. Comparison of phencyclidine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and reversal by sertindole and risperidone between Lister Hooded and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Jouni; Savolainen, Katja; Tanila, Heikki; Forsberg, Markus M

    2016-05-15

    Visual learning and memory are one of the key cognitive domains disturbed in schizophrenia. Glutamate NMDA receptors play a crucial role in spatial learning and memory and NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP), impair spatial learning and memory. Pigmented rat strains have superior vision than albino rat strains and are therefore commonly used in visually-demanding cognitive tests. However, all previous water maze experiments using acutely administered PCP to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits have been conducted with albino Wistar rats. This study was designed to assess whether pigmented Lister Hooded (LH) rats would be more suitable in modeling acute PCP-induced deficits in Morris water maze (MWM) task than Wistar rats. We also evaluated whether the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in reversing PCP-induced spatial navigation deficits was dependent on the rat strain. First, we compared the PCP dose-response in the range of 1.3-2.0mg/kg (s.c.) at causing deficits in MWM performance. Then, the efficacies of sertindole 1.6mg/kg (s.c.) and risperidone 0.04mg/kg (s.c.) in reversing PCP-induced spatial navigation deficits were investigated. Drug-naïve LH rats showed a better spatial memory than Wistar rats. Furthermore, PCP induced deficits in spatial navigation at lower doses in LH than in Wistar rats. In addition, PCP-induced deficits were partly reversed by sertindole in LH but not in Wistar rats. Our results suggest that the deficits in spatial learning and memory that resemble memory deficits found in schizophrenia patients are better modeled by PCP in LH rats than Wistar rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively less susceptible to all isolates, ostensibly due to moulting, with LC50 values of 1.1 × 108, 7.0 × 105, and 9.9 × 105 CFU/spores per mL for GHA, F52, and Apopka 97 strains, respectively. In greenhouse cages, compared with controls, three applications of mycoinsecticides and other biorational insecticides at 7 to 14 day intervals reduced overall S. dorsalis populations on pepper plants Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder: spinosad reduced populations by 94–99%, M. brunneum F52 by 84–93%, B. bassiana GHA by 81–94%, I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by 62–66%, and different horticultural oils by 58–85%. The proportion of marketable fruit was significantly increased by M. brunneum F52, B. bassiana GHA, and 2% SuffOil-X treatments. Slightly lower levels of control were observed in nursery tests with ornamental rose shrubs, Rosa sp. Red Double Knock Out®, during hot sunny conditions. Four applications reduced thrips populations over 10 weeks: spinosad by an average of 91%, M. brunneum F52 by an average of 81%, B. bassiana GHA by an average of 62%, SuffOil-X by an average of 50%, and I. fumosorosea PFR-97 by an average of 44%. The data show that mycoinsecticides can be used in management strategies for low to moderate populations of S. dorsalis and provide resistance management tools for the limited number of insecticides that are effective against this pest. PMID:23895429

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DOS IMPACTOS DOS CRITÉRIOS DE DISTRIBUIÇÃO DO ICMS DA LEI ROBIN HOOD NO ÍNDICE DE DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO MUNICIPAL EM MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Paiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que, vinte e cinco por cento dos valores arrecadados do ICMS são repassados aos municípios e cada estado possui sua legislação específica. Em Minas Gerais, essa distribuição de recursos é realizada por meio da atividade econômica de cada município e também através da Lei Robin Hood, que busca atrelar os repasses de recursos as ações sociais. Diante disso, o presente estudo, buscou avaliar os impactos que os critérios de distribuição do ICMS da Lei Robin Hood provocaram no Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal em Minas Gerais. Para tanto, analisou-se o período de 2002 a 2008, agrupando-se os municípios nas 12 mesorregiões mineiras. O processamento dos dados se deu através da análise de dados em painel. Neste caso, os resultados obtidos mostraram que apenas as variáveis “Meio Ambiente”, “Produção de Alimentos” e “Produto Interno Bruto (PIB” apresentaram relação com os valores dos indicadores sociais comparados. A significância da variável PIB com os indicadores sociais, frente a não significância da maioria dos critérios de repasse exigidos pela Lei Robin Hood, deixa claro o peso dos agentes econômicos entre os municípios, tornando-os mais relevantes à melhoria das necessidades sociais.

  1. About the Little Red Riding Hood, Durex and anger: production, meaning and reception of one fairy tale and one commercial ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By applying the semiological analysis, this paper considers planned and unplanned readings of a provocative domestic commercial, which, in order to convey its message, transposed the Little Red Riding Hood’s character in accordance with the advertised product – Durex condoms. This commercial caused furious reactions of parents who took legal action for breaching the Law on public advertising and, especially, "harming children’s sensibility and integrity". Provocative billboards also caused numerous comments in the daily newspapers, in the Internet chat rooms, with some considering the commercial vulgar and offensive and others having no problem with it, adding that the ones who took offence belonged to those puritan and conservative layers of the society. In order to discover the reasons to this kind of reactions, I started with researching how the commercial was made and what kind of message it offered. Next, I reconsidered the meaning of the very fairy tale "The Red Riding Hood". Its original version, which contains open sexual allusions, is quite different to the changed versions offered by Charles Perrault and the Grimm brothers. Their versions can be seen as fakelore, since they outrageously intervened on the plot and the meaning of the original fairy tale. However, since the Grimm brothers’ version is the most popular, it is a fact that our public reacted with such anger led by the meaning of their version, which accentuates overeating and cannibalism, and not sexual development of girls, which is the basic message of the original version. This is where the "communicational noise" that led to those negative reactions came from. By discovering the true meaning of the tale, the answer is given to the question whether the advertising agency made a slip up, or it had actually found the right way to communicate the hidden message of the tale, and at the same time ruin the advertising campaign for which it was used. In the end, range and

  2. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  3. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    stations. Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) and Orthotrichia sp. (Trichoptera) were found only at one other sta- tion (Station A), and Spongilla sp. ( Porifera ... invertebrates , and are typically found in quiet pools. Gastrcpods collected were all members of the subclass Pulmonata, which breathe by means of a...aquatic invertebrates . The most important species for maintaining the structure and function of Fort od’s aquatic systems are those capable of

  4. Werkt een 'Robin Hood' beleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans); F. van der Ploeg (Ploeg)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractEen verschuiving in de belastingdruk van de lagere arbeidsinkomens naar het middenkader heeft volgens het model MIMIC van het CPBpositieve effecten op de werkgelegenheid. Dit hangt vooral samenn met het loonmatigende effect van hogere marginale tarieven in het model. Echter, MIMIC houdt

  5. ANÁLISE DAS RELAÇÕES INTERGOVERNAMENTAIS ENTRE ESTADOS E MUNICÍPIOS ATRAVÉS DA CONSTRUÇÃO DE UMA TIPOLOGIA DE MUNICÍPIOS: o caso da Lei Robin Hood em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Noronha Carvalhais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article take as reference the Robin Hood Law (RHL that has as goal the improvement of life quality of Minas Gerais population through ICMS quote-part distribution decentralization, income deconcentration, allocation of local resources in social areas, increase in taxes, efficiency of local public expenditure, and creation of a partnership between state and counties. It asks if RHL would be reaching those goals, in addition to bibliographic and documental research, Quadrant Analysis Method is used to build counties typology according to poverty level and resources transferred. It also notes that the results show that criteria with low redistributive capacity or concentrators have relatively high weight, that poor counties get smaller amounts than the rich ones. It concludes that although RHL represents a step forward, it al so needs improvements for minimizing the high socioeconomic heterogeneity typical of Minas Gerais counties.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

  8. Intra- and interspecific molecular polymorphism of thrips species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, K; Törjék, O; Kiss, Erzsébet; Gyulai, G; Heszky, L

    2002-01-01

    Molecular polymorphism of six species of Thysanoptera of both sexes, collected from different locations and host plants in Hungary was studied by using RAPD-PCR technique. The specimens were classified according to sampling sites (Gödöllö, Nagykovácsi and Valkó), host plants (Lathyrus tuberosus, Medicago sativa, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense), sexes, and larvae in case of Aeolothrips intermedius. On the basis of the total of 103 fragments generated by 15 RAPD primers the genetic distances were calculated by cluster analysis using simple matching method. The dendrogram resulted in two main groups: Aeolothripidae (Aeolothrips intermedius) and Thripidae (Frankliniella intonsa, Kakothrips robustus, Odontothrips confusus, Thrips dilatatus and T. tabaci). Within the family Thripidae two subgroups were observed including (i) F. intonsa, T. dilatatus and T. tabaci, and (ii) K. robustus and O. confusus. Two population-specific and one sex-linked fragments were identified by the RAPD primers, OPQ 14, NO11 and OPA08, respectively.

  9. Protecting the Force: Lessons from Fort Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    learned and best practices. The Services appear to have insufficient data to assess traumatic stress and healthcare provider burnout , critical elements...Crisis Communication: Workplace and School Violence, Stockholm Syndrome , and Abnormal Psychology,” Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association...88-106; Matt DeLisi, Andy Hochstetler, Aaron M. Scherer, Aaron Purhmann, and Mark T. Berg, “The Starkweather Syndrome : Exploring Criminal History

  10. Hierarchical Orbital Observatory Deployable Shroud (HOODS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large deployable telescopes such as NASA's 9.2m and 16.8m segmented ATLAST systems require commensurately large deployable sunshades for thermal control and to...

  11. Crowdsourcing the Robin Hood effect in cities

    CERN Document Server

    Louail, Thomas; Arias, Juan Murillo; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in cities are embedded in space and result in neighborhood effects, whose harmful consequences have proved very hard to counterbalance efficiently by planning policies alone. Considering redistribution of money flows as a first step toward improved spatial equity, we study a bottom-up approach that would rely on a slight evolution of shopping mobility practices. Building on a database of anonymized credit card transactions in Madrid and Barcelona, we quantify the mobility effort required to reach a reference situation where commercial income is evenly shared among neighborhoods. The redirections of shopping trips preserve key properties of human mobility, including travel distances. Surprisingly, for both cities only a small fraction ($\\sim 5 \\%$) of trips need to be altered to reach equity situations, improving even other sustainability indicators. The method could be implemented in mobile applications that would assist individuals in reshaping their shopping practices, to promote ...

  12. VINTE ANOS DA LEI ROBIN HOOD: UM BALANÇO DA PROTEÇÃO DO PATRIMÔNIO CULTURAL EM MINAS GERAIS (Dossiê: Gestão, Educação e Patrimônio Cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Nolasco Queiroz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente texto busca discutir o impacto causado na preservação do patrimônio cultural mineiro pela lei Robin Hood ou Lei do ICMS que, em 2015, completa vinte anos de vigência. Ele partiu das reflexões apresentadas no XIX Simpósio Regional da ANPUH, realizado em Juiz de Fora em 2014, cujo tema foi Profissão historiador: formação e mercado de trabalho, e mostrou-se digno de maior divulgação e publicaçao pela atualidade e relevância do tema. O objetivo é conjecturar sobre as mudanças trazidas pela lei na preservação do patrimônio de Minas Gerais tanto no órgão fiscalizador da preservação no estado quanto nos municípios que aderiram à lei e, ainda, na atuação profissional dos que se dedicam à área. Palavras-chave: Patrimônio cultural, ICMS cultural, Lei Robin Hood, Minas Gerais, IEPHA/MG   Abstract: This text intends to discuss the impact caused in the Cultural Heritage of Minas Gerais (Brazil by the Robin Wood Law, or Low of the ICMS, that completes 20 years of existence in 2015. The idea received an explanation in the XIX Regional Simposion of ANPUH that took place in Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais, Brazil in 2014. The theme of the simposium was The profession of historian: superior education and work marketing and it showed the actuality and the relevance of deeper discusstions about the subject. The purpose of the article is to reflect about the changes brought by the law in the cultural heritage preservation in Minas Gerais, in the organ that inspects the aplication of the law, in the cities that gain the ressourcers of the law and in the actuation of the professionals of the area.Keywords: Cultural Heritage, ICMS Law, Robin Hood Law, Minas Gerais (Brazil, IEPHARecebido em: 20/05/2015 – Aceito em 23/06/2015

  13. Lobos-maus e chapeuzinhos-vermelhos em ilustrações para ver e ler/Bad wolves, little red riding hoods in illustrations to see and read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenise Cristina Pires de Andrade

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Propomos olhares em movimento pelos interiores de algumas imagens em busca de reconhecer elementos de sua própria linguagem a fim de estabelecermos um diálogo com estas imagens e suas/nossas potencialidades, encantamentos, sentidos. Ver Lobos e Chapeuzinhos como fragmentos ressonantes em narrativas que se multiplicam em diferentes cenários e “contextualizações”. Nossa aposta está em não mais obedecer à necessidade representacional do questionamento “o que isso quer dizer?”, “qual o significado daquilo?”, mas possibilitar escorregões e deslizes pelas potências da contemplação e produção de sentidos na própria imagem. Ler imagens que se soltam do texto. Ler textos que se permitem desvincular das imagens; (impossibilidades em buscar outras apresentações da menina e do animal com a intenção de tencionar os limites do que frequentemente se nomeia imagem, texto, produção cultural, e potencializar as multiplicidades na ausência do equivalente que representariam e interpretariam. Mas e quanto ao papel do professor perante a educação advinda das imagens: seríamos nós os “faxineiros/as” das “misturas”, das “diferenças” com que nos deparamos no campo educacional, na tentativa de deixar tudo mais uniforme? Se assim o for, talvez estejamos pasteurizando interpretações e análises – pasteurização que não ocorre somente na indústria, mas também com as linguagens e conteúdos. We consider looks in movement through the interiors of some images trying to recognize elements of its own language in order to establish a dialogue with these images and its/ours potentialities, wondering, senses. To see resonant Bad Wolf and Little Red Riding Hood as fragments in narratives that multiplies in different scenes and “contexts”. Our bet is no more to obey the representational necessity for the question “what does this want to say?”, “which is the meaning of that?”, but to make possible some sliding for

  14. First record of Aeolothrips gloriosus Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trdan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, females of Aeolothrips gloriosus were found in the blossoms of olive trees in olive plantations at Dekani and Škocjan. This is the first record of the species in Slovenia, and its occurrence may be of economic importance because the larvae can be efficient predators of plant pests. In this paper the detection, morphology, distribution and hosts of A. gloriosus are presented.

  15. First record of Aeolothrips gloriosus Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Trdan S.; Vidrih M.; Vierbergen G.

    2015-01-01

    In May 2011, females of Aeolothrips gloriosus were found in the blossoms of olive trees in olive plantations at Dekani and Škocjan. This is the first record of the species in Slovenia, and its occurrence may be of economic importance because the larvae can be efficient predators of plant pests. In this paper the detection, morphology, distribution and hosts of A. gloriosus are presented.

  16. The American genus Dactuliothrips (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) with three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Veronica; De Borbón, Carlos Manuel

    2013-11-04

    Three new species of Dactuliothrips Moulton are described, two from Mendoza, Argentina and one from Southern California, USA: D. prosopis sp.n. from Prosopis alpataco (Fabaceae), D. monttea sp.n. from Monttea aphylla (Scrophulariaceae), and D. ephedra sp.n. from Ephedra sp. (Ephedraceae). A revised diagnosis and an illustrated identification key to the nine recognized species of Dactuliothrips are also provided. Pictures and notes about the host plants for the species from Argentina are included, together with new records for D. kaszabi from Argentina.

  17. Redemption to a kwaito beat: Gavin Hood\\'s Tsotsi | Rijsdijk | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the film, signifying Tsotsi\\'s shift from sociopathic menace to an emotionally recuperated individual who takes responsibility for his actions. Zola\\'s influence on the film narrative is also investigated, leading us to propose that the film can be seen as reinforcing negative stereotypes of black masculinity in South Africa.

  18. Caracterização e tratabilidade biológica dos efluentes líquidos gerados em cabines de pintura de uma indústria moveleira Characterization and treatability of wastewater from a dying hood of a furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo R. Lage Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os efluentes gerados em cabines de pintura de uma indústria moveleira e avaliar a eficiência de sistemas biológicos (anaeróbio e aeróbio para o seu tratamento. O efluente industrial apresentou elevado teor de matéria orgânica (DQO total de 634 a 2.790 mg.L-1; DBO5 total de 360 a 972 mg.L-1 e baixos teores de macronutrientes (NTK de 1,9 mg.L-1 e Ptotal de 0,5 mg.L- e metais tóxicos. Os ensaios de tratabilidade em reator UASB (~25ºC e tempo de detenção hidráulica - TDH = 10 horas, indicaram uma eficiência máxima de remoção de matéria orgânica de 90% na composição volumétrica 70:30 (efluente industrial:esgoto sanitário. A alimentação do reator UASB só com efluente industrial resultou em acúmulo de ácidos graxos voláteis e inibição microbiana, mas o uso de pós-tratamento aeróbio (TDH = 96h garantiu elevada eficiência global (~88% de remoção de matéria orgânica.The main objective of this work was to characterize the wastewater from the dying hood of a woven furniture industry, and to assess the efficiency of biological processes (anaerobic and aerobic for its treatment. The physical-chemical characterization of the industrial wastewater showed a high organic matter content (total COD from 634 to 2,790 mg.L-1; total BOD5 from 360 to 972 mg.L-1, low content of macronutrients (NTK of 1.9 mg.L-1 and P of 0.5 mg.L-1 and toxic metals. The anaerobic degradation tests in a bench-scale UASB reactor (25ºC and hydraulic retention time - HRT = 10 hours showed that a maximum removal efficiency of 90% was obtained when the reactor was fed with 30% raw sewage and 70% industrial wastewater. The feeding of UASB reactor with only industrial wastewater resulted in volatile fatty acids accumulation and microbial inhibition; however, the use of aerobic post-treatment (HRT = 96 hours granted a high (~88% organic matter removal efficiency.

  19. Waste management and Hooded Vultures on the Legon Campus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with snakes, spiders, hyaenas and sharks, vultures are regarded by many people as the 'bad guys' of the animal kingdom. (Wildwatch 2005). Despite the scorn ..... ID=79130&Comment1405509. Grimes, L.G. 1987. The Birds of Ghana. BOU Checklist 9, British Ornithologists' Union,. London. Hertel, F., 1994. Diversity in body ...

  20. A Robin Hood for the digital age | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    RITS also provides its members privileged access to management and legal information, and provides technical support in the design and development of Web pages. Annual association fees are around the US$120 mark, depending on the services used. In 2005 RITS began providing Internet services for corporations, ...

  1. Numerical studies of the Zaitsev (Robin Hood ) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Perry; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey; Zypman, Fredy

    2008-03-01

    The Zaitsev[1] model of depinning of interfaces has been widely used to discuss motion of dislocations, low temperature flux creep, and more recently dry friction. The properties of this model have been discussed theoretically in one dimension, and numerically verified with precision in the isotropic case. We are studying here the effect of anisotropy in the distribution of the ``mass'' among the neighbors in the updating of the sites, which is known to modify the critical exponents of the model in one dimension. We have considered the validity of the scaling laws in higher dimensions, which might be relevant for the case of friction [2], by computing several of the exponents of the model for the avalanche size distribution, average avalanche size, avalanche fractal dimension and distribution of jumps between extremal sites of activity. The much richer space of parameters of anisotropy in two dimensions has been explored. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110, (2006)

  2. Virgin esitleb : Robin Hood ja sir Branson / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Ettevõtja Richard Branson'i elust, karjäärist, juhtimisprintsiipidest ning tegevusest kaubamärgi Virgin loomisel, mis ühendab endas kaht lennufirmat, reisibürood, margiviina, koolat, muusikakaubamajasid, pensionifonde jne. Lisa: Branson - koolist väljalangenud miljardär

  3. Geologic map of the Hood River Quadrangle, Washington and Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A. (comp.)

    1987-01-01

    The report is comprised of a 1:100,000 scale geologic map and accompanying text. The text consists of unit descriptions, a table of age dates, a table of major element geochemistry, correlation diagram, and a source of mapping diagram. (ACR)

  4. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    mapped the pollution distribution in the room, and showed that the pollutants escape more at the sides of the cooktop. These preliminary results suggest that more measurements should be conducted investigating the capture efficiency at different pollutant source temperature, size and location...

  5. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... storage, and an equipment maintenance yard. In order to facilitate the building of the new parking lot... yard including bus and snow equipment parking, and equipment maintenance building. Construct a Guest... maintenance needs (see attached map). The existing shop, built in 1967, is not large enough to service the...

  6. 77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed Rules'' and insert ``USCG-2012-0074... standards are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation...

  7. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air....

  8. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    1991-01-01

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air.

  9. 76 FR 58768 - Hood/Willamette Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... has been changed since the last notice to Sweet Home Ranger District Office, 4431 Highway 20, Sweet... Sweet Home, Oregon. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. Robin Hood tuleb / Taavi Veskimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veskimägi, Taavi, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 24. august lk. 2, Estonija 25. august lk. 2, Nädaline 24. august lk. 4, Valgamaalane 24. august lk. 2, Hiiumaa 24. august lk. 3, Lääne-Harju Ekspress 31. august lk. 4, Järva Teataja 3. september lk. 2, Vooremaa 3. september lk. 7, Virumaa Teataja 6. september lk. 7, Koit 5. september lk. 6. Autori arvates võiks üksikisiku tulumaksust 100% jääda kohalikele omavalitsustele. Autor: Res Publica

  11. Gifted Education: Robin Hood or the Sheriff of Nottingham?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the issue of gifted and talented education from the perspective of public policy. It asserts that the underachievement of gifted children is a national concern, as these children may someday benefit society in ways that are disproportionate to their share of the population. Perhaps more importantly, it concludes that gifted…

  12. Archeological Testing Fort Hood: 1994-1995. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    preparation of an area for print, in practice it has proven effective, burning, whether by gaithering of hearthstones to contain the fire and provide a heat...occupy far too much area to merely represent a localized Although the relatively extensive character of this dump for broken hearthstones and detritus

  13. Foraging behaviour of brown-hooded kingfishers ( Halcyon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time spent at a perch when the bird attempts prey capture should be shorter than give-up times when birds are taking the first thing detected. Hence, survival distribution functions and non-parametric rank statistics were used to test for differences between give-up and attempt perches. Since an exponential model ...

  14. Urban contaminants project: Fish and Hood Creeks, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Urbanization has decreased water quality and adversely impacted biological communities in the lakes and streams of Anchorage, Alaska (Hock, 1981; Brabets, 1987;...

  15. What's under the hood? Improving SCADA security with process awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chromik, Justyna Joanna; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    SCADA networks are an essential part of monitoring and controlling physical infrastructures, such as the power grid. Recent news item show that tampering with the data exchanged in a SCADA network occurs and has severe consequences. A possible way of improving the security of SCADA networks is to

  16. Predicting the social consequences of orphan hood in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of AIDS Research ... 2 These orphans will become children who do not live in appropriate social environments to equip them for adult citizenship. 3 Poor socialisation will mean that children orphaned by AIDS will not live within society's moral codes (becoming, for example, street children or juvenile ...

  17. Archeological Testing Fort Hood: 1994-1995, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Ringstaff one of them. Analyses of pollen, phytoliths , and 1994). macrobotanical materials from the excavations were attempted, but the results were...data sets include: 0 and noncultural contexts. Key data sets include: 0 pollen and phytolith samples; "• temporally diagnostic artifacts in primary...manufacturing waste; "• pollen and phytoliths in noncultural settings; * use-modified lithic tools; and • distinct and identifiable raw materials; and

  18. Fort Hood Building Occupant Survey. Volume 2 - Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    heating source? 1 Warm air from ventilation registers 2 Radiator or baseboard heat 3 Spot heating (radiant or space heating infrared lamps) (q3_lo) 4...THE MAIN ENTRY 1 HVAC serviced/sun shade around wndw/ uv t 1 HVAC systems be replaced/upgraded 1 I SUBMITTED SUGGESTION 3146 1 IDEA SEARCH THROUGH THE...REDUCE HEAT IN WINTER 1 replace existing light w/most efficient 1 REPLACE WINDOW W/DOUBLE PANE/UPGRADE HEA 1 replace windows with solar sunscreens /up

  19. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... hour road traffic on State Routes 3 and 104 by allowing the draw of the bridge to remain closed to... rush hour road traffic by reducing bridge openings, thereby reducing traffic queues and delays due to... Bridge be changed to provide some relief to road traffic on State Routes 3 and 104. Traffic queues south...

  20. KERAGAMAN SERANGGA PADA TANAMAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM YANG DIBERI PESTISIDA SINTETIS VERSUS BIOPESTISIDA RACUN LABA-LABA (NEPHILA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the diversity of insects in chili plant agroecosystem treated with synthetic pesticide versus that treated with biopesticide (venom of spider Nephila sp. Two plots of chili pepper plants, each sized 600 m2, located at Ciwidey area Bandung –West Java, were taken as the sample plots. The first plot was weekly treated with profenofos insecticide (50% active ingredient, a.i. while the second plot was treated with  biopesticide (70% a.i. spider venom extracted from Nephila sp., each at 35 ml/17 L rate of spray solution. Sweep net was used to sample insects along two transects in each plot. Result showed that 14 families of 8 insect orders were found in pesticide-treated plot while 15 families of  9 orders were found in biopesticide-treated plot. The evenness index and diversity index of insects in plot treated with biopesticide were relatively higher than those in pesticide-treated plot. In contrast, dominance index in biopesticide plot was lower than that in synthetic pesticide plot. Thrips sp.(Thysanoptera: Thripidae was found to be the most dominant species in both plots.

  1. Effect of the postfeeding interval on olfactory responses of thrips to herbivore-induced cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rehan; Walter, Gimme H; Wilson, Lewis J; Furlong, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the responses of 3 thrips species, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, F. occidentalis Pergrande, and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to herbivore-damaged and undamaged cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum L. [Malvales: Malvaceae]) at a range of time intervals following damage by adult Tetranychus urticae (Koch), adult T. ludeni (Zacher) (Acari: Tetranychidae) or Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in olfactometer assays. The intensity/frequency of the response of thrips to herbivore-induced plants decreased with time and ultimately disappeared in all cases; however, the rate at which the response declined was related to the herbivore species that inflicted the damage. All 3 species of thrips were attracted to plants damaged by T. urticae for longer than they were to plants damaged by T. ludeni. The duration for which damaged plants remained attractive was also affected by the degree of damage inflicted on cotton seedlings. For example, F. schultzei was attracted to plants damaged by a higher density of two-spotted spider mites (100/plant) for much longer than to plants damaged by a lower density of these mites (50/plant). The results reinforce previous studies that demonstrate that arrangement of variables influences the responses of thrips to their herbivore-induced cotton host plants. Results also show that these responses are variable in time following herbivore damage to cotton plants, which further demonstrates how difficult it is to generalize about the functional significance of these interactions. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed. PMID:24205864

  3. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  4. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China.

  5. Effect of Different Temperatures on Consumption of Two Spotted Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Eggs by the Predatory Thrips, Scolothrips longicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variables such as temperature are important factors affecting the efficacy of biological control agents. This study evaluated the predation rate of the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. Based on daily and total prey consumption of different life stages of S. longicornis on spider mite eggs at temperatures covering the range suitable for development and survival of the predator (15° C to 37° C, 60 ± 10% RH, 16:8 L:D), there was a significant effect of temperature on prey consumption. The number of prey consumed daily by first and second instar larvae increased linearly with increasing temperature from 15 °C to 37 °C, whereas daily consumption of preovipositing and postovipositing females was uninfluenced by temperature. Lower temperature thresholds for consumption by first and second instar larvae of S. longicornis was estimated to be 6.8 ± 0.04° C and 4.6 ± 0.03° C, respectively. The daily consumption of ovipositing females followed a nonlinear pattern, with maximum daily predation estimated at 32.8° C. From the model used to describe consumption of ovipositing females, an upper threshold for consumption of 41.4° C was estimated. The performance of S. longicornis at the different temperatures is discussed in relation to its practical use in integrated pest control programs. PMID:23425212

  6. PCR-RFLP method to distinguish Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella pallida and Frankliniella tenuicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylska Arnika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips from the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera, Thripidae are phytophagous on crops and wild plants. Some of them cause slight economic damage, however, others including F. occidentalis and F. intonsa are responsible for considerable losses in crop production. Moreover, they constitute a double threat for host plants by not only feeding on them but also vectoring viruses, some of which are on the quarantined list of the European Plant Protection Organization. The rapid detection and differentiation between more and less harmful Frankliniella species is, therefore, important in order to combat the pests at the time of their appearance. In this study, we have undertaken to develop a method of detecting F. occidentalis, F. intonsa, F. pallida, and F. tenuicornis. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of ITS1 rDNA fragments of these insects using universal primers pair giving products of slightly distinct length for studied insects. Restriction enzymes digestion which is easy to interpret, allows for visible differentiation of all these Frankliniella species. The method was shown to be species-specific and sensitive. Even single specimens in either the larvae or adult stage could be distinguished.

  7. The detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in individual thrips using real time fluorescent RT-PCR (TaqMan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonham, N; Smith, P; Walsh, K; Tame, J; Morris, J; Spence, N; Bennison, J; Barker, I

    2002-03-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an important virus, economically in the UK, causing damaging disease in ornamental and vegetable crops. The virus is vectored by several species of thrips, most importantly the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]). The vector thrips themselves constitute a damaging pest and are difficult to control completely. Monitoring thrips numbers is an important part of the control of virus, but does not give information on how many of the thrips are viruliferous. Monitoring the presence of viruliferous thrips at an early stage of an epidemic may lead to improved disease control, since virus can be spread effectively whilst vector pressure is low and symptoms may take several weeks to appear on some hosts. This paper describes the development of a sensitive and robust, high-throughput method for the detection of TSWV in individual insects based on TaqMan chemistry. The method incorporates a novel RNA specific internal control to increase the reliability of the results. Results are also presented on comparisons of different extraction methods, including insects taken from sticky traps, for high-throughout testing. Implementation of a method such as this for the reliable detection of TSWV in individual thrips would aid the understanding of the progress of TSWV epidemics, and offer an early disease warning system for growers.

  8. Effet du mode de conservation de l'huile de Jatropha curcas L. sur son efficacité dans la lutte contre les principaux insectes ravageurs du niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. au Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the Conservation Mode of Jatropha curcas L. oil on its Efficacy in the Control of Major Insect Pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp in Niger. Jatropha curcas oil has an insecticidal activity harnessed by the farmers in Niger. In this study, we compared the insecticidal activity of two batches of oil conserved during 70 days, one exposed to light and the other kept in the dark. The insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in a field with three concentrations (5, 10 and 15% trial on the main pests of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp and in a laboratory test on Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae with different concentrations of crude oil (50; 100; 150 and 200 µl. No difference in insecticidal effect was found between the two modes of oil conservation, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the field, regardless of the mode of conservation, the concentrations of 10% of J. curcas oil enables a reduction of over than 80% of thrips, aphids, and bugs compared to the control. Its increased seeds yield more than 50%. The concentration of 15% gives an insecticidal effect comparable to that of the reference treatment (deltaméthrine but induces phytotoxicity symptoms on the leaves of Cowpea.

  9. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  10. Detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Giovanna; Roggero, Piero; Tavella, Luciana

    2003-04-01

    A method for rapid and reliable detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera Thripidae) would be a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this virus. A RT-PCR method developed for this purpose is reported. The method was tested on thrips involved in laboratory transmission trials and on thrips collected in the field, whose capability to transmit TSWV was checked previously by leaf disk assays. The RT-PCR results were consistent with the results obtained by the leaf disk assays. Among thrips involved in laboratory experiments, 97% of the adults that transmitted TSWV were positive by RT-PCR; as did some non-transmitter adults reacted, whereas among field-collected thrips only the individuals able to transmit were positive by RT-PCR. In addition, healthy thrips were allowed to feed as adults on virus-infected leaves for 48 h, and then examined by RT-PCR immediately or after starving or feeding on virus-free plants for various times, to determine if virus ingested (but not transmissible) was also detectable. The virus was detectable immediately after the feed or within 12 and 24 h for individuals starved or fed on virus-free plants, respectively, but not after those periods. Thus, the method could detect rapidly and reliably the virus in vectors from the field, providing 24 h of starving to avoid positive RT-PCR results from thrips simply carrying the virus.

  11. The First Report of miRNAs from a Thysanopteran Insect, Thrips palmi Karny Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebijith, K B; Asokan, R; Hande, H Ranjitha; Krishna Kumar, N K

    Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the sole vector of Watermelon bud necrosis tospovirus, where the crop loss has been estimated to be around USD 50 million annually. Chemical insecticides are of limited use in the management of T. palmi due to the thigmokinetic behaviour and development of high levels of resistance to insecticides. There is an urgent need to find out an effective futuristic management strategy, where the small RNAs especially microRNAs hold great promise as a key player in the growth and development. miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs involved in regulation of gene expression either by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. We identified and characterized a total of 77 miRNAs from T. palmi using high-throughput deep sequencing. Functional classifications of the targets for these miRNAs revealed that majority of them are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, nucleotide binding and signal transduction. We have also validated few of these miRNAs employing stem-loop RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and Northern blot. The present study not only provides an in-depth understanding of the biological and physiological roles of miRNAs in governing gene expression but may also lead as an invaluable tool for the management of thysanopteran insects in the future.

  12. Phytophagous arthropods and a pathogen sharing a host plant: evidence for indirect plant-mediated interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Mouttet

    Full Text Available In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae, the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae. Our results indicated (i a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be involved in structuring herbivore and plant pathogen communities within natural and managed ecosystems.

  13. Stable Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis in Nonviruliferous and Viruliferous Frankliniella occidentalis.

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    Chunxiao Yang

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a reliable technique for measuring and evaluating gene expression during variable biological processes. To facilitate gene expression studies, normalization of genes of interest relative to stable reference genes is crucial. The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, the main vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, is a destructive invasive species. In this study, the expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes from nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis were investigated. Five distinct algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder, were used to determine the performance of these genes. geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, elongation factor 1 α, and ribosomal protein l32 (RPL32 as the most stable reference genes, and the ΔCt method identified HSP60, HSP70, RPL32, and heat shock protein 90 as the most stable reference genes. Additionally, two reference genes were sufficient for reliable normalization in nonviruliferous and viruliferous F. occidentalis. This work provides a foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms of TSWV and F. occidentalis interactions.

  14. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  15. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tourtois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, S. feltiae (Filipjev, and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora.

  16. The First Report of miRNAs from a Thysanopteran Insect, Thrips palmi Karny Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K B Rebijith

    Full Text Available Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is the sole vector of Watermelon bud necrosis tospovirus, where the crop loss has been estimated to be around USD 50 million annually. Chemical insecticides are of limited use in the management of T. palmi due to the thigmokinetic behaviour and development of high levels of resistance to insecticides. There is an urgent need to find out an effective futuristic management strategy, where the small RNAs especially microRNAs hold great promise as a key player in the growth and development. miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs involved in regulation of gene expression either by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. We identified and characterized a total of 77 miRNAs from T. palmi using high-throughput deep sequencing. Functional classifications of the targets for these miRNAs revealed that majority of them are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, nucleotide binding and signal transduction. We have also validated few of these miRNAs employing stem-loop RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and Northern blot. The present study not only provides an in-depth understanding of the biological and physiological roles of miRNAs in governing gene expression but may also lead as an invaluable tool for the management of thysanopteran insects in the future.

  17. Ühendkuningriigi parlamendi alamkoja Euroopa asjade komisjoni esimehe hr Jimmy Hood'i sõnavõtt / Jimmy Hood

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hood, Jimmy

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 9th international conference "Estonia and the European Union: Estonia on its way to a changing Europe" : October 30-November 1, 2002, Tallinn, Estonian National Library. - Tallinn, lk. 40-42. Autori kõne paneelistungil "Parlamentaarse kontrolli efektiivsus vs demokraatia"

  18. Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2011-08-01

    Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.

  19. Two new Australian fungus-feeding thrips in two new Plectrothripini genera (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2017-06-06

    Two new genera are erected of plectrothripine Phlaeothripidae from northern Australia, each based on a single species. One has a long stout projection ventrally on the second antennal segment, the other has a unique arrangement of the dorsal facets of the compound eyes. In both of them the thoracic ventral sclerites are extensively eroded.

  20. Australian spore-feeding thrips of the genus Phaulothrips (Thysanoptera, Idolothripinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2013-01-21

    Breeding by several of the spore-feeding species in the genus Phaulothrips is shown to be associated with abandoned tun-nels of bees and scolytid beetles, as well as with the dead seed capsules of Eucalyptus species. The breeding sites for other species in the genus remain unknown, but 16 species are here recognised from Australia, of which the following six are newly described: P. daguilaris, P. flindersi, P. kingae, P. kranzae, P. oakeyi, P. whyallae.

  1. Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera) to colored sticky traps in a Florida olive grove

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in four plots within a newly established olive grove in Florida to compare efficacy of colored sticky traps for surveillance of pests and to compare with other direct sampling methods. Over 99% of thrips collected were Frankliniella bispinosa with occasional collections of pred...

  2. Minute pollinators: The role of thrips (Thysanoptera) as pollinators of pointleaf manzanita, Arctostaphylos pungens (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; McCall, Andrew C; Lauck, Marina; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Bronstein, Judith L

    The feeding habits of thrips on plant tissue, and their ability to transmit viral diseases to their host plants, have usually placed these insects in the general category of pests. However, the characteristics that make them economically important, their high abundance and short- and long-distance movement capability, may also make them effective pollinators. We investigated this lesser-known role of thrips in pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens), a Southwestern US shrub. We measured the abundance of three species of thrips (Orothrips kelloggii, Oligothrips oreios, and Frankliniella occidentalis), examined their pollen-carrying capability, and conducted an exclusion experiment in order to determine whether thrips are able to pollinate this species, and if they do, whether they actually contribute to the reproductive success of the plant. Our data suggest that indeed thrips pollinate and do contribute significantly to reproductive success. Flowers exposed to thrips only produced significantly more fruit than did flowers from which all visitors were excluded. The roles of thrips as antagonists/mutualists are examined in the context of the numerous other floral visitors to the plant.

  3. Fungus-feeding thrips from Australia in the worldwide genus Hoplandrothrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2013-01-01

    From Australia, 16 species of Hoplandrothrips are here recorded, of which 11 are newly described. An illustrated key is provided to 15 species, but Phloeothrips leai Karny cannot at present be recognised from its description. The generic relationships between Hoplandrothrips, Hoplothrips and some other Phlaeothripinae that live on freshly dead branches are briefly discussed.

  4. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  5. Space, time and thrips: biogeographic issues in the evolutionary ecology of Thysanoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Grehan

    1991-01-01

    Most participants of this symposium will be concerned with understanding thrips ecology primarily in order to develop practical and effective control strategies. Questions dealing with historical aspects (evolution) may seem of only isolated "theoretical" interest with little significance for everyday pragmatic concerns. Evolutionary theory is widely...

  6. Evolution of asexuality via different mechanisms in grass thrips (thysanoptera: Aptinothrips).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Schwander, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    Asexual lineages can derive from sexual ancestors via different mechanisms and at variable rates, which affects the diversity of the asexual population and thereby its ecological success. We investigated the variation and evolution of reproductive systems in Aptinothrips, a genus of grass thrips comprising four species. Extensive population surveys and breeding experiments indicated sexual reproduction in A. elegans, asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi, and both sexual and asexual lineages in A. rufus. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. rufus coincides with a worldwide distribution, with sexual A. rufus lineages confined to a limited area. Inference of molecular phylogenies and antibiotic treatment revealed different causes of asexuality in different species. Asexuality in A. stylifer and A. karnyi has most likely genetic causes, while it is induced by endosymbionts in A. rufus. Endosymbiont-community characterization revealed presence of Wolbachia, and lack of other bacteria known to manipulate host reproduction. However, only 69% asexual A. rufus females are Wolbachia-infected, indicating that either an undescribed endosymbiont causes asexuality in this species or that Wolbachia was lost in several lineages that remained asexual. These results open new perspectives for studies on the maintenance of mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in natural populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Species-richness in the Oriental fungus-feeding thrips of the genus Azaleothrips (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Shûji; Masumoto, Masami

    2014-08-04

    Azaleothrips, a phlaeothripine genus of fungus-feeding species, is presumably endemic to the Oriental Region between India and Japan. Although only 10 species have been known in this genus until now, a total of 35 species is recorded here, of which 26 are newly described: from Indonesia--A. bali sp.n., A. bulelengi sp.n., A. dentatus sp.n., A. dorsalis sp.n., A. floresi sp.n., A. inflavus sp.n., A. simulans sp.n., A. sulawesicus sp.n., from the Philippines--A. apoensis sp.n., A. bifidius sp.n., A. luzonensis sp.n., A. mindanaoensis sp.n., A. philippinensis sp.n., from Taiwan--A. atayal sp.n., A. formosae sp.n., A. taiwanus sp.n., from Thailand--A. flavicollis sp.n., A. phuketanus sp.n., A. pulcher sp.n., A. toshifumii sp.n., from Vietnam--A. laocai sp.n., A. vietnamensis sp.n., from W. Malaysia--A. malaya sp.n., A. reticulatus sp.n., A. richardi sp.n., A. templeri sp.n. In addition A. magnus Chen, described from Taiwan, is newly synonymized with A. moundi. Azaleothrips laevigatus, described from southern Japan, is newly recorded more widely in Southeast Asia. A key to 33 species is provided, but A. bhattii and A. lineus cannot be recognized because of the poor information in the original descriptions.

  8. Asociacion Thysanoptera -Vicia faba en la Prepuna y Puna de Jujuy, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamar, Maria Ines; Neder de Roman, Lilia Estela

    2012-01-01

    .... Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar el complejo de tisanopteros antofilos, analizar las fluctuaciones de las poblaciones, conocer aspectos bioecologicos y determinar el rol que cumplen en esta asociacion...

  9. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  10. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  11. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  12. Speciation in Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: the current state of knowledge and its consequences*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fail József

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, Thrips tabaci has been divided into three lineages: a tobacco-associated (T and two leek-associated types (L1, L2. It is believed that the arrhenotokous leek-associated type (L1 is the ancient form of T. tabaci and that the T type diverged from it and adapted to solanaceous host plants. The third lineage of T. tabaci, the so-called thelytokous leek-associated type (L2 and the L1 form share many host plants. According to a recent study, the L2 form of T. tabaci could outcompete the L1 type on cabbage plants; it might therefore be more accurate to identify it as the thelytokous cabbage-associated type.

  13. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Iftikhar

    Full Text Available Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27% at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%. BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci, and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  14. DIVERSITY OF THRIPS FAUNA (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA IN PLUM ORCHARD FROM MORĂREŞTI-ARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted in the plums orchard of Morăreşti-Argeş at two plum varieties, has revealed a poor biodiversity. All of 10 species of thrips are polyphagous and belong to different trophic links: 8 species of phytophagous and 2 species, Aeolothrips intermedius and Haplothrips kurdjumovi are zoophagous. The structural parameters values indicate Haplothrips minutus as plum characteristic species, with the highest values of relative abundance and frequency in samples. However, this species has insignificant damaging in plum orchards. The low values of the structural indicators of the other species express their attachment to their characteristic trophic substratum, i.e. the herbaceous layer, so they only accidentally get on the plum branches, through anemochory. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index and equitability have low values, a situation which is typical of agro-ecosystems.

  15. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Thrips (Thysanoptera) in Wisconsin and Iowa Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomingdale, Chris; Irizarry, Melissa D; Groves, Russell L; Mueller, Daren S; Smith, Damon L

    2017-02-01

    With the discovery of Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) as a vector of Soybean vein necrosis virus (Family Bunyaviridae Genus Tospovirus), a relatively new pathogen of soybean, a multiyear study was initiated in Wisconsin (2013 and 2014) and Iowa (2014 and 2015) to determine the phenology and species composition of thrips in soybean fields. Yellow sticky card traps were used to sample thrips at regular intervals in five counties within each state's primary soybean-growing region. The assemblage of species present in Wisconsin was determined in all site-years, revealing that N. variabilis and other known vectors of tospoviruses were a relatively small percentage of the total thrips captures in 2013 (1.6%) and 2014 (3.6%). A repeated measures analysis was conducted on cumulative proportion thrips capture data within each state's sampling year to investigate differences in phenology, and standardized cumulative insect days were analyzed between sampling years within each state to determine differences in the relative magnitude of populations. Distinct seasonal trends were not detected based on location, as originally hypothesized, and thrips populations varied significantly among locations and between years. These results suggest that thrips populations may be overwintering in northern climates instead of relying solely on migrations to colonize northern soybean fields. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A new leaf-galling Holopothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the structural alterations on Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Nina Castro; Cavalleri, Adriano; Bedetti, Cibele Souza; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2016-11-27

    Holopothrips striatus sp. n. is described inducing leaf-galls on Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae) in Southern Brazil. The thrips is one of the few species of Holopothrips known to have the metanotum with striate rather than reticulate sculpture. The galls are green with brownish spots, and are characterised by a mix of folding and rolling of the leaf lamina upwards.

  17. Review of the spore-feeding Idolothripinae from China (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hong Dang; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated key is provided to the 19 genera of the subfamily Idolothripinae from China, and a checklist given to 62 named species, of which six species are newly recorded from China, together with the genus Bolothrips that is represented by two un-named species. A generic diagnosis is given for each genus, along with some discussion of systematic relationship problems and species diversity. Identification keys to species of 11 genera are provided, and Megathrips antennatus Guo, Feng &...

  18. The genus Meiothrips Priesner (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae, Idolothripinae) with a key and a new species from China

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hong Dang; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2012-01-01

    The genus Meiothrips Priesner is reviewed, with Meiothrips fuscicrus sp. n., and M. nepalensis Kudo & Ananthakrishnan recorded and described from China, and a key provided to the five known species. COI sequences of the new species and M. nepalensis are also provided.

  19. The genus Aeolothrips in Iran (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) with one new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Aeolothrips zurstrasseni sp. n. is described from Fars Province, and A. modestus zur Strassen is newly recorded from Iran, in Isfahan Province. Both species have been collected from the flowers of Suaeda sp. (Chenopodiaceae), and the presence of several species of thrips on plants of this family is discussed. Recent records of Aeolothrips balati and A. citricinctus from Iran are not accepted here.

  20. Evaluation of diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, M S; Jones, J; Oishi, K; Morgan, D; Robinson, L

    2001-08-01

    The suitability of ten diets for the development and reproduction of Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen, the key natural enemy of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara, a pest of California grown avocados, was determined in the laboratory. The experimental diets evaluated were: (i) irradiated Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs; (ii) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and avocado pollen; (iii) Tetranychus pacificus McGregor eggs; (iv) T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (v) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs; (vi) irradiated E. kuehniella eggs, T. pacificus eggs and avocado pollen; (vii) Scirtothrips perseae; (viii) Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouchè); (ix) avocado pollen; and (x) a young avocado leaf. Franklinothrips orizabensis larvae were unable to develop to adulthood on diets 9 and 10. The remaining eight diets supported complete development of F. orizabensis, but only diets 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8 produced fecund females. On diet 5, F. orizabensis exhibited high larval to adult survivorship (90%), mated females exhibited highest daily and lifetime fecundity, and the progeny of mated females were female biased (53%). Analysis of jackknife estimates of net reproduction (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were all significantly greater for F. orizabensis reared on irradiated E. kuehniella eggs and T. pacificus eggs (i.e. diet 5) than corresponding values for other diets on which female F. orizabensis were able to complete development and reproduce. Incorporation of avocado pollen into diets had an adverse effect on demographic statistics for F. orizabensis, and low quality diets resulted in male biased sex ratios for this predator.