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  1. Effect of honokiol on exotoxin proteins listeriolysin O and p60 secreted by Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rizeng; Zhao, Ziwen; Guo, Na; Liu, Zonghui; Zhao, Xingchen; Li, Wenli; Li, Xiaoxu; Shi, Ce; Nie, Dandan; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Ma, Wenchen; Yu, Lu; Li, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is considered one of the most important foodborne pathogens. The virulence-related proteins listeriolysin O (LLO) and p60 are critical factors involved in Listeria pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of honokiol on LLO and p60 secreted from L. monocytogenes. A listeriolysin assay was used to investigate the haemolytic activities of L. monocytogenes exposed to honokiol, and the secretion of LLO and p60 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Additionally, the influence of honokiol on the transcription of LLO and p60 genes (hly and iap, respectively) was analysed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. TNF-α release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in LLO and p60 secretion induced by honokiol. According to the data, honokiol showed good anti-L. monocytogenes activity, with MICs of 8-16 μg ml(-1), and the secretion of LLO and p60 was decreased by honokiol. In addition, the transcription of hly and iap was inhibited by honokiol. Our results indicate that TNF-α production by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with L. monocytogenes supernatants was inhibited by honokiol. Based on these data, we propose that honokiol could be used as a promising natural compound against L. monocytogenes and its virulence factors.

  2. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

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    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won, E-mail: parksw@gnu.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  3. Calpain/SHP-1 interaction by honokiol dampening peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer in nu/nu mice.

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    Shing Hwa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, has previously been reported to activate apoptosis and inhibit gastric tumorigenesis. Whether honokiol inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effects of honokiol on angiogenic activity and peritoneal dissemination using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assay systems. The signaling responses in human gastric cancer cells, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, and isolated tumors were detected and analyzed. In a xenograft gastric tumor mouse model, honokiol significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination detected by PET/CT technique. Honokiol also effectively attenuated the angiogenesis detected by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, mouse matrigel plug assay, rat aortic ring endothelial cell sprouting assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. Furthermore, honokiol effectively enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 dephosphorylation and inhibited STAT-3 DNA binding activity in human gastric cancer cells and HUVECs, which was correlated with the up-regulation of the activity and protein expression of Src homology 2 (SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1. Calpain-II inhibitor and siRNA transfection significantly reversed the honokiol-induced SHP-1 activity. The decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and increased SHP-1 expression were also shown in isolated peritoneal metastatic tumors. Honokiol was also capable of inhibiting VEGF generation, which could be reversed by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honokiol increases expression and activity of SPH-1 that further deactivates STAT3 pathway. These findings also suggest that honokiol is a novel and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells, providing support for the application potential of honokiol in gastric cancer therapy.

  4. Honokiol improves learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in mice.

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    Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-08-01

    Honokiol, a lignan isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to ameliorate the learning and memory impairments in senesed (SAMP8) mice. However, whether honokiol could improve scopolamine (SCOP)-induced learning and memory deficits in mice is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether honokiol could reverse the SCOP-induced learning and memory impairments in mice and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were given daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol (10 and 20mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. The results showed that honokiol significantly improved spatial learning and memory function (as assessed by the Morris water maze test) in the SCOP-treated mice. In addition, treatment with honokiol significantly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), while significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of IL-10, and the level of acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Moreover, honokiol also significantly suppressed the production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that honokiol could markedly reverse the amount of phosphorylated Akt and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) changes in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. These results amply demonstrated that honokiol could improve learning and memory impairments induced by SCOP in mice, and the protective action may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of AChE activity, and amelioration of the neuroinflammatory processes in the SCOP-treated mice.

  5. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  6. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  7. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  8. Hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of honokiol on type 2 diabetic mice

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    Sun J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Sun,1 Xueqi Fu,1–3 Ye Liu,1 Yongsen Wang,1 Bo Huo,1 Yidi Guo,1 Xuefeng Gao,1 Wannan Li,1–3,* Xin Hu1–3,* 1School of Life Sciences, 2Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education, 3National Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Honokiol is one of the main bioactive constituents of the traditional Chinese herbal drug Magnolia bark (Cortex Magnoliae officinalis, Hou Po. The aim of this study was to probe its anti-type 2 diabetes mellitus effects and the underlying mechanism.Methods: Type 2 diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneally injecting with streptozotocin. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, and lipid profile were measured. The subcutaneous adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver were isolated as well as homogenized. The phospho-insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ, IRβ, phospho-AKT, AKT, phospho-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, phosphotyrosine, and actin were examined by Western blot assay. Cell viability or cytotoxicity was analyzed by using MTT method. The inhibitory potencies of honokiol on the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B activity were performed in reaction buffer. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation were also analyzed.Results: In in vivo studies, oral treatment with 200 mg/kg honokiol for 8 weeks significantly decreases the fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. The phosphorylations of the IRβ and the downstream insulin signaling factors including AKT and ERK1/2 significantly increase in adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissue of the honokiol-treated mice. Moreover, honokiol enhanced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylations of IRβ, AKT, and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in C2C12 myotube cells. Meanwhile, honokiol enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Importantly, honokiol exhibited reversible

  9. Reversibility of alcohol-induced immune depression

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    Tønnesen, H; Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B;

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have suppressed cellular immune function. The aim of the study was to investigate the time of sobriety required to normalize immune function. Delayed hypersensitivity was investigated during disulfiram controlled abstinence in ten heavy alcoholics and in seven moderate drinkers...... without liver diseases. For comparison a control group of eight previous drinkers was tested. The skin test responses were modest initially with a median area of response of 12 mm2 (range 0-31) in the heavy alcoholics and 3 mm2 (0-15) in the moderate drinkers. It improved significantly in both groups...... after two weeks of sobriety. The responses stabilized after 8 weeks at 74 mm2 (54-102) in the heavy alcoholics and after 9 weeks at 63 mm2 (42-76) in the moderate drinking group. The control group had skin test responses of 70 mm2 (46-87), not different from the responses of the alcohol groups after two...

  10. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

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    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans.

  11. Reversible brain shrinkage in abstinent alcoholics, measured by MRI

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    Schroth, G.; Naegele, T.; Klose, U.; Petersen, D.; Mann, K.

    1988-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the intracranial CSF volume was compared before and after 5 weeks of confirmed abstinence in 9 alcohol-dependent patients. All patients showed a highly significant reduction in CSF volume in accordance with reexpansion of the brain after alcohol abstinence. T2 values for white matter, estimated by linear regression from 16 echoes of a CPGM sequence, however, showed no significant increase such as occurs in rehydration. This indicates, that alcohol-induced reversible brain atrophy cannot be attributed to fluctuation of free water in the brain only.

  12. Reversible brain shrinkage in abstinent alcoholics, measured by MRI.

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    Schroth, G; Naegele, T; Klose, U; Mann, K; Petersen, D

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the intracranial CSF volume was compared before and after 5 weeks of confirmed abstinence in 9 alcohol-dependent patients. All patients showed a highly significant reduction in CSF volume in accordance with reexpansion of the brain after alcohol abstinence. T2 values for white matter, estimated by linear regression from 16 echoes of a CPGM sequence, however, showed no significant increase such as occurs in rehydration. This indicates, that alcohol-induced reversible brain atrophy cannot be attributed to fluctuation of free water in the brain only.

  13. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

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    Cho YY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yeon Cho,1 Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Jeong-Han Kim,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea; 2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1, were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 µM increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 µM did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1 in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. Keywords: honokiol, human hepatocytes, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

  14. Protective effects of honokiol against methylglyoxal-induced osteoblast damage.

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    Suh, Kwang Sik; Chon, Suk; Choi, Eun Mi

    2016-01-25

    Honokiol is an active compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis that has been used without notable side effects in traditional medicine. We investigated the effects of honokiol against methylglyoxal (MG)-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells and the possible molecular mechanism(s) involved. The results showed that honokiol alleviated MG-induced cell death and the production of intracellular ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, cardiolipin peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines. MG induction of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (AGE) was reduced by pretreatment with honokiol. Furthermore, honokiol increased the levels of Nrf2 and increased the levels of glutathione and the activity of glyoxalase I. Pretreatment with honokiol prior to MG exposure reduced MG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviated MG-induced reduction of nitric oxide and PGC1α levels, suggesting that honokiol may induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It was concluded that honokiol could be useful in the attenuation of MG-induced cell damage.

  15. [Alcoholic ketoacidosis and reversible neurological complications due to hypophosphataemia].

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    Fernández López, Ma T; García Bargo, Ma D; Rivero Luis, Ma T; Álvarez Vázquez, P; Saenz Fernández, C A; Mato Mato, J A

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic alcoholism was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness and polyradiculitis. Laboratory examination revealed metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and hypophosphataemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a common disorder in alcoholic patients. All patients present with a history of heavy alcohol misuse, preceding a bout of particularly excesive intake, which had been terminated by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The most important laboratory results are: normal or low glucose level, metabolic acidosis with a raised anion GAP, low or absent blood alcohol level and urinary ketones. The greatest threats to patients are: hypovolemia, hypokaliemia, hypoglucemia and acidosis. Alcohol abuse may result in a wide range of electrolyte and acid-base disorders including hypophosphataemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Disturbance of consciousness in alcoholic patients is observed in several disorders, such drunkenness, Wernicke encephalopathy, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, central pontine myelinolysis, hepatic encephalopathy, hypoglucemia and electrolyte disorders.

  16. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma choles

  17. Significant reversibility of alcoholic brain shrinkage within 3 weeks of abstinence.

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    Trabert, W; Betz, T; Niewald, M; Huber, G

    1995-08-01

    Chronic alcoholism is often associated with brain shrinkage or atrophy. During recent years, it has been demonstrated that this shrinkage is, at least in part, reversible when abstinence is maintained. There are different hypotheses concerning the mechanisms for this reversibility, but many questions are still open. Especially the time conditions for these reversible changes are subject of discussion. Twenty-eight male patients with severe alcohol dependence were investigated in a computed tomographic study at the beginning of abstinence and 3 weeks later. Planimetric evaluation of 5 selected slices revealed a significant decrease in liquor areas and an increase of brain volume. The densitometric analysis showed an increase in brain tissue density. In a multiple regression approach it was shown that the reversibility was mostly influenced by the age of the patients. Our results support neither the hypothesis of an increase in brain water as the most important principle for reversibility in alcoholic brain shrinkage nor the hypothesis of augmented dendritic growth. Other mechanisms like reduced (during chronic intoxication) and normalized (during abstinence) cerebral hemoperfusion have to be considered as possible mechanisms for the reversibility of alcoholic brain shrinkage.

  18. Reversibility of increased formation of catecholamines in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Reisenauer, C.; Biermann, J.;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While chronic alcohol abuse has been shown to be associated with increased production of catecholamines, little is known about the reversibility of this increased sympathetic activity and the influence of severity of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The aim of the present study...... was to investigate whether the increase in urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of catecholamines in alcohol-abusing patients are reversible during prolonged abstinence, especially with respect to the severity of ALD. METHODS: Urinary excretion rates and plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A......) and dopamine (DA) were determined in 15 subjects with mild to moderate ALD (ALD1) and in 7 alcoholic cirrhotics (ALD2) on admission and after 2 and 12 weeks of abstinence. Eight healthy males, age-matched to ALD1, served as controls (HC). RESULTS: Urinary excretion rates (24 h) and resting plasma...

  19. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

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    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  20. Progressive alcohol-induced sperm alterations leading to spermatogenic arrest, which was reversed after alcohol withdrawal.

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    Sermondade, Nathalie; Elloumi, Hanène; Berthaut, Isabelle; Mathieu, Emmanuelle; Delarouzière, Vanina; Ravel, Célia; Mandelbaum, Jacqueline

    2010-03-01

    This is a report of a 6-year follow-up of a male patient's semen parameters during heavy chronic alcohol intoxication and after withdrawal. A slowly progressive negative impact of alcohol could be observed: isolated moderate teratozoospermia was firstly noted followed by oligoasthenoteratospermia. Then a severe worsening resulted in cryptozoospermia and ultimately in azoospermia. At this moment, the histological analysis of a testicular biopsy revealed a maturation arrest of the germinal cells at the pachytene stage with no mature sperm cells. Alcohol withdrawal was then obtained, allowing a very fast and drastic improvement of semen characteristics; strictly normal semen parameters were observed after no more than 3 months. Taking into consideration these data, patients should be questioned about their alcohol intake before assisted reproductive technology and should be informed about this adverse effect. Moreover, this case report emphasizes how quickly benefits can be obtained after withdrawal, even in the case of heavy chronic alcohol intake.

  1. Comparative metabolism of honokiol in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes.

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    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kong, Tae Yeon; Choi, Won Gu; Lee, Hye Suk

    2016-04-01

    Honokiol has antitumor, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. Here we aimed to identify the metabolic profile of honokiol in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes and to characterize the enzymes responsible for the glucuronidation and sulfation of honokiol. Honokiol had a high hepatic extraction ratio in all five species, indicating that it was extensively metabolized. A total of 32 metabolites, including 17 common and 15 different metabolites, produced via glucuronidation, sulfation, and oxidation of honokiol allyl groups were tentatively identified using liquid chromatography-high resolution quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Glucuronidation of honokiol to M8 (honokiol-4-glucuronide) and M9 (honokiol-2'-glucuronide) was the predominant metabolic pathway in hepatocytes of all five species; however, interspecies differences between 4- and 2'-glucuronidation of honokiol were observed. UGT1A1, 1A8, 1A9, 2B15, and 2B17 played major roles in M8 formation, whereas UGT1A7 and 1A9 played major roles in M9 formation. Human cDNA-expressed SULT1C4 played a major role in M10 formation (honokiol-2'-sulfate), whereas SULT1A1*1, 1A1*2, and 1A2 played major roles in M11 formation (honokiol-4-sulfate). In conclusion, honokiol metabolism showed interspecies differences.

  2. Poly/vinyl alcohol/ membranes for reverse osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. G.; Wydeven, T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of studies of the water and salt transport properties of PVA membranes, taking into account radiation crosslinked PVA membranes, diffusive salt permeability through PVA membranes, and heat treated PVA membranes. The experimental findings support an occurrence of independent water, and salt permeation processes. It is suggested that the salt permeation is governed by a solution-diffusion transport mechanism. The preparation of thin skinned, asymmetric PVA membranes is also discussed. The employed method has a certain similarity to the classical phase inversion method, which is widely applied in the casting of asymmetric reverse osmosis membranes. Instead of using a gelling bath composed of a nonsolvent for the membrane material and miscible with the solvent from which the membrane is cast, a 'complexing' bath is used, which is a solution of a complexing agent in water.

  3. Poly/vinyl alcohol/ membranes for reverse osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. G.; Wydeven, T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of studies of the water and salt transport properties of PVA membranes, taking into account radiation crosslinked PVA membranes, diffusive salt permeability through PVA membranes, and heat treated PVA membranes. The experimental findings support an occurrence of independent water, and salt permeation processes. It is suggested that the salt permeation is governed by a solution-diffusion transport mechanism. The preparation of thin skinned, asymmetric PVA membranes is also discussed. The employed method has a certain similarity to the classical phase inversion method, which is widely applied in the casting of asymmetric reverse osmosis membranes. Instead of using a gelling bath composed of a nonsolvent for the membrane material and miscible with the solvent from which the membrane is cast, a 'complexing' bath is used, which is a solution of a complexing agent in water.

  4. A sustained depressive state promotes a guanfacine reversible susceptibility to alcohol seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Danai; Schmitz, Leanne J M; van der Harst, Johanneke E; van Mourik, Yvar; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    High rates of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are reported. Preclinical models examining effects of primary depression on secondary AUD are currently absent, preventing adequate testing of drug treatment. Here, we combined social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) and operant alcohol self-administration (SA) paradigms to assess causality between these two neuropsychiatric disorders. We then exploited guanfacine, an FDA-approved adrenergic agent reported to reduce drug craving in humans, against SDPS-induced modulation of operant alcohol SA. Wistar rats were socially defeated and isolated for a period of ≥9 weeks, during which depression-like symptomatology (cognitive and social behavioral symptoms) was assessed. Subsequently, animals were subjected to a 5-month operant alcohol SA paradigm, examining acquisition, motivation, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The effects of guanfacine on motivation and relapse were measured at >6 months following defeat. SDPS rats exhibited significant disruption of social and cognitive behavior, including short-term spatial and long-term social memory, several months following defeat. Notably, SDPS increased motivation to obtain alcohol, and cue-induced relapse vulnerability. Guanfacine reversed the SDPS-induced effects on motivation and relapse. Together, our model mimics core symptomatology of a sustained depressive-like state and a subsequent vulnerability to alcohol abuse. We show that SDPS is strongly associated with an enhanced motivation for alcohol intake and relapse. Finally, we show that the clinically employed drug guanfacine has potential as a novel treatment option in comorbid patients, as it effectively reduced the enhanced sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol-associated stimuli.

  5. Expression of survivin and p53 modulates honokiol-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Jiun; Lin, Chien-I; Wang, Chia-Lin; Chao, Jui-I

    2014-11-01

    Honokiol is a small biphenolic compound, which exerts antitumor activities; however, the precise mechanism of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we show that survivin and p53 display the opposite role on the regulation of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells. Honokiol induced the cell death and apoptosis in various colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, honokiol elicited the extrinsic death receptor pathway of DR5 and caspase 8 and the intrinsic pathway of caspase 9. The common intrinsic and extrinsic downstream targets of activated caspase 3 and PARP protein cleavage were induced by honokiol. Interestingly, honokiol reduced anti-apoptotic survivin protein and gene expression. Transfection with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-survivin-expressed vector increased the colorectal cancer cell viability and resisted the honokiol-induced apoptosis. Meantime, honokiol increased total p53 and the phosphorylated p53 proteins at Ser15 and Ser46. The p53-wild type colorectal cancer cells were exhibited greater cytotoxicity, apoptosis and survivin reduction than the p53-null cancer cells after treatment with honokiol. Together, these findings demonstrate that the existence of survivin and p53 can modulate the honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells.

  6. Conformational transition and mass transfer in extraction of proteins by AOT--alcohol--isooctane reverse micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D P; Lee, S S; Kuboi, R

    2000-06-23

    We examined quantitatively the effect of alcohols on protein and reverse micellar structure. We used circular dichroism (CD) to compare the effects of various alcohols on the protein structure, and percolation phenomena to evaluate the effects of various alcohols on reverse micellar structure. Upon the addition of alcohols to the bulk aqueous phase, proteins were denatured significantly, depending on the alcohol species and concentration, suggesting that use of alcohol directly to the stripping solution is not effective in back-extraction processes of proteins. In the present study, a new method, a small amount of alcohol is added to the surfactant-organic solution to improve the back-extraction behaviors of proteins. Practically, in the back-extraction process, the alcohols suppressing the cluster formation of reverse micelles (high value of beta1), remarkably improved the back-extraction behavior of proteins. In addition, the same alcohol molecules showed a positive effect on the rate and fraction of protein back-extraction. From a result of the CD measurement of the back-extracted proteins, it was known that the alcohols added to reverse micellar solution allowed the proteins to back-extract safely without causing structural changes. These results show that the values of beta(t), defined by the variation of percolation processes, and the back-extraction behaviors of proteins have a good relationship, suggesting that the back-extraction processes were controlled by the micellar-micellar and protein-micellar interactions.

  7. Reversal of Alcohol-Induced Dysregulation in Dopamine Network Dynamics May Rescue Maladaptive Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S; Clark, Jeremy J

    2016-03-30

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents, promoting the development of substance use disorders and compromised decision-making in adulthood. We have previously demonstrated, with a preclinical model in rodents, that adolescent alcohol use results in adult risk-taking behavior that positively correlates with phasic dopamine transmission in response to risky options, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that adolescent alcohol use may produce maladaptive decision-making through a disruption in dopamine network dynamics via increased GABAergic transmission within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Indeed, we find that increased phasic dopamine signaling after adolescent alcohol use is attributable to a midbrain circuit, including the input from the pedunculopontine tegmentum to the VTA. Moreover, we demonstrate that VTA dopamine neurons from adult rats exhibit enhanced IPSCs after adolescent alcohol exposure corresponding to decreased basal dopamine levels in adulthood that negatively correlate with risk-taking. Building on these findings, we develop a model where increased inhibitory tone on dopamine neurons leads to a persistent decrease in tonic dopamine levels and results in a potentiation of stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine release that may drive risky choice behavior. Based on this model, we take a pharmacological approach to the reversal of risk-taking behavior through normalization of this pattern in dopamine transmission. These results isolate the underlying circuitry involved in alcohol-induced maladaptive decision-making and identify a novel therapeutic target. One of the primary problems resulting from chronic alcohol use is persistent, maladaptive decision-making that is associated with ongoing addiction vulnerability and relapse. Indeed, studies with the Iowa Gambling Task, a standard measure of risk-based decision-making, have reliably shown that alcohol-dependent individuals make riskier, more maladaptive

  8. Honokiol induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in Candida albicans through mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingmei; Liao, Kai; Hang, Chengcheng; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of honokiol on induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defense systems, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in Candida albicans. Methods To measure ROS accumulation, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence was used. Lipid peroxidation was assessed using both fluorescence staining and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Protein oxidation was determined using dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization. Antioxidant enzymatic activities were measured using commercially available detection kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes expression was measured using real time RT-PCR. To assess its antifungal abilities and effectiveness on ROS accumulation, honokiol and the SOD inhibitor N,N′-diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used simultaneously. Mitochondrial dysfunction was assessed by measuring the mitochondrial membrane potential (mtΔψ). Honokiol-induced apoptosis was assessed using an Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit. Results ROS, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation occurred in a dose-dependent manner in C. albicans after honokiol treatment. Honokiol caused an increase in antioxidant enzymatic activity. In addition, honokiol treatment induced SOD genes expression in C. albicans cells. Moreover, addition of DDC resulted in increased endogenous ROS levels and potentiated the antifungal activity of honokiol. Mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed by measured changes to mtΔψ. The level of apoptosis increased in a dose-dependent manner after honokiol treatment. Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that honokiol acts as a pro-oxidant in C. albicans. Furthermore, the SOD inhibitor DDC can be used to potentiate the activity of honokiol against C. albicans. PMID:28192489

  9. Selective Affinity Separation of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase by Reverse Micelles with Unbound Triazine Dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reversed micelles were formed with cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfac tant and n-hexanol as cosolvent in the CTAB (50mmol.L-1)/hexanol (15% by volume)/hexane system. Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB) as an affinity ligand in the aqueous phase was directly introduced to the reversed micelles with electrostatic interaction between anionic CB and cationic surfactant. High molecular weight (Mr) protein, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH, Mr = 141000) from baker's yeast, has been purified using the affinity reversed micelles by the phase transfer method. Various parameters, such as CB concentration, pH and ionic strength, on YADH forward and backward transfer were studied. YADH can be transferred into and out from the reversed mi celles under mild conditions (only by regulation of solution pH and salt concentration) with the successful recovery of most YADH activity. Both forward and backward extractions occurred when the aqueous phase pH>pI with electrostatic attraction between YADH and CTAB. The recovery of YADH activity and purification factor have been improved with addition of a small amount of affinity CB. The recovery of YADH activity obtained was ~99% and the purification factor was about 4.0-fold after one cycle of full forward and backward extraction. The low ionic strength in the initial aqueous phase might be responsible for the YADH transfer into the reversed micellar phase.

  10. Selective Affinity Separation of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase by Reverse Micelles with Unbound Triazine Dye*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天喜; 刘会洲; 陈家镛

    2001-01-01

    The reversed micelles were formed with cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and n-hexanol as cosolvent in the CTAB (50 mmol·L- 1)/hexanol (15% by volume)/hexane system. Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB) as an affinity ligand in the aqueous phase was directly introduced to the reversed micelles with electrostatic interaction between anionic CB and cationic surfactant. High molecular weight (Mr) protein, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH, Mr = 141000) from baker's yeast, has been purified using the affinity reversed micelles by the phase transfer method. Various parameters, such as CB concentration, pH and ionic strength, on YADH forward and backward transfer were studied. YADH can be transferred into and out from the reversed micelles under mild conditions (only by regulation of solution pH and salt concentration) with the successful recoveryof most YADH activity. Both forward and backward extractions occurred when the aqueous phase pH>pI with electrostatic attraction between YADH and CTAB. The recovery of YADH activity and purification factor have been improved with addition of a small amount of affinity CB. The recovery of YADH activity obtained was 99% and the purification factor was about 4.0-fold after one cycle of full forward and backward extraction. The low ionic strength in the initial aqueous phase might be responsible for the YADH transfer into the reversed micellar phase.

  11. Photochemically reversible liquefaction and solidification of multiazobenzene sugar-alcohol derivatives and application to reworkable adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Haruhisa; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Okuyama, Yoko; Yoshida, Masaru; Kihara, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hideki; Norikane, Yasuo; Azumi, Reiko

    2014-05-28

    Multiazobenzene compounds, hexakis-O-[4-(phenylazo)phenoxyalkylcarboxyl]-D-mannitols and hexakis-O-[4-(4-hexylphenylazo)phenoxyalkylcarboxyl]-D-mannitols, exhibit photochemically reversible liquefaction and solidification at room temperature. Their photochemical and thermal phase transitions were investigated in detail through thermal analysis, absorption spectroscopy, and dynamic viscoelasticity measurements, and were compared with those of other sugar-alcohol derivatives. Tensile shear strength tests were performed to determine the adhesions of the compounds sandwiched between two glass slides to determine whether the compounds were suitable for application as adhesives. The adhesions were varied by alternately irradiating the compounds with ultraviolet and visible light to photoinduce phase transitions. The azobenzene hexyl tails, lengths of the methylene spacers, and differences in the sugar-alcohol structures affected the photoresponsive properties of the compounds.

  12. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in alcoholic hepatitis: Hepatic encephalopathy a common theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Elizabeth S; Sedhom, Ramy; Dalal, Ishita; Sharma, Ranita

    2017-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuro-radiologic diagnosis that has become more widely recognized and reported over the past few decades. As such, there are a number of known risk factors that contribute to the development of this syndrome, including volatile blood pressures, renal failure, cytotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia. This report documents the first reported case of PRES in a patient with severe alcoholic hepatitis with hepatic encephalopathy and delves into a molecular pathophysiology of the syndrome. PMID:28127211

  13. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herrmann

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  14. Reversal of alcohol-induced effects on response control due to changes in proprioceptive information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Mückschel, Moritz; Beste, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has drawn interest to the effects of binge drinking on response selection. However, choosing an appropriate response is a complex endeavor that usually requires us to process and integrate several streams of information. One of them is proprioceptive information about the position of limbs. As to now, it has however remained elusive how binge drinking affects the processing of proprioceptive information during response selection and control in healthy individuals. We investigated this question using neurophysiological (EEG) techniques in a response selection task, where we manipulated proprioceptive information. The results show a reversal of alcohol-induced effects on response control due to changes in proprioceptive information processing. The most likely explanation for this finding is that proprioceptive information does not seem to be properly integrated in response selection processes during acute alcohol intoxication as found in binge drinking. The neurophysiological data suggest that processes related to the preparation and execution of the motor response, but not upstream processes related to conflict monitoring and spatial attentional orienting, underlie these binge drinking-dependent modulations. Taken together, the results show that even high doses of alcohol have very specific effects within the cascade of neurophysiological processes underlying response control and the integration of proprioceptive information during this process. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Honokiol inhibits pathological retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavilala, Divya Teja [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States); O’Bryhim, Bliss E. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Ponnaluri, V.K. Chaithanya [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States); White, R. Sid; Radel, Jeff [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Symons, R.C. Andrew [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Ophthalmology Department, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mukherji, Mridul, E-mail: mukherjim@umkc.edu [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Aberrant activation of HIF pathway is the underlying cause of ischemic neovascularization. •Honokiol has better therapeutic index as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. •Daily IP injection of honokiol in OIR mouse model reduced retinal neovascularization. •Honokiol also prevents vaso-obliteration, the characteristic feature of the OIR model. •Honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. -- Abstract: Aberrant activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the underlying cause of retinal neovascularization, one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. The HIF pathway also plays critical roles during tumor angiogenesis and cancer stem cell transformation. We have recently shown that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of the HIF pathway in a number of cancer and retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. Here we evaluate the safety and efficacy of honokiol, digoxin, and doxorubicin, three recently identified HIF inhibitors from natural sources. Our studies show that honokiol has a better safety to efficacy profile as a HIF inhibitor than digoxin and doxorubicin. Further, we show for the first time that daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol starting at postnatal day (P) 12 in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model significantly reduced retinal neovascularization at P17. Administration of honokiol also prevents the oxygen-induced central retinal vaso-obliteration, characteristic feature of the OIR model. Additionally, honokiol enhanced physiological revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses. Since honokiol suppresses multiple pathways activated by HIF, in addition to the VEGF signaling, it may provide advantages over current treatments utilizing specific VEGF antagonists for ocular neovascular diseases and cancers.

  16. Honokiol suppresses formyl peptide-induced human neutrophil activation by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Syu, Yu-Ting; Fang, Jia-You; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Tung; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2017-07-27

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) mediates bacterial and mitochondrial N-formyl peptides-induced neutrophil activation. Therefore, FPR1 is an important therapeutic target for drugs to treat septic or sterile inflammatory diseases. Honokiol, a major bioactive compound of Magnoliaceae plants, possesses several anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we show that honokiol exhibits an inhibitory effect on FPR1 binding in human neutrophils. Honokiol inhibited superoxide anion generation, reactive oxygen species formation, and elastase release in bacterial or mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (FPR1 agonists)-activated human neutrophils. Adhesion of FPR1-induced human neutrophils to cerebral endothelial cells was also reduced by honokiol. The receptor-binding results revealed that honokiol repressed FPR1-specific ligand N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein binding to FPR1 in human neutrophils, neutrophil-like THP-1 cells, and hFPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. However, honokiol did not inhibit FPR2-specific ligand binding to FPR2 in human neutrophils. Furthermore, honokiol inhibited FPR1 agonist-induced calcium mobilization as well as phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK in human neutrophils. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that honokiol may have therapeutic potential for treating FPR1-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  17. Iron Supplementation Reverses the Reduction of Hydroxymethylcytosine in Hepatic DNA Associated With Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammen, Stephanie A.; Park, Jung Eun; Shin, Phil Kyung; Friso, Simonetta; Chung, Jayong; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol is known to affect two epigenetic phenomena, DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation, and iron is a cofactor of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes that catalyze the conversion from methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine. In the present study we aimed to determine the effects of alcohol on DNA hydroxymethylation and further effects of iron on alcohol associated epigenetic changes. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet (36% calories from ethanol) or Lieber-DeCarli control diet along with or without iron supplementation (0.6% carbonyl iron) for 8 weeks. Hepatic non-heme iron concentrations were measured by colorimetric assays. Protein levels of hepatic ferritin and transferrin receptor were determined by Western blotting. Methylcytosine, hydroxymethylcytosine and unmodified cytosine in DNA were simultaneously measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Results Iron supplementation significantly increased hepatic non-heme iron contents (P iron significantly increased hepatic ferritin levels and decreased hepatic transferrin receptor levels (P iron supplementation to alcohol diet did not change DNA hydroxymethylation. There was no significant difference in methylcytosine levels, while unmodified cytosine levels were significantly increased in alcohol-fed groups compared to control (95.61% ± 0.08% vs. 95.26% ± 0.12%, P = 0.03), suggesting that alcohol further increases the conversion from hydroxymethylcytosine to unmodified cytosine. Conclusions Chronic alcohol consumption alters global DNA hydroxymethylation in the liver but iron supplementation reverses the epigenetic effect of alcohol. PMID:28053961

  18. A plant kinetic study of alcoholic fermentation using reversed-flow gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economopoulos, N.; Athanassopoulos, N. (B.G. Spiliopoulos Distilleri S.A., Patras (Greece)); Katsanos, N.A.; Karaiskakis, G.; Agathonos, P.; Vassilakos, Ch. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

    1992-12-01

    The reversed-flow gas chromatographic sampling technique is used to study the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation in a factory in conjunction with measurements of suspended particles in the fermenting medium. It was found that the overall process consists of four phases which have different first-order rate constants during ethanol formation. The second phase is the slowest with its rate constant being 4.3 and 13 times smaller than that of the first and third phases, respectively. There is also a decrease of suspended particles during the second phase. These results show that there is the possibility of increasing the rate constant during this phase, thereby increasing the overall production rate of ethanol significantly and thus lowering its cost of production.

  19. Honokiol in combination with radiation targets notch signaling to inhibit colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Mammen, Joshua M V; Ramalingam, Satish; He, Zhiyun; Zhang, Youcheng; Umar, Shahid; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Anant, Shrikant

    2012-04-01

    Cancer stem cells are implicated in resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. Honokiol, a biphenolic compound has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various ailments. In this study, we determined the ability of honokiol to enhance the sensitivity of colon cancer stem cells to IR. The combination of honokiol and IR suppressed proliferation and colony formation while inducing apoptosis of colon cancer cells in culture. There were also reduced numbers and size of spheroids, which was coupled with reduced expression of cancer stem cell marker protein DCLK1. Flow cytometry studies confirmed that the honokiol-IR combination reduced the number of DCLK1+ cells. In addition, there were reduced levels of activated Notch-1, its ligand Jagged-1, and the downstream target gene Hes-1. Furthermore, expression of components of the Notch-1 activating γ-secretase complex, presenilin 1, nicastrin, Pen2, and APH-1 was also suppressed. On the other hand, the honokiol effects were mitigated when the Notch intracellular domain was expressed. To determine the effect of honokiol-IR combination on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice tumor xenografts were administered honokiol intraperitoneally and exposed to IR. The honokiol-IR combination significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth. In addition, there were reduced levels of DCLK1 and the Notch signaling-related proteins in the xenograft tissues. Together, these data suggest that honokiol is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer growth that targets the stem cells by inhibiting the γ-secretase complex and the Notch signaling pathway. These studies warrant further clinical evaluation for the combination of honokiol and IR for treating colon cancers.

  20. Reversible Interconversion between Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols and Ketones under Hydrothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Gould, I. R.; Shock, E.; Williams, L. B.

    2011-12-01

    Many transformation reactions involving hydrocarbons that occur in deep sedimentary systems and determine petroleum compositions occur in the presence of H2O. Hydrothermal transformations of organic material are thought to provide carbon sources for microbes in deep ocean sediments. Hydrothermal conditions may also mimic the conditions where life developed on an early Earth. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of hydrothermal organic reactions, including ways in which various reactions are interrelated and how reactions compete with each other. It can be argued that metastable equilibrium states develop over geological timescales and at geochemically relevant temperatures, suggesting that reactions occur under thermodynamic rather than kinetic control. The extent to which reactions are reversible, and how product distributions are determined, are primary tests of the metastable equilibrium model. Seewald (2001, GCA 65, 1641-1664) showed that under hydrothermal conditions and in the presence of a redox buffer, simple alkanes and alkenes undergo oxidation, reduction, and hydration reactions. He proposed a reaction scheme where alkanes interconvert with alkenes, followed by stepwise hydration of alkenes to alcohols, oxidation to ketones, and finally conversion to carboxylic acids, which can undergo decarboxylation. Here we describe experiments that further develop the scope of these functional group interconversions, determine relative reaction kinetics, and provide insight into competing reactions. Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 300°C and 100 MPa in gold capsules for 12 to 144 hours. The reactant structures were based on cyclohexane with one and two methyl groups that served as regio- and stereochemical markers for the reactions. Starting with the alkanes, the observed products include the corresponding alkenes, alcohols, ketones and enones, in support of the Seewald reaction scheme. Our experiments add a branch to this scheme

  1. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2. In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection.

  2. Honokiol nanosuspensions: preparation, increased oral bioavailability and dramatically enhanced biodistribution in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meihua; Yu, Xin; Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yanhong; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2014-04-01

    Honokiol is a phytochemical component with multiple pharmacological activities, but Honokiol's wider use has been restricted by its poor solubility. Using bovine serum albumin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilisers in a solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method, Honokiol nanosuspensions were prepared with a mean particle size of 116.2 nm (±2 nm), a zeta potential of -44.7 mV (±1.7 mV) and a high drug payload of 50.4 ± 0.6% (w/w). X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that Honokiol was in an amorphous state in the nanosuspensions, in contrast with bulk Honokiol powder. Honokiol was released faster in vitro from nanosuspensions with no burst release, and the highest 98% cumulative release was after 60 h. Honokiol nanosuspensions improved the oral bioavailability of Honokiol in in vivo studies in rats with a 3.94-fold Cmax and a 2.2-fold AUC(0-t). Remarkably, in contrast to oral administration, intraperitoneal administration of Honokiol nanosuspensions could dramatically alter the biodistribution of Honokiol, resulting in a much higher drug level and tissue bioavailability in the blood, heart and brain, benefitting the treatment of cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases.

  3. Naturally Occurring Stilbenoid TSG Reverses Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases via Gut-Liver Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Lin

    Full Text Available The gut-liver axis is largely involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We investigated whether 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG could reverse NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and whether it did so via the gut-liver axis. Results showed that TSG could reduce the accumulation of FFA and it did so by reducing the expression of L-FABP and FATP4. TSG regulated gut microbiota balanced and increased the protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin, which could improve the function of the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce serum LPS content by about 25%. TSG reduced TL4 levels by 56% and NF-κB expression by 23% relative to the NAFLD model group. This suggests that prevention of NAFLD by TSG in HFD-fed rats is mediated by modulation of the gut microbiota and TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which may alleviate chronic low-grade inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load on the host.

  4. Determination of Magnolol and Honokiol by Non-aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two active principles in traditional Chinese medicine Magnolia officinalis, magnolol and honokiol, were successfully separated by means of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. The effect of the composition of a nonaqueous buffer on column efficiency and resolution, and the effect of acid additives on peak shapes were researched. The separation was conducted with a running buffer in a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/formamide (volume ratio: 1: 2: 2), in which the concentrations of Tris, acetic acid, and water were 60 mmol/L, 0. 04 mmol/L and 5% (volume fration),respectively, and the pH * (apperent pH) of the running buffer was 8. 96. Magnolol and honokiol were separated on baseline within 20 min. The relative standard deviation of the analytes' concentrations in the sample is 1.32% for magnolol and 1.60% for honokiol, and the recoveries of the spiked sample are 98.4% for magnolol and 98.0% for honokiol, respectively.

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Resistance to alcohol withdrawal-induced behaviour in Fyn transgenic mice and its reversal by ifenprodil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Oliver; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Stork, Simone; Kume, Nobuko; Obata, Kunihiko

    2002-09-30

    Recent studies suggest that the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn constitutes a determinant of fear and anxiety as well as alcohol sensitivity in mice. We investigated these functions and their relatedness in mice with transgenic over-expression of native or mutated, constitutively active Fyn. Fear- and anxiety-related behaviour of these animals were normal under varying levels of stress, but under withdrawal from alcohol both types of transgenic mice failed to show any increase of anxiety-like behaviour or reduction of exploratory activity as seen in their wild-type littermates. This apparent lack of alcohol withdrawal-induced behavioural effects was associated with increased Fyn activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins including the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the different mutant lines. NR2B phosphorylation itself remained unaffected by the chronic alcohol ingestion and subsequent withdrawal, but challenge with an NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, restored a normal behavioural response in alcohol-withdrawn fyn mutants. Moreover, both types of transgenic mice showed a reduction of voluntary alcohol consumption compared to their wild-type littermates. Together, these results suggest that Fyn can modulate alcohol consumption and prevent behavioural changes during alcohol withdrawal, possibly via phosphorylation of NR2B.

  8. Protective effects of honokiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman Tunc, Senem; Agacayak, Elif; Goruk, Neval Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Alabalik, Ulas; Togrul, Cihan; Ekinci, Cenap; Ekinci, Aysun; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of honokiol on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary. Materials and methods A total of 40 female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: sham (Group I), torsion (Group II), torsion + detorsion (Group III), torsion + detorsion + saline (Group IV), and torsion + detorsion + honokiol (Group V). Bilateral adnexa in all the rats except for those in the sham group were exposed to torsion for 3 hours. The rats in Group IV were administered saline, whereas the rats in Group V were administered honokiol by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before detorsion. Tissue and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were determined. Ovarian tissue was histologically evaluated. Data analyses were performed by means of Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test (Bonferroni correction) in SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The torsion and detorsion groups had higher scores in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the sham group (P<0.005). In addition, total histopathological scores were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). A significant reduction was observed in hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cellular degeneration scores, of all histopathological scores, in the honokiol group (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, on the other hand, were significantly higher in the torsion group compared with the sham, saline, and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Conclusion Honokiol has a beneficial effect on ovarian torsion-related ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27022246

  9. Synthesis, structural and in vitro studies of well-dispersed monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-honokiol conjugate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Neng; Cai Lulu; Xie Dachun; Wang Guangcheng; Wu Wenshuang; Chen Lijuan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang Yongkui; Song Hang [Department of Bio-pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yin Huabin, E-mail: lijuan17@hotmail.co [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Honokiol, an active principle extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has great potential as a cancer treatment. However, its poor water solubility greatly hampers its delivery to the tumor sites at an effective concentration. In this study, an amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was successfully prepared by condensation of low molecular weight monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-2000 with honokiol (HK) through an ester linkage to increase the hydrophilicity of honokiol. The MPEG-honokiol (MPEG-HK) conjugate prepared formed nano-sized micelles, with a mean particle size of less than 20 nm (MPEG-HK, 360 {mu}g ml{sup -1}) in water, which could be well dispersed in water. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by particle size distribution, morphology and zeta potential. The stability and hydrolysis profile of the polymeric pro-drug in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and plasma were also studied and the results showed that only 20% of the conjugated honokiol was released in 2.0 h in beagle dog plasma, while in PBS the time required to reach 20% of honokiol release was >200 h. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activity of the honokiol conjugate was found to be retained in vitro against LL/2 cell lines with an IC50 value of 10.7 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. These results suggest that the polymer-drug conjugate provides a potential new approach to hydrophobic drugs, such as honokiol, in formulation design.

  10. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Magnolol and Honokiol by Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min ZHANG; Li Ming DU

    2006-01-01

    A simple sensitive and quick assay for simultaneously determining magnolol (MOL)and honokiol (HOL) has been described based on their natural fluorescence. This method is based on the fact that synchronous fluorometry could resolve the overlapping of fluorescence spectra, which was aroused by their similar molecular structures. In this work, the synchronous spectrum, maintaining a constant difference of Δλ =10 nm between the emission and excitation wavelengths, has been selected for the determination of HOL and MOL. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of MOL and HOL in solution over the range 0.075-0.7 μg/mL and 0.05-0.9 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.029 μg/mL and 0.019 μg/mL, respectively. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of MOL and HOL in pharmaceutical dosage with satisfactory results.

  12. Catalytic activity of lignin peroxidase and partition of veratryl alcohol in AOT/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Huang, Xirong; Li, Yuezhong; Qu, Yinbo; Gao, Peiji

    2006-04-01

    The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and the partition of its optimum substrate veratryl alcohol (VA) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micelles were studied in this paper to understand the microheterogeneous effect of the medium on the catalytic properties of LiP hosted in the reverse micelle. Results showed that LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium could express its activity in the reverse micelles, but its activity depended, to a great extent, on the composition of the reverse micelles. Optimum activity occurred at a molar ratio of water to AOT (omega0) of 11, a pH value of 3.6, and a volume ratio of isooctane to toluene of 7-9. Under optimum conditions, the half-life of LiP was circa 12 h. The dependence of LiP activity on the volume fraction of water in the medium (theta), at a constant omega0 value of 11, indicated that VA was mainly solubilized in the pseudophase of the reverse micelle. Based on the pseudobiphasic model and the corresponding kinetic method, a linear line can be obtained in a plot of apparent Michaelis constant of VA vs theta, and the partition coefficient of VA between the pseudophase and the organic solvent phase was determined to be 35.8, which was higher than that (22.3) between bulk water and the corresponding mixed organic solvent. H2O2 inhibited LiP at concentrations higher than 80 microM; this concentration value seems to be different from that in aqueous solution (about 3 mM). The differences mentioned above should be ascribed to the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of honokiol against Staphylococcus aureus in biofilm mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Li; Zhao, Xing-Chen; Zhao, Zi-Wen; Huang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Xuan-Zhi; Meng, Ri-Zeng; Shi, Ce; Yu, Lu; Guo, Na

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can attach to food, host tissues and the surfaces of medical implants and form a biofilm, which makes it difficult to eliminate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of honokiol on biofilm-grown S. aureus. In this report, honokiol showed effective antibacterial activity against S. aureus in biofilms. S. aureus isolates are capable of producing distinct types of biofilms mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) or extracellular DNA (eDNA). The biofilms' susceptibility to honokiol was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The transcript levels of the biofilm-related genes, the expression of PIA, and the amount of eDNA of biofilm-grown S. aureus exposed to honokiol were also investigated. The results of this study show that honokiol can detach existing biofilms, kill bacteria in biofilms, and simultaneously inhibit the transcript levels of sarA, cidA and icaA, eDNA release, and the expression of PIA.

  14. Intrahepatic cholesterol influences progression, inhibition and reversal of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in hyperlipidemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Kristiaan; van Bilsen, Marc; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Bieghs, Veerle; Luetjohann, Dieter; Kerksiek, Anja; Staels, Bart; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation is the key factor in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes progression to liver damage. We recently identified dietary cholesterol as the cause of hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice. We now show that hepatic transcriptome responses are strongly dependent on

  15. A Sustained Depressive State Promotes a Guanfacine Reversible Susceptibility to Alcohol Seeking in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Riga (Danai); L.J.M. Schmitz (Leanne); J.E. van der Harst (Johanneke); Y. van Mourik (Yvar); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); A.B. Smit (August); S. Spijker; T.J. de Vries (Taco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractHigh rates of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are reported. Preclinical models examining effects of primary depression on secondary AUD are currently absent, preventing adequate testing of drug treatment. Here, we combined social defeat-

  16. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote the reversion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Naishun; Pan, Fan; Wang, Yingchao; Zheng, Youshi; Xu, Bo; Chen, Wenwei; Gao, Yunzhen; Cai, Zhixiong; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver injury and seriously affects human health. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation in combination with dietary modification was capable of reversing the progression of NAFLD. After establishing a rat model of NAFLD by feeding them a high-fat diet (HFD), ADSCs were transplanted via the portal vein into rats with HFD-induced NAFLD, and simultaneously fed a modified diet. Thereafter, gross liver morphology, the hepatosomatic (HSI) index and indicators of liver function, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were evaluated. Subsequently, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and fatty acids (FAs) were also assayed. Furthermore, H&E and oil red O staining were used to confirm the pathological effects of NAFLD in the rat livers. Although dietary modification alone caused liver function to recover, ADSC transplantation in combination with dietary modification further decreased the HSI index, the serum levels of ALT, TBIL, TC, TGs, FAs, reduced lipid accumulation to normal levels, and reversed the hepatic pathological changes in the rat livers. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADSC transplantation assists in the reversion of NAFLD by improving liver function and promoting lipid metabolism, thereby exerting hepatoprotective effects. Thus, we suggest that ADSC transplantation is a promising, potential therapeutic strategy for NAFLD treatment.

  17. Synthesis of benzoxazole derivatives of honokiol as insecticidal agents against Mythimna separata Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel benzoxazole compounds derived from a naturally occurring neolignan honokiol were prepared. Their insecticidal activity was tested against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata Walker) in vivo. Most of the tested derivatives exhibited more potential insecticidal activity than their precursor honokiol at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Especially compound 6e, containing 4-acetyloxyphenyl groups at the C8 and C8' positions, displayed the most potent insecticidal activity with the final mortality rate of 62.1%.

  18. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Magnolol and Honokiol: Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigations of Their Reaction with Peroxyl Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Zotova, Julija; Baschieri, Andrea; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Magnolol and honokiol, the bioactive phytochemicals contained in Magnolia officinalis, are uncommon antioxidants bearing isomeric bisphenol cores substituted with allyl functions. We have elucidated the chemistry behind their antioxidant activity by experimental and computational methods. In the inhibited autoxidation of cumene and styrene at 303 K, magnolol trapped four peroxyl radicals, with a kinh of 6.1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) in chlorobenzene and 6.0 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) in acetonitrile, and honokiol trapped two peroxyl radicals in chlorobenzene (kinh = 3.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) and four peroxyl radicals in acetonitrile (kinh = 9.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). Their different behavior arises from a combination of intramolecular hydrogen bonding among the reactive OH groups (in magnolol) and of the OH groups with the aromatic and allyl π-systems, as confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Comparison with structurally related 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diol, 2-allylphenol, and 2-allylanisole allowed us to exclude that the antioxidant behavior of magnolol and honokiol is due to the allyl groups. The reaction of the allyl group with a peroxyl radical (C-H hydrogen abstraction) proceeds with rate constant of 1.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 303 K. Magnolol and honokiol radicals do not react with molecular oxygen and produce no superoxide radical under the typical settings of inhibited autoxidations.

  1. Honokiol inhibits migration of renal cell carcinoma through activation of RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shujie; Castillo, Victor; Welty, Matt; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Honokiol, a biologically active compound isolated from Magnolia bark, has been shown to possess promising anticancer effect through induction of apoptosis. However, there is a relative lack of information regarding its anti‑metastatic activity. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the adult kidney and is known for high risk of metastasis. Clinically, therapeutic methods for metastatic RCC cases are limited and efforts to exploit new treatments are still ongoing. The results of our current investigation first revealed that honokiol suppressed the proliferation of different human RCCs without affecting cell viability. In addition, honokiol inhibited migration of highly metastatic RCC 786‑0 cells and stimulated the activity of small GTPase, RhoA. Furthermore, phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC) and excessive formation of actin stress fibers were identified in 786‑0 cells treated with honokiol. Interestingly, the pharmacological Rho‑associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y‑27632 attenuated contraction of actin stress fibers induced by honokiol and abrogated honokiol‑mediated inhibition of cell migration. Together these important findings suggest that honokiol suppresses the migration of highly metastatic RCC through activation of RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling and warrants attention in the treatment of RCC metastasis as a novel therapeutic approach.

  2. Cetoacidosis alcohólica y complicaciones neurológicas reversibles de la hipofosfatemia Alcoholic ketoacidosis and reversible neurological complications due to hypophosphataemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª T. Fernández López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Un paciente varón de 57 años alcohólico ingresó en nuestro hospital por alteración del nivel de conciencia y polirradiculitis. En el estudio analítico aparecía acidosis metabólica, hipopotasemia e hipofosfatemia. La cetoacidosis alcohólica es frecuente en estos pacientes. Todos ellos se presentan con una historia de abuso del alcohol, con cese del consumo los días previos por la aparición de náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Los datos básicos de laboratorio son: glucemia normal o baja, acidosis metabólica con anión GAP elevado, ausencia de alcohol en sangre y cetonuria. Los mayores peligros son la hipovolemia, hipopotasemia, hipoglucemia y acidosis. El abuso del alcohol puede provocar un amplio rango de trastornos electrolíticos y del equilibrio ácido-base, incluyendo hipofosfatemia, hipomagnesemia, hipocalcemia, hipopotasemia, acidosis metabólica y alcalosis respiratoria. El deterioro del nivel de conciencia puede observarse en relación con intoxicación etílica aguda, encefalopatía de Wernicke, síndrome de abstinencia, mielinolisis central pontina, encefalopatía hepática, hipoglucemia y trastornos electrolíticos.A 57-year-old man with chronic alcoholism was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness and polyradiculitis. Laboratory examination revealed metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and hypophosphataemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a common disorder in alcoholic patients. All patients present with a history of heavy alcohol misuse, preceding a bout of particularly excesive intake, which had been terminated by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The most important laboratory results are: normal or low glucose level, metabolic acidosis with a raised anion GAP, low or absent blood alcohol level and urinary ketones. The greatest threats to patients are: hypovolemia, hypokaliemia, hypoglucemia and acidosis. Alcohol abuse may result in a wide range of electrolyte and acid-base disorders including

  3. Sample injection strategy to increase throughput in counter-current chromatography: Case study of Honokiol purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihua; Hewitson, Peter; Ye, Haoyu; Zu, Liansuo; Garrard, Ian; Sutherland, Ian; Chen, Lijuan; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-12-09

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) has been widely used as a preparative separation method to purify natural products from plant extracts and fermentation broths. Traditionally, throughput optimization in CCC has focused on sample concentration and sample volume. In this paper sample injection was considered as consisting of three variables: injection flow rate, post-injection flow rate and sample solvent. The effects of these parameters were studied using a honokiol purification from a Magnolia officinalis bark extract as a case study aiming to achieve the highest throughput/yield ratio for greater than 99% purity of this potential anti-cancer drug obtained for submission to the Chinese FDA. An injection method was established that increased the throughput of honokiol by 46.5% (from 3.05g/h to 4.47g/h), and decreased the solvent consumption of mobile phase and stationary phase per gram of honokiol by 40.0% (from 0.68L/g to 0.41L/g) and 48.4% (from 0.40L/g to 0.21L/g) respectively. These results show the importance of understanding the whole injection process when optimizing a given CCC separation.

  4. Effect of Honokiol on Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yeon Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Honokiol is a bioactive component isolated from the medicinal herbs Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora that has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor activities. The inhibitory potentials of honokiol on eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, and four UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs 1A1, 1A4, 1A9, and 2B7 in human liver microsomes were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Honokiol strongly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation, CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation, CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4-hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated [S]-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylation, and UGT1A9-mediated propofol glucuronidation with Ki values of 1.2, 4.9, 0.54, 0.57, and 0.3 μM, respectively. Honokiol also moderately inhibited CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylation and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation with Ki values of 17.5 and 12.0 μM, respectively. These in vitro results indicate that honokiol has the potential to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions with other co-administered drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and UGT1A9.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of honokiol after intravenous guttae in beagle dogs assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Cui, Gang; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Wei; An, Quan; Lin, Zongtao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong

    2014-10-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of honokiol in beagle dog plasma after intravenous guttae. With addition of the internal standard magnolol, plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (2.0 × 100 mm, 2.2 µm) with isocratic elution of methanol and water (80:20) solution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A good separation of honokiol was achieved within 3.5 min. Quantification was performed on a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. Good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 5.12-15580 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.998). Intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.10%, and accuracy ranged from 89.21 to 99.92%. The lower limit of quantification for honokiol was 5.12 ng/mL, and honokiol was stable under various conditions (three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions.). This validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of honokiol in dogs by intravenous guttae.

  6. Honokiol arrests cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and potentiates the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Arora

    Full Text Available Survival rates for patients with pancreatic cancer are extremely poor due to its asymptomatic progression to advanced and metastatic stage for which current therapies remain largely ineffective. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents and treatment approaches are desired to improve the clinical outcome. In this study, we determined the effects of honokiol, a biologically active constituent of oriental medicinal herb Magnolia officinalis/grandiflora, on two pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa and Panc1, alone and in combination with the standard chemotherapeutic drug, gemcitabine. Honokiol exerted growth inhibitory effects on both the pancreatic cancer cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest at G₁ phase and induction of apoptosis. At the molecular level, honokiol markedly decreased the expression of cyclins (D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk2 and Cdk4, and caused an increase in Cdk inhibitors, p21 and p27. Furthermore, honokiol treatment led to augmentation of Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios to favor apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. These changes were accompanied by enhanced cytoplasmic accumulation of NF-κB with a concomitant decrease in nuclear fraction and reduced transcriptional activity of NF-κB responsive promoter. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκB-α causing its stabilization and thus increased cellular levels. Importantly, honokiol also potentiated the cytotoxic effects of gemcitabine, in part, by restricting the gemcitabine-induced nuclear accumulation of NF-κB in the treated pancreatic cancer cell lines. Altogether, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the growth inhibitory effects of honokiol in pancreatic cancer and indicate its potential usefulness as a novel natural agent in prevention and therapy.

  7. Alcohol-induced histone H3K9 hyperacetylation and cardiac hypertrophy are reversed by a histone acetylases inhibitor anacardic acid in developing murine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Weian; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2015-06-01

    The expression of cardiac genes is precisely regulated, and any perturbation may cause developmental defects. In a previous study, we demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to uncontrolled expressions of cardiac genes and eventually result in cardiac dysplasia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its potential mechanisms. Furthermore, the protective effect of anacardic acid against the alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been explored in experimental mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were gavaged with 56% ethanol or saline and the hearts of their fetus were collected for analysis. Binding of p300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, except GCN5, were increased to the NKX2.5 promoter in fetal mouse hearts exposed to alcohol. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of NKX2.5, β-MHC and Cx43 were observed in the same samples. Treatment with a pan-acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding affinity of p300 and PCAF to the NKX2.5, β-MHC, Cx43 promoters and attenuated H3K9 hyperacetylation. Interestingly, anacardic acid down-regulated over-expression of these cardiac genes induced by alcohol and ultimately attenuated ethanol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in fetal mice. Our results indicate that alcohol exposure during pregnancy could lead to fetal cardiac hypertrophy. The over-expression of NKX2.5, β-MHC, Cx43 mediated by p300 and PCAF may be critical mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Anacardic acid can down-regulate the over-expression of cardiac genes and reverse cardiac hypertrophy caused by alcohol treatment in pregnant mice, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens that are not fully reversed by withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Neves, João; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Cruz, Catarina; Madeira, M Dulce

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and acetylcholine-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seem to play a major role in the rewarding effects of alcohol. This study investigated the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and subsequent withdrawal and the expression of NPY and acetylcholine in the NAc, and the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Rats ingesting an aqueous ethanol solution over 6months and rats subsequently deprived from ethanol during 2months were used to estimate the total number and the somatic volume of NPY and cholinergic interneurons, and the numerical density of cholinergic varicosities in the NAc. The tissue content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and catecholamines were also determined. The number of NPY interneurons increased during alcohol ingestion and returned to control values after withdrawal. Conversely, the number and the size of cholinergic interneurons, and the amount of ChAT were unchanged in ethanol-treated and withdrawn rats, but the density of cholinergic varicosities was reduced by 50% during alcohol consumption and by 64% after withdrawal. The concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine were unchanged both during alcohol consumption and after withdrawal. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats significantly increased the number of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, the size of cholinergic neurons and the density of cholinergic varicosities. Present data show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to long-lasting neuroadaptive changes of the cholinergic innervation of the NAc and suggest that the cholinergic system is a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies in alcoholism and abstinence.

  9. Kinetic Studies on the Lignin Peroxidase Catalyzed Oxidation of Veratryl Alcohol by H2O2 in AOT/Isooctane/Toluene/Water Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-Ting; HUANG Xi-Rong; GAO Pei-ji

    2007-01-01

    The steady state kinetics of the lignin peroxidase (LIP) catalyzed oxidation of veratryl alcohol (VA) by H2O2 in a sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/toluene/water reverse micellar medium was studied and a comparison with the corresponding aqueous medium was made to understand the effect of the reverse micellar medium on the catalytic mechanism and kinetic parameters. Results indicated that the model reaction in the AOT medium were the same as those in bulk aqueous medium, but the kinetic parameters except Km,H2O2 were greatly different in the two media. The kcat and Ki values in the reverse micelle were approximately 2 and 20 times smaller than the corresponding values in the aqueous solution, but the Michaelis constant of VA was approximately 100times greater than that in the aqueous solution. The above mentioned differences in the kinetic parameters were caused by the microheterogeneity and the interface of the AOT reverse micelle, which resulted in the partitioning of VA and H2O2, and by the changes of the conformation of LiP and the reactivity of the substrates.

  10. Cetoacidosis alcohólica y complicaciones neurológicas reversibles de la hipofosfatemia Alcoholic ketoacidosis and reversible neurological complications due to hypophosphataemia

    OpenAIRE

    M.ª T. Fernández López; M.ª D. García Bargo; M.ª T. Rivero Luis; P. Álvarez Vázquez; C. A. Sáenz Fernández; J. A. Mato Mato

    2012-01-01

    Un paciente varón de 57 años alcohólico ingresó en nuestro hospital por alteración del nivel de conciencia y polirradiculitis. En el estudio analítico aparecía acidosis metabólica, hipopotasemia e hipofosfatemia. La cetoacidosis alcohólica es frecuente en estos pacientes. Todos ellos se presentan con una historia de abuso del alcohol, con cese del consumo los días previos por la aparición de náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Los datos básicos de laboratorio son: glucemia normal o baja, acid...

  11. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  12. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks.

  13. Safety and efficacy of flumazenil for reversal of iatrogenic benzodiazepine-associated delirium toxicity during treatment of alcohol withdrawal, a retrospective review at one center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip W; Donovan, J Ward; Burkhart, Keith K; Waskin, Jeffrey A; Hieger, Michelle A; Adkins, Audrey R; Wert, Yijin; Haggerty, David A; Rasimas, J J

    2014-06-01

    Both alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and benzodiazepines can cause delirium. Benzodiazepine-associated delirium can complicate AWS and prolong hospitalization. Benzodiazepine delirium can be diagnosed with flumazenil, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. By reversing the effects of benzodiazepines, flumazenil is theorized to exacerbate symptoms of AWS and precludes its use. For patients being treated for alcohol withdrawal, flumazenil can diagnose and treat benzodiazepine delirium without precipitating serious or life-threatening adverse events. Hospital admission records were retrospectively reviewed for patients with the diagnosis of AWS who received both benzodiazepines and flumazenil from December 2006 to June 2012 at a university-affiliated inpatient toxicology center. The day of last alcohol consumption was estimated from available blood alcohol content or subjective history. Corresponding benzodiazepine, flumazenil, and adjunctive sedative pharmacy records were reviewed, as were demographic, clinical course, and outcome data. Eighty-five patients were identified (average age 50.3 years). Alcohol concentrations were detectable for 42 patients with average 261 mg/dL (10-530 mg/dL). Eighty patients were treated with adjunctive agents for alcohol withdrawal including antipsychotics (n = 57), opioids (n = 27), clonidine (n = 35), and phenobarbital (n = 23). Average time of flumazenil administration was 4.7 days (1-11 days) after abstinence, and average dose was 0.5 mg (0.2-1 mg). At the time of flumazenil administration, delirium was described as hypoactive (n = 21), hyperactive (n = 15), mixed (n = 41), or not specified (n = 8). Response was not documented in 11 cases. Sixty-two (72.9 %) patients had significant objective improvement after receiving flumazenil. Fifty-six patients required more than one dose (average 5.6 doses). There were no major adverse events and minor adverse effects included transiently increased anxiety

  14. Honokiol, a potential therapeutic agent, induces cell cycle arrest and program cell death in vitro and in vivo in human thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Chen, Shu-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Wen; Wu, Jin-Yi; Lim, Yun-Ping; Yu, Hui-I; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, the global incidence rate of which is rapidly rising. Surgery and radioiodine therapies are common and effective treatments only for nonmetastasized primary tumors. Therefore, effective treatment modalities are imperative for patients with radioiodine-resistant thyroid cancer. Honokiol, a biophenolic compound derived from Magnolia spp., has been shown have diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. In the present study, three human thyroid cancer cell lines, namely anaplastic, follicular, and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells, were used to evaluate the chemotherapeutic activity of honokiol. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy induction were determined through flow cytometry and western blot analysis. We found that honokiol treatment can suppress cell growth, induce cell cycle arrest, and enhance the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Moreover, honokiol treatment modulated signaling pathways including Akt/mTOR, ERK, JNK, and p38 in the studied cells. In addition, the antitumorigenic activity of honokiol was also confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide evidence that honokiol has a unique application in chemotherapy for human thyroid cancers.

  15. Comparison of single-step reverse transepithelial all-surface laser ablation (ASLA to alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanides IM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis M Aslanides,1 Sara Padroni,1 Samuel Arba Mosquera,2 Antonis Ioannides,1 Achyut Mukherjee11Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Institute, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate postoperative pain, corneal epithelial healing, development of corneal haze, refractive outcomes, and corneal aberrations in a novel one-step, modified transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, termed All-surface laser ablation (ASLA, compared to conventional, alcohol-assisted PRK.Materials and methods: Sixty eyes of 30 myopic patients were prospectively recruited to a randomized fellow eye study. Patients underwent conventional alcohol-assisted PRK in one eye (control group and ASLA-modified transepithelial PRK in the other (30 eyes in each treatment arm. Primary endpoints were postoperative pain and haze scores at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary endpoints included visual acuity at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, corneal aberrations at 3, 6, and 12 months, and early and late onset haze. Refractive predictability, safety, and efficacy of the two methods were considered.Results: The average age of the cohort was 29 years (standard deviation [SD]: 9; range: 18–46, and the average spherical equivalent refractive error was -4.18 diopters (SD: 1.9. At 3 days after surgery, the average pain score was 64% lower in the ASLA group (P < 0.0005. At this point, 96% of ASLA eyes had no epithelial defect, whereas 43% in the alcohol-assisted group did not achieve complete epithelial healing, and required replacement of bandage contact lens. The haze level was consistently lower in the ASLA group at all time points from 1 to 6 months.Conclusion: This study shows that the ASLA technique may have a future role in refractive surgery, due to the fact that it offers faster epithelial healing, lower pain scores, and significantly less haze formation.Keywords: cornea, ASLA, PRK, alcohol

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  17. Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Wang, Weu; Chang, Ya-An; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In children, neuroblastomas are the most common and deadly solid tumor. Our previous study showed that honokiol, a small-molecule polyphenol, can traverse the blood-brain barrier and kill neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of honokiol-induced insults to neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells with honokiol elevated the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II and induced cell autophagy in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Interestingly, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy, led to the simultaneous attenuation of honokiol-induced cell autophagy and apoptosis but did not influence cell necrosis. As to the mechanisms, exposure of neuro-2a cells to honokiol time-dependently decreased the amount of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Sequentially, honokiol downregulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in neuro-2a cells. Furthermore, honokiol elevated the levels of glucose-regulated protein (GpR)78, an endoplasmic reticular stress (ERS)-associated protein, and amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, reducing production of intracellular ROS using N-acetylcysteine, a scavenger of ROS, concurrently suppressed honokiol-induced cellular autophagy. Consequently, honokiol stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. However, pretreatment of neuro-2a cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, lowered honokiol-induced autophagy. The effects of honokiol on inducing autophagy and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells were further confirmed using mouse neuroblastoma NB41A3 cells as our experimental model. Fascinatingly, treatment of neuroblastoma neuro-2a and NB41A3 cells with honokiol for 12 h did not affect cell autophagy or apoptosis but caused significant suppression of cell migration. Taken together, this study showed that honokiol can induce

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of honokiol is mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway suppression1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byung Hun KIM; Jae Youl CHO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of honokiol on various inflammatory events mediated by monocytes/macrophages (U937/RAW264.7 cells)and lymphocytes (splenic lymphocytes and CTLL-2 cells) and their putative ac-tion mechanism. Methods: In order to investigate the regulatory effects, various cell lines and primary cells (U937, RAW264.7, CTLL-2 cells, and splenic lymphocytes) were employed and various inflammatory events, such as the pro-duction of inflammatory mediators, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and the early signaling cascade, were chosen. Results: Honokiol strongly inhibited various inflammatory responses, such as: (ⅰ) the upregulation of nitric oxide (NO), pros-taglandin.E2 and TNF-α production and costimulatory molecule CD80 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (ⅱ) the functional activation of β1-integrin (CD29) as-sessed by U937 cell-cell and cell-fibronectin adhesions; (ⅲ) the enhancement of lymphocytes and CD8+CTLL-2 cell proliferation stimulated by LPS, phytohemaglutinin A (PHA), and concanavalin A or interleukin (IL)-2; and (ⅳ) the transcriptional upregulation of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. These anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol seem to be mediated by interrupting the early activated intra-cellular signaling molecule phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, but not Src, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38, according to pharmacological, biochemical, and functional analyses. Conclusion: These results suggest that honokiol may act as a potent anti-inflammatory agent with multipotential activities due to an inhibitory effect on the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  19. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin.

  20. [A simultaneous determination of honokiol and mangolol in Oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing magnolia bark by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, J; Asaka, N; Tanaka, I; Hayashi, Y; Hirose, Y; Momma, N; Yasuda, T; Ohsawa, K

    1993-12-01

    A simple method using ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography was established for the rapid and precise determination of honokiol(3',5-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,4'-diol) and magnolol(5,5'-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) in eighteen species of oriental pharmaceutical decoctions containing Magnolia bark. An ODS column and a mixed solvent system of water involving 10 mM tetra-n-amyl-ammonium bromide (TAA) and acetonitrile (4:6) as a mobile phase were used for the separation. Honokiol and magnolol were eluted without interference of other coexisting components within 12 min.

  1. [Effect of honokiol on proliferation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells and its potential mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia-Xin; Zeng, Ying-Jian; Weng, Guang-Yang; Wu, Jian-Wei; Li, Zhang-Qiu; Li, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Rong; Guo, Kun-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Honokiol (HNK) on proliferation and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells and its potential mechanism. Inhibitory effect of HNK on the HL-60 cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell cycle and AnnexinV/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis. Western blot was applied to analyze the cell cycle protein (cyclins), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), P53, P21, P27, BCL-2, BCL-XL, Bax, caspase-3/9 and proteins for MAPK signal pathway. The results showed that HNK could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells in time- and dose dependent ways. HNK arrested HL-60 cells in G0/G1 phase, and S phase cells decreased significantly (P HL-60 cell apoptosis increased significantly with the upregulation of activated caspase-3, -9, BAX expression and the downregulation of BCL-2, BCL-XL expression. The MAPK subfamily, P38 and JNK were not significantly changed, but the expression of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 was significantly downregulated (P HL-60 cell apoptosis through the intervention of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  2. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  3. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  4. Concerning the Potential Reversibility of Carbometalation in Alkoxide-directed Ti(Oi-Pr)4-mediated Reductive Cross-Coupling of Homoallylic Alcohols with Aromatic Imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the nature of selectivity in Ti-mediated reductive cross-coupling between homoallylic alcohols and imines, we investigated whether thermodynamic equilibration of the presumed organometallic intermediate plays a role in selectivity. No evidence could be found for olefin exchange in preformed azatitanacyclopentanes – an observation that is consistent with a model based on kinetically controlled selective carbometalation. PMID:20379585

  5. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  6. Biodegradable polymeric micelles coencapsulating paclitaxel and honokiol: a strategy for breast cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Zhihan; Nie, Shihong; Song, Linjiang; He, Tao; Yang, Suleixin; Yang, Xi; Yi, Cheng; Wu, Qinjie; Gong, Changyang

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chemotherapy drugs attracts more attention in clinical cancer trials. However, the poor water solubility of chemotherapeutic drugs restricts their anticancer application. In order to improve antitumor efficiency and reduce side effects of free drugs, we prepared paclitaxel (PTX) and honokiol (HK) combination methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(caprolactone) micelles (P–H/M) by solid dispersion method against breast cancer. The particle size of P–H/M was 28.7±2.5 nm, and transmission electron microscope image confirmed that P–H/M were spherical in shape with small particle size. After being encapsulated in micelles, the release of PTX or HK showed a sustained behavior in vitro. In addition, both the cytotoxicity and the cellular uptake of P–H/M were increased in 4T1 cells, and P–H/M induced more apoptosis than PTX-loaded micelles or HK-loaded micelles, as analyzed by flow cytometry assay and Western blot. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of P–H/M was significantly improved compared with PTX-loaded micelles or HK-loaded micelles in vivo. P–H/M were more effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation, inducing tumor apoptosis, and decreasing the density of microvasculature. Moreover, bioimaging analysis showed that drug-loaded polymeric micelles could accumulate more in tumor tissues compared with the free drug. Our results suggested that P–H/M may have potential applications in breast cancer therapy. PMID:28260895

  7. c-Myc is a novel target of cell cycle arrest by honokiol in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Krishna Beer; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Honokiol (HNK), a highly promising phytochemical derived from Magnolia officinalis plant, exhibits in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against prostate cancer but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was undertaken to delineate the role of c-Myc in anticancer effects of HNK. Exposure of prostate cancer cells to plasma achievable doses of HNK resulted in a marked decrease in levels of total and/or phosphorylated c-Myc protein as well as its mRNA expression. We also observed suppression of c-Myc protein in PC-3 xenografts upon oral HNK administration. Stable overexpression of c-Myc in PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells conferred significant protection against HNK-mediated growth inhibition and G0-G1 phase cell cycle arrest. HNK treatment decreased expression of c-Myc downstream targets including Cyclin D1 and Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), and these effects were partially restored upon c-Myc overexpression. In addition, PC-3 and DU145 cells with stable knockdown of EZH2 were relatively more sensitive to growth inhibition by HNK compared with control cells. Finally, androgen receptor overexpression abrogated HNK-mediated downregulation of c-Myc and its targets particularly EZH2. The present study indicates that c-Myc, which is often overexpressed in early and late stages of human prostate cancer, is a novel target of prostate cancer growth inhibition by HNK. PMID:27341160

  8. Non-toxic dose of liposomal honokiol suppresses metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma through destabilizing EGFR and inhibiting the downstream pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hansuo; Hu, Jia; Zhao, Chengjian; Chai, LuLu; Chen, Xiang; Shao, Ximing; Wang, Chunyu; Wu, Wenshuang; Wan, Li; Ye, Haoyu; Qiu, Qiang; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Yang, Li; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    At present, there is no specific anti-metastasis drug in HCC treatment. Drugs used for primary HCC tumors and tumor metastasis are very similar, among which cytotoxic drugs are prevalent, such as cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-FU. The EGFR pathway plays an important role in promoting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. Hence, development of non-toxic anti-metastasis drugs, such as EGFR or downstream pathways inhibitors, is of great importance. In our present study, we found non-toxic dose of liposomal honokiol (LH) could inhibit the HCC metastasis by destabilizing EGFR and inhibiting the downstream pathways. Non-toxic dose of LH significantly inhibited the motility, migration and lamellipodia formation of HepG2 cells in vitro and decreased extravasation of HepG2 cells in a novel metastasis model of transgenic zebrafish. In two lung metastasis models (HepG2 and B16F10) and a spontaneous metastasis model of HepG2 cells, LH remarkably inhibited pulmonary metastasis and regional lymph nodes metastasis without obvious toxicity. Further study showed that destabilizing EGFR and inhibiting the downstream pathways were the main mechanisms of non-toxic dose of LH on metastasis inhibition. Our results provide the preclinical rationale and the underlying mechanisms of LH to suppress HCC metastasis, implicating LH as a potential therapeutic agent to block HCC metastasis without severe side effects. PMID:27906672

  9. c-Myc is a novel target of cell cycle arrest by honokiol in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Singh, Krishna Beer; Singh, Shivendra V

    2016-09-01

    Honokiol (HNK), a highly promising phytochemical derived from Magnolia officinalis plant, exhibits in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against prostate cancer but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was undertaken to delineate the role of c-Myc in anticancer effects of HNK. Exposure of prostate cancer cells to plasma achievable doses of HNK resulted in a marked decrease in levels of total and/or phosphorylated c-Myc protein as well as its mRNA expression. We also observed suppression of c-Myc protein in PC-3 xenografts upon oral HNK administration. Stable overexpression of c-Myc in PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells conferred significant protection against HNK-mediated growth inhibition and G0-G1 phase cell cycle arrest. HNK treatment decreased expression of c-Myc downstream targets including Cyclin D1 and Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), and these effects were partially restored upon c-Myc overexpression. In addition, PC-3 and DU145 cells with stable knockdown of EZH2 were relatively more sensitive to growth inhibition by HNK compared with control cells. Finally, androgen receptor overexpression abrogated HNK-mediated downregulation of c-Myc and its targets particularly EZH2. The present study indicates that c-Myc, which is often overexpressed in early and late stages of human prostate cancer, is a novel target of prostate cancer growth inhibition by HNK.

  10. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  11. Honokiol improved chondrogenesis and suppressed inflammation in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells via blocking nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhanhai; Wang, Ling; Li, Feng; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-08-29

    Cartilage degradation is the significant pathological process in osteoarthritis (OA). Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activate various downstream mediators contributing to OA pathology. Recently, stem cell-based cartilage repair emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy that being widely studied, whereas, the outcome is still far from clinical application. In this study, we focused on an anti-inflammatory agent, honokiol, which is isolated from an herb, investigated the potential effects on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in IL-1β stimulation. Second passage hUC-MSCs were cultured for multi-differentiation. Flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, von Kossa stain, alcian blue stain and oil red O stain were used for characterization and multi-differentiation determination. Honokiol (5, 10, 25, 50 μM) and IL-1β (10 ng/ml) were applied in hUC-MSCs during chondrogenesis. Analysis was performed by MTT, cell apoptosis evaluation, ELISA assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. hUC-MSC was positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, but lack of CD34 and CD45. Remarkable osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis were detected in hUC-MSCs. IL-1β enhanced cell apoptosis and necrosis and activated the expression of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -9, 13 in hUC-MSCs. Moreover, the expression of SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX-9), aggrecan and col2α1 was suppressed. Honokiol relieved these negative impacts induced by IL-1β and suppressed Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by downregulating expression of p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and p-p65 in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Honokiol improved cell survival and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory response, which suggested that combination of anti-inflammation and stem cell can be a novel strategy for better cartilage repair.

  12. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  13. Reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); S.D.P. Flapper; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper gives an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse logistics activities in practice. Over sixty case studies are considered. Based on these studies we are able to indicate critical factors for the practice of reverse logistics. In addi

  14. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  15. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  16. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  17. Preoperative alcohol cessation prior to elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppedal, Kristian; Møller, Ann Merete; Pedersen, Bolette

    2012-01-01

    Hazardous drinking has been associated with an increased postoperative complication rate after surgery. Common complications include postoperative infections, cardiopulmonary complications, and bleeding episodes. Preoperative abstinence may to some degree reverse alcohol-induced pathophysiological...

  18. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  19. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  20. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  1. Reversible Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    will have been introduced. 9. Reversible celular autemata We shall assume the reader to have some familiarity with the concept of cel- lular...10003 Mr. Kin B. Thcmpson 1 copy Technical Director Information Systems Divisia.i Naval Research Laboratory (OP-91T) Technical Information Division

  2. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines, Your Health ResourcesTags: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, craving, Depade, drunk, hepatoxicity, intoxication, naltrexone, narcotic antagonist, opiate ...

  3. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 28133 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are premixed ...

  6. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  7. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  8. Alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  9. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  10. Multifunctional effects of honokiol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug in human oral squamous cancer cells and xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeon, Young-Joo; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Hongju; Ryu, Joohyun; Chen, Hanyong; Dong, Zigang; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of honokiol (HK) in two oral squamous cancer cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, HN22 and HSC4, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44). Griess assay, zymography, and quantitative PCR were performed to study iNOS expression and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production in OSCC cell lines. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis was used to elucidate the proteins associated with ER stress and cellular cytotoxic response induced by HK. Pull-down assay and molecular modeling were performed to better understand how HK interacts with ERp44. In vitro and in vivo experiments in which ERp44 expression was knocked down were performed to better understand the effects of ERp44 on a cellular level and anti-cancer effects of HK. Expression levels of iNOS and subsequent NO secretion were reduced in OSCC cell lines treated with HK. ERp44 was significantly decreased in OSCC cell lines by HK treatment. HK directly bound to ERp44, and ERp44 knock-down significantly inhibited oral cancer cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, HK treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth and ERp44 levels in BALB/c nude mice bearing HN22 cell xenografts. Our findings suggest that HK inhibited inflammation and induced apoptosis by suppressing both iNOS/NO and ERp44 expression in HN22 and HSC4 cells and xenograft tumors, and thus could be a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug candidate for human oral cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. 半夏醇提取液逆转多药耐药细胞系K562/A02的耐药性%Reversal of Multirug Resistance in K562/A02 Cell by Alcoholic Extract of Pinellia ternate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭向前; 冯玮; 张文会

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effect and mechanism of alcoholic extract of Pinellia ternate at non-cytotoxic concentration (inhibit rate≤ 5% ) reversing the multidrug resistant (MDR) leukemia cell lines K562/A02. Method; Cells were seeded into 72-well plates at 2 x 108/L with varying concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 μg o L-1 ) of P. ternate for 72 h, MTT colorimetry was used to determine the cytotoxic effect of alcoholic extract of P. ternate and the sensibility to adriamycin of K562/A02 cell line. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expressive and functional changes of glycoprotein-170 (pl70) on the cell membrane dealed with alcoholic extract of P. ternate at non-cytotoxic concentration. And daunorubicin concentration in the cells was detected by flow cytometry. The statistical treatment with SPSS 16. 0 was applied to deal with all the experimental data. Result: Alcoholic extract of P. ternate had definite cytotoxic effect on K562/A02, the non-cytotoxic dose of oxymatrine was 6. 5 μg ·L-1 . Non-cytotoxic dose of alcoholic extract of P. ternate can significantly decrease theq medium inhibition concentration ( IC50 ) value of K562/ADM cell line to adriamycin ( ADM ) . The IC50 was obviously reduced from (30. 9 ±0. 11) μg·L-1 to (10.1 ±0.21) μg·L-1 , alcoholic extract of P. ternate at non-cytotoxic concentration could partly reverse MDR of K562/A02 (3.06times) , and could descend the expression of pl70 from 91.21% to 45.12% (P < 0. 01 ) . The exosmosis test of daunorubicin showed that intracellular concentration of chemotherapeutics concentration increased evidently. Conclusion; Alcoholic extract of P. ternate is able to partly reverse MDR of K562/A02 cell line could descend the expression of P1 70, and can restrain the function of pumping chemotherapeutics out of the cell and enhance the efficient intracellular concentration of chemotherapeutics which can kill leukemia cells of multidrug resistance, and partly reversed MDR of K562/A02.%目的:观

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, van A.; Fournier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the RC

  14. 浊点萃取-紫外分光光度法同时测定厚朴酚与和厚朴酚的含量%Simultaneous determination of magnolol and honokiol by UV spectrophotometry after cloud point extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超美; 仲淑贤; 杨利宁; 邬梦璐; 叶建萍; 陈建荣

    2014-01-01

    A new method of cloud point extraction-UV spectrophotometry based on using Triton X-114 as an extractant was developed for simultaneous determination of magnolol and honokiol in traditional Chinese medic -inal material.The effects of the pH of solution , concentrations of surfactant Triton X-114, equilibrium temper-ature and time on the efficiency of cloud point extraction were systematically examined .Under the optimized conditions, the linear equations were Y1 =5.89 ×10 -4x-1.14 ×10 -3(R2 =0.992 1), Y2 =5.52 ×10 -4x+7.71 ×10 -5(R2 =0.999 2), the detection limits were 2.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L for magnolol and honokiol, re-spectively .This method was applied to the determination of honokiol and magnolol in traditional Chinese me -dicinal material with recoveries of 98.4%~104.3%.%建立了以Triton X-114为表面活性剂的浊点萃取-分光光度法同时测定厚朴酚与和厚朴酚含量的新方法,探讨了溶液的pH,Triton X-114浓度、平衡温度和平衡时间等因素对浊点萃取的影响.在最佳条件下,厚朴酚与和厚朴酚含量的线性方程分别为 Y1=5.89×10-4x-1.14×10-3(相关系数为0.9921), Y2=5.52×10-4 x+7.71×10-5(相关系数为0.9992);检测限分别为2.5μg/L和1.0μg/L.该方法成功用于药材中厚朴酚与和厚朴酚含量的测定,回收率为98.4%~104.3%.

  15. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  16. Brain shrinkage in alcoholics is not caused by changes in hydration: a pathological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, C. G.; Kril, J J; Daly, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the water content of the cerebral white matter in 26 control and 24 alcoholic cases supports in vivo MRI studies and previous necropsy studies which appeared to show an increase in the water content in the alcoholic group. This negates the hypothesis that reversible brain shrinkage in alcoholics is caused by changes in the state of hydration.

  17. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-11-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls.

  18. Inhibition of honokiol on the proliferation and melanin biosynthesis on B16 melanoma cells in vitro%和厚朴酚对小鼠黑色素瘤B16细胞增殖以及黑色素合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻丽红; 张超; 谭茵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibition of honokiol on proliferation and melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells in vitro. Methods B16 cells were cultured in vitro. MTT assay, DAPI and NaOH lysis test were applied for assessment of cell proliferation, cellular morphologic observation and cellular melanin content, respectively. Results B16 cells were treated with honokiol with different concentrations ( 5,10,20,40 and 80 μmol/L ) and durations ( 12,24 and 48 h ). The IC50 of honokiol on proliferation of B16 cells were 23. 4, 13. 1 and 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, with durations of 12,24 and 48 h. Apoptosis of B16 cells were induced with honokiol in DAPI staining. Furthermore, the melanin biosynthesis was inhibited with honokiol with concentration over 20 (xmol/L. Conclusion Honokiol effectively inhibits the proliferation of B16 in dose - and time - depend manners. Apoptotic bodies were observed in B16 cells treated with honokiol. Although melanin biosynthesis is also inhibited by honokiol, this effect is insignificant.%目的 探讨和厚朴酚对小鼠黑色素瘤B16细胞增殖以及细胞内黑色素合成的影响.方法 体外培养小鼠B16细胞,MTT法检测和厚朴酚对B16细胞增殖的影响;DAPI染色法观察和厚朴酚对B16细胞细胞形态的影响;NaOH裂解法检测和厚朴酚对黑色素含量的影响.结果 和厚朴酚浓度为5、10、20、40、80 μmol/L 作用B16细胞,在不同的用药时间12、24和48 h,和厚朴酚对B16细胞增殖的IC50分别为23.4、13.1和11.4 μmol/L;同时和厚朴酚作用B16细胞12 h后,经DAPI染色,B16细胞呈现典型的凋亡形态;另外采用20、40、80 μmol/L的和厚朴酚分别作用B16细胞,B16细胞内黑色素合成量也呈现降低的趋势.结论 和厚朴酚能有效地抑制B16细胞增殖,且其抑制作用具有时间和浓度依赖性;药物作用后的B16细胞呈现凋亡形态并出现凋亡小体;和厚朴酚对B16细胞内黑色素合成也呈现抑制作用但不明显.

  19. Changes in alcohol policies and public opinions in Finland 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Esa; Lindeman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    There is a constant and ongoing interplay between public opinions and public policies, alcohol policies being no exception. This article describes the development of public opinions regarding alcohol policy in Finland during a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. Fluctuations in the alcohol policy opinion climate are put in context by looking at concurrent changes in alcohol policies and in total alcohol consumption. The study is based on data from opinion surveys on alcohol policies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Welfare and the Finnish Social and Health Association. The opinion polls include questions about the general acceptance of prevailing alcohol policies, appropriate sales channels of different alcoholic beverage categories and opinions about the legal age limits and prices of alcoholic beverages. In the study, changes in alcohol policy during 2003-2013 are surveyed, and their relationship with changes in alcohol policy opinion is examined. There seem to be a strong positive correlation during the study period between the level of alcohol consumption and the share of those wanting a more restrictive alcohol policy in Finland. It seems that an increased level of awareness of alcohol-related issues among the general public created a more restrictive opinion climate on alcohol policy issues after the big alcohol excise duty decrease in 2004. The reverse seems to happen but in a lesser degree when alcohol excise duties has been increased after the year 2007. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic Abnormalities in Chronic Alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D. Attar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is most commonly abused drug worldwide. It has been shown to produce toxic effects in almost every organ system in the body. Many of these medical conditions can be attributed to direct effects of alcohol whereas others are indirect sequelae that may result from nutritional deficiencies or predisposition to trauma. Alcohol consumption has been associated with a variety of cardio vascular disorders this study was thus undertaken to know the Electrocardiographic and Echocardiographic abnormalities in asymptomatic chronic alcoholic patients. Materials and Methods: 50 Patients attending the out-patient clinic & who were admitted in Al Ameen Medical College Hospital and District hospital, Bijapur were selected for the study. It was a prospective study design subjects in age group 20-40, having history of chronic alcoholism as defined, for more than 5 years were evaluated by electrocardiography and echocardiography. Patients with known diabetics, hypertensive and cardiovascular disorders were excluded from the study group. Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients of chronic alcoholism is 37% in our study. Most common ECG changes are sinus tachycardia (18%, and Non specific ST-T changes (9%. Most common 2D ECHO changes was increased posterior wall thickness (11% and followed by increased interventricular septum thickness and decreased ejection fraction (<40%. The prevalence of cardio vascular abnormalities are more with increased duration of alcohol consumption and also high in advanced age group. Conclusions: This study confirms that many electrocardiographic as well as echocardiographic changes occur prior to symptomatic cardiac disorders established to be caused by chronic alcohol intake such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy .which probably are early indictors of ongoing effects of alcohol and are reversible during the early stages detected by non invasive investigations like Electrocardiography and

  1. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  2. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse log

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  5. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19548203 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health. rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih. ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  6. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  7. 和厚朴酚对根管内白色念珠菌生物膜作用的体外研究%Effect of honokiol on Candida albicans biofilms in root canals in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉珠; 王健平; 杨景云; 张慧明; 杨玉娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of honokio] in the oral microecology changes by observing its effect on Candida albicans biofilms in vitro. Methods XTT reduction assay was applied to evaluate the effect of honokiol on C. albicans biofilms and its adhesion; Confocal laser scanning microscopy combining with vital fluorescent staining technique was used to observe the thickness and activity of C. albicans biofilms with and without the drug action. Results 15. 63 μg/mL, 31. 25 μg/mL and 62. 5 μg/mL of honokiol had inhibited the early adhesion and mycelial growth of C. albicans; the inhibition rates of 2000 μg/mL to 15. 63 μg/mL honokiol against C. albicans biofilms were 90. 13% to 24. 21 %; Viable bacteria was dominant at 24 h in the untreated C. albicans biofilms, and the thickness of the C. albicans biofilms was (75. 15 ±6.57) μm; The quantitative data from Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software showed that under the inhibition of 62.5 μg/mL honokiol at 24 h, the viable bacteria percentage was (31.4 ±0.09)% and the biofilm thickness was (33.14 ± 6.66) μm; compared with the negative control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The antibacterial activity of honokiol was relatively weaker than that of nystatin, but its influence on biofilm thickness was stronger. Conclusion Honokiol has inhibition against C. albicans biofilms in vitro.%目的 通过观察和厚朴酚对体外白色念珠菌生物膜形成中的作用,探讨其在口腔微生态中变化的意义.方法 采用XTT减低法评价和厚朴酚对白色念珠菌的生物膜及黏附性的影响;利用激光共聚焦扫描显微镜和死菌活菌荧光染色技术相结合,对常态及药物作用下白色念珠菌生物膜厚度及活性进行观察.结果 与阴性对照组相比,15.63、31.25及62.5μg/mL的和厚朴酚对白色念珠菌的早期黏附及菌丝生长有抑制作用;2 000 ~ 15.63 μg/mL的和厚朴酚对白色念珠菌生物膜的抑菌率分别为90

  8. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  9. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  10. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  11. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  12. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  13. Reverse logistics - a framework

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Dekker, Rommert

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of products, processes and actors. In addition we provide a decision framework for Reverse Logistics and we present it according to long, medium and short term decisions, i.e. strategic-tactic-operational decis...

  14. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  15. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  16. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of product

  17. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, H.; Grau, H.; Adelmann, M.; Schleiffer, R.

    1985-07-01

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa.

  18. [Representations of alcoholism in a former alcoholics' association: Alcoholics Anonymous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edemilson Antunes de

    2004-01-01

    This article is designed to review the representations of alcoholism provided by members of an association of former alcoholics, namely Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), based on partial results from a qualitative survey conducted in the Sapopemba group of AA in a neighborhood on the outskirts of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The article thus analyzes alcoholism from an emic perspective, i.e., how it is conceived and managed by those who acknowledge themselves as being "sick as alcoholics", how they explain the sickness, how they experience it, and how they endeavor to overcome it. The purpose is to present AA and its treatment strategy and to highlight the link made by the association by conceiving of alcoholism as a physical, moral, and spiritual illness.

  19. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  20. The neuropathology of alcohol-specific brain damage, or does alcohol damage the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this review is to identify neuropathological changes that are directly related to the long-term use of excessive amounts of alcohol (ethanol). There is still debate as to whether alcohol per se causes brain damage. The main problem has been to identify those lesions caused by alcohol itself and those caused by other common alcohol-related factors, principally thiamin deficiency. Careful selection and classification of alcoholic cases into those with and without these complications, together with detailed quantitative neuropathological analyses, has provided us with useful data. There is brain shrinkage in uncomplicated alcoholics which can largely be accounted for by loss of white matter. Some of this damage appears to be reversible. However, alcohol-related neuronal loss has been documented in specific regions of the cerebral cortex (superior frontal association cortex), hypothalamus (supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei), and cerebellum. The data is conflicting for several regions: the hippocampus, amygdala and locus ceruleus. No change is found in the basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, or serotonergic raphe nuclei. Many of the regions that are normal in uncomplicated alcoholics are damaged in those with the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Dendritic and synaptic changes have been documented in uncomplicated alcoholics and these, together with receptor and transmitter changes, may explain functional changes and cognitive deficits that precede the more severe structural neuronal changes. The pattern of damage appears to be somewhat different and species-specific in animal models of alcohol toxicity. Pathological changes that have been found to correlate with alcohol intake include white matter loss and neuronal loss in the hypothalamus and cerebellum.

  1. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  2. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  3. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  4. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  5. Reversible Logic Circuit Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Markov, I L; Prasad, A K; Hayes, John P.; Markov, Igor L.; Prasad, Aditya K.; Shende, Vivek V.

    2002-01-01

    Reversible, or information-lossless, circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement for quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We propose new constructions for reversible circuits composed of NOT, Controlled-NOT, and TOFFOLI gates (the CNT gate library) based on permutation theory. A new algorithm is given to synthesize optimal reversible circuits using an arbitrary gate library. We also describe much faster heuristic algorithms. We also pursue applications of the proposed techniques to the synthesis of quantum circuits.

  6. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Larry; Foont, Julie; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on the prevalence of hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection in alcoholics with and without liver disease. Evidence will be presented to demonstrate that ethanol and chronic HCV infection synergistically accelerate liver injury. Some of the major postulated mechanisms responsible for disease progression include high rates of apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with reduced antioxidant capacity of the liver. Acquisition and persistence of HCV infection may be due to the adverse effects of ethanol on humoral and cellular immune responses to HCV. Dendritic cells (DC) appear to be one of the major targets for ethanol’s action and DC dysfunction impairs the ability of the host to generate viral specific cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4+) and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8+) immune responses. There is a relationship between increased alcohol intake and decreased response to interferon (IFN) therapy, which may be reversed by abstinence. Clinical studies are needed to optimize treatment responses in alcoholic patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:19387918

  8. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  9. Reverse Core Engine with Thrust Reverser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An engine system has a gas generator, a bi-fi wall surrounding at least a portion of the gas generator, a casing surrounding a fan, and the casing having first and second thrust reverser doors which in a deployed position abut each other and the bi-fi wall.

  10. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  11. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  12. Clocked Thrust Reversers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft includes a fuselage including a propulsion system supported within an aft portion. A thrust reverser is mounted proximate to the propulsion system for directing thrust in a direction to slow the aircraft. The thrust reverser directs thrust at an angle relative to a vertical plane to reduce interference on control surfaces and reduce generation of underbody lift.

  13. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS are a group of disorders that have in common an acute presentation with headache, reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries, with or without neurological signs and symptoms. In contrast to primary central nervous system vasculitis, they have a relatively benign course. We describe here a patient who was diagnosed with RCVS.

  15. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  16. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  17. Towards Reversible Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tiezzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we incorporate reversibility into structured communication-based programming, to allow parties of a session to automatically undo, in a rollback fashion, the effect of previously executed interactions. This permits taking different computation paths along the same session, as well as reverting the whole session and starting a new one. Our aim is to define a theoretical basis for examining the interplay in concurrent systems between reversible computation and session-based interaction. We thus enrich a session-based variant of pi-calculus with memory devices, dedicated to keep track of the computation history of sessions in order to reverse it. We discuss our initial investigation concerning the definition of a session type discipline for the proposed reversible calculus, and its practical advantages for static verification of safe composition in communication-centric distributed software performing reversible computations.

  18. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH. Many individuals of Chinese, Korean, and ... Abstract] Yokoyama A, Omori T. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and risk for esophageal and head and neck ...

  19. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  20. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  1. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  2. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  3. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  4. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  5. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  7. Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was noted specifically as reflecting different racial-ethnic paths…

  8. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  9. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  10. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  11. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  12. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  13. An algebra of reversible computation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  14. An Algebra of Reversible Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Yong WANG

    2014-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  15. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  16. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  17. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  18. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  19. Reversible Data Hiding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reversible data hiding is a technique that is used to hide data inside an image. The data is hidden in such a way that the exact or original data is not visible. The hidden data can be retrieved as and when required. There are several methods that are used in reversible data hiding techniques like Watermarking, Lossless embedding and encryption. In this paper we present a review of reversible watermarking techniques and show different methods that are used to get reversible data hiding technique with higher embedding capacity and invisible objects. Watermark need not be hidden. Watermarking can be applied to 1. Images, 2. Text, 3. Audio/video, 4. Software.

  20. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow o...... justification for low-level machine code for reversible microprocessors as well as high-level block-structured reversible languages. We give examples for both such languages and illustrate them with a lossless encoder for permutations given by Dijkstra....

  1. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu

    2016-05-01

    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  2. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  3. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others

  4. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  8. Mechanisms of Cytochrome C Extraction by Reverse Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of cytochrome C was carried out by means of phase transfer technique with three different reverse micellar systems, i.e., a CTAB micellar solution in n-butyl alcohol-chloroform(volume ratio 4∶1), an AOT micellar solution in isooctane and a SDSS-D2EHPA micellar solution in isooctane. The extraction mechanisms were studied. The results show that the extraction mechanisms for the same proteins with different types of reverse micellar systems can be distinct. The extraction of cytochrome C with CTAB and SDSS-D2EHPA reverse micellar systems are carried out according to the mechanism of electrostatic interaction. However, in the extraction of cytochrome C with the AOT reverse micellar system, the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the surfactant is not important.

  9. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  10. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  11. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  12. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  13. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  14. Alcohol use and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  15. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  16. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  17. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  18. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  19. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  20. [A review of the neuroimaging studies of alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we reviewed brain damage seen in patients with alcohol dependence briefly focusing on neuroimaging studies. In uncomplicated alcoholic patients, a high incidence of cortical shrinkage and ventricular dilatation were reported using brain CT scans. In older alcoholics, prefrontal gray matter deficits were especially marked when compared with younger alcoholics. Reversibility of brain shrinkage is a common neuroimaging finding in patients with alcohol dependence and a study by Gazdinski et al. reported more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. Another MRI study using deformation-based morphometry revealed significant shrinkage in the frontal and temporal lobes within 1 week of abstinence of alcoholic patients. This study followed participants for 8 months longitudinally and revealed that abstaining alcoholics recovered tissue volumes significantly faster than nonalcoholic controls in the parietal and frontal lobes and this study also revealed that when abstaining alcoholics were compared with relapsed alcoholics, additional regions with significantly greater recovery in abstainers were the temporal lobes, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, corpus callosum, anterior cingulate, insula, and subcortical white matter. Finally we introduced a MR spectroscopy (MRS) study on alcoholic patients. This study using proton MRS indicated that with short-term abstinence, cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly increased. Findings showing that a cerebellar choline increase and a frontomesial NAA increase were detected at stable water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices suggest that early brain recovery through abstinence does not simply reflect rehydration. This might indicate that even the adult brain has capacities for regrowth and further understanding of the mechanisms of recovery of alcoholics' brains may result in a valuable

  1. Income inequality and alcohol attributable harm in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikritzhs Tanya N

    2009-02-01

    . Conclusion We found a curvilinear relationship between income inequality and the rates of some types of alcohol-attributable hospitalisation and death at a local area level in Australia. While alcohol-attributable harms generally increased with increasing income inequality, alcohol-attributable hospitalisations actually showed the reverse relationship at low levels of income inequality. The curvilinear patterns we observed are inconsistent with monotonic trends found in previous research making our findings incompatible with previous explanations of the relationship between income inequality and health related harms.

  2. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to drink than their peers. Staying Away From Alcohol. Young women under age 21 should not drink alcohol. ... talk frankly with their daughters about not drinking alcohol. Women in Young and Middle Adulthood Young women in their twenties ...

  3. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  5. Reverse Coherent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  6. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected to the...

  7. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  8. On reverse hypercontractivity

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan; Sen, Arnab

    2011-01-01

    We study the notion of reverse hypercontractivity. We show that reverse hypercontractive inequalities are implied by standard hypercontractive inequalities as well as by the modified log-Sobolev inequality. Our proof is based on a new comparison lemma for Dirichlet forms and an extension of the Strook-Varapolos inequality. A consequence of our analysis is that {\\em all} simple operators $L=Id-\\E$ as well as their tensors satisfy uniform reverse hypercontractive inequalities. That is, for all $qreverse hypercontractive inequalities established here imply new mixing and isoperimetric results for short random walks in product spaces, for certain card-shufflings, for Glauber dynamics in high-temperat...

  9. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  10. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  11. Leisure and Alcohol Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that investigated the ways individuals expected drinking to affect their leisure experiences, and the relationship of those expectancies to alcohol consumption patterns. Data from a sample of 144 adults indicated they expected alcohol to positively affect their leisure experiences. (SM)

  12. Pellagra In An Alcoholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellagra is a nutritional disorder that occurs due to niacin deficiency. In the present day context, in western world, pellagra is confined to individuals who have improper food intake, such as psychiatry patients, alcoholics and recluses. Here with we report a case of pellagra occurring in a 60 year old male who was a chronic alcoholic.

  13. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  14. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  15. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  16. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  17. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  18. Alcohol, Medicines and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... declines with age, older people reach higher blood alcohol concentrations after each drink than younger people. Meanwhile, as we age we become more sensitive to some of the impairments alcohol produces. On tests that require ... younger adults after a few drinks. Similarly, balance, concentration, ...

  19. Alcohol Use and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a chemical that has been shown to cause cancer in lab animals. Alcohol and its byproducts can also damage the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring. As liver cells try to repair the ... to cancer. Effects on other harmful chemicals Alcohol may help ...

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents'…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  2. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  3. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  4. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  5. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  6. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  7. Disulfiram-induced reversible hypertension: a prospective case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ranganath R; Ramdurg, Santosh I; Bairy, Bhavya K

    2014-10-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) is one of the recommended aids in the management of selected patients with alcohol dependence. Hypertension (HTN) as an adverse effect of DSF therapy is less understood. In our prospective case series of 7 subjects with co-morbid alcohol and nicotine dependence, a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible grade 1-3 HTN within 1-6 weeks of initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of HTN was noted. Challenges and strategies surrounding diagnosis and treatment along with mean change and percentage rise in blood pressure are described. Literature review and clinical description of case series may suggest neurobiological role in its causation. HTN may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy, especially in co-morbid alcohol and nicotine-dependent patients. Awareness amongst clinicians may render better health care delivery to subjects with alcohol dependence.

  8. Disulfiram-induced reversible hypertension: A prospective case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath R Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfiram (DSF is one of the recommended aids in the management of selected patients with alcohol dependence. Hypertension (HTN as an adverse effect of DSF therapy is less understood. In our prospective case series of 7 subjects with co-morbid alcohol and nicotine dependence, a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible grade 1-3 HTN within 1-6 weeks of initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of HTN was noted. Challenges and strategies surrounding diagnosis and treatment along with mean change and percentage rise in blood pressure are described. Literature review and clinical description of case series may suggest neurobiological role in its causation. HTN may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy, especially in co-morbid alcohol and nicotine-dependent patients. Awareness amongst clinicians may render better health care delivery to subjects with alcohol dependence.

  9. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  10. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  12. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  13. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  16. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  17. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  18. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  19. Partial Reversible Gates(PRG) for Reversible BCD Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Bajpai, Rajnish; Sharma, Kamal K

    2007-01-01

    IEEE 754r is the ongoing revision to the IEEE 754 floating point standard and a major enhancement to the standard is the addition of decimal format. Furthermore, in the recent years reversible logic has emerged as a promising computing paradigm having its applications in low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, and optical computing. The major goal in reversible logic is to minimize the number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. Thus, this paper proposes the novel concept of partial reversible gates that will satisfy the reversibility criteria for specific cases in BCD arithmetic. The partial reversible gate is proposed to minimize the number of reversible gates and garbage outputs, while designing the reversible BCD arithmetic circuits.

  20. Proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawzia Bardag-Gorce

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress, generated by chronic ethanol consumption, is a major cause of hepatotoxicity and liver injury. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals due to ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1 is principally located in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria, which does not only injure liver cells, but also other vital organs, such as the heart and the brain. Therefore, there is a need for better treatment to enhance the antioxidant response elements. To date, there is no established treatment to attenuate high levels of oxidative stress in the liver of alcoholic patients. To block this oxidative stress, proteasome inhibitor treatment has been found to significantly enhance the antioxidant response elements of hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. Recent studies have shown in an experimental model of alcoholic liver disease that proteasome inhibitor treatment at low dose has cytoprotective effects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver steatosis. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment against oxidative stress occurred because antioxidant response elements (glutathione peroxidase 2, superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, and GCLC) were upregulated when rats fed alcohol were treated with a low dose of PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade(r)). This is an important finding because proteasome inhibitor treatment up-regulated reactive oxygen species removal and glutathione recycling enzymes, while ethanol feeding alone down-regulated these antioxidant elements. For the first time, it was shown that proteasome inhibition by a highly specific and reversible inhibitor is different from the chronic ethanol feeding-induced proteasome inhibition. As previously shown by our group, chronic ethanol feeding causes a complex dysfunction in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which affects the proteasome system, as well as the ubiquitination system. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease

  1. Reversible hysteresis loop tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A.; Binek, Ch.; Margulies, D. T.; Moser, A.; Fullerton, E. E.

    2006-02-01

    We utilize antiferromagnetically coupled bilayer structures to magnetically tune hysteresis loop properties. Key element of this approach is the non-overlapping switching field distribution of the two magnetic layers that make up the system: a hard magnetic CoPtCrB layer (HL) and a soft magnetic CoCr layer (SL). Both layers are coupled antiferromagnetically through an only 0.6-nm-thick Ru interlayer. The non-overlapping switching field distribution allows the measurement of magnetization reversal in the SL at low fields while keeping the magnetization state of the HL unperturbed. Applying an appropriate high field or high field sequence changes the magnetic state of the HL, which then influences the SL magnetization reversal due to the interlayer coupling. In this way, the position and shape of the SL hysteresis loop can be changed or tuned in a fully reversible and highly effective manner. Here, we study specifically how the SL hysteresis loop characteristics change as we move the HL through an entire high field hysteresis loop sequence.

  2. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 44). Markers such as the P3 can help identify people who may be at greatest risk for developing problems with alcohol. END OF SIDEBAR ... Meta–analysis of P300 amplitude from males at risk for alcoholism. Psychological Bulletin 115:55–73, ... appeared in the journal Alcohol Research & Health, “Alcoholic Brain Damage” (Vol. 27, ...

  3. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  4. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  5. Reversible multi-head finite automata characterize reversible logarithmic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic and non-deterministic multi-head finite automata are known to characterize the deterministic and non- deterministic logarithmic space complexity classes, respectively. Recently, Morita introduced reversible multi-head finite automata (RMFAs), and posed the question of whether RMFAs...... characterize reversible logarithmic space as well. Here, we resolve the question affirmatively, by exhibiting a clean RMFA simulation of logarithmic space reversible Turing machines. Indirectly, this also proves that reversible and deterministic multi-head finite automata recognize the same languages....

  6. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  7. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do women develop alcoholic brain damage more readily than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Batra, A; Günthner, A; Schroth, G

    1992-12-01

    Chronic alcoholism is related to brain damage (i.e., volume changes) in both men and women. There is an open question whether the brains of women are more vulnerable than those of men to alcohol toxicity. The present follow-up study focuses on a direct comparison of sex-related differences in alcoholic brain shrinkage and its reversibility. In a prospective design, a random sample of 65 alcoholics of both sexes (51 males and 14 females) was studied. Computerized tomography brain scans before and after a 6-week inpatient treatment program with controlled abstinence revealed a significant re-expansion of the brain as assessed by linear measurements. By controlling for moderating variables such as age, mean daily alcohol consumption, liver dysfunction, etc. the degree of brain shrinkage was found to be similar in men and women despite significantly shorter ethanol expositions in the women. These findings corroborate the hypotheses of other investigators about basic biological differences between the two sexes as to the effects of alcohol. The hypothesis of an enhanced vulnerability of women to acute and chronic complications of alcoholism is supported.

  9. [Reverse Chaddock sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kunio

    2011-08-01

    It is widely accepted that the Babinski reflex is the most well-known and important pathological reflex in clinical neurology. Among many other pathological reflexes that elicit an upgoing great toe, such as Chaddock, Oppenheim, Gordon, Schaefer, and Stransky, only the Chaddock reflex is said to be as sensitive as the Babinski reflex. The optimal receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes are the lateral plantar surface and the external inframalleolar area of the dorsum, respectively. It has been said that the Babinski reflex, obtained by stroking the sole, is by far the best and most reliable method of eliciting an upgoing great toe. However, the Chaddock reflex, the external malleolar sign, is also considered sensitive and reliable according to the literature and everyday neurological practice. The major problems in eliciting the Babinski reflex by stroking the lateral part of the sole are false positive or negative responses due to foot withdrawal, tonic foot response, or some equivocal movements. On the other hand, according to my clinical experience, the external inframalleolar area, which is the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex, is definitely suitable for eliciting the upgoing great toe. In fact, the newly proposed method to stimulate the dorsum of the foot from the medial to the lateral side, which I term the "reversed Chaddock method," is equally sensitive to demonstrate pyramidal tract involvement. With the "reversed Chaddock method", the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex may be postulated to be in the territory of the sural nerve, which could be supported by the better response obtained on stimulation of the postero-lateral calf than the anterior shin. With regard to the receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes, the first sacral dermatome (S1) is also considered a reflexogenous zone, but since the dermatome shows marked overlapping, the zones vary among individuals. As upgoing toe responses are consistently observed in

  10. Disulfiram induced reversible hypertension: A prospective case study and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath R Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfiram (DSF is one of the recommended aids in the management of alcohol dependence. Hypertension may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and usually reversible adverse event of DSF therapy. We report 6 month prospective study of normotensive case of comorbid alcohol and tobacco dependence that developed reversible stage-II hypertension within 2-4 weeks of DSF therapy. We suggest that regular monitoring of blood pressure at least fortnightly for 1 st 3 months, followed by monthly for next 3 months, and later once in 3 months, may possibly detect "silent" adverse event of DSF - hypertension.

  11. Disulfiram Induced Reversible Hypertension: A Prospective Case Study and Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Bairy, Bhavya K.

    2013-01-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) is one of the recommended aids in the management of alcohol dependence. Hypertension may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and usually reversible adverse event of DSF therapy. We report 6 month prospective study of normotensive case of comorbid alcohol and tobacco dependence that developed reversible stage-II hypertension within 2-4 weeks of DSF therapy. We suggest that regular monitoring of blood pressure at least fortnightly for 1st 3 months, followed by monthly for next 3 months, and later once in 3 months, may possibly detect “silent” adverse event of DSF – hypertension. PMID:24049238

  12. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Giancarlo Balercia; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used,its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial.Over the years,many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility.This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences.Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities,a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition,and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate.These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption.Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters.This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol.Nevertheless,alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies.Finally,the genetic background and other concomitant,alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage.In conclusion,alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  13. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  14. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  15. Reversal of liver fibrosis: From fiction to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubek, Miguel Eugenio; Trautwein, Christian; Strnad, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    In chronic liver diseases, an ongoing hepatocellular injury together with inflammatory reaction results in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) termed as liver fibrosis. It can progress to cirrhosis that is characterized by parenchymal and vascular architectural changes together with the presence of regenerative nodules. Even at late stage, liver fibrosis is reversible and the underlying mechanisms include a switch in the inflammatory environment, elimination or regression of activated HSCs and degradation of ECM. While animal models have been indispensable for our understanding of liver fibrosis, they possess several important limitations and need to be further refined. A better insight into the liver fibrogenesis resulted in a large number of clinical trials aiming at reversing liver fibrosis, particularly in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Collectively, the current developments demonstrate that reversal of liver fibrosis is turning from fiction to reality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  17. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... Examine you Ask about your medical and family history Ask about your alcohol use, and if you ...

  18. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  19. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    alcohol consumption, including malnutrition, selfneglect, poor hygiene, pale skin, weight .... Table 2 Analytical performance parameters of the GC-FID for the stan- dards (n = 3). .... Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers,. New York, 1999, pp.

  20. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    -cause mortality and mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome, and conversely, an increase in serious and non-serious adverse events. However, the evidence is not firm; no conclusions can be drawn regarding whether pentoxifylline has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on participants with alcoholic hepatitis....... analysis did not support this result. Data from one trial suggests that pentoxifylline may increase the occurrence of serious and non-serious adverse events compared to control. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current available data may indicate a possible positive intervention effect of pentoxifylline on all......BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects...

  1. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medication-FAQ/Can-I-drink-alcohol-while-taking-antidepressants. Accessed May 2, 2017. Back SE, et al. Treatment of co-occurring substance use disorder and anxiety-related disorders in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  2. Alcohol en snelverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, P.H.

    1968-01-01

    Dr Esser voert diverse redenen aan om zo snel mogelijk te starten met ademanalyse op tijden en plaatsen dat bestuurders, die alcohol gebruikt hebben, verwacht kunnen worden. Hij wijst op de preventieve waarde hiervan. Zie ook A 1469.

  3. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  4. Reverse Engineering of RFID devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bokslag, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID technology and possible countermeasures that could limit the potential of such reverse engineering attempts.

  5. Apples as enantiospecific bioreagents in the hydrolysis of racemic esters and oxygenation of alcohols obtained during the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation carried out by apples (Malus silvestris resulted in enantiospecific hydrolysis of racemic acetates, the derivatives of secondary aromatic-aliphatic or terpenic alcohols. The alcohols are oxygenated to ketones (reversible reaction. The differences in the rate of the hydrolysis of enantiomeric esters enable isolation of pure, unreacted R-acetates.

  6. Developmental Relations and Patterns of Change between Alcohol Use and Number of Sexual Partners from Adolescence through Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Stockdale, Gary D.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    We explored two unanswered questions about the role of alcohol use in sexual behavior. First, we considered whether alcohol use temporally precedes and predicts changes in sexual behavior assessed as the number of sexual partners, whether the reverse pattern holds, or whether the association reflects a common, external cause. Second, we assessed…

  7. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  8. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  9. Consumo de alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón; Orestes Álvarez Fernández; Juan De Dios Rivero Berovides

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la inter...

  10. Reverse Engineering Malicious Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Cristian Iacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting new and unknown malware is a major challenge in today’s software. Security profession. A lot of approaches for the detection of malware using data mining techniques have already been proposed. Majority of the works used static features of malware. However, static detection methods fall short of detecting present day complex malware. Although some researchers proposed dynamic detection methods, the methods did not use all the malware features. In this work, an approach for the detection of new and unknown malware was proposed and implemented. Each sample was reverse engineered for analyzing its effect on the operating environment and to extract the static and behavioral features. 

  11. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  12. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  13. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  14. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  15. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  16. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    . Although reversible flowcharts are superficially similar to classical flowcharts, there are crucial differences: atomic steps are limited to locally invertible operations, and join points require an explicit orthogonalizing conditional expression. Despite these constraints, we show that reversible......Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...

  17. Verbal reasoning deficits in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohman, J R; Parsons, O A

    1987-04-01

    The Conceptual Level Analogies Test (CLAT), a well-constructed test of analogical reasoning, was given to groups of middle-aged male alcoholics and control subjects in two separate studies. As predicted, the alcoholics had lower CLAT scores than nonalcoholics in both studies. These results support the generalized-diffuse model of the neuropsychological effects of alcoholism. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics differed from control subjects as much on the easy analogies as they did on the hard analogies, which suggested that alcoholics differ both qualitatively and quantitatively from nonalcoholics in cognitive impairment. Finally, in two of three studies in our laboratory, familial alcoholics had significantly lower CLAT scores than nonfamilial alcoholics. These findings emphasize the importance of considering familial history of alcoholism when studying the neuropsychological functioning of alcoholics.

  18. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  19. Oropharynx microbiota among alcoholics and non-alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.

  20. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  1. Is Computation Reversible?

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, M C; Parker, Michael C.; Walker, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent investigations into the physical nature of information and fundamental limits to information transmission have revealed questions such as the possibility of superluminal data transfer or not; and whether reversible computation (information processing) is feasible. In some respects these uncertainties stem from the determination of whether information is inherent in points of non-analyticity (discontinuities) or smoother functions. The close relationship between information and entropy is also well known, e.g. Brillouin's concept of negentropy (negative entropy) as a measure for information. Since the leading edge of a step-discontinuity propagates in any dispersive medium at the speed of light in vacuum as a precursor to the main body of the dispersed pulse, we propose in this paper to treat information as being intrinsic to points of non-analyticity (discontinuities). This allows us to construct a theory addressing these dilemmas in a fashion consistent with causality, and the fundamental laws of ther...

  2. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  3. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  4. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  6. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  7. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  8. Genetics of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  10. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  11. A Reversible Processor Architecture and its Reversible Logic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a purely reversible computing architecture, Bob, and its instruction set, BobISA. The special features of the design include a simple, yet expressive, locally-invertible instruction set, and fully reversible control logic and address calculation. We have designed...... an architecture with an ISA that is expressive enough to serve as the target for a compiler from a high-level structured reversible programming language. All-in-all, this paper demonstrates that the design of a complete reversible computing architecture is possible and can serve as the core of a programmable...

  12. Evolution of Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients during Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vandemergel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intoxication is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. Evolution during the early withdrawal period has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of metabolic parameters during alcohol withdrawal. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients admitted in our department for alcohol withdrawal were prospectively included. Results. Baseline hypophosphatemia was found in 24% of cases. FEPO4 was reduced from 14.2 ± 9% at baseline to 7.3 ± 4.2% at day 3 (Pnl, respectively. No correlation was found between the sodium and CPK levels (P=0.75 nor between the CPK level and the amount of alcohol ingested (rs = 0.084, P=0.097. Baseline urate level was elevated and returned to normal after three days. Baseline magnesium concentration was normal and stable over time. Conclusion. Chronic alcohol intoxication was accompanied by phosphaturia, rapidly reversible after alcohol withdrawal and inversely correlated with albuminemia, slight hyponatremia, low levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D, elevated CPK level in about 30% of women, and hyperuricemia with rapid normalization.

  13. Clinical and pathological features of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Harper, Clive G

    2011-05-01

    One of the sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse is malnutrition. Importantly, a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) can result in the acute, potentially reversible neurological disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). When WE is recognized, thiamine treatment can elicit a rapid clinical recovery. If WE is left untreated, however, patients can develop Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a severe neurological disorder characterized by anterograde amnesia. Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) describes the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on human brain structure and function in the absence of more discrete and well-characterized neurological concomitants of alcoholism such as WE and KS. Through knowledge of both the well-described changes in brain structure and function that are evident in alcohol-related disorders such as WE and KS and the clinical outcomes associated with these changes, researchers have begun to gain a better understanding of ARBD. This Review examines ARBD from the perspective of WE and KS, exploring the clinical presentations, postmortem brain pathology, in vivo MRI findings and potential molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions. An awareness of the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on human behavior and brain structure can enable clinicians to improve detection and treatment of ARBD.

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  17. Neuroimaging in alcoholism: CT and MRI results and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Mundle, G; Strayle, M; Wakat, P

    1995-01-01

    For more than a century we have known the deleterious effects of alcohol on the brain regions surrounding the third ventricle and on the cerebellum. But it was only recently that we gained clearer evidence that the cortex is affected as well. Our imaging studies show that brain shrinkage is at least partially reversible once abstinence is maintained. They confirm results obtained in different laboratories from all over the world. Although our data contradict the rehydration hypothesis and thus lend credence to the idea of regeneration and neuroplasticity, the nature of reversibility is still a matter of debate.

  18. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc......'s development from being a non-drinker at the age of 14, to a heavy drinker at 16, the paper investigates how the actants brought out by young people themselves constitute different forms of agency. The analysis is based on a qualitative study consisting of 37 focus groups conducted with teenagers in Denmark...

  19. The Risks Associated With Alcohol Use and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiov...

  20. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  1. Reversal of elution order for profen acid enantiomers in packed-column SFC on Chiralpak AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhaal, Olle; Stefansson, Morgan

    2005-05-15

    Enantiomeric separations of four 2-substituted propionic acid drugs have been studied using packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) coated on silica as support (Chiralpak AD). Under standard conditions (i.e., flow rate, 1.5 ml/min; column temperature, 30 degrees C; back-pressure, 150 bar), the order of elution could be reversed when the polar alcohol modifier methanol in carbon dioxide was replaced by 2-propanol for ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen. For flurbiprofen, with the highest selectivity factor, no reversal was observed, although selectivity was reduced significantly with higher alcohols. Naproxen and flurbiprofen were also investigated with 2-butanol and 2-pentanol. The former showed reversal of elution order but not the latter. For higher alcohol modifiers, including 2-propanol, the peak symmetry was poor but could be improved by addition of citric acid in the alcohol modifier. These results stress the importance to investigate enantiomer elution order during the development of enantioselective methods and when chromatographic conditions are optimized. Preliminary experiments with column temperatures over the range of -15 to 45 degrees C revealed that, in a few cases, reversal took place with a change in temperature only.

  2. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  3. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  4. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  5. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  6. Values and Recovery from Alcoholism through Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Howard P. Jr.; Peterson, John H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed Rokeach Value Surveys completed by 57 alcoholics and addicts who had obtained at least 3 years' abstinence using a 12-step program of recovery. Data suggested a shift in values is involved in recovery from alcoholism through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and that values clarification and value therapy may be useful in chemical…

  7. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Branko; Kostić, Vladimir; Sternić, Nadezda; Kolar, Jovo; Tasić, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy [1]. First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum [5]. Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred

  8. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  9. Alcohol y campaniforme

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Cuesta, A. (Antonio)

    2005-01-01

    Los recientes hallazgos de cerveza en recipientes neolíticos y campaniformes ofrecen una nueva base empírica sobre la que replantear ciertas hipótesis. El panorama que dibuja la documentación actual impide que aceptemos sin crítica planteamientos que, como los de Andrew Sherratt, suponen el marco de referencia para la interpretación del alcohol en la Prehistoria Reciente europea. Se plantea una vía indígena occidental para la elaboración de alcoholes y se pone en duda el gran valo...

  10. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  11. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide ideas that may help you make a change. Is treatment for alcohol use disorder effective? For most people, treatment for an AUD is helpful. But overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing process, ...

  12. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  13. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  15. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous: cult or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2005-06-01

    To discuss the mechanism of action, the efficacy and the safety of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the treatment of alcoholism. The published works on effective treatments for alcoholism is briefly reviewed and a prospective multidisciplinary follow-up of recovery from alcoholism in two community cohorts of adolescent males followed from 1940 until the present day is reviewed. The suggested mechanism of action of AA is that it employs four factors widely shown to be effective in relapse prevention in addictions: external supervision, substitute dependency, new caring relationships and increased spirituality. In addition, AA serendipitously follows the principles of cognitive behaviour therapy in relapse prevention. Alcoholics Anonymous appears equal to or superior to conventional treatments for alcoholism, and the skepticism of some professionals regarding AA as a first rank treatment for alcoholism would appear to be unwarranted. Alcoholics Anonymous is probably without serious side-effects.

  17. Aspiration Level and the Reversal of the Preference Reversal Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    American Economic Review , 69, 623- 638...Grether, D. M., & Plott, C. R. (1982). Economic theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon: Reply. The American Economic Review , 72, 575. Har...34 - . • . ...... ., .. . -. -.,- ... , .. ... - ., . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . *~~~7 T, W.. 1 d~ I t Y ~ VVW ~ Page 26 1 loomes, G., & Sugden, R. (1983). A rationale for preference reversal. The American Economic Review ,

  18. Compensatory recruitment of neural resources in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanraud, Sandra; Sullivan, Edith V

    2014-01-01

    Functional recovery occurs with sustained sobriety, but the neural mechanisms enabling recovery are only now emerging. Theories about promising mechanisms involve concepts of neuroadaptation, where excessive alcohol consumption results in untoward structural and functional brain changes which are subsequently candidates for reversal with sobriety. Views on functional adaptation in chronic alcoholism have expanded with results from neuroimaging studies. Here, we first describe and define the concept of neuroadaptation according to emerging theories based on the growing literature in aging-related cognitive functioning. Then we describe findings as they apply to chronic alcoholism and factors that could influence compensation, such as functional brain reserve and the integrity of brain structure. Finally, we review brain plasticity based on physiologic mechanisms that could underlie mechanisms of neural compensation. Where possible, we provide operational criteria to define functional and neural compensation.

  19. Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Belayet Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application,those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular auto meta, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designed RS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.

  20. Design of Reversible Sequential Circuit Using Reversible Logic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mosharof Hossin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic is one of the most vital issue at present time and it has different areas for its application, those are low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, cryptography, optical computing, DNA computing, digital signal processing (DSP, quantum dot cellular automata, communication, computer graphics. It is not possible to realize quantum computing without implementation of reversible logic. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. In this paper, we have proposed a new reversible gate. And we have designedRS flip flop and D flip flop by using our proposed gate and Peres gate. The proposed designs are better than the existing proposed ones in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. So, this realization is more efficient and less costly than other realizations.

  1. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  2. Time Reversal Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, H; /SLAC

    2009-01-27

    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  3. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  4. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  5. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  6. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  7. Alcohol and retinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabb, D.W.; Pinairs, J.; Hasanadka, R.

    2001-01-01

    , M. Fang, and David W. Crabb; (2) Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: Adverse interactions, by M. A. Leo and Charles S. Lieber; (3) Retinoic acid, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, K. Motomura, T. Miyahara, and M. Ohata; (4) Retinoid storage and metabolism in liver...

  8. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School...

  9. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and micellar enzymo

  11. Enzyme recovery using reversed micelles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery of extracellular enzymes. The potentials of reaching this goal by using reversed micelles in an organic solvent have been investigated.Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an

  12. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  13. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use.

  14. Hyperventilation, anxiety, craving for alcohol: a subacute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, S M

    1985-01-01

    Hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis is part of the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome On the basis of clinical observations and a literature review on withdrawal symptoms the following was hypothesized: (a) hyperventilation is also part of a subacute alcohol withdrawal syndrome and (b) hyperventilation appears together with anxiety and craving for alcohol. These hypotheses were tested in a sample of 37 male alcoholic inpatients, abstinent for periods from several weeks to 9 months. Subjects were administered a questionnaire dealing with drinking history and craving for alcohol during abstinence, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and a hyperventilation complaint checklist. Subjects' disposition to hyperventilation was assessed during a physiological measurement session. Results show that hyperventilatory symptoms, anxiety and craving for alcohol appear together. Moreover, the severity of hyperventilatory and anxiety symptomatology is positively correlated with the duration of physically dependent alcohol use but not with the duration of excessive drinking per se, irrespective of age. These results corroborate the hypotheses outlined before.

  15. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Reversible computing is the study of computation models that exhibit both forward and backward determinism. Understanding the fundamental properties of such models is not only relevant for reversible programming, but has also been found important in other fields, e.g., bidirectional model...... transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...... are not strictly classically universal, but that they support another notion of universality; we call this RTM-universality. Thus, even though the RTMs are sub-universal in the classical sense, they are powerful enough as to include a self-interpreter. Lifting this to other computation models, we propose r...

  16. Optimization of reversible sequential circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sayem, Abu Sadat Md

    2010-01-01

    In recent years reversible logic has been considered as an important issue for designing low power digital circuits. It has voluminous applications in the present rising nanotechnology such as DNA computing, Quantum Computing, low power VLSI and quantum dot automata. In this paper we have proposed optimized design of reversible sequential circuits in terms of number of gates, delay and hardware complexity. We have designed the latches with a new reversible gate and reduced the required number of gates, garbage outputs, and delay and hardware complexity. As the number of gates and garbage outputs increase the complexity of reversible circuits, this design will significantly enhance the performance. We have proposed reversible D-latch and JK latch which are better than the existing designs available in literature.

  17. Reversed polarity patches at the CMB and geomagnetic field reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Wenyao(徐文耀); WEI; Zigang(魏自刚)

    2002-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field models (IGRF) for 1900-2000 are used to calculate the geomagnetic field distribution in the Earth' interior from the ground surface to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) under the assumption of insulated mantle. Four reversed polarity patches, as one of the most important features of the CMB field, are revealed. Two patches with +Z polarity (downward) at the southern African and the southern American regions stand out against the background of -Z polarity (upward) in the southern hemisphere, and two patches of -Z polarity at the North Polar and the northern Pacific regions stand out against the +Z background in the northern hemisphere. During the 1900-2000 period the southern African (SAF) patch has quickly drifted westward at a speed of 0.2-0.3°/a; meanwhile its area has expanded 5 times, and the magnetic flux crossing the area has intensified 30 times. On the other hand, other three patches show little if any change during this 100-year period. Extending upward, each of the reversed polarity patches at the CMB forms a chimney-shaped "reversed polarity column" in the mantle with the bottom at the CMB. The height of the SAF column has grown rapidly from 200km in 1900 to 900km in 2000. If the column grows steadily at the same rate in the future, its top will reach to the ground surface in 600-700 years. And then a reversed polarity patch will be observed at the Earth's surface, which will be an indicator of the beginning of a magnetic field reversal. On the basis of this study, one can describe the process of a geomagnetic polarity reversal, the polarity reversal may be observed firstly in one or several local regions; then the areas of these regions expand, and at the same time, other new reversed polarity regions may appear. Thus several poles may exist during a polarity reversal.

  18. Optimized reversible BCD adder using new reversible logic gates

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagyalakshmi, H R

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has received great attention in the recent years due to their ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in low power digital design. It has wide applications advanced computing, low power CMOS design, Optical information processing, DNA computing, bio information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. This paper presents an optimized reversible BCD adder using a new reversible gate. A comparative result is presented which shows that the proposed design is more optimized in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost than the existing designs.

  19. A new treatment for cognitive disorders related to in utero exposure to alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Yan Zhang; Feng Zhu; Bin Zhang; Jianying Lin; Chunyang Xu; Wancai Yang; Wei Hao; Ruiling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal central nervous system development. Maternal alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy significantly affects cognitive functions in offspring, which may be related to changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 5 because it is associated with modulation of synaptic plasticity and impaired learning and memory. In this study, we examined adult offspring in a maternal alcohol consumption model in rats. Y-maze test results showed that in utero exposure to alcohol impairs learning and memory capacities. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus of the offspring were significantly elevated, as assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immuno-precipitation. Our experimental findings strongly suggest that altered cyclin-dependent kinase 5 may mediate impaired learning and memory in adult rats that were exposed to alcohol by maternal consumption while in utero.

  20. Postdependent state in rats as a model for medication development in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    Rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for alcoholism requires understanding of its underlying neurobiology and pathophysiology. Obtaining this knowledge largely relies on animal studies. Thus, choosing the appropriate animal model is one of the most critical steps in pre-clinical medication development. Among the range of animal models that have been used to investigate excessive alcohol consumption in rodents, the postdependent model stands out. It was specifically developed to test the role of negative affect as a key driving force in a perpetuating addiction cycle for alcoholism. Here, we will describe our approach to make rats dependent via chronic intermittent exposure to alcohol, discuss the validity of this model, and compare it with other commonly used animal models of alcoholism. We will summarize evidence that postdependent rats fulfill several criteria of a 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV/V-like' diagnostic system. Importantly, these animals show long-lasting excessive consumption of and increased motivation for alcohol, and evidence for loss of control over alcohol intake. Our conclusion that postdependent rats are an excellent model for medication development for alcoholism is underscored by a summary of more than two dozen pharmacological tests aimed at reversing these abnormal alcohol responses. We will end with open questions on the use of this model. In the tradition of the Sanchis-Segura and Spanagel review, we provide comic strips that illustrate the postdependent procedure and relevant phenotypes in this review.

  1. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  2. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  3. Alcohol and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and alcohol at the nAChRs. The positive findings of varenicline (a partial agonist at the _4_2 nAChR, smoking-cessation pharmaceutical treatment for alcoholism, provides a new insight for treating co-abuse of these two substances. >Conclusions Molecular biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol at the nAChR level, provide a new sight for preventing and treating the co-abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Given the important role of nAChRs in nicotine dependence, the interaction between alcohol and nAChRs would provide a new insight in finding effective pharmacological treatments, in decreasing or stopping alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking concurrently.

  4. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  5. NOVEL REVERSIBLE VARIABLE PRECISION MULTIPLIER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Saravanan; K. Suresh Manic

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study a reversible logic gate based design of variable precision multiplier is proposed which have the greater efficiency in power consumption and speed since the partial products received...

  6. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  7. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  8. NOVEL REVERSIBLE VARIABLE PRECISION MULTIPLIER USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Saravanan; K. Suresh Manic

    2014-01-01

    Multipliers play a vital role in digital systems especially in digital processors. There are many algorithms and designs were proposed in the earlier works, but still there is a need and a greater interest in designing a less complex, low power consuming, fastest multipliers. Reversible logic design became the promising technologies gaining greater interest due to less dissipation of heat and low power consumption. In this study a reversible logic gate based design of variable precision multi...

  9. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  10. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an endogenous protector in the mesolimbic system against excessive alcohol consumption and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Segev; Wang, Jun; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; Ben Hamida, Sami; Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S; Ron, Dorit

    2015-07-01

    Moderate social consumption of alcohol is common; however, only a small percentage of individuals transit from social to excessive, uncontrolled alcohol drinking. This suggests the existence of protective mechanisms that prevent the development of alcohol addiction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the mesolimbic system [e.g. the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and ventral tegmental area (VTA)] is part of such a mechanism. We found that GDNF knockdown, by infecting rat Acb neurons with a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the GDNF gene, produced a rapid escalation to excessive alcohol consumption and enhanced relapse to alcohol drinking. Conversely, viral-mediated overexpression of the growth factor in the mesolimbic system blocked the escalation from moderate to excessive alcohol drinking. To access the mechanism underlying GDNF's actions, we measured the firing rate of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the VTA after a history of excessive alcohol intake with or without elevating GDNF levels. We found that the spontaneous firing rate of DAergic neurons in the VTA was reduced during alcohol withdrawal and that GDNF reversed this alcohol-induced DA deficiency. Together, our results suggest that endogenous GDNF in the mesolimbic system controls the transition from moderate to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse via reversal of alcohol-dependent neuro-adaptations in DAergic VTA neurons.

  12. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  13. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  14. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  15. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    taking place in an emerging country. This analytical framework allows recasting of current research at the intersection between innovation and international business. Of the 10 reverse innovation flows, six are new and have not been covered in the literature to date. The study addresses questions......Reverse innovation commonly refers to an innovation initially launched in a developing country and later introduced to an advanced country. Adopting a linear innovation model with the four sequential phases of concept ideation, product development, primary target market introduction, and subsequent......, the paper then introduces a typology of global innovation with 16 different types of innovation flows between advanced and emerging countries, 10 of which are reverse innovation flows. The latter are further differentiated into weak and strong reverse innovation, depending on the number of innovation phases...

  16. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy...... is associated with first-class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity...... of the recycling process. When the recovery option is reconditioning, time is primarily relevant, tradeoffs between costs and time efficiency are necessary, the chain presents a centralized structure, and the presence of other types of actors and phases influences the structure of the reverse supply chain...

  17. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication......We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise...... reversible first-order functional language in which access to the backward semantics is provided to the programmer by inverse function calls. Reversibility guarantees that in this language a backward run (inverse interpretation) is as fast as the corresponding forward run itself. By adopting a symmetric...

  18. An Overview of Reverse Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-xiang; HE Xin

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, investment in logistics has focused mainly on the flows from companies to markets. Growing concerns for the environment and conserving resources have created new logistical approaches to more effectively manage the distribution function, and make better use of the resources available to an organization. One such approach is reverse logistics, which uses various methods to give scope for a back-load of finished products, components, waste, reusable packing, etc. from consumer to manufacturer. Back-loads allow manufacturers to reduce costs by using the distribution vehicle's return journey to create income or added value. This basic concept is now being developed to create novel solutions to the problems of reducing pollution, costs and vehicle movements, whilst maintaining high customer service levels. In this paper, the idea of reverse logistics is presented; motivations for it are analyzed, several successful practices are demonstrated and some important truths regarding successful reverse logistics are identified, trend of reverse logistics is provided.

  19. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES REGARDING REVERSE LOGISTICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-01-01

    ... of reverse logistics in companies. Many firms attracted by the value available in the flow, have proactively participated in handling returned products at the end of their usefulness or from other parts of the product life cycle...

  20. 高效液相色谱法测定复方陆朴微乳剂中厚朴酚与和厚朴酚的含量%Determination for contents of magnolol and honokiol in Lupo compound microemulsion formulation by high performance liquid chromatography method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江汉美; 周坤; 卢金清; 何雪峰; 张锐; 蔡君龙; 郭胜男; 黎强

    2014-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) method was developed for determinating contents of magnolol and honokiol in Lupo compound microemulsion formulation. Samples were extracted with methanol for 30 minutes after them were evaporated by solvent completely at temperature of 85 ℃, obtaining the filtering filtrate for determination. The chromatographic conditions were as follow: ZORBAX SB-C18 (250 mm × 4�6 mm, 5 μm) was used with the mobile phase of 0�5% phosphoric acid-methanol and the flow rate was 0�70 mL/min, at the detection wavelength of 294 nm, and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The results showed that the linear relationship of the magnolol density and peak areas was in the range of 0�074 -0�518 μg/mL ( r=0�999 7 ) , and that of the honokiol was in the range of 0�152 -1�064 μg/mL ( r=0�999 8 ) . The average recovery of magnolol was from 98�8% to 100�2% with RSD from 0�70% to 1�0% ( n=6 ) , and that of honokiol was from 98�5% to 99�5% with RSD from 0�90% to 1�1% ( n=6 ) . In five different batches of Lupo compound microemulsion formulation, the average content of magnolol was 2�692 4 mg/mL and that of honokiol was 1�216 5 mg/mL. The method is simple,quick, accurate and reproducible and can be used to determinate the magnolol and honokiol contents in Lupo compound microemulsion formulation.%建立了高效液相色谱法( HPLC )测定复方陆朴微乳剂中厚朴酚与和厚朴酚含量的方法。样品经85℃水浴去除溶剂后,加入甲醇溶解超声处理30 min、过滤,取滤液,测定其中厚朴酚与和厚朴酚的含量。色谱条件:采用 ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4�6 mm,5μm),流动相为0�5%磷酸-甲醇、流速为0�70 mL/min、检测波长为294 nm、柱温30℃,进样量10μL。结果表明:厚朴酚在0�074~0�518μg/mL(r=0�9997)、和厚朴酚在0�152~1�064μg/mL(r=0�9998)范围内,其质量浓度和峰面积之

  1. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients.......A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients....

  2. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  3. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  4. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  5. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  6. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  7. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Hilary Denis

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem, with major implications in patients with a pre-existing liver pathology of viral origin. Hepatitis C, for example, is one of the diseases in which alcohol consumption can lead to the transition from a fairly benign outline to a potentially life-threatening liver disease. Alcohol abuse is usually identified on the basis of clinical judgment, alcoholism related questionnaires, laboratory tests and, more recently, biomarkers. Also on this list of tests, carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is widely available and useful for determining recent alcohol consumption, particularly when corroborated with elevation of other liver-associated enzymes. Clinicians should be aware of the indications and limitations of this test in order to better evaluate alcohol consumption in their patients.

  8. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel,...

  9. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 59406

  10. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    concentrations of alcohols like propanol and alcohol related esters will increase. If the rumen capacity for alcohol metabolism inadequate this will lead to high portal uptakes of alcohols and as a mammalian hepati alcohol dehydrogenase in general is saturated at relative low alcohol concentrations high portal...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  11. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general mass...

  12. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Ra?, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual ...

  13. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  14. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  16. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  17. [Assessment of problematic alcohol use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, H-J; Bischof, G; Freyer-Adam, J; Coder, B

    2009-11-01

    An overview with respect to the identification of patients with risky drinking, alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence is given. As a first step, a simple screening questionnaire should be used. Self-statements in standardized questionnaires are more valid than standard laboratory markers. A useful instrument is for example BASIC. In screening positive patients, an in-depth diagnosis is necessary and helps to distinguish between different forms of problematic alcohol use. Depending on the severity of the alcohol problem, brochures, internet-programs, counselling or referral to treatment services is helpful.

  18. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  19. The soy-associated phytoestrogen, genistein, does not protect against alcohol induced osteoporosis in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse acts as a risk factor for osteoporosis by increasing osteoclast activity and decreasing osteoblast activity in bone. These effects can be reversed by estradiol. Soy diets are also suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy pro...

  20. Pedagogically Bereft! Improving Learning Outcomes for Children with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the most common non-genetic cause of learning disability, affecting around 1% of live births in Europe, and costing an estimated $2.9 million per individual across their lifespan. In adulthood, non-reversible brain damage is often compounded by secondary disabilities in adulthood, such as mental health…

  1. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-10-21

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence.

  2. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  3. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  4. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  5. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  7. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  8. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  9. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  10. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  11. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  12. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  14. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  16. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  17. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  18. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  19. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  20. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review...

  1. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel;...

  2. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  3. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  4. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  5. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  6. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  8. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  9. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  11. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  12. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  14. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  15. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  17. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  18. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  20. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  2. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  3. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  4. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  6. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  8. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  9. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  10. Microstructure of neat alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, A; Zoranic, L; Perera, Aurelien; Sokolic, Franjo; Zoranic, Larisa

    2007-01-01

    Formation of microstructure in homogeneous associated liquids is analysed through the density-density pair correlation functions, both in direct and reciprocal space, as well as an effective local one-body density function. This is illustrated through a molecular dynamics study of two neat alcohols, namely methanol and \\emph{tert}-butanol, which have a rich microstructure: chain-like molecular association for the former and micelle-like for the latter. The relation to hydrogen bonding interaction is demonstrated. The apparent failure to find microstructure in water -a stronger hydrogen bonding liquid- with the same tools, is discussed.

  11. Pharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosate

    OpenAIRE

    Umhau, John C.; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Usala, Julie; Geyer, Christopher; Singley, Erick; George, David T.; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of alcohol craving induced by challenge stimuli may predict the efficacy of new pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. We evaluated two pharmacological challenges, the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine, which reinstates alcohol seeking in rats, and the serotonergic compound meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), previously reported to increase alcohol craving in alcoholics. To assess the predictive validity of this approach, the approved alcoholism medication acamprosate was evaluated for...

  12. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  13. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a

  14. Should we train alcohol-dependent patients to avoid alcohol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wiers; T.E. Gladwin; M. Rinck

    2013-01-01

    Spruyt et al. (2013) report an interesting study in which they compared an alcohol approach-bias, as measured with the Relevant-feature Stimulus Response Compatibility task (R-SRC) in 40 abstaining alcohol-dependent patients and 40 non-dependent controls. While controls had an approach-bias for alco

  15. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a s

  16. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  17. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  18. Are all reversible computations tidy?

    CERN Document Server

    Maroney, O J E

    2004-01-01

    It has long been known that to minimise the heat emitted by a deterministic computer during it's operation it is necessary to make the computation act in a logically reversible manner\\cite{Lan61}. Such logically reversible operations require a number of auxiliary bits to be stored, maintaining a history of the computation, and which allows the initial state to be reconstructed by running the computation in reverse. These auxiliary bits are wasteful of resources and may require a dissipation of energy for them to be reused. A simple procedure due to Bennett\\cite{Ben73} allows these auxiliary bits to be "tidied", without dissipating energy, on a classical computer. All reversible classical computations can be made tidy in this way. However, this procedure depends upon a classical operation ("cloning") that cannot be generalised to quantum computers\\cite{WZ82}. Quantum computations must be logically reversible, and therefore produce auxiliary qbits during their operation. We show that there are classes of quantu...

  19. Low Cost Reversible Signed Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Sharmin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exponential advancement in reversible comp utation has lead to better fabrication and integration process. It has become very popular ove r the last few years since reversible logic circuit s dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less p ower by recovering bit loss from its unique input-o utput mapping. This paper presents two new gates called RC-I and RC-II to design an n-bit signed binary comparator where simulation results show that the p roposed circuit works correctly and gives significa ntly better performance than the existing counterparts. An algorithm has been presented in this paper for constructing an optimized reversible n-bit signed c omparator circuit. Moreover some lower bounds have been proposed on the quantum cost, the numbers of g ates used and the number of garbage outputs generated for designing a low cost reversible sign ed comparator. The comparative study shows that the proposed design exhibits superior performance consi dering all the efficiency parameters of reversible logic design which includes number of gates used, quantum cost, garbage output and constant inputs. This proposed design has certainly outperformed all the other existing approaches.

  20. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  1. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  2. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD.

  3. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  4. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  5. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  6. Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability.   Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety

  7. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often ...

  8. Alcohol consumption enhances antiretroviral painful peripheral neuropathy by mitochondrial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2010-09-01

    A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial-dependent and PKCε-independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy was PKCε-dependent and mitochondrial-independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for 1 week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial-dependent but PKCε-independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction.

  9. Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2017-08-20

    Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. We also searched registers of ongoing trials. We handsearched the references quoted in the identified trials, and sought information from researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and relevant trial authors about unpublished or uncompleted trials. We placed no restrictions on language. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating baclofen versus placebo or any other treatment for people with AWS. We excluded uncontrolled, non-randomised, or quasi-randomised trials. We included both parallel group and cross-over studies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included three RCTs with 141 randomised participants. We did not perform meta-analyses due to the different control interventions. For the comparison of baclofen and placebo (1 study, 31 participants), there was no significant difference in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores (very low quality evidence). For the comparison of baclofen and diazepam (1 study, 37 participants), there was no significant difference in CIWA-Ar scores (very low quality evidence), adverse events (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), dropouts (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), and dropouts due to adverse events (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence). For the comparison of

  10. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A change in procedure from open to laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's colostomy was implemented at our department between May 2005 and December 2008. The aim of the study was to investigate if this change was beneficial for the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records...... of all patients who underwent reversal of a colostomy after a primary Hartmann's procedure during the period May 2005 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively in a case-control study. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were included. Twenty-one had a laparoscopic and 22 an open procedure. The two...

  11. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  12. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-06-22

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  13. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  14. The alcohol patient and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance....... The economic implications of alcohol abuse in surgical patients are tremendous. Interventional studies are required to reduce future increases in post-operative morbidity....

  15. The concept of alcohol craving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Agnieszka Iwanicka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional – motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive – behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems – ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ.

  16. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  17. From alcohol toxicity to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitz, HK; Salaspuro, M; Savolainen, M; Haber, P; Ishii, H; Teschke, R; Moshage, H; Lieber, CS

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. This symposium was dedicated to Charles S. Lieber in recognition of his contribution in alcohol research over the last 50

  18. My parent is an alcoholic..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Alcoholism is still kept as a secret, inside and outside the family. Parents often hope to protect their children by not talking about their drink habits. Interviews with children of al-coholics show they always know, and from an early age they generate coping strategies to stop their parent from...

  19. Elderly alcoholics in outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Lolk, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of alcoholics is provided by public outpatient alcohol clinics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elderly patients differ from younger patients with regards to sociodemographic data, drinking pattern and psychiatric comorbidity which may affect...

  20. Orosensory responsiveness and alcohol behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Bajec, Martha; Pickering, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). Responsiveness to bitter and astringent stimuli was associated in a non-linear fashion with intake of all alcoholic beverage types, with the highest consumption observed in middle quantiles. Sourness responsiveness tended to be inversely associated with all measures of alcohol consumption. Regardless of sensation, the most responsive quantiles tended to drink less, although sweetness showed little relationship between responsiveness and intake. For wine, increased umami and metallic responsiveness tended to predict lower total consumption and frequency. A limited examination of individuals who abstain from all alcohol indicated a tendency toward higher responsiveness than alcohol consumers to sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness (biserial correlation), suggesting that broadly-tuned orosensory responsiveness may be protective against alcohol use and possibly misuse. Overall, these findings confirm the importance of orosensory responsiveness in mediating consumption of alcohol, and indicate areas for further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  2. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  3. Alcoholics Anonymous and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald I.

    1980-01-01

    Change in an alcoholics' drinking behavior is often brought about by change in the alcoholic's family members. Focuses on ways in which family therapy and the A.A. self-help groups add to, rather than detract from, one another. (Author)

  4. From alcohol toxicity to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitz, HK; Salaspuro, M; Savolainen, M; Haber, P; Ishii, H; Teschke, R; Moshage, H; Lieber, CS

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. This symposium was dedicated to Charles S. Lieber in recognition of his contribution in alcohol research over the last 50

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  6. [The homeless alcoholic: who cares?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laere, I R A L

    2002-10-19

    Two homeless alcoholics, males aged 58 and 40 years, suffered from multiple health problems. Sleeping outdoors, excessive drinking and incompetence refrained them from seeking proper assistance. The patients were assessed on many occasions at primary care services provided in shelters in Amsterdam, at police stations and in the streets. They were also frequently admitted to shelter infirmaries, alcohol clinics and general hospitals. Despite substantial individual health damage, community costs and extreme care consumption, coercive treatment was not applied to prevent the death of the first patient and to stabilise the situation of the second. It is stated that a specific group such as homeless alcoholics can hardly be treated except during moments of crisis. Coercive treatment should be applicable in order to stabilise these patients so as to prevent early mortality among the alcoholic homeless with comparable health problems. Outreach primary care services for the alcoholic homeless should actively cooperate with addiction and mental health services in providing adequate care.

  7. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  8. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  9. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol.

  10. Expectancy models of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, A W; Widaman, K F; Marlatt, G A

    1990-05-01

    The primary goal of the present article is to compare expectancy models with competing attitude models of alcohol use. First, several methodological issues in expectancy research were addressed, to more adequately compare the theoretical models. Study 1 examined the effect of possible self-report biases on associations among expectancy constructs and alcohol use. In Studies 2 and 3, the basic distinction between general factors of positive and negative alcohol expectancies was investigated in both cross-sectional and prospective models. Alternative predictions that were based on competing expectancy and attitude theories were evaluated primarily in Study 3. Results from these studies supported the validity of the expectancy constructs and the proposed distinctions among expectancy and attitude constructs-in terms of strong discriminant validity, absence of self-report bias, and differential prediction of alcohol use. Furthermore, the findings favored certain expectancy models over alternative attitude models of alcohol use, reaffirming the usefulness of the expectancy framework.

  11. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  12. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  14. Alcohol Misuse Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Julie McCulloh; Nemeth, Lynne S; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw; Newman, Susan D; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    The self-reported prevalence of alcohol use among U.S. college students decreased from 90.5% in 1980 to 79.2% in 2012. National efforts exist to reduce alcohol misuse among college students in the United States, yet little research addresses substance abuse among nursing students and even less addresses alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse in nursing students may result in patient harm. This scoping study describes the state of the science of alcohol misuse among nursing students, guided by the research question: "What is the current state of alcohol misuse among U.S. nursing students?" Evidence was drawn from several scholarly sources. Articles were included if they addressed U.S. nursing students; alcohol misuse; substance abuse or chemical impairment; prevalence rates; and/or characteristics including nursing student behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. Using thematic analysis, common themes were extracted, followed by hand coding those themes and using NVivo qualitative software. Six studies met inclusion criteria. Three themes, eight subthemes, and several gaps in knowledge were identified. The themes include "high prevalence exists," "necessity of supportive environments," and "hopelessness without policies." Subthemes include "root cause," "vulnerable population," "scholarship and substance use," "education," "identification of risk factors," "prevention and deterrents," "safety," "ethical and legal issues," and "consequences." On the basis of this analysis, several research questions were developed to explore alcohol misuse in this population. Alcohol was the most often used substance. Nursing students were unaware of a safe level of consumption and the potential negative health-related and professional effects associated with alcohol misuse.

  15. Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.

    2014-09-01

    Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.

  16. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dominic T; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Molteno, Christopher D; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders.

  17. Pharmacogenomics of alcohol addiction: Personalizing pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragia Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a serious psychiatric disorder with harmful physical, mental and social consequences, and a high probability of a chronic relapsing course. The field of pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence and craving is expanding rapidly; the drugs that have been found to reduce relapse rates or drinking in alcohol-dependent patients and are approved for treatment of alcohol dependence are naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram, whereas also topiramate appears as a promising therapy. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that genetic variation is a significant contributor to interindividual variation of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment. The aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the findings on the association between gene polymorphisms and the response to alcohol dependence treatment medications. It is anticipated that future implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice will help personalize alcohol dependence drug treatment, and development personalized hospital pharmacology.

  18. Alcohol-induced changes in the brain as assessed by MRI and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibprasert, Sasikhan [University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Gallucci, Massimo [University Hospital ' ' S. Salvatore' ' , Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, L' Aquila (Italy); Krings, Timo [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    This review provides an overview of structural magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography findings of direct and indirect alcohol-related toxic effects on the brain. In addition to ethanol-related changes to the brain, this article will also describe imaging findings in the acute setting of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. Alcohol will lead to brain atrophy, osmotic myelinolysis, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and, especially when related to malnutrition, may also cause Wernicke encephalopathy. Brain atrophy can be reversible if alcohol abuse is stopped. If not treated, Wernicke encephalopathy can lead to coma and death and an early diagnosis is important for immediate initiation of thiamine substitution. As clinical symptoms are often unspecific, the radiologist plays an important role in the detection of alcohol abuse and its related clinical conditions. (orig.)

  19. Clinical Evolution of Central Pontine Myelinolysis in a Patient with Alcohol Withdrawal: A Blurred Clinical Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul S. Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM, a potentially fatal and debilitating neurological condition, was first described in 1959 in a study on alcoholic and malnourished patients. It is a condition most frequently related to rapid correction of hyponatremia. Chronic alcoholism associated CPM tends to be benign with a favorable prognosis compared to CPM secondary to rapid correction of hyponatremia. We describe a normonatremic, alcoholic patient who presented with CPM after a rapid rise in his sodium levels. Our case illustrates the fact that CPM can manifest even in patients who are normonatremic at baseline. Rapid rises in sodium levels should be promptly reversed before clinical symptoms manifest in patient with risk factors for CPM irrespective of their baseline sodium levels. Furthermore, clinical evolution of CPM can be difficult to discern from the natural course of alcohol withdrawal delirium, requiring astuteness and maintenance of a high degree of clinical suspicion on the part of the physician.

  20. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  1. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  2. Vasectomy reversal : a clinical update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Patel (Abhishek); R.P. Smith (Ryan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage,

  3. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  4. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  5. A Framework for Reverse Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReverse Logistics has been stretching out worldwide, involving all the layers of supply chains in various industry sectors. While some actors in the chain have been forced to take products back, others have pro-actively done so, attracted by the value in used products One way or the othe

  6. Time-reversible Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, Arjan van der

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that transfer matrices satisfying G(-s) = G(s) = G^T(-s) have a minimal Hamiltonian realization with an energy which is the sum of potential and kinetic energy, yielding the time reversibility of the equations. Furthermore connections are made with an associated gradient system. The

  7. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  8. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    , and that the curvilinearity is greater for greenfield entries relative to acquisition entries. The U-shaped relationship between subsidiary innovativeness and reverse knowledge transfers, as well as the sensitivity of this result to entry mode are important new findings in the literature on the role of subsidiaries...

  9. Access to alcohol outlets, alcohol consumption and mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Pereira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression. This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006-2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7-10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5-6 drinks for women and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression, respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11 and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03 for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49 for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.

  10. Neuroendocrine, fluid balance, and thirst responses to alcohol in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G B; Brosnihan, K B; Zuti, R A; Messina, M; Gupta, M K

    1992-04-01

    This study simultaneously evaluated multiple circulating neurohormones, osmolality, thirst, and fluid balance in eight actively drinking, alcoholic males and seven controls before and 12 hr after an ethanol challenge. Basal levels of serum osmolality and thirst were significantly higher in alcoholics compared with controls, yet actively drinking alcoholics at the start of the study had normal vasopressin (AVP) levels, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone (Aldo), and plasma catecholamines. In response to ethanol, serum osmolalities rose significantly higher while plasma AVP levels became significantly suppressed in alcoholics. After the ethanol stimulus, plasma Ang II levels of alcoholics were significantly higher than those of controls at 11 AM (12.15 +/- 4.49 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.6 pg/ml, p less than 0.02) and 12 noon (14.93 +/- 6.81 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.17 pg/ml, p less than 0.04). Neither plasma renin activity nor Aldo changed in accordance with the elevated plasma Ang II in alcoholics. Diuresis in the alcoholics, assessed by the sum of urine output following the challenge dose, was significantly less than that of controls. Thirst scores and fluid intakes after the ethanol challenge did not differ between alcoholics and controls. The lack of an Ang II-mediated increase in plasma Aldo or thirst response suggests that ethanol may have a specific blunting effect on Ang II receptors. This study demonstrates that ethanol can be used as a provocative test in chronic alcoholics to uncover aberrant hormonal responses for two systems, namely, Ang II and AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  12. Role of Alcohol on the Fracture Resistance of Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie,Robert O.

    2006-05-01

    Healthy dentin, the mineralized tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth, is naturally hydrated in vivo; however, it is known that various chemical reagents including acetone and ethanol can induce dehydration and thereby affect its properties. Here, we seek to investigate this in light of the effect alcohol can have on the mechanical properties of dentin, specifically by measuring the stiffness, strength and toughness of dentin in simulated body fluid and scotch whisky. Results indicate that chemical dehydration induced by the whisky has a significant beneficial effect on the elastic modulus, strength and fracture toughness of dentin. Although this makes teeth more resistant to fracture, the change in properties is fully reversible upon rehydration. This effect is considered to be associated with increased cross-linking of the collagen molecules from intermolecular hydrogen-bonding where water is replaced with weaker hydrogen-bond forming solvents such as alcohol.

  13. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  14. Alcohol and healthy ageing: a challenge for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D; McCormack, F; Seaman, P; Bell, K; Duffy, T; Gilhooly, M

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents findings of a qualitative study of older people's use of alcohol during retirement and identifies ways that an improved understanding of older people's drinking can inform policy approaches to alcohol and active and healthy ageing. Qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with a self-selecting sample of retired people. Participants were recruited from three geographical locations in the West of Scotland. A quota sampling design was used to ensure a broad spread of participants in terms of socio-economic position, age and gender. In total 40 participants were interviewed and the data analysed thematically using Braun and Clarke's (2006) approach. Amongst those who used alcohol, it was most often framed in terms of pleasure, relaxation, socialising and as a way to mark the passage of time. Alcohol was often associated with social occasions and interactions both in private and in public spaces. There were also many examples of the use of imposed routines to limit alcohol use and of a decreasing volume of alcohol being consumed as participants aged. This suggests that older people are often active in constructing what they regard as 'healthier' routines around alcohol use. However, processes and circumstances associated with ageing can lead to risk of social isolation and/or increased alcohol consumption. Such processes include retirement from paid work and other 'biographical disruptions' such as caring for a partner, bereavement and/or loss of social networks. These findings highlight processes that can result in changes in drinking habits and routines. Whilst these processes can be associated with a reduction or cessation of alcohol use as people age, they can also be associated with increased risk of harmful alcohol consumption. Fractured or disrupted routines, particularly those associated with bereavement or the burden of caring responsibilities, through increasing the risk of loneliness and isolation, can construct increased risk of

  15. Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-02-13

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that

  16. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  17. Of liver, whisky and plants: a requiem for colchicine in alcoholic cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Loria, Paola

    2002-04-01

    Colchicine decreases liver fibrosis in experimental and human disease, but a meta-analysis recently concluded that colchicine should not be used for liver fibrosis or cirrhosis irrespective of the aetiology. In this issue, Cortez-Pinto et al. confirm such negative conclusions in their series of 55 outpatients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis followed for a median of 3.5 years. Although well tolerated, colchicine did not affect either the annual incidence rate of complications or liver function tests. Current treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis includes correction of nutritional deficiencies, exogenous administration of antioxidants (notably S-adenosylmethionine and polyenylphosphatidylcholine), and liver transplantation. In the future, preventive/therapeutic strategies will include campaigns to decrease alcohol abuse aimed at subjects genetically prone to develop alcoholic liver injury, prevention of liver fibrosis via inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchange, stimulation of apoptosis of stellate cells, antagonism of cytokines involved in liver injury, degradation of extracellular matrix, and reversal of ethanol-induced inflammatory and fibrotic changes via increased nitric oxide levels. On the grounds that it renders the hepatocyte more vulnerable to necrosis, steatosis has a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. Conditions associated with insulin resistance have been recognized as risk factors for chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the alcoholic. This suggests that, through steatosis, insulin resistance could be a co-factor of alcoholic liver disease. Were such a hypothesis confirmed, it would unify our view of the pathogenesis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, with all its inherent therapeutic implications.

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  20. STUDIES ON REVERSE OSMOSIS SEPARATION OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS BY PAA/PSF COMPOSITE MEMBRANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fang; De-min Jia; Ji-cai Huang; Qun-hui Guo; Feng-lian Wu

    2000-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) separation of aqueous organic solutions, such as alcohols, amines, aldehydes, acids,ketones, and esters etc., by PAA (polyacrylic acid)/PSF (polysulfone) composite membrane has been studied. It was found that the separation results for aliphatic alcohols, amines and aldehydes are satisfactory, the solute rejection (Ra) and the volume fluxes of solutions (Jr) for 1000 ppm ethanol, ethylamine and ethyl aldehyde are 66.2%, 61.0%, 84.0% and 0.90×alcohols, amines and aldehydes, and the Ra for n-amyl alcohol, n-butylamine and n-butyl aldehyde reached 94.3%, 88.6%and 96.0%, respectively. Satisfactory separation results (Ra>70%) for ketones, esters, phenols and polyols have been obtained with the PAA/PSF composite membrane. The effect of operating pressure on the properties of reverse osmosis has also been investigated. Analysis of experimental data with Spiegler-Kedem's transport model has been carried out and the membrane constants such as reflection coefficient σ, solute and hydraulic permeabilities ω and Lp for several organic solutes have been obtained.