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Sample records for hong kong survey

  1. Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession.

  2. Update Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  3. A survey of radon properties in underground shopping centers in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Lo, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    A number of radon-related properties have been surveyed in underground shopping centers in Hong Kong. These parameters include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor and the unattached fraction of radon progeny. The mean values recorded for these were 29.2 ± 7.8 Bq/m 3 , 3.60 ± 1.53 mWL, 0.46 ± 0.16 and 0.05 ± 0.03, respectively. Based on these figures, we have calculated the average radon dose received by employees in an underground shopping center in Hong Kong to be 0.22 mSv/yr, which represents an approximate increase of 8% over the total dose of about 2.7 mSv/yr received by the average person in Hong Kong. (author)

  4. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  5. Prevalence, psychosocial correlates and service utilization of depressive and anxiety disorders in Hong Kong: the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa; Wong, Corine Sau-Man; Wang, Min-Jung; Chan, Wai-Chi; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Hung, Se-Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk-Chi; Sham, Pak-Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung-Kum; Lam, Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chiang, Tin-Po; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Data on mental disorder prevalence and health service utilization required to inform healthcare management and planning are lacking in Hong Kong. The current study determined the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), and examined the patterns of mental health service utilization and associated factors. We analyzed data from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS) of 5,719 Chinese adults aged 16-75 years in the general Hong Kong population, using the Chinese Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The weighted prevalence estimate for any past-week CMD was 13.3 %, with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. CMD was positively associated with female gender, being divorced or separated, alcohol misuse, substance dependence, lack of regular physical exercise, and a family history of mental disorder. Among individuals with CMD, only 26 % had consulted mental health services in the past year; less than 10 % consulted general practitioners or family physicians. Lack of mental health service usage was significantly more likely in men and those with lower educational attainment. Apart from attention to psychosocial risks, health and lifestyle factors are important considerations for mental health promotion. Service utilization for individuals with CMD in Hong Kong remains suboptimal, and would be enhanced by strengthening community primary care.

  6. Seatbelt use by pregnant women: a survey of knowledge and practice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W C; To, W Wk; Ma, E Sk

    2016-10-01

    The use of motor vehicles is common during pregnancy. Correct seatbelt use during pregnancy has been shown to protect both the pregnant woman and her fetus. This survey aimed to evaluate the practices, beliefs, and knowledge of Hong Kong pregnant women of correct seatbelt use, and identify factors leading to reduced compliance and inadequate knowledge. A self-administered survey was completed by postpartum women in the postnatal ward at the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong, from January to April 2015. Eligible surveys were available from 495 women. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women who maintained or reduced seatbelt use during pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were analysed and included knowledge of correct seatbelt use, as well as contributing factors to non-compliance and inadequate knowledge. There was decreased compliance with seatbelt use during pregnancy and the decrease was in line with increasing gestation. Pregnant women's knowledge about seatbelt use was inadequate and only a minority had received relevant information. Women who held a driving licence and had a higher education level were more likely to wear a seatbelt before and during pregnancy. Women with tertiary education or above knew more about seatbelt use. Public health education for pregnant women in Hong Kong about road safety is advisable, and targeting the lower-compliant groups may be more effective and successful.

  7. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  8. Burnout among public doctors in Hong Kong: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Christina F Y; Yuen, S K; Cheung, Andy

    2012-06-01

    The stressful life of doctors makes them prone to burnout. We evaluated the prevalence of burnout among Hong Kong public hospital doctors and correlated burnout with job characteristics, working hours, stressors, and stress-relieving strategies. Cross-sectional survey. Hong Kong. One thousand doctors were randomly sampled from the Hong Kong Public Doctors' Association registry. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires with postage-paid envelopes were mailed twice in early 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey was used for burnout assessment. According to this scale, burnout is defined as emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment. Correlation analysis, as well as univariate and multivariate analyses, were performed to assess factors associated with high degrees of burnout. RESULTS. A total of 226 questionnaires were analysed, of which 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. They were younger and needed to work shifts, and their median year of practice was 8.5. High-burnout doctors worked similar hours per week to non-high-burnout doctors (mean ± standard deviation, 56.2 ± 12.7 vs 54.7 ± 10.9; P=0.413) and reported suicidal thoughts more often (9.9% vs 2.6%; P=0.033). Moreover, 52.2% of high-burnout doctors were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with their jobs. 'Excessive stress due to global workload' and 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' were the most significant stressors associated with high emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, while 'feeling that their own work was not valued by others' and 'poor job security' correlated with low personal accomplishment. A high proportion of public doctors who responded to our survey endured high burnout. Trainees with some experience were at heightened risk. Stressors identified in this study should be addressed, so as to improve job satisfaction.

  9. Survey on death and dying in Hong Kong: attitudes, beliefs, and preferred end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde-Mossey, Lee Ann; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2007-01-01

    Social Workers in end-of-life and palliative care have a particular opportunity to ease the dying process by providing culturally appropriate services to the dying and their families. In today's multicultural social environment, with an ever-increasing immigrant population, social workers are challenged to be knowledgeable about diverse cultures. Recently, a forum of health care professionals and social workers in Hong Kong conducted a survey of the general population to assess death and dying attitudes, beliefs, and preferences for end-of-life care. Four-hundred-thirty Hong Kong Chinese participated in a telephone interview. Responses were compared by gender. The survey results not only contribute to an understanding of Hong Kong Chinese, but can inform social workers who practice with Chinese immigrants to the United States.

  10. Distance Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrea; Butcher, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Hong Kong's economic fortunes have always depended on trade with China. By the mid-1980s, the colonial higher education system was catering to only 6% of the 18-20 age cohort and there was a backlog of adult learners who had been denied access. The Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong was launched in 1989 to overwhelming public response. It…

  11. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems, characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features of Hong Kong English are noticeable

  12. Aging trends--Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, H P; Phillips, D R

    1995-12-01

    Aspects of demographic aging in Hong Kong are examined in this study. "By regional standards, many of Hong Kong's 1992 population of 5.9 million have a good standard of living and adequate housing. However, there are considerable discrepancies in wealth and well-being; elderly people are not always financially secure, and there are growing difficulties in maintaining the oft-cited mode of family care for elderly members. Hong Kong is a rapidly aging society and it is essential to see this process in the context of local and regional socioeconomic change and the future political linkages of the territory with China." excerpt

  13. A survey of radon properties in underground railway stations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Wong, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    A number of properties related to radon have been surveyed in underground railway stations in Hong Kong. These properties include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters and the equilibrium factor. The mean values were different from those of dwelling sites, and the values for different railway lines were also very different, attributable to the different ventilation efficiencies and aerosol concentrations. The values for a chosen station were observed to have temporal variation in the morning, since the air-conditioning is switched off at night. From the measurements, sample calculations of the radon dose received by different categories of people were performed. It is seen that the radon dose received by the night time maintenance worker was not insignificant, that received by an average commuter was negligible while that received by a day time employee was between the two. (author)

  14. VCR Use in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Bryce T.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates videocassette recorder (VCR) use in Hong Kong, finding that the VCR does not compete with cinema-going and television viewing, but complements these activities. Confirms research in Western nations regarding VCR use. (SR)

  15. A Framework for Monitoring Capital Flows in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Dong He; Frank Leung; Philip Ng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to delineate conceptual issues relating to the definition of capital flows, and introduce a framework that organises survey data and accounting information at different time horizons to form a judgment on the nature and scale of fund flows in Hong Kong. Given the complexity of international financial transactions in Hong Kong, cross-border capital flows may not correspond closely to fund flows into and out of the Hong Kong dollar. A comprehensive view on the scale and...

  16. Psychosocial Factors Predict Nonadherence to PD Treatment: A Hong Kong Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Timothy K F; Ng, Yu Leung; Lam, Man Fai; Lee, Kelvin K W

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to hand hygiene and aseptic regimen, dialysis environment guidelines, and catheter and exit-site care guidelines are risk factors of peritonitis. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that account for the nonadherent behavior of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Applying the health belief model, this study seeks to enhance the understanding of psychosocial influences on patients' nonadherent behavior to the 3 regimen components. ♦ METHODS: Through referrals by 7 Hong Kong renal patient support groups, we surveyed patients undergoing PD treatment. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 244 Hong Kong PD patients completed the questionnaires. About 90% of the patients reported no deviation from catheter and exit-site care guidelines. However, the nonadherence rates of hand hygiene and aseptic regimen and of dialysis environment guidelines were 30.3% and 23%, respectively. Longer time on PD treatment and lower family monthly income were associated with nonadherence to dialysis environment guidelines. Employed patients tended toward nonadherence to catheter and exit-site care guidelines twice as much as unemployed patients. Of the 5 health beliefs, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and efficacy belief were significant predictors of nonadherence to the 3 regimen components. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study inform the design of intervention to change patients' behavior in regimen nonadherence for preventing peritonitis. To identify the target audience for adherence intervention based on the 3 regimen components, the results suggest dividing patients into subgroups according to their sociodemographic background. To foster behavioral change, health communicators should address patients' health beliefs when formulating intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  17. Response to Dr Yu's paper: A survey of radon properties in underground railway stations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommer, G.

    1996-01-01

    This letter criticizes the results of a radon survey performed in underground railway stations in Hong Kong. The authors of the survey concluded that the radon dose received by the night time maintenance worker is not insignificant. However, it is the opinion of the Mass Transit Railway Corporation that this radon dose value is at best a crude estimate based on a limited number of non-representative short-term radon measurements. (UK)

  18. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems), characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features ...

  19. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  20. SARS-related perceptions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yang, Xilin; Pang, Ellie; Tsui, H Y; Wong, Eric; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2005-03-01

    To understand different aspects of community responses related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2 population-based, random telephone surveys were conducted in June 2003 and January 2004 in Hong Kong. More than 70% of respondents would avoid visiting hospitals or mainland China to avoid contracting SARS. Most respondents believed that SARS could be transmitted through droplets, fomites, sewage, and animals. More than 90% believed that public health measures were efficacious means of prevention; 40.4% believed that SARS would resurge in Hong Kong; and approximately equals 70% would then wear masks in public places. High percentages of respondents felt helpless, horrified, and apprehensive because of SARS. Approximately 16% showed signs of posttraumatic symptoms, and approximately equals 40% perceived increased stress in family or work settings. The general public in Hong Kong has been very vigilant about SARS but needs to be more psychologically prepared to face a resurgence of the epidemic.

  1. Press Ideology and Organizational Control in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joseph Man; Lee, Chin-Chuan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the entire Chinese journalist population of Hong Kong to determine how news organizations in the highly politicized environment of Hong Kong exercise institutional control on recruitment and newswork. Finds that press ideology is a major determinant of its organizational control. (MS)

  2. Attitudes and Attributes of Hong Kong Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    1996-01-01

    Data from a 1993 survey of Hong Kong college and university faculty, part of a larger international study, provide information about teacher demographic characteristics; educational background; attitudes toward working conditions, mobility, and salaries; professional interests; and views on student quality and governance issues. Implications for…

  3. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R.; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “Age-friendly cities” (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Methodology Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts—Sha Tin and Tuen Mun—were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaire...

  4. Nursing Intervention Practices for Smoking Cessation: A Large Survey in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim Wah Mak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that nursing interventions are effective in helping people to stop smoking, but that the participation of nurses in tobacco control activities has been far from satisfactory. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors that encourage or discourage nurses from participating in providing smoking-cessation interventions to their clients, based on the 5 A’s (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange framework. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4413 nurses in Hong Kong from different clinical specialties. A logistics regression analysis found that predictors for the practicing of all of the 5 A’s are nurses who want to receive training in smoking-cessation interventions, those who have received such training, and those who are primarily working in a medical unit or in ambulatory/outpatient settings. The regression model also showed that attitude towards smoking cessation was positively associated with all of the 5 A’s. The results indicate a need to encourage and provide nurses with opportunities to receive training on smoking-cessation interventions. Strategies to persuade nurses to provide smoking-cessation interventions are also important, since nurses are motivated to perform smoking-cessation interventions when they feel a stronger sense of mission to control tobacco use.

  5. Natural terrestrial radiation exposure in Hong Kong. A survey on environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Poon, H.T.; Chan, Y.K.; So, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Hong Kong is a metropolitan city located on the southern coast of China with a population of some six million. About 90% of the population is concentrated in heavily built-up residential and commercial areas, which accounts for less than 50% of the total area in the territory. Hong Kong Observatory, 134A Nathan Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. In order to understand the spatial variations in the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) in early 1999 conducted a study of the environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air. The study combined data collected by the HKO radiation monitoring network (RMN) and data from a comprehensive territory-wide radiological survey conducted in January and February 1999. The RMN of ten stations each equipped with a Reuter-Stokes Model RSS-1013 HPIC has been in operation since 1987 to continuously monitor the environmental radiation levels over the territory as part of the emergency monitoring programme for response to nuclear accidents at a nearby nuclear power station. The terrestrial component of the environmental radiation field was estimated by subtracting from the measurements the cosmic contribution, which is determined to be about 39 nGy/h from measurements conducted over two large fresh water reservoirs. The RMN data with the long history was analysed to derive the seasonal variations in the environmental radiation levels. On average the environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air in January and February is 1.03 times of the annual figure. This seasonal correction was applied to the results of the year 1999 survey. As the radiation field in the heavily built-up areas is enhanced by contribution from buildings, in the territory-wide survey measurements were made both in the open field and built-up areas. The territory of Hong Kong was divided into 42 grid boxes of 5 km x 5 km for open field and 61 grid boxes of 2.5 km x 2.5 km for built-up areas according to the population and land use. A

  6. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05, especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81, followed by Hong Kong (720.39 and Mainland China (583.94. The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46 was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42 and Mainland China (1.33. Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392, followed by Hong Kong (3,785 and Mainland China (1,493. The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65 was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57 and Mainland China (3.41. The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  7. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xiaming; Yuan, Xueru; Yang, Li; Xue, Yu; Xie, Qian

    2016-01-01

    China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count.

  8. A study of stress and burnout in nursing students in Hong Kong: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger; Deary, Ian; Thompson, David; Li, Gloria

    2008-10-01

    Stress in nursing students may be related to attrition from nursing programmes and lead to a shortage of nurses entering clinical careers. In addition, stress leads to psychological morbidity which may have profound adverse consequences for individual nursing students. To follow a cohort of nursing students from entry to their programme to the end of the first year and to study the interrelationship between a range of psychological variables including personality, stress, coping and burnout. Prospective, repeated measures survey using self-administered questionnaires. A university school of nursing in Hong Kong. Students were selected on the basis of entry to their nursing programme in 2004; 158 students entered the study and 147 completed; 37 were male and 121 were female at entry. The mean age of the cohort at entry was 19.1 (S.D. 0.85); ages ranged from 18 to 26. The questionnaires administered at wave 1 were: the NEO Five Factor Inventory, the Coping in Stressful Situations questionnaire, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Stress in Nursing Students questionnaire. At wave 2 the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Stress in Nursing Students questionnaire were administered. Students suffered greater levels of psychological morbidity and burnout at the second time wave and this was largely explained by the personality trait of neuroticism. Stress also increased and this was largely explained by emotion-oriented coping. Undertaking a nursing programme leads to increased level of stress, burnout and psychological morbidity and this is largely related to individual personality and coping traits.

  9. Workplace violence-a survey of diagnostic radiographers working in public hospitals in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kris; Yeung, Joanne; Cheung, Ivy; Chung, Andrew; White, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of workplace violence involving radiographers in Hong Kong, to evaluate underlying factors contributing to incidents and their impact, and to suggest improvements in management and training. Frontline radiographers, from seven regional hospitals, who performed duties in general radiography, were provided with a workplace violence questionnaire. General radiography refers to plain film X-ray services in general rooms (including out patient clinics), A&E and portable services on wards. Materials relating to workplace violence, for example guidelines and training information, were provided by hospital managers. Out of 281 questionnaires, 150 were returned (response rate of 53%). Sixty-one percent of radiographers had experienced violence in the past 3 yr and 34% of victims had encountered incidents more than 5 times. From respondents who had experienced abuse, verbal abuse (97%) was most frequently reported, and the predominant source of violence was patients (pwork stress, job dissatisfaction, depression and increased sick leave, were highlighted as negative consequences of violence. 77% of respondents felt that support from departments was inadequate and only 11% had attended courses on prevention of occupational violence. Workplace violence is a critical problem in Hong Kong. Further research is recommended to investigate the problem.

  10. Factors Influencing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation Intention in Hong Kong: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Janette; Leung, Eva; Wong, William; Leung, Kate; Lee, Cheuk Kwong; Lam, Wendy; Ip, Patrick

    2015-10-08

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become increasingly common for treatment of severe hematological disorders. However, the number of compatible hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donors is usually limited. Expanding donor pool size would enhance matching success by increasing donor frequency and introducing allelic diversity within the registry. Identifying factors that affect public willingness towards HSC donation allows better strategic recruitment planning to facilitate donor pool expansion. Previous studies in white populations showed knowledge, family attitude, trust towards the healthcare system, fear, self-identity, and social identity are important factors related to HSC donation intention. However, given the differences in cultural and society values that exist across different regions, in particular between the East and West, whether these factors influence HSC donation willingness in Hong Kong remained to be determined. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with HSC donation motivation in Hong Kong. A large-scale, cross-sectional, observational study involving 3479 local participants. There is a positive correlation of HSC donation intention with younger age (18-32, OR: 1.80, p≤0·001) and higher education (OR: 1·47, p≤0.001). Better HSCT knowledge is also related to greater HSC donation intention (OR: 2.55, p£0.001). Our data suggests HSCT education could help to improve donor recruitment and that more resources should be allocated for public education.

  11. A questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residences in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z. [Institute of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Gas Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Deng, S. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. The survey aimed at investigating the current situation of sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning, in order to gather relevant background information to develop strategies for bedroom air conditioning in the subtropics. It focused on the use patterns and types of bedroom air conditioning systems used, human factors such as the use of bedding and sleep wear during sleep, preference for indoor air temperature settings in bedrooms, ventilation control at nighttime with room air conditioner (RAC) turned on, etc. The results of the survey showed that most of the respondents would prefer a relatively low indoor air temperature at below 24 {sup o}C. Most of the respondents might however not be satisfied with the indoor air quality (IAQ) in bedrooms in Hong Kong. On the other hand, 68% of the respondents did not use any ventilation control intentionally during their sleep with their RACs turned on. A lack of knowledge of the ventilation control devices provided on window type room air conditioners (WRACs) indicated an urgent need for user education. (author)

  12. E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lam; R. Chan

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questio...

  13. SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Joseph T.F.; Yang, Xilin; Pang, Ellie; Tsui, H.Y.; Wong, Eric; Wing, Yun Kwok

    2005-01-01

    To understand different aspects of community responses related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2 population-based, random telephone surveys were conducted in June 2003 and January 2004 in Hong Kong. More than 70% of respondents would avoid visiting hospitals or mainland China to avoid contracting SARS. Most respondents believed that SARS could be transmitted through droplets, fomites, sewage, and animals. More than 90% believed that public health measures were efficacious means o...

  14. A Survey of Osteoporosis and Breast Cancer Risk Perception among Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Louis Wc; Cheung, Michael Mc; Chu, Jennifer Wj; Li, Ivy Cf

    2017-08-01

    A lack of understanding in menopausal and postmenopausal women's (PMW) risk perception towards osteoporosis and breast cancer still exists, which is explored in this study. This information might allow health professionals to conduct interventions to improve health behaviors before menopause-related diseases are imminent. Between 10 December 2015 and 31 January 2016, 573 menopausal or PMW were successfully interviewed on 17 questions, comprising separate sections for osteoporosis and breast cancer. The target respondents were menopausal or PMW aged 45 to 60 years, with no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or breast cancer, who attended private clinics across Hong Kong for annual physical examination. Regarding menopausal issues, the top three concerns were osteoporosis and fracture (72%), breast cancer (44%), and sleep disorder/insomnia/headache (40%). Among 314 respondents (55%) who tried to prevent osteoporosis, 74% of them began to do it after they were 40 years old. On the other hand, 65% of respondents never had a bone density test. For respondents who said "I'm too young, so I don't need to check", their mean age was 52 years old. Ninety percent of respondents mistakenly believed that regular breast examination, regular breast massage, drink soy milk, or vaccine can prevent breast cancer. This survey revealed osteoporosis and breast cancer as the top concerns among menopausal and PMW in Hong Kong. Inadequate health behaviors and misconceptions still exist despite widespread health education in the recent years.

  15. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  16. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  17. Language Use, and Language Policy and Planning in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Hong Kong from a historical perspective. Hong Kong has evolved in the past 167 years from a small fishing port to an international financial centre which forms part of a financial network hailed by "Time Magazine" as Ny.Lon.Kong (i.e. New York-London-Hong Kong). Hong Kong…

  18. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer support for a public utilities commission in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Cheng, Y.S.; Law, A.; Zarnikau, J.; Ho, S.T.; Leung, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong's electricity service is superbly reliable and price-reasonable when compared to those of the major cities in the OECD countries. Based on the rate of return regulation in the U.S., the current scheme of control agreement (SCA) regulating the two local integrated investor-owned utilities (IOUs) will expire in 2018 (or in 2023 after an optional 5-year extension), thus offering an opportune time to consider proposals with long lead time to modify or replace the SCA. The proposals made to date range from modifications of the SCA to electricity market restructure. These proposals, however, overlook two important aspects of regulatory governance: transparency and public involvement. This paper estimates consumer support for the proposal to establish a Hong Kong public utilities commission (HKPUC) to improve the current regulatory process. Based on the responses collected in mid-2014 via a face-to-face survey of 1100 Hong Kong residents, we find that at the 1.5% bill surcharge, about 70% the respondents are estimated to support an HKPUC. Thus, there is sufficient consumer support for a financially viable HKPUC, implying that Hong Kong should consider the possibility of establishing an HKPUC, notwithstanding the substantial challenges to be overcome prior to its implementation. - Highlights: • Hong Kong's regulatory process lacks transparency and public involvement. • A survey data analysis indicates a majority support for a Hong Kong PUC. • A Hong Kong PUC can be financially viable without public funding. • A Hong Kong PUC proposal deserves further consideration

  20. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  1. Job satisfaction among nursing personnel in Hong Kong: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kin; Ching, Shirley Siu Yin

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the perceived importance and actual level of job satisfaction among enrolled nurses (ENs), registered nurses (RNs), specialty nurses (SNs) and nurse managers (NMs) in Hong Kong. In the past, few studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction among different groups of nursing personnel. This was a cross-sectional study. Stamps and Piedmonte's Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) Scale was used to measure the level of job satisfaction. Six hundred and seventy-two nursing personnel from two large hospitals participated in this study. Discrepancies were found between the perceived importance and the actual satisfaction of job components among nursing personnel. The level of job satisfaction varied by position (F3,668  = 28.83, P job satisfaction. The IWS scores for ENs, RNs, SNs and NMs were 12.3, 11.2, 12.5 and 13, respectively. Each group shared and had its own unique factors associated with its job satisfaction. The perceived importance and actual satisfaction with the six job components among nursing personnel varied by position. Administrators should be aware that strategies to improve job satisfaction should be specific to job titles. No single strategy is appropriate for all nursing personnel. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  3. The relationship between physical maltreatment and substance use among adolescents: a survey of 95,788 adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Jean H; Tsui, Hi-Yi; Cheung, Albert; Lau, Mason; Yu, Aaron

    2005-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment and the infliction of injuries from a beating occurring without provocation in the previous 6 months among secondary school children in Hong Kong, and to examine the associations between these two forms of physical maltreatment with substance-use-related behaviors and attitudes. Using secondary data, a cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey of 95,788 secondary school students was conducted in Hong Kong. The prevalence of physical maltreatment showed statistically significant associations with younger age, attendance in Chinese-speaking day schools, temporary housing, residence with only one parent, poorer parental relationship, greater peer influence, perceptions of excessive academic pressure, and feelings of being blamed for poor academic performance. Adolescents who had experienced corporal punishment were more likely to be current users of alcohol (OR = 1.11), tobacco (OR = 1.31), psychoactive substances (OR = 1.60), or heroin (OR = 1.90). Those who had been beaten to injury by a family member without provocation within the past 6 months also were more likely to be current users of alcohol (OR = 1.35), tobacco (OR = 1.65), psychoactive substances (OR = 2.39), and heroin (OR = 3.07). Additionally, students who experienced physical maltreatment were more likely to be acquainted with habitual substance users, have better access to psychoactive substances, to have engaged in sex after abusing drugs, have obtained money from illegal sources to purchase drugs, and believe that psychoactive substances are not harmful or addictive. Physical maltreatment showed strong associations with drug-related behaviors and attitudes, after adjusting for potential confounders. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the causal direction of the relationship.

  4. Detection and management of depression in adult primary care patients in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey conducted by a primary care practice-based research network

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KTY; Wong, SYS; Chiu, BCF; Chin, WY; Lam, TP; Lam, CLK; Fong, DYT; Lo, YCY

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, detection rates and management of primary care depression in Hong Kong. Methods A cross-sectional survey containing the PHQ-9 instrument was conducted on waiting room patients of 59 primary care doctors. Doctors blinded to the PHQ-9 scores reported whether they thought their patients had depression and their management. Results 10,179 patients completed the survey (response rate 81%). The prevalence of PHQ-9 positive screeni...

  5. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Teris Cheung; Paul S.F. Yip

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it?a gap filled by the present study. The study?s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to mea...

  6. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R.; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “Age-friendly cities” (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Methodology Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts—Sha Tin and Tuen Mun—were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO’s AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores. Results Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores. Conclusions District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and

  7. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Wong

    Full Text Available To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO launched the "Age-friendly cities" (AFC initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed.Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts-Sha Tin and Tuen Mun-were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO's AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores.Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores.District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and infrastructure and higher socio

  8. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the "Age-friendly cities" (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts-Sha Tin and Tuen Mun-were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO's AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores. Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores. District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and infrastructure and higher socio-economic status, but lower

  9. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  10. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  11. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    .... Belated changes by the British in the makeup of Hong Kong's Legislative Council were initially undone, but subsequent changes in the council's selection process have brought things back nearly...

  12. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  13. Cross-boundary Substance Uses Among Hong Kong Chinese Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Joseph T.F.; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T.; Lau, Mason

    2007-01-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18–30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border subs...

  14. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  15. Insights, attitudes and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from 8 Asia-Pacific countries and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip J; Salvi, Sundeep; Lin, Jiangtao; Cho, Young Joo; Eng, Philip; Abdul Manap, Roslina; Boonsawat, Watchara; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Faruqi, Rab A; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2013-08-01

    The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients' insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey. Asthma patients (≥12 years) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand were surveyed. Patients answered 53 questions exploring general health, diagnosis/history, symptoms, exacerbations, patient burden, disease management, medications/treatments and patient's attitudes. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were used to assess asthma control. The survey was conducted by random digit telephone dialling (Australia, China and Hong Kong) or by random face-to-face interviews (India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand). There were 80 761 households screened. Data from 3630 patients were collected. Wide disparity existed between objective measures of control and patient perception. Reported exacerbations during the previous year ranged from 19% (Hong Kong) to 67% (India). Reported unscheduled urgent/emergency visits to a doctor's office/hospital/clinic in the previous year ranged from 15% (Hong Kong) to 46% (Taiwan). Patients who reported having controlled asthma in the previous month ranged from 27% (South Korea) to 84% (Taiwan). Substantial functional and emotional limitations due to asthma were identified by 13% (South Korea) to 78% (India) of patients. Asthma has a profound impact on patients' well-being despite the availability of effective treatments and evidence-based management guidelines. Substantial differences across the surveyed countries exist, suggesting unmet, country-specific cultural and educational needs. A large proportion of asthma patients overestimate their level of control. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Hong Kong is the First Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Support of the Industry The major shows held in Hong Kong, out of the 70 annual ones, are mainly trade fairs for consumer products--fashion, giftware, jewelery, consumer electronics, watches, optical and the like. Most of the manufacturing factories of these products are located in the PRD region, many of which are invested by Hong

  17. Dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C H; Fung, D S; Lo, E C

    1999-12-11

    To describe the dental caries status of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors which affect their caries status. 658 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years from six randomly selected kindergartens in Hong Kong were surveyed in December 1997. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory variables for caries status was completed by their parents. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (1997). Caries experience as measured by the mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children were found to be 0.9, 1.8, and 3.3 respectively. Overall, 61% of the children had a zero dmft score. Children born in Mainland China had a higher mean dmft score (4.6) than those born in Hong Kong (1.4). Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's dental caries status and their oral health practices as well as their socio-economic background. Parents' education level, dental knowledge and attitudes were also associated with the children's dental caries experience. In general, the caries status of Hong Kong Chinese preschool children was similar to that of children in industrialised countries and was better than that of children in the nearby areas. However, special dental programmes should be made available to children from lower socio-economic classes and new immigrants from Mainland China because they are the high risk groups for caries in Hong Kong.

  18. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  19. The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

    OpenAIRE

    Amic G. Ho

    2016-01-01

    Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong societ...

  20. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  1. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  2. Revisiting the Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ching Yin; Wu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Huei-Ching; Liang, Chaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how empathy, moral obligation, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived social support, and prior experience with social problems are associated with social entrepreneurial intentions. Through a survey, a sample of 252 Hong Kong students was used for analyses. Factor analyses supported that the antecedents of social…

  3. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Pun Lee

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases. (author)

  4. Hong Kong's electricity market beyond 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In Hong Kong, electricity is supplied by two private utilities: Hongkong Electric and CLP Power (CLP). Both are regulated under the Scheme of Control (SOC). The SOC is a formal, long-term regulatory contract of 15 years, signed between a private firm and the Hong Kong Government. Under the SOC, the two electric utilities are subject to both rate-of-return control and price control. The current scheme will expire by 2008. In this paper, we propose a gradual and cautious approach to the introduction of market reform into the electricity industry in Hong Kong. For regulated markets, the government should consider replacing the SOC with performance-based regulation for wire businesses and the non-contestable market. For competitive markets, the government should consider introducing competitive tendering for new sources in the generation market and liberalising the supply market in phases

  5. Rising Strengths Hong Kong SAR in Bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; George Priya Doss, C; Zhu, Hailong; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2017-06-01

    Hong Kong's bioinformatics sector is attaining new heights in combination with its economic boom and the predominance of the working-age group in its population. Factors such as a knowledge-based and free-market economy have contributed towards a prominent position on the world map of bioinformatics. In this review, we have considered the educational measures, landmark research activities and the achievements of bioinformatics companies and the role of the Hong Kong government in the establishment of bioinformatics as strength. However, several hurdles remain. New government policies will assist computational biologists to overcome these hurdles and further raise the profile of the field. There is a high expectation that bioinformatics in Hong Kong will be a promising area for the next generation.

  6. Gamma emitters in Hong Kong water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun-Yin, L.; Chung-Keung, M.; Wai-Kwok, N.; Shiu-Chun, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity in water originates from natural and artificial sources. The development of a nuclear powerplant near Hong Kong necessitates that attention be given to formulating techniques to assess the possible resultant environmental radioactive contamination. Water samples collected from various sites in Hong Kong in the spring and summer of 1987, representing seawater, river water, reservoir water, drinking water, and underground water were studied through gamma-ray spectral analysis. Only gamma emitters in the U238 and Th232 series and K40 were detected. No fission product was detected with specific activity above 0.1 Bq/kg. The data could be the baseline for future monitoring of the radioactivity released from a nuclear plant being built at a 50-km distance from Hong Kong. The variation of detected specific activities may be due to geological differences and the effect of plants. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  7. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  8. IPO Waves in China and Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gucbilmez, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the anatomy of IPO waves in China and Hong Kong and draw comparisons with the US IPO cycles. The lead-lag relationship between IPO initial returns and IPO volume observed in the US is absent in these two Asian markets. Similar to the US, IPO volume in Hong Kong is sensitive to changes in market conditions and exhibits seasonal variations. In sharp contrast, however, Chinese IPO activity is much less responsive to past market returns and volatility. Surprisingly, hot markets still e...

  9. Consensus statement on iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Betty; Chan, C W; Chan, Fredriech; Chan, K W; Cheng, Anna W F; Cheung, Patrick; Choi, K L; Chow, C B; Chow, Francis C C; Eastman, Creswell; Fok, T F; Fung, L M; Gomes, Cynthia; Huen, K F; Ip, T P; Kung, Annie W C; Lam, Karen S L; Lam, Y Y; Lao, Terence; Lee, C Y; Lee, K F; Leung, Jenny; Leung, N K; Li, Dominic; Li, June; Lo, K W; Lo, Louis; Ng, K L; Siu, S C; Tam, Sidney; Tan, Kathryn C B; Tiu, S C; Tse, H Y; Tse, Winnie; Wong, Gary; Wong, Shell; Wong, William; Yeung, Vincent T F; Young, Rosie; Yu, C M; Yu, Richard

    2003-12-01

    This article reviews the available data on the study of iodine deficiency disorders in Hong Kong and to discuss the approach towards preventing such disorders in Hong Kong. The importance of iodine and iodine deficiency disorders is described, and the available data on the dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentration in different populations of Hong Kong are summarised and discussed. Dietary iodine insufficiency among pregnant women in Hong Kong is associated with maternal goitrogenesis and hypothyroxinaemia as well as neonatal hypothyroidism. Borderline iodine deficiency exists in the expectant mothers in Hong Kong. Women of reproductive age, and pregnant and lactating women should be made aware and educated to have an adequate iodine intake, such as iodised salt, as an interim measure. A steering group involving all stakeholders should be formed to advise on the strategy of ensuring adequate iodine intake, including universal iodisation of salt in Hong Kong. Continuous surveillance of iodine status in the Hong Kong population is necessary.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chi Wai Wong

    Full Text Available Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong.Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression.Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%, the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8-2.5% but sexually active young (18-26 years women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7-18.2% in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40-49 years women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81-230; living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46-55.40; and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25-22.8. A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed.Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further research on testing feasibility and linkage

  11. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  12. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  13. Ayuntamiento de Hong-Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitch, A.

    1963-11-01

    Full Text Available This town hall comprises five buildings, each with a particular function, but all expressing a mutual coherence and architectural unity. The main building features a large entrance hall, leading to the concert hall and the theatre. On the first floor there is a dancing hall with accommodation for 500 people. The banquet hall can seat 500, it is situated on the second floor, and is fitted to supply both Chinese and European food. It can operate as an ordinary restaurant. The concert hall has been designed for an audience of 1,500, with a stage suitable for an orchestra of 100 players and 120 dancers. Although its primary purpose is the holding of symphony concerts, it can be adapted to Chinese opera and other types of stage displays. The theatre has 467 seats, and its acoustical properties are such that chamber music can also be performed in it. Another building of this project is a 12 storey tower. On the lower floor weddings and civil ceremonies are held. There are libraries on the second and sixth floors. An exhibition hall occupies the seventh floor. On the eighth there are two lecture rooms, and on the ninth offices and a workshop. A museum and an art gallery take up the tenth and eleventh floors. The air conditioning installations, engine room and other ancillary services are situated on the top of the building. Part of the project includes a garden commemorating the Hong-Kong volunteers who died in the period 1941-45: it stands on an elevated site, and a polygonal shaped chapel completes this memorial. On the outside the tower is faced in marble, whilst the concert hall walls are in polished granite. A sole of blue enamelled brick extends along the whole perimeter of the central block, including the wall surrounding the memorial garden.Comprende un grupo de cinco edificios dedicados a fines diversos, pero a. los que se les ha imprimido una coherencia y unidad que aumenta su valor individual. La edificación principal presenta el gran hall

  14. High Degree of Autonomy: The Reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese Sovereignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choyke, Michele

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the People's Republic of China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong calls for maintaining Hong Kong's lifestyle and "high degree of autonomy" for fifty years after its transition to the Hong Kong SAR...

  15. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Psocial networking sites [SNS]: t466.75=11.36, P<.001) and also reported using blogs (t515.31=6.67, P<.001) and SNS (t529.22=4.51, P<.001) more frequently than Americans. Americans showed a stronger preference for using expertise-based information sources (eg, Web

  16. Factors influencing the career interest of medical graduates in obstetrics and gynaecology in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy Y Y; Cheung, Charleen S Y; Hui, Annie S Y

    2016-04-01

    The trend of declining interest of medical graduates in pursuing obstetrics and gynaecology as a career has been observed in many overseas studies. This study aimed to evaluate the career interest of the most recent medical graduates in Hong Kong, especially their level of interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, and to identify key influential factors for career choice and career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. All medical graduates from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the University of Hong Kong who attended the pre-internship lectures in June 2015 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The main outcome measures were the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, the first three choices of specialty as a career, key influential factors for career choice, and key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. Overall, 73.7% of 323 new medical graduates participated in the study and 233 questionnaires were analysed. The median score (out of 10) for the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was 3. There were 37 (16.2%) participants in whom obstetrics and gynaecology was among their first three choices, of whom 29 (78.4%) were female. Obstetrics and gynaecology ranked as the eighth most popular career choice. By factor analysis, the strongest key influential factor for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was clerkship experience (variance explained 28.9%) and the strongest key influential factor for career choice was working style (variance explained 26.4%). The study confirmed a low level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology among medical graduates and a decreasing popularity of the specialty as a career choice. The three key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology and career choice were working style, clerkship experience, and career prospects.

  17. An overview of emergency radiation monitoring in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.; Chan, Y.K.

    2000-01-01

    In relation to the operation of a nuclear power station located some 50 km to the northeast of Hong Kong, a contingency plan has been formulated in Hong Kong to manage the local response in the event of a severe accident occurring at the nuclear power station. As an integral component of the contingency plan, the Hong Kong Observatory has specifically designed and implemented an emergency radiation monitoring programme. The primary objective of emergency monitoring in the early phase of a nuclear accident is to rapidly detect and document the presence of radioactive materials for determining the impact of the release. Even in the case when Hong Kong is outside the plume coverage, the verification that there is no radioactive plume or deposition over Hong Kong is essential for providing reassurance to the local population. Although Hong Kong is a small place, it has a dense network of fixed-station monitors for continuous measurement of the ambient gamma dose-rate over the territory. At Ping Chau, one of the fixed-station closest to the nuclear power station (about 13 km), an automatic gamma spectrometry system is also operated to monitor the activity concentrations of man-made nuclides in air. This system provides both qualitative and quantitative isotopic information on the cause of any rise in ambient gamma dose-rate detected at the station. A number of fire stations over the territory can also be activated during an emergency to conduct ambient gamma dose-rate measurements using portable survey meters. The fixed-station radiation data will be supplemented by measurements taken en-route emergency surveys. Three mobile survey teams can be deployed within an hour of notice. Two of the survey teams will conduct surveys at ground surface. The third survey team will conduct aerial surveys at various altitudes over Hong Kong and the adjacent seas. Environmental samples, including airborne particulate, radioiodine, deposition, soil and water samples are collected at the

  18. Forecasting Hong Kong economy using factor augmented vector autoregression

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Iris Ai Jao

    2010-01-01

    This work applies the FAVAR model to forecast GDP growth rate, unemployment rate and inflation rate of the Hong Kong economy. There is no factor model forecasting literature on the Hong Kong economy. The objective is to find out whether factor forecasting of using a large dataset can improve forecast performance of the Hong Kong economy. To avoid misspecification of the number of factors in the FAVAR, combination forecasts are constructed. It is found that forecasts from FAVAR model overall o...

  19. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  20. Species composition of the international shark fin trade assessed through a retail-market survey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Fischer, Gunter A; Shea, Stanley K H; Zhang, Huarong; Abercrombie, Debra L; Feldheim, Kevin A; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Demian D

    2018-04-01

    The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade. We used nonparametric species estimators to determine that at least 76 species of sharks, batoids, and chimaeras supplied the fin trade and a Bayesian model to determine their relative proportion in the market. The diversity of traded species suggests species substitution could mask depletion of vulnerable species; one-third of identified species are threatened with extinction. The Bayesian model suggested that 8 species each comprised >1% of the fin trimmings (34.1-64.2% for blue [Prionace glauca], 0.2-1.2% for bull [Carcharhinus leucas] and shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]); thus, trade was skewed to a few globally distributed species. Several other coastal sharks, batoids, and chimaeras are in the trade but poorly managed. Fewer than 10 of the species we modeled have sustainably managed fisheries anywhere in their range, and the most common species in trade, the blue shark, was not among them. Our study and approach serve as a baseline to track changes in composition of species in the fin trade over time to better understand patterns of exploitation and assess the effects of emerging management actions for these animals. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Socio-economic and psychological correlates of suicidality among Hong Kong working-age adults: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ka Y; Chen, Eric Y H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Lee, Dominic T S; Law, Y W; Conwell, Yeates; Yip, Paul S F

    2006-12-01

    The global toll of suicide is estimated to be one million lives per year, which exceeded the number of deaths by homicide and war combined. A key step to suicide prevention is to prevent less serious suicidal behaviour to preclude more lethal outcomes. Although 61% of the world's suicides take place in Asia and the suicide rates among middle age groups have been increasing since the economic crisis in many Asian countries, population-based studies of suicidal behaviour among working-age adults in non-western communities are scarce. Data from a population-based survey with 2015 participants were used to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviour among the working-age population in Hong Kong, and to study the associated socio-economic and psychological correlates. We focused particularly on potential modulating factors between life-event-related factors and suicidal ideation. Six per cent of the Hong Kong population aged 20-59 years considered suicide in the past year, while 1.4% attempted suicide. Hopelessness, reasons for living, and reluctance to seek help from family and friends had direct association with past-year suicidal ideation. Reasons for living were found to moderate the effect of perceived stress on suicidal ideation. Suicidality is a multi-faceted problem that calls for a multi-sectored, multi-layered approach to prevention. Prevention programmes can work on modulating factors such as reasons for living to reduce suicidal risk in working-age adults.

  2. An exploratory study of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tessler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the nature and behaviour of illegal gamblers in Hong Kong. A face-to-face street survey of 512 gamblers was conducted in Hong Kong between September and December 2015 with supplementary convenience sampling allowing for analysis of a total sample of 103 illegal gamblers. 56% of illegal gamblers recorded results consistent with this study’s definition of ‘excessive gambling’ [i.e. moderate risk and problem gamblers under the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI]. 81% of surveyed illegal gamblers were male, 77% were aged between 30 and 49 and 67% were in blue collar occupations. Illegal gamblers bet more frequently on both legal and illegal games than their legal counterparts and spent more when they did bet. While this research did not indicate the direction of causality between illegal and excessive gambling, international work (de Bruin et al. in verslingerd aan meer dan een spel: Een onderzoek naar de aard en omvang van kansspelproblematiek in Nederland, WODC/CVO, Utrecht, http://www.lexandgaming.eu/nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Verslingerd-aan-meer-dan-een-spel.pdf , 2005; Binde in What are the most harmful forms of gambling? Analysing problem gambling prevalence surveys, http://www.utbildning.gu.se/digitalAssets/1327/1327132_cefos-wp12.pdf , 2011 suggests that excessive gamblers are drawn to illegal gambling. Reform could allow excessive gambling by illegal gamblers to be better addressed and initial work suggests some financial benefits to Hong Kong.

  3. Adolescent developmental issues in Hong Kong: Relevance to positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2006-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  4. Occupational stress and burnout among Hong Kong dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, H B; Wong, M Cm

    2017-10-01

    Professional burnout has been described as a gradual erosion of a person and may be one of the possible consequences of chronic occupational stress. Although occupational stress has been surveyed among dentists in Hong Kong, no study has been published about burnout in the profession. This study aimed to evaluate burnout among Hong Kong dentists and its association with occupational stress. We surveyed a random sample of 1086 registered dentists in Hong Kong, which formed 50% of the local profession. They were mailed an anonymous questionnaire about burnout and occupational stress in 2015. The questionnaire assessed occupational stress, coping strategies, effects of stress, level of burnout, and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Occupational stress assessment concerned 33 stressors in five groups: patient-related, time-related, income-related, job-related, and staff-/technically related. Level of burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (22 items) with three scores: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Completed questionnaires were received from 301 dentists (response rate, 28.3%), of whom 25.4% had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 17.2% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 39.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Only 7.0% of respondents, however, had a high level of overall burnout (high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation, and low personal accomplishment). A high level of overall burnout was significantly associated with a higher mean score for job-related stressors and lack of postgraduate qualifications (Poccupational stressors experienced by dentists in Hong Kong. In spite of this, a low proportion of dentists have a high level of overall burnout. There was a positive association between occupational stress and level of burnout.

  5. Managing environmental noise in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming

    2004-05-01

    Hong Kong is well known for its economic vibrancy and its hyper densely population: more than 7 million people living in a total area of slightly over 1000 square kilometers of hilly areas. Most of these people live and work in about 20% of the total land area, resulting in probably the highest densities in the world. The high population density is also matched by a large number of vehicles running in the roads. At present, there are over 400000 vehicles operating on a highway network less than 1000 km in length. With all these factors plus many urban activities associated with the rapid growth and development, noise is an important environmental issue in the city. Although there are many dimensions for the quality of life, the acoustic environment is undoubtedly an essential part of it, especially when the people's aspirations increase as the society develops. This paper summarizes the development of strategies for controlling environmental noise in Hong Kong in the past two decades. The current situation will be addressed and a proposal for an improved traffic noise policy will be presented. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

  6. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  7. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  8. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  9. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-16

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it-a gap filled by the present study. The study's web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  10. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  11. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  12. The Cultural Obstacles of Counseling Licensure in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi; Yeung, Marine

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive package of counseling credentialism comprises certification, registration, and licensing. Counseling in Hong Kong adheres to certification for which diverse counseling master's programs exist. In addition, counselors can register as members of professional counseling organizations such as the Hong Kong Professional Counseling…

  13. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  14. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  15. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  16. Homework Involvement among Hong Kong Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C. W.

    2009-01-01

    One component of the curriculum reform in Hong Kong focuses on the use of homework in consolidating learning, deepening understanding and constructing knowledge. This study examines the profile of Hong Kong primary school students' homework involvement, and investigates the relationships between time involvement and academic attributes, namely…

  17. Hong Kong Perspectives on Educational Technology Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Yuen, H. K.; Wang, Minhong; Churchill, Daniel; Law, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This is the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Association for Educational Communications and Technology (HKAECT; see http://www.hkaect.org/). The silver anniversary annual meeting will be held at the University of Hong Kong December 8--10, with the theme of the conference being "Communication and Education: New Media, Knowledge Practices, and…

  18. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  19. Indoor air quality at nine shopping malls in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W M; Lee, S C; Chan, L Y

    2001-06-12

    Hong Kong is one of the most attractive shopping paradises in the world. Many local people and international tourists favor to spend their time in shopping malls in Hong Kong. Good indoor air quality is, therefore, very essential to shoppers. In order to characterize the indoor air quality in shopping malls, nine shopping malls in Hong Kong were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants included carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), formaldehyde (HCHO), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and total bacteria count (TBC). More than 40% of the shopping malls had 1-h average CO2 levels above the 1000 ppm of the ASHRAE standard on both weekdays and weekends. Also, they had average weekday PM10 concentrations that exceeded the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO). The highest indoor PM10 level at a mall was 380 microg/m3. Of the malls surveyed, 30% had indoor airborne bacteria levels above 1000 cfu/m3 set by the HKIAQO. The elevated indoor CO2 and bacteria levels could result from high occupancy combined with insufficient ventilation. The increased PM10 levels could be probably attributed to illegal smoking inside these establishments. In comparison, the shopping malls that contained internal public transport drop-off areas, where vehicles were parked with idling engines and had major entry doors close to heavy traffic roads had higher CO and PM10 indoor levels. In addition, the extensive use of cooking stoves without adequate ventilation inside food courts could increase indoor CO2, CO and PM10 levels.

  20. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  1. Suicidality among Hong Kong nurses: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-04-01

    The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of suicidality among professional nurses in Hong Kong. Suicide rates among middle-aged employed groups have been increasing over the past few decades. There is a concern that medical occupational groups worldwide are at elevated risk of suicide. Nonetheless there are few population-based studies of suicide dealing with working-age Asian nurses. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected in Hong Kong over 4 weeks from October-November 2013. Statistical methods including descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate cumulative logit modelling were used to examine the weighted prevalence rates of past-year suicidality and its associated factors in nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study; 14·9% of participants had contemplated suicide while 2·9% had attempted suicide once or more in the past year. Women report suicidal thoughts or attempts more often than men. Religion, poor health, deliberate self-harm, depressive symptoms and poor self-perceived physical and mental health were significantly associated with nurses' suicidality. Nurse professionals are not immune from mental health issues. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of suicide prevention initiatives to promote mental wellness in the profession. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  3. Hong Kong-Ideal Access For Mainland Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the deepen economic integration between mainland China and Hong Kong SAR,more and more mainland enterprises choose Hong Kong as their platform to enter the international market.At the end or 2008,more than 3,800 mainland enterprises have invested in Hong Kong with the total amount of US$20.7 billion;and mainland enterprises collected the investment in Hong Kong has reached the scale of 22.1 billion HKD.In March of 2009,The Management Method of Investment Abroad issued by Ministry of Commerce also provides the great convenience for mainland investors.China's Foreign Trade invited Ms.Wong Hoi Wan,Charmraine,Associate Director-General of Invest HK to introduce HK investment environment,the development of mainland enterprises in Hong Kong as well as the investment perspective.

  4. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Paul [Pearl Oil Ltd. (Hong Kong)

    1997-09-01

    Hong Kong`s first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as `a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong` fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory`s oil industry either. (author)

  5. Climate Responsive Buildings Concepts in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; van der Aa, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy saving installations are increasingly applied as heat pumps in combination with energy storage, balanced ventilation with heat recovery, cooling towers etc. In Hong Kong in most cases there is no integrated design process for building projects. This means that projects are developed and designed...

  6. Identifying Core Competencies of Infection Control Nurse Specialists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Fong; Bond, Trevor G; Adamson, Bob; Chow, Meyrick

    2016-01-01

    To confirm a core competency scale for Hong Kong infection control nurses at the advanced nursing practice level from the core competency items proposed in a previous phase of this study. This would serve as the foundation of competency assurance in Hong Kong hospitals. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All public and private hospitals in Hong Kong. All infection control nurses in hospitals of Hong Kong. The 83-item proposed core competency list established in an earlier study was transformed into a questionnaire and sent to 112 infection control nurses in 48 hospitals in Hong Kong. They were asked to rate the importance of each infection prevention and control item using Likert-style response categories. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. The response rate of 81.25% was achieved. Seven items were removed from the proposed core competency list, leaving a scale of 76 items that fit the measurement requirements of the unidimensional Rasch model. Essential core competency items of advanced practice for infection control nurses in Hong Kong were identified based on the measurement criteria of the Rasch model. Several items of the scale that reflect local Hong Kong contextual characteristics are distinguished from the overseas standards. This local-specific competency list could serve as the foundation for education and for certification of infection control nurse specialists in Hong Kong. Rasch measurement is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying core competencies of advanced practice nurses in other specialties and in other locations in a manner that incorporates practitioner judgment and expertise.

  7. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Danny

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children. The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of using the Chinese term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in children by their parents and the symptomatology of "Hot Qi". Method A cross sectional survey by face-to-face interview with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out in a public hospital and a private clinic in Hong Kong. The parental use of the term "Hot Qi", the symptoms of "Hot Qi" and the remedies used for "Hot Qi" were asked. Results 1060 pairs of children and parents were interviewed. 903 (85.1% of parents claimed that they had employed the term "Hot Qi" to describe their children's symptoms. Age of children and place of birth of parents were the predictors of parents using the term "Hot Qi". Eye discharge (37.2%, sore throat (33.9%, halitosis(32.8%, constipation(31.0%, and irritable (21.2% were the top five symptoms of "Hot Qi" in children. The top five remedies for "Hot Qi" were the increased consumption of water (86.8%, fruit (72.5%, soup (70.5%, and the use of herbal beverages "five-flower- tea" (a combination of several flowers such as Chrysanthemum morifolii, Lonicera japonica, Bombax malabaricum, Sophora japonica, and Plumeria rubra (57.6% or selfheal fruit spike (Prunella vulgaris (42.4%. Conclusion "Hot Qi" is often used by Chinese parents to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong. Place of birth of parents and age of the children are main factors for parents to apply the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms of their children. The common symptoms of "Hot Qi" suggest infections or allergy.

  8. The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Li, Tim M H; Chan, Melissa; Law, Y W; Chau, Michael; Cheng, Cecilia; Fu, K W; Bacon-Shone, John; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-06-01

    Severe social withdrawal behaviors among young people have been a subject of public and clinical concerns. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of social withdrawal behaviors among young people aged 12-29 years in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional telephone-based survey was conducted with 1,010 young individuals. Social withdrawal behaviors were measured with the proposed research diagnostic criteria for hikikomori and were categorized according to the (a) international proposed duration criterion (more than 6 months), (b) local proposed criterion (less than 6 months) and (c) with withdrawal behaviors but self-perceived as non-problematic. The correlates of social withdrawal among the three groups were examined using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The prevalence rates of more than 6 months, less than 6 months and self-perceived non-problematic social withdrawal were 1.9%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively. In terms of the correlates, the internationally and locally defined socially withdrawn youths are similar, while the self-perceived non-problematic group is comparable to the comparison group. The study finds that the prevalence of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong is comparable to that in Japan. Both groups with withdrawal behaviors for more or less than 6 months share similar characteristics and are related to other contemporary youth issues, for example, compensated dating and self-injury behavior. The self-perceived non-problematic group appears to be a distinct group and the withdrawal behaviors of its members may be discretionary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The Behaviour of Small Investors in the Hong Kong Derivatives Markets: A Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuen Hon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of small investors in Hong Kong’s derivatives markets. The study period covers the global economic crisis of 2011- 2012, and we focus on small investors’ behaviour during and after the crisis. We attempt to identify and analyse the key factors that capture their behaviour in derivatives markets in Hong Kong. The data were collected from 524 respondents via a questionnaire survey. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to analyse the data, and some interesting findings were obtained. Our study enhances our understanding of behavioural finance in the setting of an Asian financial centre, namely Hong Kong.

  10. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  11. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  12. Self-competence in death work among health and social care workers: a region-wide survey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Johnny T K; Au, Doreen W H; Chan, Wallace C H; Chan, Jenny H Y; Ng, Kenway; Woo, Jean

    2018-04-20

    According to the Quality of Death Index, Hong Kong is lagging behind many other Western and Asian countries in the category of palliative and healthcare. To ensure the provision of high-quality palliative care, it is important to explore the self-competence of health and social care workers in coping with death work including palliative care. This region-wide study aims to assess the level of self-competence with a validated Self-Competence in Death Work Scale (SC-DWS) and examine its correlates. The SC-DWS was administered to a cross-sectional convenience sample of health and social care workers across eight healthcare institutions between January and October 2016. Total scores for the 16-item SC-DWS and its Existential and Emotional subscales were calculated. We then examined sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, profession, place of employment) in relation to the total and subscale scores using multiple linear regression. Coding was conducted on responses to a final open-ended question asking about the personal views of the workers towards their self-competence in death work. We collected data from 885 health and social care workers. Mean score of the SC-DWS was 60.16 (range: 16 - 80), while its Existential and Emotional subscales scored 37.90 (range: 10 - 50) and 14.46 (range: 4 - 20) respectively. Four categories of personal view towards self-competence in death work including (1) personal resources; (2) existential challenges and coping; (3) emotional challenges and coping; and (4) personal recommendations on improving self-competence were identified. In multivariate analyses, workers aged 50 or above, divorced, working in Hospice A, Rehabilitation Hospital B (where a quality improvement initiative in end-of-life care was implemented) and Acute Hospital B (a Christian institution with strong caring culture) and with personal bereavement experience had significantly higher scores, whereas nurses scored significantly lower than less-educated personal care

  13. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  14. Contingency planning for nuclear emergencies in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. This plan not only aims to ensure a quick and timely response to mitigate the health impact of any accidental release but also targets to re-assure the public that the territory is not contaminated when appropriate. This paper describes the principal elements of the nuclear contingency plan in Hong Kong, namely, an extensive environmental radiation monitoring programme and a proactive public communication programme

  15. Doses arising from natural radiation sources in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Man-yin, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first reactor of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, located 30 km from Hong Kong, should become operational at the end of 1993. People in Hong Kong are more concerned with their exposures to radiation, both man-made and natural. The local environmental background radiation baseline values should be established well before 1993 so that the radiological impact of the power plant on the environment can be assessed. However, there has not been much information on these aspects. In view of the situation, the Radioisotope Unit of the University of Hong Kong has launched a series of studies with the general goal of gaining a better understanding of Hong Kong's natural background radiation and a more accurate estimate of the natural radiation exposure of the local people. The scope of the measurement programmes is described and the doses from the various sources are derived. (1 tab.)

  16. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of Hong Kong secondary school Physical Education teachers to promote Unified Sports® ... school subjects like Civic Education, Social Studies, Religious Studies or Liberal Studies.

  17. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  18. Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly presents a case study on analyzing the electrical load profiles recorded in a Hong Kong hotel over a period of 12 months to examine the potential energy saving opportunities (ESOs) in its building services installations. The case study is followed by a report of the survey results of energy and water use in 36 quality hotels in Hong Kong. Finally, a regression analysis where the surveyed energy and water use data were correlated to a number of hotel background or operational parameters to search for suitable energy and water use performance explanatory indicators is presented. The survey results depict a diversified energy and water use situation in Hong Kong's hotels, but the regression analysis indicates that, while some of the correlations obtained are weak, there do exist a few strong energy and water explanatory indicators. (author)

  19. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  20. Hong Kong faces uncertain future as oil supply centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Hong Kong's first day under Chinese rule, 1 July 1997, was not exactly auspicious. A celebratory parade organized by the Chinese was washed out by torrential rain, and the grand finale of a firework display, described as 'a bold statement..... embodying confidence in the future of Hong Kong' fizzled out when one of the firework barges caught fire. The omens are not necessarily good for the territory's oil industry either. (author)

  1. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  2. The lessons of SARS in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Thomas Sik To; Yu, Wai Cho

    2010-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel coronavirus infection which broke out in Hong Kong in March 2003. Princess Margaret Hospital was designated to manage this new, mysterious and serious disease. Healthcare workers had to work under extremely stressful and often risky conditions to care for patients. Despite manpower and equipment reinforcements, staff infection occurred as a result of bodily exhaustion, working in an unfamiliar environment and lapses in infection control. Patients suffered even more, not only due to physical discomfort, but also because of the fear of isolation and death away from family and friends. Health authorities learnt their lessons in the outbreak and formulated emergency plans for future infectious disease epidemics. The healthcare infrastructure has been examined and upgraded with regard to intensive care capacity, infection control measures, professional training, manpower deployment, staff facilities, and stockpiling of drugs and personal protective equipment.

  3. Public education programme for nuclear contingency planning in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M. C.; Li, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Two nuclear power stations on the coast of southern China are situated some 50 kilometers to the northeast of Hong Kong. Although the stations are far away from Hong Kong, the construction and operation of the nuclear power stations have generated public anxiety locally, in particular, after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A comprehensive contingency plan which takes into account such concerns of the public has been implemented in Hong Kong. Cooperation by the public is vital to the effective implementation of any contingency plan. Understanding of the basics of radiation protection as well as the contingency plan will help the public to appreciate the situation and react in a rational manner. A public education program to promote awareness of the contingency plan has been implemented in Hong Kong. In particular, a Virtual Exhibition Hall on radiation has been developed and launched in February 2002 for access by the public via Internet. A video and a set of web pages will be launched in the later part of 2002 to inform and educate the public on matters related to nuclear accident response in Hong Kong. This paper describes the public education programme in Hong Kong to promote public awareness and understanding of the nuclear contingency plan

  4. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  5. Quality of Life (QoL) Survey in Hong Kong: Understanding the Importance of Housing Environment and Needs of Residents from Different Housing Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhonghua; Xie, Xiaohuan; Lu, Yi; Khoshbakht, Maryam

    2018-01-27

    This study presents a Quality of Life (QoL) survey to understand the influence of the housing environment and needs of residents from different housing sectors. The research focuses on Hong Kong where living conditions have become the main affect for people's QoL. Through a household survey using a standard instrument "Word Health Organisation (WHO) Quality of Life-BREF", the article found that among the four WHO QoL domains (Physical Health, Psychological Health, Social Relations And Environment), Environment, particularly its constitute aspect housing environment was the most influential factor for overall quality of life for the public rental housing sector where low-income people live. This research also found that different groups of people have differing needs of their housing environments: the low-income group needs better location and privacy while the medium and high-income groups need better architectural quality. Based on differentiating their needs and wants, this research argues for prioritizing the low-income group's needs for effectively improving their QoL.

  6. Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-tim Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions.

  7. The 2014 summer coral bleaching event in subtropical Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, James Y; Lau, Dickey C C; Kei, Keith; Yu, Vriko P F; Chow, Wing-Kuen; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-11-30

    We reported a coral bleaching event that occurred in August-September 2014 in Hong Kong waters based on video transect surveys conducted at eight sites. The bleaching affected eight species of corals with different growth forms. Bleaching at seven of the eight study sites was minor, affecting only 0.4-5.2% colonies and 0.8-10.0% coral-covered area. Sharp Island East, however, suffered from a moderate level of bleaching, with 13.1% colonies and 30.1% coral-covered area affected. Examination of the government's environmental monitoring data indicated abnormal water quality conditions preceding and during the bleaching event. Follow-up field surveys of tagged colonies showed that 76% of them had fully recovered, 12% partially recovered, and 12% suffered from mortality. These results indicate that the subtropical corals of Hong Kong are not immune to bleaching, and there is a need to study their responses under climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilingualised or Monolingual Dictionaries? Preferences and Practices of Advanced ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a questionnaire and interview survey on Cantonese ESL learners' preference for bilingualised dictionaries or monolingual dictionaries. The questionnaire survey was implemented with about 160 university English majors in Hong Kong and three focus group interviews were conducted with 14 of these participants.…

  9. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa

    2005-01-01

    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  10. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  11. Doubling over ten years of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tin-choi Gary; Chan, Juliana; Chan, Amy; Wong, Patrick; Hui, Stanley; Chow, Ferrie; Tong, Spencer; Chan, Cecilia

    2007-07-05

    Obesity is now an epidemic in most parts of the world. In this cross sectional study, we report the most recent data on obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working population and compare the changes over 10 years. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 5882 adult subjects from the working class in Hong Kong were recruited (2716 men (46.2%) and 3166 women (53.8%)). They were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. Results of this study were compared with the data collected from a prevalence survey for cardiovascular risk factors in a Hong Kong Chinese working population conducted in 1990 (1513 subjects, 910 men (60.1%) and 603 women (39.9%)). Standardized percentages of overweight, obesity, and central obesity, in Hong Kong Chinese working population were 59.7%, 35.0%, 26.7% in men and 32.0%, 21.7%, 26.7% in women. Compared to the data collected in 1990, the percentage of obesity increased by 5% in men and reduced by 6% in women. The percentage of central obesity doubled in men (from 12.2% to 26.7%) but remained stable in women. There is a doubling of the percentage of central obesity in Hong Kong Chinese working men over previous decade. Education and proper lifestyle modification program to tackle this social health issue are urgently indicated.

  12. 'Flash-forwards' and suicidal ideation: A prospective investigation of mental imagery, entrapment and defeat in a cohort from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Roger M K; Di Simplicio, Martina; McManus, Freda; Kennerley, Helen; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-12-30

    'Flash-forwards' - mental images of suicide - have been reported in selected Caucasian samples. Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are considered to be associated with suicidal ideation. We aimed to investigate (1) the presence of suicidal flash-forwards in people with recent suicidal ideation versus those without such ideation in an Asian sample, and (2) associations between suicidal flash-forwards, and perceptions of entrapment accounting for suicidal ideation. Eighty two suicidal and 80 non-suicidal participants from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey completed questionnaires including suicidal ideation, presence of suicidal flash-forward images, defeat and entrapment, at baseline and seven weeks later. Suicidal 'flash-forwards' were present only in suicidal cases. People with recent suicidal ideation and suicidal flash-forwards had more severe suicidal ideation than those without flash-forwards. Compared to those without suicidal ideation, people with recent suicidal ideation reported higher entrapment and defeat levels. Resolution of suicidal ideation over time was associated with fewer suicidal flash-forwards and reduced entrapment perceptions. At baseline and seven weeks, suicidal ideation was predicted by an interaction between suicidal flash-forwards presence and perceptions of entrapment. Mental imagery of suicide appears to be associated with suicidal ideation, and may represent a novel target in suicidal risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological correlates of physical abuse in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Kam Kuen; Lam, Peggo K W; Choi, Philemon Y W; Lai, Kelly Y C

    2003-01-01

    To understand the associations between adolescent family physical maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity or psychological problems. questionnaire survey on 489 secondary school students in Form 2 from 10 schools in Hong Kong. Questions regarding three forms of family physical maltreatment were measured: corporal punishment within the past 6 months, beaten without any reason within the past 6 months, or ever been beaten to injury. Corporal punishment was not associated with the psychological variables after Bonferroni adjustment was made. Those who experienced the two other forms of physical maltreatment had significant and strong associations with positive Achenbach CBCL outcome (OR from 3.26 to 3.27), drug abuse problems (OR from 2.60 to 20.38), self-injurious behaviors (OR from 3.34 to 8.47) and poor perceived parental support. In addition, those who had ever been beaten to injury scored significantly lower in the "physical appearance" and "behavioral conduct" subscales of the Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. In Hong Kong, some forms of family physical maltreatment (beaten for no reason and beaten to injury) were associated with a number of psychiatric/psychological problems. Further studies should be carried out to clarify whether the relationships are causal in nature. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained in Hong Kong during the Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD Pilot Air Monitoring Study in autumn 2002 are analyzed to unravel the relationship between ground-level ozone (O3, pollution precursors, and cross-border transport. Ten ozone episodes, during which the hourly O3 concentration exceeded 100 ppbv in 9 cases and 90 ppbv in one case, are subject to detailed analysis, including one case with hourly O3 of 203 ppbv, which is the highest concentration on record to date in Hong Kong. Combined with high-resolution back trajectories, dCO/dNOy (the ratio of enhancement of CO concentration above background to that of NOy is used to define whether O3 is locally or regionally produced. Five out of the ten Hong Kong O3-episodes studied show a "pollution signature" that is indicative of impact from Guangdong Province. Examination of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs shows that the reactivity of VOCs is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs, of which the reactive aromatics dominate, in particular xylenes and toluene. Calculations using a photochemical box model indicate that between 50–100% of the O3 increase observed in Hong Kong during the O3 episodes can be explained by photochemical generation within the Hong Kong area, provided that nitrous acid (HONO is present at the concentrations derived from this study. An Observation-Based Model (OBM is used to calculate the sensitivity of the O3 production to changes in the concentrations of the precursor compounds. Generally the production of O3 throughout much of the Hong Kong area is limited by VOCs, while high nitric oxide (NO concentrations suppress O3 concentration.

  15. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  16. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  17. Social and psychological barriers to private retirement savings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chan, Alfred C M; Lum, Terry Y S; Zhu, Alex Y F

    2014-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted among Hong Kong workers, we examined the association of institutional, social, and psychological factors with engagement in both private retirement savings and the total amount of savings. Alarmingly, this study demonstrates that approximately 42% of Hong Kong workers do not save privately for their retirement. We found that age, education, number of children, support from spouse and friends, social regulation, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are associated with engagement in private retirement savings. Among those who saved, age, education, perceived financial knowledge, and financial management capacity are related to the amount of savings. Measures that could increase the social support for retirement savings as well as enhance their financial knowledge and management ability should be developed and implemented so that more workers engage in private retirement savings. A promising policy option for the Hong Kong government is to offer a tax incentive to promote additional savings for old-age income protection.

  18. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  19. E-cigarette perceptions, use frequency and susceptibility among young adults in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Charles Cleland; Man Ping Wang; Antonio Kwong; Vienna Lai; Tai Hing Lam

    2018-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes, and their associations with e-cigarette use, frequency of use, and use susceptibility among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods An online survey was administered to 1,186 Hong Kong residents aged 18-35 in 2016-17. On a 0-10 visual scale, participants rated the perceived harm of e-cigarettes, perceived harm of secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosols, and perceived addi...

  20. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  1. An Evaluation of the Intermediation Role of Hong Kong in Chinese Foreign Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhua He

    2007-01-01

    Two different data sources can be used to study Hong Kong's role in intermediating China's foreign trade. One is the bilateral trade statistics between Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland reported by National Bureau of Statistics of China, and the other is the bilateral trade statistics published by Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. The corresponding statistics are not comparable to each other because of the different statistical criteria adopted by each source. Hong Kong's intermed...

  2. Knowledge of vitamin D and perceptions and attitudes toward sunlight among Chinese middle-aged and elderly women: a population survey in Hong Kong

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    Lee Ka-Kui

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and biological risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy are known; however, cultural- and population-specific behaviours and attitudes that influence these risk factors, particularly among Asian people, are less well documented. To understand more about prevailing attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight and knowledge of vitamin D among a population at greater risk of impaired vitamin D status, poor bone health and osteoporosis, we conducted a telephone interview survey of 547 middle-aged and elderly Chinese women living in Hong Kong. Methods All telephone interviews were conducted using the Computer Assisted Telephone Technique and target respondents were selected by random sampling. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese and eighteen main questions were asked pertaining to personal characteristics, perceptions, attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight, and knowledge about vitamin D. Results The survey results showed that 62.3% (n = 341 did not like going in the sun and 66.7% of respondents spent an average of 6–10 hours indoors, between 6:30 am and 7:00 pm, during weekdays. However, 58% of people thought that they had enough exposure to sunlight. The majority had heard of vitamin D, but knowledge about the role and sources of vitamin D was low. Among those who knew that sunlight was a source of vitamin D, the majority spent less than 1 h in the sun in the past week (76.4% vs 23.6%, 1 h in the sun in the past week, chi-square p Conclusion The survey revealed considerable ignorance and confusion about the role of sunlight in vitamin D production, and the function and sources of vitamin D. Attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight were largely negative and many took measures to avoid sunlight, particularly among younger (middle-aged women who had good awareness of vitamin D.

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic r...

  4. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

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    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  5. From Capitalism to Socialism? Hong Kong Education within a Transitional Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines implications for educational policy formation of Hong Kong's 1997 return to China. Discusses the economic interdependence of Hong Kong and China; the potential for educational policy to reconcile or heighten the contradictions among capitalism, socialism, and patriotism; and the crisis of cultural identity among Hong Kong youth. (SV)

  6. Applying Western models of volunteering in Hong Kong : The role of empathy, prosocial motivation and motive-experience fit for volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydinli, A.; Bender, M.; Chong, A.; Yue, X.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the applicability of prominent Western volunteering frameworks in Hong Kong. Two cross-sectional surveys involving a total of 268 respondents were conducted. In Study 1, we tested a model of volunteering among 149 Hong Kong Chinese adult individuals (Mage = 34.8

  7. Practice of laryngectomy rehabilitation interventions: a perspective from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jimmy Y W

    2013-06-01

    To review the current practice of rehabilitation for laryngectomees in Hong Kong. Factors affecting the quality of life of laryngectomees include their performance in speech restoration, the presence of complications of treatment, as well as the availability of psycho-social support. In Hong Kong, more than 90% of laryngectomees have speech restoration by various means, the commonest of which being tracheo-oesophageal puncture and electrolaryngeal speech. However, they face special problems in communication using the current alaryngeal speech modalities, as it is difficult to produce variation in tones, which is important to express different meanings in Cantonese. The responsibility of surgeons to follow-up patients after surgery and the practice of management of common complications after laryngectomy are also discussed. The New Voice Club of Hong Kong promotes self-help and mutual help between laryngectomees, with the aim of helping new members to regain normal speech and to re-integrate into society. Quality-of-life study in Hong Kong shows that although the mean global health score is satisfactory, the social functioning domain is most severely affected after surgery. Cantonese-speaking laryngectomees in Hong Kong are facing unique challenges in speech restoration and re-integration into society after surgery. Surgeons should take the leading role in the multidisciplinary management of these patients.

  8. Isoflavonoid content of Hong Kong soy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sieu G; Murphy, Patricia A; Ho, Suzanne C; Kreiger, Nancy; Darlington, Gerarda; So, Edwin K F; Chong, Portia Y Y

    2009-06-24

    Progress in understanding the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on chronic disease prevention in the Hong Kong Chinese population has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive soy isoflavone database. In this study, we determined the concentrations and distribution of isoflavones in 47 foods included in a soy food frequency questionnaire by reverse-phase HPLC. Results indicated that most soy products contained isoflavones ranging from 1 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight (bean strip noodle and egg bean curd) to 80 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight (oyster sauce soybean and sweet bean curd sheet). Among our food groups, mean isoflavone concentrations were lowest in the soy milk group (9.99 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight) and highest in the bean curd skin group (40 mg of aglucon equivalents/100 g of wet weight). The conjugation patterns of isoflavones varied within and between food groups as influenced by the types of soybeans and the processing or cooking techniques used. The isoflavone concentrations reported herein will be useful for ascertaining the relationship between exposure to dietary soy isoflavones and health effects in the Chinese population.

  9. Hong Kong's health spending projections through 2033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; Chan, Wai-Sum

    2007-04-01

    To derive actuarial projection estimates of Hong Kong's total domestic health expenditure to the year 2033. Disaggregating health expenditure by age, sex, unit cost and utilisation level, we estimated future health spending by projecting utilisation (by public/private, inpatient/outpatient care) to reflect demographic changes and associated increase in demand (from higher expectations and greater intensity of care), and then multiplying such by the projected unit costs (incorporating the impact of key cost drivers such as public expectations, technological changes and potential productivity gains) to obtain total expenditure estimates. The model was most sensitive to the excess health care price inflation rate, i.e. the annual price/cost growth of medical goods and services over and above per capita GDP growth. Population ageing and growth per se, without taking into account related technologic innovation for chronic conditions that particularly afflict older adults, contribute relatively little to overall spending growth. Given the model assumptions, it is possible to limit total health spending to below 10% of GDP by 2033, where the public share would gradually decline from the current 57% to between 46% and 49%. Expenditure control through global budgeting, technology assessment and demand-side constraints should be considered although their effectiveness remains inconclusive.

  10. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  11. The Effectiveness of Private Tutoring: Students' Perceptions in Comparison with Mainstream Schooling in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…

  12. Exploring School Ethos: An Investigation of Children's Human Rights in Two Secondary Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Wai Wa

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the authors launched the Basic Law Education Project: Education for Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Hong Kong. This article focuses on a subset of the overarching data-set and discusses the findings that resulted from a comparative analysis of two participating schools. A survey was deployed to assess the extent to which a…

  13. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  14. The Gap between Online Journalism Education and Practice: A Hong Kong Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ying Roselyn; Lo, S. C. Eric

    2014-01-01

    This twin survey of online journalism professionals and students examines their perceptions of journalism skills, duties, and concepts. Using samples of online journalists and journalism students in Hong Kong, Asia's media hub, it attempts to offer updated insights into the changes taking place in journalism classrooms and newsrooms and uncovers…

  15. Teacher Stress and Guidance Work in Hong Kong Secondary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eadaoin, K. P.; Chan, David W.

    1996-01-01

    Sources of stress in Hong Kong teachers were investigated, with specific reference to guidance work as a potential source of stress. A survey of 415 secondary school teachers revealed guidance-related aspects of work constituted a major dimension of stress, with guidance teachers, female teachers, younger teachers and junior teachers perceiving…

  16. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  17. A Study of Organizational Identification of Faculty Members in Hong Kong Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine how four organizational antecedents affect the organizational identification (OI) and in-role and extra-role performance of Hong Kong business school faculty. OI was tested to be a mediator. The survey results indicated a high level of OI, consistent with the collectivist cultural value of Chinese employees. However, OI was…

  18. Perception of the Most Creative Chinese by Undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ziao Dong; Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 489 undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei, found politicians were nominated by all four samples as being the most creative individuals in the past and at present. Scientists and inventors ranked second in position. Artists, musicians, and businessmen were rarely nominated. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Communicative Needs in the Workplace and Curriculum Development of Business English Courses in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mable

    2014-01-01

    The pressing need to bridge the gap between workplace communicative needs and curriculum development of business English courses has been documented in the literature. Through a questionnaire survey of 215 working adults, this study examines (a) the spoken and written needs of professionals in the local Hong Kong workplace, (b) the challenges they…

  20. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  1. Hong Kong and U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of Mathematical Disagreements and Their Resolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Huang, Rongjin; Law, Huk-Yuen; Chan, Yip Cheung; Zhang, Qiaoping; Baxter, Wesley A.; Gaddy, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical disagreements occur when students challenge each other's ideas related to a mathematical concept. In this research, we examined Hong Kong and U.S. elementary teachers' perceptions of mathematical disagreements and their resolutions using a video-stimulated survey. Participants were directed to give particular attention to the…

  2. Illicit Drug Exposure and Family Factors in Early Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok Kei; Day, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4,746 Hong Kong students, aged 14-15, participated in the 2000-2001 Health Related Behavior Survey. Results produced by the logistic regression models revealed that non-private housing was significantly associated with ever-use of ecstasy in boys. Moreover, girls in non-private housing were significantly more likely to have been…

  3. Towards a Model of Suicidal Ideation for Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Watkins, David

    2006-01-01

    This study tested a model of suicidal ideation with family cohesion, expressiveness, conflicts, teacher support, teacher-student relationships and peer support as antecedents, and self-esteem and depression as mediators. Data was collected from survey questionnaires with 433 Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The results showed that only family…

  4. English Language Schooling, Linguistic Realities, and the Native Speaker of English in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2018-01-01

    The study employs a case study approach to examine the impact of educational backgrounds on nine Hong Kong tertiary students' English and Cantonese language practices and identifications as native speakers of English and Cantonese. The study employed both survey and interview data to probe the participants' English and Cantonese language use at…

  5. Occupational Stress, Mental Health Status and Stress Management Behaviors among Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S. K.; Mak, Yim Wah; Chui, Ying Yu; Chiang, Vico C. L.; Lee, Angel C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine occupational stress and mental health among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and to identify the differences between those actively engaged in stress management behaviors and those who were not. Design: Survey design was adopted using validated instruments including Occupational Stress Inventory…

  6. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Language Variation, English Language Teaching and Language Use: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jim Yee Him

    2017-01-01

    This study examines Hong Kong major stakeholders' (secondary students, university students, teachers and professionals) perceptions of language variation, English language teaching (ELT) and language use in their everyday communication via a large-scale questionnaire survey (N = 1893). Based on principal components analysis of the questionnaire…

  7. An Exploration of the Participation of Kindergarten-Aged Hong Kong Children in Extra Curricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed-methods research design to investigate the extra curricular participation of kindergarten-aged Hong Kong children, based on reports provided by 1260 parents, and parents' perceptions of their children's extra curricular participation, through nine individual interviews. The results of the survey indicated that…

  8. School Bullying and the Mental Health of Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Josephine W. Y.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of school bullying and its effect on the mental health of junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The participants (N = 364, mean age = 13.55) reported on a survey that included a bullying scale, the Chinese General Health Questionnaire-30, and a psychosocial scale. Verbal bullying was the most frequently…

  9. Resilience mediated the association between acculturation and psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Liu, Chang; Yue, Zhenzhu

    2017-08-01

    The number of Hong Kong citizens living in mainland China is increasing. The process of acculturation may create opportunities for psychological growth. This study aimed at examining whether resilience mediated the effects of acculturation on psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou. In this cross-sectional survey, 164 college students in Guangzhou who were Hong Kong permanent residents (female: 46%, age: 21.09 ± 1.50) joined the study. The integration group reported more psychological growth than the assimilation, separation, and marginalization groups. Resilience partially mediated the effect of integration on psychological growth and fully mediated the effect of marginalization on psychological growth. Resilience represents one of the mechanisms to explain beneficial effects of integration on psychological growth in college students from Hong Kong to Guangzhou. Theoretical considerations to rethink the acculturation model, implications for developing intervention programs, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  10. Sense of community in Hong Kong: relations with community-level characteristics and residents' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C

    2009-09-01

    Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.

  11. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China.

  12. A Validity Study of the MWEP Scale in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the validity of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile, MWEP, in the Hong Kong setting. Purposive quota sampling is adopted to solicit data from a total of 140 respondents with equal gender distribution across seven age groups in Hong Kong. Factor analysis reveals that similarity exists between factor loadings in original MWEP model of Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth (2002 and the model in the current study with Hong Kong samples. However, the MWEP items in the current study does not map exactly into the seven dimensions proposed by Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth. The leisure and the morality/ethics dimensions match with the original scale respectively with good and poor reliabilities, but the hard work and wasted time dimensions have intertwined and appeared to be inseparable.

  13. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  14. An energy system model for Hong Kong in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and energy security are forcing Hong Kong to shift from a fossil fuel-based to a clean and low-carbon energy structure. In this article, a simulation model for Hong Kong's energy system is developed to examine the present energy structure and analyse alternative future sustainable energy strategies. First, a reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. Secondly, three scenarios are modelled. The BAU (business-as-usual) scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is presented and simulated. To address the energy security and environmental sustainability challenges posed by the BAU outcomes, two alternative scenarios are then studied. The first alternative is a fuel mix for 2020 proposed by the government which is characterized by importing more nuclear power from the mainland. As a result of the Fukushima nuclear incident, however, this proposal has been held in abeyance. Therefore, a second alternative for Hong Kong in 2020 is proposed in this study, using more RE (renewable energy) to replace nuclear power. The results show that both the governmentally proposed scenario and the RE scenario can achieve the carbon reduction target. However, the RE scenario would be much better than the government scenario in terms of environmental, social benefits and long-term sustainability. - Highlights: • A reference model is established and validated based on year 2009 data. • The business-as-usual scenario for Hong Kong's energy system in 2020 is examined. • The governmentally proposed fuel mix for 2020 is analysed. • The renewable energy scenario to replace nuclear power in 2020 is studied. • Carbon reduction target of Hong Kong is examined in the three scenarios

  15. Speak-up culture in an intensive care unit in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey exploring the communication openness perceptions of Chinese doctors and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, George Wing Yiu; Pun, Jack Kwok Hung; So, Eric Hang Kwong; Chiu, Wendy Wai Hang; Leung, Avis Siu Ha; Stone, Yuk Han; Lam, Chung Ling; Lai, Sarah Pui Wa; Leung, Rowlina Pui Wah; Luk, Hing Wah; Leung, Anne Kit Hung; Au Yeung, Kin Wah; Lai, Kang Yiu; Slade, Diana; Chan, Engle Angela

    2017-08-11

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of speaking up to protect patient safety in critical care, little research has been performed in this area in an intensive care unit (ICU) context. This study explored the communication openness perceptions of Chinese doctors and nurses and identified their perceptions of issues in ICU communication, their reasons for speaking up and the possible factors and strategies involved in promoting the practice of speaking up. A mixed-methods design with quantitative and sequential qualitative components was used. Eighty ICU staff members from a large public hospital in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of communication openness. Ten clinicians whose survey responses indicated support for open communication were then interviewed about their speak-up practices. The participating ICU staff members had similar perceptions of their openness to communication. However, the doctors responded more positively than the nurses to many aspects of communication openness. The two groups also had different perceptions of speaking up. The interviewed ICU staff members who indicated a high level of communication openness reported that their primary reasons for speaking up were to seek and clarify information, which was achieved by asking questions. Other factors perceived to influence the motivation to speak up included seniority, relationships and familiarity with patient cases. Creating an atmosphere of safety and equality in which team members feel confident in expressing their personal views without fear of reprisal or embarrassment is necessary to encourage ICU staff members, regardless of their position, to speak up. Because harmony and saving face is valued in Chinese culture, training nurses and doctors to speak up by focusing on human factors and values rather than simply addressing conflict management is desirable in this context. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  16. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  17. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention

  18. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  19. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  20. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  1. Long-Term Spatio-Temporal Trends of Organotin Contaminations in the Marine Environment of Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K Y Ho

    Full Text Available Hong Kong imposed a partial restriction on application of organotin-based antifouling paints in 1992. Since September 2008, the International Maritime Organization prohibited the use of such antifouling systems on all sea-going vessels globally. Therefore, it is anticipated a gradual reduction of organotin contamination in Hong Kong's marine waters. Using the rock shell Reishia clavigera as a biomonitor, we evaluated the organotin contamination along Hong Kong's coastal waters over the past two decades (1990-2015. In 2010 and 2015, adult R. clavigera were examined for imposex status and analysed for tissue concentrations of six organotins. We consistently found 100% imposex incidence in female R. clavigera across all sites. Tissue triphenyltin (TPT concentrations were high in most samples. A probabilistic risk assessment showed that there were over 69% of chance that local R. clavigera would be at risk due to exposure to phenyltins. Comparing with those of previous surveys (2004-2010, both imposex levels and tissue concentrations of organotins did not decline, while the ecological risks due to exposure to organotins were increasing. We also observed high concentrations of monobutyltin and TPT in seawater and sediment from locations with intense shipping activities and from stormwater or sewage discharge. Overall, organotins are still prevalent in Hong Kong's marine waters showing that the global convention alone may be inadequate in reducing organotin contamination in a busy international port like Hong Kong. Appropriate management actions should be taken to control the use and release of organotins in Hong Kong and South China.

  2. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  3. Language and identity: Hong Kong students' language attitudes since the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, King Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous empirical studies conducted on Hong Kong’s linguistic situations suggest that the roles and statuses of Cantonese and English continue to be stable in Hong Kong. Putonghua (also known as Mandarin) starts to have an ever-increasing influence in the city and has begun to take root since the political handover in 1997. Lai (2011) expects that Hong Kong people will develop their identities at local, national and international levels and Hong Kong will see a more balanced equi...

  4. Semantic Primitives of Time and Space in Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Malindy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Semantic primitives for time and space, as proposed in Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory, are examined for lexical equivalents in Hong Kong Cantonese. Temporal primitives are all found to have clear Cantonese exponents that can be combined as predicted with other metalanguage elements, with two exceptions. Spatial primitives all appear to have…

  5. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  6. Politics, Culture, and School Curriculum: The Struggles in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hong Kong (HK) school curriculum, especially the general curriculum for civic education and other social subjects, in relation to the political events of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident, and the return of HK's sovereignty from the United Kingdom (UK) to the…

  7. Teacher Stress in Working with Challenging Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2012-01-01

    This article first illustrates how recent social, economic and educational development in Hong Kong contributes to teacher stress. It then presents data from an international study on teacher stress with respect to working with challenging students, i.e. students with behavioural problems. Teachers were asked to report on the perceived behavioural…

  8. Managing Workplace Conflict in the United States and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Catherine H.; Brett, Jeanne M.

    2001-07-01

    We propose that managers have norms (standards of appropriate behavior) for resolving conflict, that these norms are culturally based, and that they explain cultural differences in conflict management outcomes. We confirm that the traditionally American norms of discussing parties' interests and synthesizing multiple issues were exhibited more strongly by American managers than by their Hong Kong Chinese counterparts. In addition, we confirm that the traditionally Chinese norms of concern for collective interests and concern for authority appeared more strongly among Hong Kong Chinese managers than among their American counterparts. American managers were more likely than Hong Kong Chinese managers, to resolve a greater number of issues and reach more integrative outcomes, while Hong Kong Chinese managers were more likely to involve higher management in conflict resolution. Culture had a significant effect on whether parties selected an integrative outcome rather than an outcome that involved distribution, compromise, higher management, or no resolution at all. Conflict norms explained the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching an outcome involving distribution, compromise, or higher management; however, conflict norms did not fully explain the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching no resolution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Western impressions of the Hong Kong health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Pei, G K; Ultmann, J E

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia are initiating health care reform to meet the changing demands of populations with improved socioeconomic status and access to modern technologies and who are living longer than in previous generations. Hong Kong, in particular, is facing a unique set of circumstances as its people prepare for the transition in 1997 from a British colony to a Special Administrative Region of China. While spending only 4% of its gross domestic product on health care, it has a large and regulated public hospital system for most inpatient medical care and a separate, loosely regulated private health care system for most outpatient medical care. In 1993 the Secretary for Health and Welfare of Hong Kong initiated a year-long process to debate the pros and cons of 5 fundamental programs for health care reform. After a year of open consultation, options were chosen. We describe the Hong Kong health care system, the fundamental changes that have been adopted, and lessons for reformers in the United States.

  10. Social Class and Language Attitudes in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mee Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between social class and language attitudes through a triangulated study that analyses the attitudes of 836 secondary school students from different socioeconomic backgrounds toward the 3 official spoken languages used in postcolonial Hong Kong (HK; i.e., Cantonese, English, and Putonghua). The respondents were…

  11. The Background to Language Change in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Godfrey; So, Lydia K. H.

    1996-01-01

    Seeks to link the rapid pace of societal change in Hong Kong over the past 50 years with changing patterns of language use there. Shows how the country has changed demographically, economically, politically, socially, and technologically. (16 references) (Author/CK)

  12. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  13. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  14. Ageing, Loss, and Learning: Hong Kong and Australian Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Pike, Lucinda; Tam, Maureen; Buys, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the discussion of loss and its relationship to learning is based on the analysis of interview data from 39 older adults in Hong Kong and 40 in Australia. The focus of the research was on ageing and learning. The phenomenon of life changes, specifically losses, and their relationship to learning was frequently mentioned, and this…

  15. Shanghai and Hong Kong Join Efforts for Oil Futures Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) and Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEx) announced in midApril they will jointly introduce crude oil futures. The two exchanges will jointly develop an energy derivatives market that serves both Chinese and international investors,according to a memorandum of understanding (MOU) signed between the two exchanges.

  16. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted…

  17. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  18. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  19. Parental Involvement in Primary Children's Homework in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C.; Chan, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws upon an ecological perspective to examine parental involvement in homework and its relationship with primary school children's educational outcomes within the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong. Data were collected using homework diaries and questionnaires administered to 1,309 pairs of students and parents spanning all…

  20. Involving Students in Residence Halls in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S. Raymond; Chan, Rebecca; Lee, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study based on A. W. Astin's (1984) involvement theory applied in residence halls at a public university in Hong Kong, China. The resident students who were involved as participants or student leaders in this study were found to be better developed in terms of leadership, career development, multicultural experience,…

  1. Characteristic research on Hong Kong "I learned" series computer textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinyan; Liu, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jianheng; Zhang, Lili

    2011-06-01

    Currently, the construction of information technology textbooks in the primary and middle schools is an important content of the information technology curriculum reform. The article expect to have any inspire and reference on inland China school information technology teaching material construction and development through the analyzing and refining the characteristics of the Hong Kong quality textbook series - "I learn . elementary school computer cognitive curriculum".

  2. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  3. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  4. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  5. Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, L; Poon, C S; Chiang, Y H

    2009-01-01

    As Hong Kong is a compact city with limited available land and high land prices, the construction of high-rise buildings is prevalent. The construction industry produces a significant amount of building waste. In 2005, about 21.5 million tonnes of construction waste were generated, of which 11% was disposed of in landfills and 89% in public filling areas. At the present rate, Hong Kong will run out of both public filling areas and landfill space within the next decade. The government is taking action to tackle the problem, such as by introducing a construction waste landfill charge, and promoting prefabrication to reduce on-site waste generation. This paper reports an ongoing study on the use of prefabrication in buildings and its impact on waste reduction in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was administered to experienced professionals, and case studies of recently completed building projects were conducted. The results revealed that construction waste reduction is one of the major benefits when using prefabrication compared with conventional construction. The average wastage reduction level was about 52%. This implies that a wider use of prefabrication could considerably reduce construction waste generation in Hong Kong and alleviate the burdens associated with its management.

  6. End-of-life (EoL) mobile phone management in Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Jing; Giesy, John P; So, C S; Zheng, Hai-Long

    2017-09-15

    A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted in households and end-of-life (EoL) mobile phone business centres in Hong Kong. Widespread Internet use, combined with the rapid evolution of modern social networks, has resulted in the more rapid obsolescence of mobile phones, and thus a tremendous increase in the number of obsolete phones. In 2013, the volume of EoL mobile phones generated in Hong Kong totalled at least 330 tonnes, and the amount is rising. Approximately 80% of electronic waste is exported to Africa and developing countries such as mainland China or Pakistan for recycling. However, the material flow of the large number of obsolete phones generated by the territory's households remains unclear. Hence, the flow of EoL mobile phones in those households was analysed, with the average lifespan of a mobile phone in Hong Kong found to be just under two years (nearly 23 months). Most EoL mobile phones are transferred to mainland China for disposal. Current recycling methods are neither environmentally friendly nor sustainable, with serious implications for the environment and human health. The results of this analysis provide useful information for planning the collection system and facilities needed in Hong Kong and mainland China to better manage EoL mobile phones in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and application of neuropsychology in Hong Kong: implications of its value and future advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M Y

    2016-11-01

    To review the development, application, and value of neuropsychology, and the standard education and training pathway for neuropsychologists or clinical neuropsychologists in Hong Kong. The information provided here was gathered via a literature review of the status of neuropsychology and the validity of commonly adopted neuropsychological tests in Hong Kong. Additional details were acquired via the internet about local tertiary education curricula and the related requirements, the availability of professional associations for licensure or board certification, and relevant statistics/surveys conducted by the government. Some information about the clinical practice of neuropsychology was collected through personal communication with local clinical psychologists. The development of neuropsychology in Hong Kong over the past 20 years is rapid and productive, given the increasing application of advanced neuroimaging techniques, neuropsychological tests, and opportunities for exchanging up-to-date neuropsychological knowledge and professional training through international conferences, workshops, and seminars. Given that neuropsychology services are often provided by clinical psychologists who are master's degree graduates in clinical psychology, the relatively limited training in neuropsychological knowledge and skills and the lack of division for membership or mandatory registration as a neuropsychologist/clinical neuropsychologist may have an impact on the quality of clinical neuropsychological services and the development of this specialty. These findings signify a need for further improvement or refinement of educational and training pathways for neuropsychologist or clinical neuropsychologist along with the recognition of its value in clinical practice through registration of different disciplines of psychology in Hong Kong.

  8. Characteristics of TCM constitutions of adult Chinese women in Hong Kong and identification of related influencing factors: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youzhi; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Yi; Jia, Lei; He, Yanhua; Xue, Steve An; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Chen, Jianping

    2014-05-21

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) refers to an integrated, metastable and natural specialty of individual in morphosis, physiological functions and psychological conditions. It is formed on the basis of innate and acquired endowments in the human life process, which can be divided into normal constitution and unbalanced ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of TCMCs of Chinese women in Hong Kong and its acquired influencing factors. Local Chinese women between 30 to 65 years old, were recruited from 18 districts of Hong Kong (n=944), and were assessed using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Physical Constitution Scale for their TCMC types. Social-demographic, reproductive, lifestyle, systemic health and emotional status information were collected through structured questionnaire. The associations between different independent factors and each TCMC type, as well as the complex unbalanced TCMC types were tested individually. Significant factors related to unbalanced TCMC types were identified in final models using multiple factor analysis. A total of 764 (80.9%) participants were diagnosed with unbalanced TCMCs. The most common TCMC type was Qi-deficiency constitution (53.9%), followed by Phlegm-wetness (38.9%), Yang-deficiency (38.2%), Yin-deficiency (35.5), Blood-stasis (35.4) and Qi-depressed (31%) constitution. Six hundred and eleven participants (64.7%) had at least two types of combined and unbalanced constitutions. Stepwise logistic analysis indicated that poor systemic health condition (OR, 1.76-2.89), negative emotions (OR=1.39), overweight (OR=1.58), high educational level (OR=1.18) and mental work (OR=1.44) were significantly positively correlated with certain unbalanced TCMCs. Meanwhile, aging (OR, 0.59-0.73), exercise habit (OR, 0.61-0.79) and reproductive history (OR=0.72) showed inverse associations with unbalanced constitutions. In addition, systemic health condition and emotional status, exercise habit and age

  9. A comparative study on women's employment in Beijing, Guangzhou and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the female population in different social systems and different socioeconomic levels was conducted for Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong between September 1988 and October 1990. The women's federations in Beijing and Guangzhou and the University of Hong Kong performed the sample survey of 12 occupations in China and Hong Kong. The assumption was that the process of women's emancipation was accelerated when material conditions and culture were well-developed. The differences in employment patterns in the three cities are presented followed by a discussion of the motives for employment. Differences in their attachment to the traditional role of women were evident; most expressed the importance of work and family and the desire to be successful in life and career. Differences were also evident in women's expectation of the role of government in having responsibility for women's employment and priorities. The reports from women in Beijing and Guangzhou expressed difficulty in locating a job and lack of information on job availabilities. Hong Kong is different from the other cities in that the supply of workers is less than the demand. Only through productivity increases can women have a brighter prospect for employment. There was a high level of agreement that the reasons for employment are increased income and economic independence. The third factor of importance was "self-realization", and over 90% in all three cities reported that employment would continue if other family members could support the family. Women strongly agreed that success was achieved through extra effort, and wished for the same opportunity for promotion which the men enjoyed. The traditional role of women giving priority to their families was strongest in Hong Kong. 45% of women in Hong Kong agreed that women should avoid being more successful in work than their husbands, while only 13.4% in Beijing agreed. Women in Beijing and Guangzhou expected government to other relevant

  10. Bites by the white-lipped pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) and other species in Hong Kong. A survey of 4 years' experience at the Prince of Wales Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, C S; Chan, J C; Chow, K Y

    1990-04-01

    The case records of 242 snake bite victims admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong between September 1984 and October 1988 were studied retrospectively. When the snake was identified, the White-lipped pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) was by far the commonest species involved. In addition to local oedema and inflammation, evidence of a significant blood clotting disturbance was present in at least 10% of cases, defibrination and thrombocytopenia being the commonest findings. Since such abnormality was not always sought the true figure is likely to be higher. Three fatalities occurred, one of which was secondary to a probable White-lipped pit viper bite, one to a bite by Chinese cobra and one to a bite by Russell's viper.

  11. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  12. The Effect of Language Ability on Chinese Immigrants’ Earning in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Man Ng

    2015-01-01

    After the handover of Hong Kong sovereignty to China in 1997, the language importance gap between English and Putonghua in Hong Kong has been narrowing, even English language is remain an international language and being adopted in legal documents, but foreign investors cannot avoid speaking Putonghua when doing business with Chinese enterprises, these language importance changes provide a new discourse to human capital theorists.  In Hong Kong, natives are desire to be proficient in Putonghu...

  13. Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. DESIGN AND SETTING: A school-based cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire,...

  14. Oral health status and behaviours of preschool children in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chun-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a major public health problem in many countries. Since the last territority-wide dental survey of Hong Kong preschool children was conducted in 2001, a survey to update the information is necessary. This study aimed to describe the dental caries experience of preschool children in Hong Kong and factors affecting their dental caries status. Methods A stratified random sample of children from seven kindergartens in Hong Kong was surveyed in 2009. Ethical approval from IRB and parental consent was obtained. Clinical examinations of the children were performed by two calibrated examiners using disposable dental mirrors, an intra-oral LED light and ball-ended periodontal probes. A questionnaire to investigate possible explanatory factors for caries status was completed by the children’s parents. Caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Multifactor-ANOVA was used to study the relationship between dental caries experience, and the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children. Results Seven hundred children (53% boys, mean age 5.3 ± 0.7 years were examined. The mean dmft score of the surveyed children was 2.2 and 51% of them had no caries experience (dmft = 0. Most (>95% of the decayed teeth were untreated. Statistically significant correlations were found between dental caries experience of the children and their oral health-related habits, family income, parental education level and parental dental knowledge. Conclusions Early childhood dental caries was prevalent among the preschool children in Hong Kong. Their caries experience was associated with their oral health-related behaviours, socio-economic background, and parental education and dental knowledge.

  15. Overview of the health care system in Hong Kong and its referential significance to mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Yi; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Liu, Yang; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing; Li, Yongning; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-10-01

    Hong Kong's health system was established within the framework of a perfect market-oriented economic matrix, where there are wide-ranging social security and medical service systems. There are many differences in the economic foundations, social systems, and ideologies between Hong Kong and mainland China, therefore, it would probably be entirely impossible to copy Hong Kong's health care system mode. However, under the framework of one country, two systems, the referential significance of relevant concepts of Hong Kong's medical service system to mainland China cannot be ignored, and merits further study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  17. Self-reported Stress Problems among Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.

  18. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  19. Report on the international conference and bridge inspection in Singapore and Hong Kong. `97 Singapore and Hong Kong inspector group; Singapore Hong Kong no kokusai kaigi to kyoryo shisatsu hokoku. `97 Singapore Hong Kong shisatsudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, N.; Arai, H.; Shiota, R.; Takagaki, T.; Mori, T.

    1997-07-31

    The 4th International Symposium on Noteworthy Development in Prestressing and Precasting was held in Singapore in July 1997. The `97 Singapore and Hong Kong inspector group was organized by the Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Association to participate the symposium and inspect some bridges. The symposium consisted of reading of 17 presented papers (including questions and answers) related to introduction of PC and PCa structures of every country, PCa void lower slab for building floors, bridge, PCa joint, PCa residence, earthquake resistance, and structure analysis. Suzuki`s keynote address `Development and present state of PC road bridges in Japan` classified PC road bridges ranging from an early PC beam bridge to a recent PC cable stayed bridge and PC extra-dosed bridge for every kind and period, and systematically presented the growth of the Japanese highway network and PC bridge. The inspector group visited 3 bridges in Singapore, and 3 bridges in Hong Kong. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Smoking among Hong Kong Chinese women: behavior, attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-02-25

    The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.

  1. Sharing Economy in Travel and Tourism: Finland vs. Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ullah, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...

  2. A retrospective study of 2585 patients patch tested with the European standard series in Hong Kong (1995-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sun; Chan, Loi Yuen; Ho, Stanley Ching Kong; Chong, Lai Yin; So, Win Han; Wong, Tze Wai

    2008-02-01

    Data on patch test findings in Hong Kong are scarce, with the last survey performed more than 10 years ago. A retrospective analysis of results from all patch tests performed on patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis from January 1995 to December 1999 in the Social Hygiene Service, which provides a public dermatology service in Hong Kong, was undertaken. We aimed to explore the demographic data associated with positive reactions and the profile of contact sensitizing allergens in Hong Kong. A total of 2585 patients were patch tested with the European standard series during the period. Most were Chinese, with a female-to-male ratio of 3 : 2. One or more positive responses were noted in 1415 patients (54.7%). The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (24.4%), followed by fragrance mix (13.7%), cobalt chloride (8.7%), p-phenylenediamine (6.0%), and balsam of Peru (5.7%). Nickel sensitivity was more common in female patients, and dichromate sensitivity was more common in male patients (P history were significant risk factors for nickel sensitivity. This study provides a profile of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the public dermatology service in Hong Kong. A prospective study, using a larger panel of allergens, involving patients from both the private and public sectors, would provide a more comprehensive profile of contact allergens in Hong Kong and contribute to the establishment of a local standard series.

  3. Female street sex workers in Hong Kong: moving beyond sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor A; Gray, Ann; Ling, Davina C

    2006-05-01

    For many years, the sex industry in Hong Kong has appeared to be an integral and ever-expanding component of the city's sociocultural and economic structure. Accordingly, the physical and psychological health of sex workers is becoming an increasing concern for the workers themselves, the public, and government policy. A cross-sectional survey on the quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL]) of female sex workers (FSWs) in Hong Kong was used to investigate the physical and psychological well-being of street FSWs, and the results were compared with those of non-sex-working Hong Kong women after adjusting for age, educational level, marital status, and health status. The 89 FSWs surveyed scored significantly lower on QOL--WHOQOL-BREF (HK)--measures compared with the non-sex-working women. One common aspect among these sex workers was their negative view of themselves and of life. Many sex workers were at risk of being abused while at work, and many women worked without legal protection. Most of the women surveyed engaged in sex work to support their families. Because their income was often insufficient, some of their needs, especially those concerning health, were often neglected. The low WHOQOL-BREF (HK) scores in FSWs indicate feelings of helplessness and entrapment, which may well result in detrimental effects on sex workers' health, self-esteem, and confidence when asserting their basic rights, such as access to healthcare and safety. The conclusion highlights the vulnerability of this population to apparent weaknesses in Hong Kong's current healthcare system.

  4. The Mouse That Roared: The Democratic Movement in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dirlik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The popular uprising in recent years in Hong Kong – “Occupy Central” a.k.a. Umbrella Movement – has again brought to the fore the question of the Special Administrative Region’s relationship with Mainland China post-1997 “handover” of the territory by the British colonial government to the People’s Republic of China. This article argues that the protests have their origins in a consciousness born of the anxieties provoked by the prospect of unification in the 1980s and 1990s, further evolved against the background of the unstable “one country, two systems” arrangement openly favoring the corporate and financial ruling class in Hong Kong which is in turn prepared to align its interests with those of the Communist regime in a mutually beneficial relationship. It also posits while the upheaval in Hong Kong bears similarities to other “Occupy” movements elsewhere in the economic issues that inform it, it may be viewed as the latest chapter in a narrative that goes back to the 1980s – the emergence of a neoliberal global capitalism of which the PRC has been an integral component, and the Tiananmen movement which was one of the earliest expressions of the social and political strains created by shifts in the global economy.

  5. Hair as an indicator of environmental exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven human hair samples were taken from the Chinese residents of Hong Kong for the study of hair trace elemental level and environmental exposure. Absolute neutron-activation analysis and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry were applied for the determination of the trace elemental level. After washing, each hair sample was air-dried at room temperature in acetone and water. The hair was weighed and encapsulated into the irradiation container. Typical sample weight was about 150 mg. The samples were irradiated at a neutron flux of 4.4x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Conditions of the irradiations and counting are tabulated. The trace element content of hair from a drug addict was found to be considerably different from other sampled peopie. Comparison of the normal concentrations of the trace elements of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong was made with those from people of various other national, socio-cultural and environmental backgrounds. It was found that together with a few other trace elements, Ni, Sr, Zr, and Hg content of the Chinese residents of Hong Kong show a higher level than those of the other sampled people. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  6. [Occupational injuries among construction workers in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zihui; Chen, Weiqing

    2002-02-01

    To explore the nature and severity of occupational injuries among construction workers and its risk factors in Hong Kong. One hundred and twenty-two injured construction workers in a public hospital and an equal number of workmate controls were studied. Contents included socio -demographic characteristics, the availability and use of safety equipment, smoking and alcohol consumption, etc. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) and injury severity score (ISS) were employed for describing the nature, pattern and severity of injuries. Single injuries were seen in 80% of cases. Of 149 injuries classified by body region, 49% were external, 26% involved either the upper or lower extremities, and 11% were spinal injuries. Working at height was associated with the injury severity score. Safety hazards were identified in the work environment in 68% of the cases. Significant odds ratios for accidents were obtained for 'no formal education', 'non safety training' and 'current smokers'. The results implicated that construction was a hazardous occupation in Hong Kong. Improving the work environment and promoting safety education among construction workers would be helpful for minimizing or eliminating occupational injuries in construction occupation in Hong Kong.

  7. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Hong Kong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2010-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.

  8. Understanding the Underwater Behaviour of Scuba Divers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan-shan; Au, Alfred; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Diving-related activities may constitute a major threat to coral reefs. This study aimed to quantify the impact of diving in Hong Kong on hard corals and understand how socio-economic characteristics and experience level of divers influence diver-inflicted damage. We recorded and analysed the underwater behaviour of 81 recreational divers. On average, a diver was in contact with marine biota 14.7 times with about 40 % of contacts involved corals and 38 % were damaging contacts with corals or other biota in a single dive. The most harm-inflicting groups included inexperienced and camera-carrying divers. Although Hong Kong divers did not make many damaging contacts with corals, there is still an imminent need to determine the scale of damage from diving activities on the marine ecosystem given the rapid development of marine-based tourism and the limited coral-inhabited areas in Hong Kong where the marine environment is already under stress from anthropogenic activities.

  9. 'Let's talk about sex' - A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice study among Paediatric Nurses about Teen Sexual Health in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Sheng, Xiao-Tong; Chan, Vivian Wai-Yen; Wong, Lilian Hiu-Lei; Lee, Susanna Wai-Yee; Abraham, Anisha Anna

    2015-09-01

    To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of paediatric nurses in Hong Kong towards adolescent sexual health issues. In Hong Kong, teens are becoming more sexually permissive. As a result, early sexual activity, Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and unplanned pregnancies among adolescents are increasing. Paediatric nurses are potentially excellent sexual health educators; however, studies in other countries have reported that nurses have inadequate knowledge and skills about sexual health. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses in Hong Kong related to teen sexual health. This is a cross-sectional survey study. The survey was developed after an extensive literature review and partially adapted from previously validated questionnaires on nursing needs, knowledge, attitude and practice. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire in Chinese was distributed to 500 nurses in Hong Kong attending a local paediatric conference. Participants (n = 394) were recruited using convenience sampling methods. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation tests and logistic regression analyses. The majority of nurses had a high awareness of the importance of sexual healthcare, but rarely felt knowledgeable or comfortable discussing sexual health issues with adolescents. Higher comfort level was associated with higher frequency of practice with an average adjusted odds ratios of 2·64. Inadequate or lack of training (39·4%) was the most significant barrier in providing adolescent sexual health screening and counselling. Nurses' clinical practices towards adolescent's sexual health issues were influenced by their perceived comfort level followed by their self-ranked knowledge and training experience. Further specific training on communication, counselling and general sexual health should be provided to nurses in Hong Kong. Nurses' comfort level was the most important factor influencing their clinical practice with teens

  10. Predicting user concerns about online privacy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Zhang, Jinguang

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies on people's online privacy concerns have largely been conducted in the West. The global threat of privacy violations on the Internet calls for similar studies to be done in non-Western regions. To fill this void, the current study develops a path model to investigate the influence of people's Internet use-related factors, their beliefs in the right to privacy, and psychological need for privacy on Hong Kong people's concerns about online privacy. Survey responses from 332 university students were analyzed. Results from this study show that people's belief in the right to privacy was the most important predictor of their online privacy concerns. It also significantly mediated the relationship between people's psychological need for privacy and their concerns with privacy violations online. Moreover, while frequent use of the Internet may increase concerns about online privacy issues, Internet use diversity may actually reduce such worries. The final model, well supported by the observed data, successfully explained 25% of the variability in user concerns about online privacy.

  11. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and attitudes toward regulatory measures: A Denmark-Hong Kong comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    eating habits with healthy eating than Danish respondents. Danish respondents were more likely to practice healthy eating at schools than Hong Kong respondents. Making tanks of cold water freely available everywhere was perceived to be most effective in discouraging the consumption of soft drink. Danish......This study explores cross cultural differences in the perceptions of healthy eating, contexts where healthy or unhealthy eating are practiced, and consumer evaluation of regulatory measures that discourage the consumption of unhealthy foods such as soft drinks. A survey was conducted of 386 Danish...... and Chinese adolescents using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on concepts such as balance and moderation. Unhealthy eating was most frequently practiced at parties and in festive periods. Hong Kong respondents were more likely to associate...

  12. Microplastic pollution in the marine waters and sediments of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y Y; Mak, C W; Liebich, C; Lam, S W; Sze, E T-P; Chan, K M

    2017-02-15

    The presence of plastic waste with a diameter of less than 5mm ("microplastics") in marine environments has prompted increasing concern in recent years, both locally and globally. We conducted seasonal surveys of microplastic pollution in the surface waters and sediments from Deep Bay, Tolo Harbor, Tsing Yi, and Victoria Harbor in Hong Kong between June 2015 and March 2016. The average concentrations of microplastics in local coastal waters and sediments respectively ranged from 51 to 27,909particles per 100m 3 and 49 to 279particles per kilogram. Microplastics of different shapes (mainly fragments, lines, fibers, and pellets) were identified as polypropylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, a blend of polypropylene and ethylene propylene, and styrene acrylonitrile by means of Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This is the first comprehensive study to assess the spatial and temporal variations of microplastic pollution in Hong Kong coastal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2018-07-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  14. Working with extreme urban density: Hong Kong. A prototype of mixed-use building in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wing-Chung; Varela, Joana

    2008-01-01

    Urban sprawl, a solution to house fast-growing metropolitan populations, dilutes the substance of cities and generates extensive uniformly built fabrics lacking structural poles of attraction. Hong Kong is one of the seldom exceptions of this general tendency. Constrained by its geographic conditions and its historical background, the city has remained compact and reached elevated levels of density. This extreme concentration of population and its impact upon urban form constitute an excellen...

  15. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  16. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. METHODS: Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010, a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years. TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01. Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24 after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15 and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35. Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. CONCLUSIONS: A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  17. Television Viewing Time in Hong Kong Adult Population: Associations with Body Mass Index and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M.; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Methods Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009–2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age≥18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Results Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all PTV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24) after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15) and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35). Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese. Conclusions A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing – BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing. PMID:24427309

  18. The Long-Term Impact of Service-Learning on Graduates' Civic Engagement and Career Exploration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hok-ka, Carol Ma; Wing-fung, Chad Chan; Cheung-ming, Alfred Chan

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a relatively new pedagogy in Hong Kong and so far, no study of SL's long-term impact in Hong Kong exists. To explore SL's impacts on Hong Kong students, researchers conducted a quantitative study to compare graduates with SL experience to graduates without SL experience in terms of three domains: (1) adaptability, brain…

  19. All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

  20. Perceptions of Disadvantaged Youth on Social and Economic Asymmetry: A Case Study in Hong Kong's New Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Many social issues exist for marginalized youth in the New Territories of Hong Kong, despite Hong Kong's high standard of living. Increasingly, attention is being paid to social mobility of Hong Kong's younger generations. Youth in the New Territories face academic, economic, social and cultural barriers, in part due to tracking into low-ranked…

  1. Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…

  2. Identity and Sense of Belonging in Post-Colonial Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Fong, Yiu-Chak

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of…

  3. A Model of Active Ageing through Elder Learning: The Elder Academy Network in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Elder Academy (EA) Network as the policy and practice in promoting active ageing through elder learning in Hong Kong. First, the article examines how the change in demographics and the prevalent trend of an ageing population have propelled the government in Hong Kong to tackle issues and challenges brought about by an…

  4. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  5. Hong Kong and China: 'One Country, Two Systems'? Headline Series No. 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Frank

    This booklet chronicles the emergence of Hong Kong through its stormy history and examines the current status as changes are underway with the return of Hong Kong to China. Maps and charts illustrate the text. Chapters include: (1) Prelude; (2) "The Tiananmen Massacre and Its Aftermath"; (3) "Transition Years: 1991-96"; (4)…

  6. Dancing with Global Trends: Higher Education Policy and University Governance in Hong Kong, 1997-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Tang, Hei-Hang Hayes

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the significance of global trends in higher education (HE) development in Hong Kong between 1997 and 2012. Two trends, massification and internationalisation, are considered key driving forces that shaped Hong Kong's HE policy during the period. The former refers to government measures to widen participation in HE. The latter…

  7. School Adjustment, Social Support, and Mental Health of Mainland Chinese College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Raymond Chi-Fai; Chan, Chi-Keung

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of school adjustment and social support with the mental health of mainland Chinese college students studying in Hong Kong. During the spring semester in 2011, 384 mainland Chinese college students across the postsecondary institutions in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire. Results showed that better school…

  8. Community Work across Ideological Boundaries: The Case of Hong Kong and Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Bong-ho

    1993-01-01

    Despite contrasts between capitalist Hong Kong and socialist Guangzhou, the two cities' community work is similar in terms of superficial emphasis on citizen participation, maintenance of status quo, and consensus orientation. The imminent changeover in Hong Kong's sovereignty will change social welfare services in both cities. (SK)

  9. The Challenges for Educational Achievements of Young Mainland Chinese Migrants in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Cheung

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's population has increased by around one million per decade from the end of World War II till the 1990s. A large proportion of this growth came from the mass influx of migrants from Mainland China, and the children born to them. During the 1960s and 1970s when Hong Kong's economy was booming rapidly, career advancement opportunities were…

  10. Emotional Autonomy and Perceived Parenting Styles: Relational Analysis in the Hong Kong Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Wai; Chan, Siu Mui

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred and seven teacher education students of a Hong Kong university were administered two questionnaires, one measuring emotional autonomy (EAS) and the other measuring perceived parenting styles (PAQ) of their parents. It was found that the Hong Kong teacher education students tended to be autonomous and they characterized their parents…

  11. Social Development in Hong Kong: Development Issues Identified by Social Development Index (SDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoi-wai; Wong, Anthony K. W.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Surviving the aftermaths of the Asian Financial Crisis and SARS in 2003, Hong Kong's economy has re-gained its momentum and its economic growth has been quite remarkable too in recent few years. Nevertheless, as reflected by the Social Development Index (SDI), economic growth in Hong Kong does not seem to have benefited the people of the city at…

  12. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyi; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates…

  13. Indicators and Implications of Zero Tolerance of Corruption: The Case of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Wang, Shiru

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the voluminous studies of Hong Kong's anticorruption experience and the admiration the ICAC has earned from other governments as a model for "institutional engineering," little is known about how the public in Hong Kong has perceived and responded to corruption. Less clear is what factors beyond a powerful and independent…

  14. Liberal Studies Reform in Hong Kong Secondary Education: Contrasting Desirability with Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ping Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In major curriculum reforms, there are inevitably gaps between design and implementation issues, taking the introduction of liberal studies (LS) into the senior secondary curriculum in Hong Kong as a classic example. The current paper illustrates how the implementation of LS as a compulsory core subject has impacted noticeably on Hong Kong senior…

  15. Science and Biology Assessment in Hong Kong--Progress and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, May Hung; Cheung, Wing Ming Francis

    2005-01-01

    A paper was published in JBE in 2001 which examined the background of the education reform launched in 2000 in Hong Kong, and reviewed existing practices as well as beliefs in science and biology assessment among secondary teachers in Hong Kong. The direction of the reform was to take the emphasis away from public examinations as the sole…

  16. Cantonese-English Code-Switching Research in Hong Kong: A Y2K Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the major works on code switching in Hong Kong to date. Four context-specific motivations commonly found in the Hong Kong Chinese Press--euphemism, specificity, bilingual punning, and principle of economy--are adduced to show that English is one of the important linguistic resources used by Chinese Hongkongers to fulfill a variety of…

  17. Talking about AIDS in Hong Kong: Cultural Models in Public Health Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rodney H.

    A study explored the issues of cultural identity and interaction in public health discourse concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Hong Kong's multilingual, multicultural social context. Twenty public service announcements (PSAs) concerning AIDS awareness televised in both English and Cantonese in Hong Kong from 1987 to 1994 were…

  18. Dealing with Change in Hong Kong Schools Using Strategic Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Pisapia, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the strategic thinking skills of school leaders in Hong Kong. By adapting the Strategic Thinking Questionnaire in the school context and based on data self-reported from 543 Hong Kong school leaders, three cognitive capabilities with strategic thinking were identified: reflection, systems thinking and…

  19. Voices of Donors: Case Reports of Body Donation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L.; Chan, Lap Ki

    2012-01-01

    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide…

  20. Flânerie and Acrophilia in the Postmetropolis: Rooftops in Hong Kong Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Y.F.; de Kloet, J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in the spectacle of Hong Kong's skyscape, how often do its dwellers actually see, not to mention reach, its rooftops? Intriguingly, despite their apparent ephemerality and inaccessibility, the vertical fringes of the city feature frequently in Hong Kong cinema: the rooftop. In this article,

  1. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  2. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  3. A Pilot Study of Using Jazz Warm Up Exercises in Primary School Choir in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason Chi Wai; Lee, Han Wai

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study is to examine whether it is valuable to implement jazz choral practice in Hong Kong primary school setting. The findings can serve as a reference to explore the possibilities of promoting jazz education in Asian countries or in China. The participants were 70 public primary school students from grade 2 to 5 in Hong Kong. All…

  4. Implementing the Project Approach: A Case Study of Hybrid Pedagogy in a Hong Kong Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer J.; Li, Hui; Wang, Jing-ying

    2017-01-01

    The Project Approach has been promoted in Hong Kong kindergartens since the 1990s. However, the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms involved in the teachers' implementation of this pedagogical method there have not yet been fully investigated. This case study of one typical kindergarten in Hong Kong documented how and why eight teachers…

  5. The Development of Local Private Primary and Secondary Schooling in Hong Kong, 1841-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Randall, E. Vance; Tam, Man Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes sources from published official documents,…

  6. Homework Involvement and Functions: Perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C. W.; Chan, Raymond M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of Chinese students and parents in Hong Kong on homework involvement, assignment type and homework functions. The relationships of homework perceptions to student and parent attributes are also assessed. The sample includes 1393 pairs of students and their parents from 36 primary schools in Hong Kong. Findings…

  7. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  8. Earth Sciences as a Vehicle for Gifted Education--The Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Phillip J.; Chan, Lung Sang; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The development and delivery of an Earth-science-focused short course designed to prepare Hong Kong students for university level study is described. Earth sciences provide an inspirational and challenging context for learning and teaching in Hong Kong's increasingly skills-based curriculum. (Contains 3 figures and 4 online resources.)

  9. Predictors of Suicide Ideation and Depression in Hong Kong Adolescents: Perceptions of Academic and Family Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret T. Y.; Wong, Betty P.; Chow, Bonnie W.-Y.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The unique dimensions of perceptions of school and family contributing to depression and suicide ideation in Hong Kong adolescents were examined in two studies. In Study 1, among 327 Hong Kong Chinese female students ages 13-18, 47% reported some suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was significantly associated with depression, test anxiety,…

  10. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  11. Ideology, Linguistic Capital and the Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Keith; Lui, Icy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the links between linguistic capital, cultural capital, linguistic imperialism, and the use of English as the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong. Suggests that the notion of linguistic imperialism in Hong Kong is superceded by the notion of linguistic capital, although neither presents a complete analysis of the MOI issue in Hong…

  12. Workplace Communication in a Time of Transition: The Case of Hong Kong's Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Examines language in the workplace, specifically the construction industry in Hong Kong. Provides detailed information on language use in a professional context at the time of Hong Kong's return to China and shows that written communication is mainly in English, while spoken language is predominately Cantonese. (Author/VWL)

  13. Opening up a Road to Somewhere: Development of Associate Degree Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wincy W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Associate (community college) degrees have expanded rapidly in the past decade in Hong Kong, but their value has been questioned due to the limited number of government-funded articulation opportunities available. This paper argues that associate degrees in Hong Kong are not valued solely for articulation purposes, but also for nurturing students'…

  14. Investigation of Hong Kong Doctors' Current Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, Confidence and Practices: Implications for the Treatment of Tobacco Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saleh M. Abdullah

    2006-10-01

    Conclusion: The survey has shown that existing smoking cessation service provision in Hong Kong for patients who smoke is inadequate, and has identified a lack of smoking cessation skills among doctors. Action should be taken to train doctors in smoking cessation skills and encourage them to routinely establish the smoking status of their patients and to advise all smokers to quit smoking.

  15. Construction and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Attitudes towards Human Rights of Liberal Studies Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Chow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Liberal Studies, which can be used as a platform for human rights education, was newly introduced as a compulsory subject for the senior secondary students in Hong Kong. As teacher's attitudes impact students' learning largely, a survey was conducted in 2010 to measure Liberal Studies teachers' attitudes towards human rights. This article…

  16. To What Extent Does Hong Kong Primary School Students' Chinese Reading Comprehension Benefit from After-School Private Tuition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Shek Kam

    2014-01-01

    The reading attainment of the 3,875 primary 4 Hong Kong primary school students participating in the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study ranked first among 49 countries and regions surveyed worldwide. Analysis of the association between (a) participating students' reading attainment and (b) responses to questionnaires completed…

  17. Cross-boundary substance uses among Hong Kong Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Lam, Lawrence T; Lau, Mason

    2007-09-01

    The study documents the characteristics of Hong Kong residents who used substances in mainland China. Characteristics of such users were compared with those using substances elsewhere. A cross-sectional survey was used. Data analyses were stratified by gender, and multivariate analyses were performed. Respondents, Hong Kong adults aged 18-30 (n = 6,528), were interviewed using a mixed interviewer and computerized mobile phone method, at the Hong Kong-mainland China boundary. Cross-border substance users and other types of substance users had characteristics that were quite different (e.g., education level, perceived harmfulness of substance use in general, having friends who frequently used substances in mainland China). Cross-boundary substance users also found it easier to obtain substances in mainland China than in Hong Kong (males: 60.5%, females: 39.6%) and perceived no chance of being arrested in mainland China because of substance use (men: 28.8%, women: 24.5%). They tended to use substances in discos/rave parties together with friends (men: 77%, women: 81%), and substances were often obtained for free (men: 63.2%, women: 78%). Ecstasy and ketamine were often used (men: 86.5% & 79.4%, women: 81% & 70.2%), and multiple uses of different substances were common (men: 81.3%, women: 68.6%). Lower price, peer influence, and better availability were reasons behind cross-boundary substance use behaviors. Cross-boundary substance users have specific characteristics. Prevention policies should take these characteristics into account. Regional collaborations are highly warranted.

  18. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction among children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H S S; Lau, P H B; Fong, K H; Poon, D; Lam, C C C

    2005-10-01

    To study children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong, their neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction in society. Parents' opinion on current medical and rehabilitation services was also sought. Systematic survey using questionnaires. Four associations in Hong Kong: Child Assessment Service, Hong Kong Association for Parents of Children with Physical Disabilities, Association of Parents of the Severely Mentally Handicapped, and Hong Kong Physically Handicapped and Able-Bodied Association. Parents of children with cerebral palsy. Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction. Information from 181 children with cerebral palsy was analysed. Among them, 56% were boys. The mean age was 7 years 6 months (standard deviation, 3 years 11 months). The most common diagnostic type was spastic cerebral palsy. Co-morbidities in children with cerebral palsy were common. Limitation in daily activities including mobility and self-care tasks was considerable and this posed great stress to parents when taking care of their children. Children's participation in both social and leisure activities was regarded as a low priority. A high percentage (70%) of parents reported difficulty in travelling. The reasons involved problems in transportation, building access (entry and exit), and attitudes of the general public. These environmental factors restricted the social participation of the children and their families. Over 75% of parents were satisfied with the current medical and rehabilitation services. Children with cerebral palsy have multiple and complex needs. The findings of this study may serve as a reference for parents, service providers, and policy makers to work in partnership to achieve a more comprehensive health-care service for children with cerebral palsy and to facilitate better integration into the community.

  19. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) carrying Rickettsia felis and Bartonella species in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan; Lawrence, Andrea; Reichel, Michael P

    2018-04-01

    Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%). HK-h1 was identical to cox1 sequences of fleas in Thailand and Fiji. HK-h1 and HK-h2 form a distinct cat flea cox1 clade previously recognized as the Clade 3. HK-h3 forms a new Clade 6. A multiplex Bartonella and Rickettsia real-time PCR of DNA from 20 C. felis found Bartonella and Rickettsia DNA in three (15%) and ten (50%) C. felis, respectively. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of R. felis, B. clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. This is the first reported study of that kind in Hong Kong, and further work is required to expand the survey of companion animals in the geographical region. The sampling of fleas on domestic cats and dogs in Hong Kong revealed them to be exclusively infested by the cat flea and to be harbouring pathogens of zoonotic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term care cost drivers and expenditure projection to 2036 in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hong Kong's rapidly ageing population, characterised by one of the longest life expectancies and the lowest fertility rate in the world, is likely to drive long-term care (LTC expenditure higher. This study aims to identify key cost drivers and derive quantitative estimates of Hong Kong's LTC expenditure to 2036. Methods We parameterised a macro actuarial simulation with data from official demographic projections, Thematic Household Survey 2004, Hong Kong's Domestic Health Accounts and other routine data from relevant government departments, Hospital Authority and other LTC service providers. Base case results were tested against a wide range of sensitivity assumptions. Results Total projected LTC expenditure as a proportion of GDP reflected secular trends in the elderly dependency ratio, showing a shallow dip between 2004 and 2011, but thereafter yielding a monotonic rise to reach 3.0% by 2036. Demographic changes would have a larger impact than changes in unit costs on overall spending. Different sensitivity scenarios resulted in a wide range of spending estimates from 2.2% to 4.9% of GDP. The availability of informal care and the setting of formal care as well as associated unit costs were important drivers of expenditure. Conclusion The "demographic window" between the present and 2011 is critical in developing policies to cope with the anticipated burgeoning LTC burden, in concert with the related issues of health care financing and retirement planning.

  1. Factors that affect the willingness of residents to pay for solid waste management in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Iris M H; Chung, William

    2018-03-01

    In Hong Kong, problems involving solid waste management have become an urgent matter in recent years. To solve these problems, the Hong Kong government proposed three policies, namely, waste charging, landfill extension, and development of new incinerators. In this study, a large sample questionnaire survey was conducted to examine the knowledge and attitude of residents on the three policies, the amount of their daily waste disposal, and their willingness to pay (WTP). Results reveal that only 22.7% of respondents are aware of the earliest time that one of the landfills will be sated, and more than half of respondents support the three policies. However, more than one third of residents (36.1%) are unwilling to pay the minimum waste charge amount of HK$30 estimated by the Council for Sustainable Development in Hong Kong. Logit model results indicate that five key factors affect WTP, namely, knowledge of residents on the timing of landfill fullness, degree of support in waste charge policy, amount of daily waste disposal, age, and income. These results suggest that strong and rigorous promotional and educational programs are needed to improve the knowledge and positive attitude of residents towards recycling methods and the three policies. However, subsidy should be provided to low-income groups who cannot afford to pay the waste charge.

  2. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.

  3. Post-Umbrella Movement: Localism and Radicalness of the Hong Kong Student Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-po Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.

  4. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  5. The stroller in the virtual city: Spatial practice of Hong Kong players in Sleeping Dogs

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    Ge Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping Dogs is an open-world role-playing game developed by United Front Games, a Canadian Studio based in Vancouver, in conjunction with Square Enix London Studios and released by Square Enix in 2012. The game features the city of Hong Kong and the society of Chinese Triads. While the game itself is mainly a representation of post-colonial Hong Kong targeting a transnational audience entrenched in similar gameplay mechanics of the genre, the native Hong Kong players react to these reconstructions of Hong Kong through their own gameplay and unique interpretations. The virtual city is not a static representation but a congruence of vigorous interactions between the originally designed space and gamic actions of the players. This paper seeks to explore the spatial and bodily practices of Sleeping Dogs players in the virtual terrain of Hong Kong through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.

  6. Nurturing Gifted and Talented Students to Become Future Leaders: The Innovative Curriculum for the Gifted and/or Talented at GT College in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Raymond Kwok-Wai

    2017-01-01

    In the previous literature on gifted education in Hong Kong, there has been little mention of special schools for gifted and/or talented students in Hong Kong except for GT College, Hong Kong's first college for the gifted. Some notable researchers in gifted education in Hong Kong have described the college briefly with regard to its admission…

  7. Postgraduate education for Chinese medicine practitioners: a Hong Kong perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in

  8. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  9. Electronic cigarette awareness and use among adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Man-Ping; McGhee, Sarah M; Kwong, Antonio C S; Lai, Vienna W Y; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity rapidly in the Western world but data in the East are scarce. We examined the awareness and ever use of e-cigarettes, and reasons for e-cigarette use in a probability sample of adults in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2014 from Chinese adults aged 15-65 in Hong Kong (819 never smokers, 800 former smokers, 800 current smokers) via computer-assisted telephone interviews (response rate: 73.8%). Analysis was limited to a subset of 809 respondents (i.e., 357 never smokers, 269 former smokers, 183 current smokers) who were randomly selected to answer questions on e-cigarettes. Chi-square analyses compared e-cigarette awareness and ever use by gender, age, education, and cigarette smoking status. Multivariable logistic regression examined if e-cigarette awareness was associated with demographic variables and cigarette smoking status. 75.4% of adults had heard of e-cigarettes, and 2.3% reported having used e-cigarettes. Greater awareness was associated with male gender and higher education. Ever use of e-cigarettes was higher among males (3.6%, p=.03), younger adults (aged 15-29, 5.2%, p=.002), and current cigarette smokers (11.8%, preasons for using e-cigarettes were curiosity (47.4%), the stylish product design (25.8%), and quitting smoking (13.6%). Awareness of e-cigarettes was widespread in Hong Kong. Although the use of e-cigarettes was low, its relation with younger age and current smoking is of concern. Health surveillance of e-cigarette use is needed. Interventions should target young adults and cigarette smokers, and address the marketing messages, especially the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  11. Population dose due to natural radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, M.Y.W.; Leung, J.K.C.

    2000-01-01

    In densely populated cities such as Hong Kong where people live and work in high-rise buildings that are all built with concrete, the indoor gamma dose rate and indoor radon concentration are not wide ranging. Indoor gamma dose rates (including cosmic rays) follow a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 0.22 ± 0.04 (micro)Gy h -1 , whereas indoor radon concentrations follow a log-normal distribution with geometric means of 48 ± 1 Bq m -3 and 90 ± 2 Bq m -3 for the two main categories of buildings: residential and non-residential. Since different occupations result in different occupancy in different categories of buildings, the annual total dose [indoor and outdoor radon effective dose + indoor and outdoor gamma absorbed dose (including cosmic ray)] to the population in Hong Kong was estimated based on the number of people for each occupation; the occupancy of each occupation; indoor radon concentration distribution and indoor gamma dose rate distribution for each category of buildings; outdoor radon concentration and gamma dose rate; and indoor and outdoor cosmic ray dose rates. The result shows that the annual doses for every occupation follow a log-normal distribution. This is expected since the total dose is dominated by radon effective dose, which has a log-normal distribution. The annual dose to the population of Hong Kong is characterized by a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean of 2.4 mSv and a geometric standard deviation of 1.3 mSv

  12. Nearwork-induced transient myopia in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James Stuart; Gilmartin, Bernard; Li, Roger Wing-hong; Edwards, Marion Hastings; Chat, Sandy Wing-shan; Lew, John Kwok-fai; Yu, Bibianna Sin-ying

    2003-05-01

    To compare the magnitude and time course of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) in preadolescent Hong Kong Chinese myopes and emmetropes. Forty-five Hong Kong Chinese children, 35 myopes and 10 emmetropes aged 6 to 12 years (median, 7.5), monocularly viewed a letter target through a Badal lens for 5 minutes at either 5.00- or 2.50-D accommodative demand, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the equivalent target at optical infinity. Accommodative responses were measured continuously with a modified, infrared, objective open-field autorefractor. Accommodative responses were also measured for a countercondition: viewing of a letter target for 5 minutes at optical infinity, followed by 3 minutes of viewing the target at a 5.00-D accommodative demand. The results were compared with tonic accommodation and both subject and family history of refractive error. Retinal-blur-driven NITM was significantly greater in Hong Kong Chinese children with myopic vision than in the emmetropes after both near tasks, but showed no significant dose effect. The NITM was still evident 3 minutes after viewing the 5.00-D near task for 5 minutes. The magnitude of NITM correlated with the accommodative drift after viewing a distant target for more than 4 minutes, but was unrelated to the subjects' or family history of refractive error. In a preadolescent ethnic population with known predisposition to myopia, there is a significant posttask blur-driven accommodative NITM, which is sustained for longer than has previously been found in white adults.

  13. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong; Millicent Pui Sze Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gamin...

  14. A radiological accident consequence assessment system for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Lam, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the Hong Kong Radiological Accident Consequence Assessment System which would be used to assess the potential consequences of an emergency situation involving atmospheric release of radioactive material. The system has the capability to acquire real-time meteorological information from the Observatory's network of automatic stations, synoptic stations in the nearby region as well as forecast data from numerical prediction models. The system makes use of these data to simulate the transport and dispersion of the released radioactive material. The effectiveness of protective action on the local population is also modeled. The system serves as a powerful aid in the protective action recommendation processes

  15. Hong kong working class and union organization: A historical glimpse

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Sek Hong; Ip, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to sketch a longitudinal profile on the evolution of a working class in Hong Kong context in light of the thesis of embourgeoisement. The increasing economic affluence in the 1980s and early 1990s appeared to have bred an optimism in society that the members of the working class were converging in life-style and consumption behaviour with the middle class in a process of embourgeoisement. However, the thesis of embourgeoisement comes under question again around the turn of...

  16. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  17. Occlusion therapy in amblyopia: an experience from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Emily W H; Li, Brian C Y; Yeung, Ian Y L; Li, Kenneth K W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the results of patching for amblyopia management in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Records of all patients attending Paediatric Ophthalmology Clinic at United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong from 1 January 2009 to 31 March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Records of all children who underwent patching for amblyopia in the study period were evaluated. RESULTS. The mean age of 50 children (50 eyes) was 4 (standard deviation, 1; range, 2-7) years and mean pretreatment visual acuity was 0.35 (0.15; 0.02-0.63) [~20/60]. The values for mean, standard deviation, and range of treatment duration were 27, 16, 4-67 months respectively, and corresponding values for prescribed patching per day were 4, 1, 2-8 hours. The mean, standard deviation, and range of visual acuity at final post-treatment assessment were 0.66, 0.16, 0.1-1.0 (~20/30), respectively. The overall success rate (ie final visual acuity >0.7 or 20/30) was 62%. Children with moderate amblyopia (20/40-20/80) and severe amblyopia (20/100-20/400) had success rates of 74% and 55%, respectively. The mean visual acuity improvements for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 2.3 lines and 5.8 lines, respectively. The mean, standard deviation, and range of patching prescriptions for moderate and severely amblyopic children were 5, 1, 2-7 hours and 5, 1, 3-6 hours, respectively. Recurrence ensued in 7% of the children with moderate amblyopia and 46% of those with severe amblyopia. Reported compliance was good (>75% of the time) in 68% of the children. CONCLUSION. Occlusion therapy is the mainstay of treatment in Hong Kong. The overall success rate was comparable to that achieved in the Amblyopia Treatment Study. Recurrence was more common in patients with severe amblyopia, for whom maintenance therapy may reduce the risk of recurrence. The duration of treatment was much longer in our locality than in western countries. Reported

  18. A review of selected derived intervention levels for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.L.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    A review on the computation of derived intervention levels (DILs) for the internal pathways of exposure namely inhalation of plume and of resuspended radionuclides and ingestion of contaminated food and water is provided. The main parameters which depend on individual metabolism and habit (i.e., inhalation rate and food consumption pattern) of local population are revised. The DILs so calculated are very different from those based on parameters adopted by the Radiological Protection Advisory Group (RPAG) of the Hong Kong Government. Thus it is worthwhile to have an intensive review on the DILs based on more realistic local parameters. (6 tabs.)

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Tam, Helena M K; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems.

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Hong Kong: A Review of Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rising public health concern regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI implies a growing need for rehabilitation services for patients surviving TBI. Methods. To this end, this paper reviews the practices and research on TBI rehabilitation in Hong Kong so as to inform future developments in this area. This paper begins by introducing the general situation of TBI patients in Hong Kong and the need for rehabilitation. Next, the trauma system in Hong Kong is introduced. Following that is a detailed description of the rehabilitation services for TBI patients in Hong Kong, as exemplified by a rehabilitation hospital in Hong Kong. This paper will also review intervention studies on rehabilitating brain-injured populations in Hong Kong with respect to various rehabilitation goals. Lastly, the implications of culture-related issues will be discussed in relation to TBI. Results/Conclusions. The intervention studies conducted in Hong Kong are generally successful in achieving various rehabilitative outcomes. Additionally, certain cultural-related issues, such as the stigma associated with TBI, may impede the rehabilitative process and lead to various psychosocial problems.

  1. Cough mixtures: rational or irrational prescribing in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Dickinson, James; Chan, Cynthia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the extent and how cough mixtures are prescribed, and what conditions or specific groups of people would contribute to its prescription in Hong Kong. Using diagnosis and drug data obtained from logbooks submitted by participants in the diploma in family medicine course between 1999 and 2003, we selected and analysed all patients with a diagnosis of cough or cough-related illnesses as well as cough mixtures that were used to treat them. This study confirmed that cough-related illnesses were common in the Hong Kong primary care setting and cough mixtures were used quite liberally irrespective of the patients' age and sex. Combination preparations accounted for over half of the prescriptions and cough mixture was used less in severe cases when antibiotics were given. Private doctors working in the public sector. Given the current health care system, inappropriate and over-prescribing of cough mixtures can be improved by promoting health education and awareness among patients seeking medical help for this common medical condition.

  2. Patch testing of 490 patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Lam, T H

    1996-07-01

    Patch testing, using European standard allergens and suspected causative substances brought in by patients, was carried out in 490 patients with eczema in Hong Kong and 437 completed the test. Before patch testing, 244, 141 and 105 patients were diagnosed as having contact dermatitis, endogenous eczema and unclassified eczema, respectively. After patch testing, the diagnosis of the causal agent was changed in 54 contact dermatitis patients, and 18% of endogenous eczema patients and 34% of unclassified eczema patients were re-diagnosed as contact dermatitis. In the patients with a final diagnosis of contact dermatitis, 19.5% were positive to fragrance mix, followed by nickel sulfate (16.4%) and cobalt chloride (11.3%). The commonest causative agents for contact dermatitis were soap or detergent (22.0%) and traditional Chinese medicine (17.3%); the latter was a more common cause of contact dermatitis than Western medicine (9.0%) or metals (13.4%). The prevalence of allergic reaction to fragrance in Hong Kong was higher than among Chinese in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei or Singapore (78% ethnic Chinese). Dermatologists should have a high index of suspicion about traditional medications and should patch test with the suspected substance when patients give a history of use.

  3. Prevalence of workplace violence against nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R P W; Law, Y K; Li, K E; Ng, Y C; Cheung, M H; Fung, V K P; Kwok, K T T; Tong, J M K; Yen, P F; Leung, W C

    2006-02-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses, and how nurses deal with such aggression; and to identify the risk factors related to violence in the hospital environment. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. All nursing staff in the hospital, except nurses who were unable to read Chinese or who did not have patient contact (eg those worked in administrative positions), were invited to complete a questionnaire. Demographic data of the respondents, incidence of and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. A total of 420 nurses returned the completed questionnaire (response rate, 25%). Three hundred and twenty (76%; 95% confidence interval, 72-80%) nurses reported abuse of any kind--verbal abuse, 73%; bullying, 45%; physical abuse, 18%; and sexual harassment, 12%. Most (82%) nurses who experienced verbal abuse tended to confide in friends, family members, or colleagues. Some (42%) ignored the incident. Risk factors for workplace violence included: working in male wards and in certain specialties such as the Accident and Emergency Department, Community Nursing Service, and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department. Workplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in Hong Kong. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  4. Distributions and Concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.B.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.; Zhao, Q.G.; Zhang, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 μg kg -1 (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively. - Baseline information is provided on levels, distributions and possible sources of PAHs in Hong Kong soils

  5. Use of antibiotics by primary care doctors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tai

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the use of antibiotics by primary care doctors. Methods General practitioners in Hong Kong were invited to fill in a short questionnaire on every patient with infection that they had seen on the first full working day once every three months for four consecutive quarters starting from December 2005. Results Forty six primary care doctors took part and a total of 3096 completed questionnaires were returned. The top three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (46.7%, gastrointestinal infection (8.2% and pharyngitis (7.1%. Thirty percent of patient encounters with infections were prescribed antibiotics but only 5.2% of patient encounters with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were prescribed antibiotics. Amino-penicillins were the most commonly used antibiotics while beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs were the second most commonly used antibiotics and they accounted for 16.5% and 14.0% of all antibiotics used respectively. Of all patients or their carers, those who demanded or wished for antibiotics were far more likely to be prescribed antibiotics (Pearson chi-square test, p Conclusion The antibiotic prescribing patterns of primary care doctors in Hong Kong are broadly similar to primary care doctors in other developed countries but a relatively low rate of antibiotics is used for URTI.

  6. Interaction patterns of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.Z.; Wang, X.K.

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong is a major obstacle to improve air quality and living environment due to the high population density and the vehicle emission increases. The high air pollutant levels impose harm to the human health and impair the city image. The characteristic analysis of air pollutants is very important and necessary to pollutant monitoring, forecasting and controlling. In this study, the interaction patterns of principle air pollutants, e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxides (NO x ) and ozone (O 3 ), a secondary pollutant, are investigated based on the measured database in four selected areas, which covers two urban types (i.e. residential area, mixed residential/commercial/industrial area) in Hong Kong, during the period of 1999-2001. The study involves analyzing the chemical and physical properties, the characteristics of air pollutants and the factors affecting such interactions using statistical method. The results reveal several routines in urban air pollutants' variations, interaction and trends from macro aspect

  7. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  8. Consumption of pornographic materials in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cecilia M S; Shek, Daniel T L

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in pornography consumption and related psychosocial correlates (ie, positive youth development qualities and family function) among Hong Kong early adolescents. In this study, adolescent consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3 waves of longitudinal data. A total of 3,325 Secondary 1 students (Grade 7) from 28 schools participated in the study at Wave 1. The mean age of the participants was 12.6 years old (SD = .74). Results showed that the internet was the most common medium for consuming pornography materials. Boys consumed more pornographic materials than did girls. Findings showed that family functioning and positive youth development were negatively associated with consumption of pornographic materials over time. This study highlights the importance of developing adolescents' competencies and establishing an atmosphere that reduces the use of pornographic materials among adolescents. It sheds light on designing early prevention programs on pornography consumption for young people in Hong Kong. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contextual barriers to lifestyle physical activity interventions in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Frank F; Masters, Rich S W; McManus, Alison; Leung, Moon; Wong, Peggy; White, Mike J

    2008-05-01

    Increased lifestyle physical activity, for instance, use of active transport, is a current public health target. Active transport interventions that target stair climbing are consistently successful in English-speaking populations yet unsuccessful in Hong Kong. We report two further studies on active transport in the Hong Kong Chinese. Pedestrians on a mass transit escalator system (study 1) and in an air-conditioned shopping mall (study 2) were encouraged to take the stairs for their cardiovascular health by point-of-choice prompts. Observers coded sex, age, and walking on the mass transit system, with the additional variables of presence of children and bags coded in the shopping mall. In the first study, a 1-wk baseline was followed by 4 wk of intervention (N = 76,710) whereas in the second study (shopping mall) a 2-wk baseline was followed by a 2-wk intervention period (N = 18,257). A small but significant increase in stair climbing (+0.29%) on the mass transit system contrasted with no significant changes in the shopping mall (+0.09%). The active transport of walking on the mass transit system was reduced at higher rates of humidity and temperature, with steeper slopes for the effects of climate variables in men than in women. These studies confirm that lifestyle physical activity interventions do not have universal application. The context in which the behavior occurs (e.g., climate) may act as a barrier to active transport.

  10. Vicissitudes in the Hong Kong oil market, 1980-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Hong Kong, devoid of natural resources, has to import all the energy it consumes. Up to 1981, oil accounted for almost 100 per cent of the total primary energy requirement, of which about 59 per cent was used to generate electricity. Starting in 1982, the electricity sector switched to coal generation, leading to plummeting oil consumption. The conversion process was essentially completed by 1988. Local sales of oil products declined from 5.790 million kilolitres in 1981 to 3.470m kl in 1987, but climbed back to 5.157m kl in 1997; oil consumption stagnated between 1981 and 1997. This paper analyses the fluctuations in oil consumption during the period, covering use by the utility and non-utility sectors. Next, it deals with consumption of, and the factors involved in, the six major oil products, i.e. fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene and jet fuel. Interestingly, bunker sales, including air and sea transport, rose noticeably during these years, partly offsetting the effect of slumping oil sales to the power plants and helping boost total oil demand in the 1990s. Lastly, a glimpse into the future of the Hong Kong oil market is taken. (author)

  11. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hong Kong architecture 1945-2015 from colonial to global

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Charlie Q L

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the transformation from colonial to global – the formation, mechanism, events, works and people related to urban architecture. The book reveals hardships the city encountered in the 1950s and the glamour enjoyed in the 1980s. It depicts the public and private developments, and especially the public housing which has sheltered millions of residents. The author identifies the architects practising in the formative years and the representatives of a rising generation after the 1980s. Suffering from land shortage and a dense environment, the urban development of Hong Kong has in the past 70 years met the changing demands of fluctuating economic activities and a rising population. Architecture on the island has been shaped by social demands, the economy and technology. The buildings have been forged by the government, clients, planners, architects, many contractors and end-users. The built environment nurtures our life and is visual evidence of the way the city has developed. Hong Kong is a ...

  13. Recent clinical innovations in thoracic surgery in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze-Rui; Li, Zheng; Situ, Dong-Rong; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-08-01

    The concept of personalized medicine, which aims to provide patients with targeted therapies while greatly reducing surgical trauma, is gaining popularity among Asian clinicians. Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has rapidly gained popularity in Hong Kong for major lung resections, despite bringing new challenges such as interference between surgical instruments and insertion of the optical source through a single incision. Novel types of endocutters and thoracoscopes can help reduce the difficulties commonly encountered during single-port VATS. Our region has been the testing ground and has led the development of many of these innovations. Performing VATS, in particular single-port VATS in hybrid operating theatre helps to localise small pulmonary lesions with real-time images, thus increasing surgical accuracy and pushes the boundaries in treating subcentimeter diseases. Such approach may be assisted by use of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in the same setting. In addition, sublobar resection can also be more individualised according to pathologic tumour subtype that require rapid intraoperative diagnostic test to guide appropriate surgical therapy. A focus on technology and innovation for large tumours that require chest wall resection and reconstructions have also been on going, with new materials and prostheses that may be tailored to each individual needs. The current paper reviews the literature pertaining to the above topics and discusses recent related innovations in Hong Kong, highlighting the study results and future perspectives.

  14. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  15. Perceptions of professional attributes in medicine: a qualitative study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny C; Hsu, Enoch K; Hui, Edwin C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. Medical professionalism has been widely discussed in western scholarly literature. However, since Hong Kong has a mixed Chinese-western culture, it remains uncertain whether Hong Kong health care professionals, medical students, and patients see medical professionalism in exactly the same way as westerners. The objective of the present study was to explore perceptions of medical professionalism in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING. Medical faculty preceptors, residents, interns, nurses, and students from the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. Subjects were recruited at an out-patient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital. PARTICIPANTS. We interviewed 39 subjects, including six medical faculty preceptors, six hospital residents, four medical interns, eight nurses, eight out-patients, and seven medical students. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Grounded theory was employed for framing and analysing the interviews. RESULTS. A total of 30 primary themes were identified and grouped under three secondary themes, ie 'Expectations of a professional doctor', 'Work values', and 'Patient care'. In general, the primary themes were consistent with recognised professional attributes in western bioethics, such as knowledge and skills, holistic care, and communication skills. A closer analysis suggested that traditional Chinese thought also played an important role in shaping the medical professionalism of Hong Kong. Challenges to be faced by Hong Kong doctors due to recent social changes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Medical professionalism in Hong Kong is shaped by both western medical ethics and traditional Chinese thought. The values treasured by Hong Kong health care professionals as well as technological advance, and the city's proximity to Mainland China makes Hong Kong health care unique. It is important to maintain the present work attitudes and at the same time adapt to new social changes.

  16. Attitude and awareness of medical and dental students towards collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2015-05-02

    Medical-dental collaboration is essential for improving resource efficiency and standards of care. However, few studies have been conducted on it. This study aimed to investigate the attitude and awareness of medical and dental students about collaboration between medical and dental practices in Hong Kong. All medical and dental students in Hong Kong were invited to complete a questionnaire survey at their universities, hospitals and residential halls. It contained 8 questions designed to elicit their attitudes about the collaboration between medical and dental practice. Students were also asked about their awareness of the collaboration between dentistry and medicine. The questionnaires were directly distributed to medical and dental students. The finished questionnaires were immediately collected by research assistants on site. A total of 1,857 questionnaires were distributed and 809 (44%) were returned. Their mean attitude score (SD) towards medical-dental collaboration was 6.37 (1.44). Most students (77%) were aware of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. They considered that Ear, Nose & Throat, General Surgery and Family Medicine were the 3 most common medical disciplines which entailed collaboration between medical and dental practice. In this study, the medical and dental students in general demonstrated a good attitude and awareness of the collaboration between medical and dental practice in Hong Kong. This established an essential foundation for fostering medical-dental collaboration, which is vital to improving resource efficiency and standards of care.

  17. [Comparison of cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular fitness in teenagers between Hong Kong and inland cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Chan, K; Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    A study on the data of the physique investigated in teenagers was carried out between Hong Kong and inland cities to compare their cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular fitness. Results revealed that cardiopulmonary endurance in school teenagers of both sex at different ages in inland cities was better than that in Hong Kong. Muscular strength and endurance of sports performance of teenagers, except for standing long jump, in Hong Kong were weaker than that in inland cities. It suggests that attention should be paid to the involvement of teenagers in physical education with the increase of people's living standard.

  18. Factors Affecting the Understanding and Use of Psychoanalysis in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busiol, Diego

    2015-06-01

    The majority of Western psychotherapies are known and practiced in Hong Kong, while psychoanalysis still has little resonance. A recent study finds that psychoanalysis is perceived neither as ineffective nor as necessarily in conflict with Hong Kong Chinese values. Nevertheless, Hong Kong Chinese culture influences how psychoanalysis is received and understood, when compared to Mainland China and Taiwan. It is argued that a better reception in the latter two was possible because of different social and historical backgrounds, different clinical backgrounds of those who receive training, and the more active role of Western psychoanalysts. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  19. Sexual dysfunction among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong: prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-03-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  20. Electronic cigarette use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Man Ping Wang; Sai Yin Ho; Lok Tung Leung; Tai Hing Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among Chinese adolescents. We examined the prevalence of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette use and its associated factors in a large sample of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods We analyzed data of the School-based Survey on Smoking among Students 2012/13 from a representative sample of 45,857 secondary school students (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.9). We conducted chi-square tests and t-test to compare current e-cigarette ...

  1. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K M; Yuan, Y; Li, C K; Chien, P; Tsang, G

    1993-01-01

    A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different in...

  3. Patient safety culture among medical students in Singapore and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Lau, Tang Ching; Neo, Hong Jye; Patil, Nivritti Gajanan; Ti, Lian Kah

    2013-09-01

    Undergraduate education in medical schools plays an important role in promoting patient safety. Medical students from different backgrounds may have different perceptions and attitudes toward issues concerning safety. This study aimed to investigate whether patient safety cultures differed between students from two Asian countries, and if they did, to find out how they differed. This study also aimed to identify the educational needs of these students. A voluntary, cross-sectional and self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 259 students from two medical schools - one in Hong Kong and the other in Singapore. None of the students had received any formal teaching on patient safety. We used a validated survey instrument, the Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire III (APSQ-III), which was designed specifically for students and covered nine key factors of patient safety culture. Of the 259 students, 81 (31.3%) were from Hong Kong and 178 (68.7%) were from Singapore. The overall response rate was 66.4%. Significant differences between the two groups of students were found for two key factors - 'patient safety training', with Hong Kong students being more likely to report having received more of such training (p = 0.007); and 'error reporting confidence', which Singapore students reported having less of (p working hours and professional incompetence were important causes of medical errors. The importance of patient involvement and team functioning were ranked relatively lower by the students. Students from different countries with no prior teaching on patient safety may differ in their baseline patient safety cultures and educational needs. Our findings serve as a reference for future longitudinal studies on the effects of different teaching and healthcare development programmes.

  4. The Rise of Civic Nationalism: Shifting Identities in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P. Kwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of civic nationalism in both Hong Kong and Taiwan indicates a prominence of democratic liberal values which are contributing to the further rejection of an ethnonational Chinese identity imposed by Beijing. Using the 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong and the Sunflower Movement in Taiwan as case studies, this paper examines how the rise of civic nationalism is furthering the nation-building project of Hong Kong and Taiwanese identities. Following a comparison between the Umbrella Movement and the Sunflower Movement in terms of the sequence of events, the paper identifies the impact of the movements on both societies through an examination of the successes and failures of each movement, the rise of new political forces and party politics, as well as political institutions. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the widening identity gap of Hong Kong and Taiwan from China.

  5. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  6. Newcastle disease virus surveillance in Hong Kong on local and imported poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, K F; Alexander, D J

    1978-09-01

    Surveillance of apparently healthy ducks, geese and fowl originating in Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China at a poultry dressing plant in Hong Kong yielded 67 isolates of Newcastle disease virus. More than twice as many viruses were isolated from the cloaca than from the trachea. Twelve representative isolates were examined in virulence tests--all six of the fowl isolates and two of five duck isolates behaved as velogenic strains, the other four were lentogenic.

  7. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  8. Banking sector governance: Lessons from Hong Kong listed bands. A three year perspective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sh. D.

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong's financial sector is popular within the banking industry for the range of service providers themselves. Using the case study approach, this paper explores the changes to the boards of directors and governance issues of the 12 listed banks on Hong Kong stock exchange over a three year period. It focuses on issues such as the number of directors on the boards, their qualifications, type of directors in terms of independence, outside directorships held, and the auditors of the financi...

  9. Emotion socialization practices in Italian and Hong Kong-Chinese mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorilli, Caterina; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chicchio, Carlo; Chan, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    Background Parents? emotion socialization practices are their ways of handling their children?s emotional experiences in light of cultural expectations surrounding emotions. Such practices are thought to significantly affect children?s social adjustment. We compared the parenting practices of Italian and Hong Kong Chinese samples in an ethnological validation study of the maternal responses to children?s emotion scale (MRCES). Participants were 71 Italian mothers (M?=?39.45) and 71 Hong Kong-...

  10. The effectiveness of family-friendly policies and practices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Lai-Kuen; Yuen, Wai-Kee; Chu, Wan-ling

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong is one of the most efficient cities in the world. Its have a reputation for being workaholics and high stress burden upon employees. Knowing that a caring employer can adopt appropriate family-friendly policies and practices (FFPP) to help employees achieve work-family balance. There are several successful examples in implementing these policies in western countries. However, does Hong Kong laissezfaire economic suitable for adopting such FFPP? "Economics and Wellbeing Research" of ...

  11. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of f...

  12. Simultaneous Volatility Transmissions and Spillover Effects: US and Hong Kong Stock and Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Gannon

    2004-01-01

    Contemporaneous transmission effects across volatilities of the Hong Kong Stock and Index futures markets and futures volume of trade are tested by employing a structural systems approach. Competing measures of volatility spillover, constructed from the overnight U.S. S&P500 index futures, are tested and found to impact on the Hong Kong asset return volatility and volume of trade patterns. The examples utilize intra-day 15 minute sampled data from this medium sized Asia Pacific equity and der...

  13. Why Hong Kong students favour more face-to-face classroom time in blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Henri,James; Lee,Sandra

    2007-01-01

    A three year study in student characteristics, needs and learning styles guided instructors at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education to improve teaching and learning in a core module: Information Literacy. A mixed-method approach analyzed data collected from undergraduate, in-service teachers in a BEd program, and helped instructors in the program to gain insight into the Hong Kong teacher working, post-service towards a BEd in Library and Information Science. Part-time students in...

  14. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  15. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  16. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  17. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an elearning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and skills for vocabulary expansion. This paper introduces the contents of VLearn, and the theoretical underpinnings of its design. It also reports on the vocabulary learning experience of its users during an eight week evaluation study. Suggestions are made on how independent vocabulary building at higher education, as well as comprehensive vocabulary instruction at early years could be supported by means of technology.

  18. Indoor radon and environmental gamma radiation in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J.; Luo, D.L.; Zhang, C.X.

    1992-01-01

    Activated charcoal canisters have been used to measured the indoor radon concentrations of 160 sites in different buildings in Hong Kong during the period from July to October 1990. The average value is 40.0 Bq.m -3 . Furthermore, CR-39 nuclear track detectors and two kinds of LiF TLDs have been used to measure the average indoor radon concentrations and the absorbed gamma dose rates in air of 71 sites over the period from January to April 1991. The results all show log-normal distribution. The indoor radon concentrations are respectively 72.2 Bq.m -3 and 155.4 Bq.m -3 for dwellings and offices, while the absorbed gamma dose rates in air are respectively 213.0 nGy.h -1 and 198.3 nGy.h -1 . (author)

  19. Learning and Socializing Preferences in Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Lai, Veronica K W; Poon, Sze Long; Gaither, Sarah E

    2018-04-30

    The impact of social group information on the learning and socializing preferences of Hong Kong Chinese children were examined. Specifically, the degree to which variability in racial out-group exposure affects children's use of race to make decisions about unfamiliar individuals (Chinese, White, Southeast Asian) was investigated. Participants (N = 212; M age  = 60.51 months) chose functions for novel objects after informants demonstrated their use; indicated with which peer group member to socialize; and were measured on racial group recognition, preference, and identification. Overall, children preferred in-group members, though out-group exposure and the relative social status of out-groups mattered as well. At a young age, children's specific experiences with different races influence how they learn and befriend others across racial group lines. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  20. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F Y.P.; Gervat, G P [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  1. TYÖHYVINVOINTIKYSELY HONG KONG KOKKOLAN HENKILÖSTÖLLE

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen, Roosa-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Työhyvinvointi on kokonaisuus, jonka muodostavat työ ja sen mielekkyys, turvallisuus, terveys ja hyvinvointi. Työhyvinvointia lisäävät työyhteisön ilmapiiri, motivoiva ja hyvä johtaminen, sekä työntekijöiden ammattitaito. Työhyvinvointia voidaan kehittää esimerkiksi kehittämällä ammatillista osaamista ja työoloja työterveyshuollon avulla ja työkykyä ylläpitävällä toiminnalla. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan Hong Kong Kokkolan henkilöstön henkistä ja fyysistä työhyvinvointia ja millainen s...

  2. Risk perception, trust and public engagement in nuclear decision-making in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy can be a feasible energy option has re-emerged as a subject of widespread debate following the Fukushima accident in Japan. However, relatively little is known about how public inputs can improve nuclear decision-making. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of public opinions regarding nuclear energy by examining its risk perception, trust and public engagement dimensions. Based on a survey of Hong Kong residents (n=509), we make some observations. Firstly, we offer empirical evidence that affirms the theoretical connections between risk perception, trust, and public engagement in the context of nuclear energy. Secondly, our logistic regression analysis indicates that demographics, trust, and perceptions of the efficacy of public engagement are factors explaining perceptions of greater risks and nuclear opposition. Thirdly, our conceptual model sheds light on the complexity of the trust concept, and specifies aspects of trust that are influential in the contexts of risk perception and nuclear choices. Our findings suggest that the Hong Kong government must ensure trust building receives prominent attention in nuclear decision-making, and that it should avoid excessive reliance on the business sector and should assume a key role for itself in enhancing trust in nuclear decision-making. - Highlights: • Risk perception, trust and public engagement matter to nuclear decision-making. • Our logistic regression analysis found that demographics, trust and perception of public engagement are the factors that explain risk perception and nuclear choice in Hong Kong. • Our conceptual model specifics aspects of trust that are influential

  3. Predictors of job satisfaction and absenteeism in two samples of Hong Kong nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Oi-Ling

    2002-10-01

    Stress-related outcomes of job satisfaction and absenteeism among nurses should receive more attention in Hong Kong because absenteeism is costly. Many nurses' complaints are due to organizational change in privatization since the establishment of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Organizational climate is found to be an antecedent of job dissatisfaction and absenteeism in many studies in western societies. To investigate the role of organizational climate and psychological distress on job satisfaction; and the role of climate, distress and job satisfaction on absenteeism in Hong Kong nurses, while controlling for demographic variables. A self-administered questionnaire survey method was used to collect data from two samples of nurses within a 8-month period. They are, respectively, 144 (74 general nurses, 70 psychiatric nurses; 47 males, 97 females) and 114 (85 general nurses, 29 psychiatric nurses; 17 males, 97 females) nurses. Multiple regression analyses revealed that occupational type (psychiatric/general), environment (the physical conditions in the work area) and psychological distress were significant predictors of job satisfaction for sample 1; and well-being (social relations, welfare and health issues) was the only significant predictor of job satisfaction for sample 2. However, age, involvement (the degree of commitment displayed towards employees by the organization), psychological distress and job satisfaction were significant predictors of absenteeism for sample 1; and occupational type, organization (the interaction between the worker and the organization), and involvement were significant predictors of absenteeism for sample 2. The empirical findings provide support for the climate-job satisfaction and climate-absenteeism relationships. Psychological distress could be an antecedent of job satisfaction; and job satisfaction could be an antecedent of absenteeism. Certain climate dimensions should be improved to enhance job satisfaction and

  4. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced

  5. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ann T.W.; Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. ► However, the reduction cannot be sustained. ► Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006–2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  7. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chung, Shan-Shan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Chan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  8. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ann T.W., E-mail: bsannyu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  9. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  10. Emergency management of dental trauma: knowledge of Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cecilia; Wong, K Y; Cheung, L K

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVES. To investigate the level of knowledge about emergency management of dental trauma among Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers. DESIGN. Questionnaire survey. SETTING. A teachers' union that unites 90% of teachers in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers. RESULTS. Only 32.8% of respondents correctly stated that a person sustaining dental trauma should go to dentists directly. In all, 73.1% of teachers correctly stated that a dental trauma patient should go for treatment immediately. Only 32.5% knew that a fractured tooth should be put in liquid. Even fewer (23.2%) realised that the displaced tooth should be repositioned back to the original position. Relatively more respondents (74.7%) understood that an avulsed baby tooth should not be put back. Disappointingly, only 16.3% of teachers knew that an avulsed permanent tooth should be replanted. Furthermore, only 29.6% of teachers thought that they were able to distinguish between deciduous teeth and permanent teeth, whilst 20.4% correctly identified at least one of the appropriate mediums: milk, physiological saline or saliva, for storing an avulsed tooth. Teachers who previously received first-aid training with dental content or acquired dental injury information from other sources, scored significantly higher than teachers without such training or acquired information. CONCLUSION. The knowledge on emergency management of dental trauma among primary and secondary school teachers in Hong Kong is insufficient, particularly on the handling of permanent tooth avulsion and the appropriate storage medium for avulsed teeth. Receipt of first-aid training with dental contents and acquisition of dental injury information from other sources were positively correlated with knowledge in managing dental trauma.

  11. City ventilation of Hong Kong at no-wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Li, Yuguo

    We hypothesize that city ventilation due to both thermally-driven mountain slope flows and building surface flows is important in removing ambient airborne pollutants in the high-rise dense city Hong Kong at no-wind conditions. Both spatial and temporal urban surface temperature profiles are an important boundary condition for studying city ventilation by thermal buoyancy. Field measurements were carried out to investigate the diurnal thermal behavior of urban surfaces (mountain slopes, and building exterior walls and roofs) in Hong Kong by using the infrared thermography. The maximum urban surface temperature was measured in the early noon hours (14:00-15:00 h) and the minimum temperature was observed just before sunrise (5:00 h). The vertical surface temperature of the building exterior wall was found to increase with height at daytime and the opposite occurred at nighttime. The solar radiation and the physical properties of the various urban surfaces were found to be important factors affecting the surface thermal behaviors. The temperature difference between the measured maximum and minimum surface temperatures of the four selected exterior walls can be at the highest of 16.7 °C in the early afternoon hours (15:00 h). Based on the measured surface temperatures, the ventilation rate due to thermal buoyancy-induced wall surface flows of buildings and mountain slope winds were estimated through an integral analysis of the natural convection flow over a flat surface. At no-wind conditions, the total air change rate by the building wall flows (2-4 ACH) was found to be 2-4 times greater than that by the slope flows due to mountain surface (1 ACH) due to larger building exterior surface areas and temperature differences with surrounding air. The results provide useful insights into the ventilation of a high-rise dense city at no-wind conditions.

  12. Epistemic assessment of radon level of offices in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L. T.; Mui, K. W.; Law, K. Y.; Hui, P. S.

    People spend most of their life working indoors. Human exposure to various air pollutants changed its importance in nature from outdoor to indoor. As some of the pollutant sources basically originate from the building envelope that could not be removed or is costly to mitigate, the remaining questions are: how the indoor air quality (IAQ) is monitored and how the information could be used for the environmental control system to achieve the best air quality delivery. Indoor radon level could be measured with a number of sampling approaches and used to determine the acceptance of an IAQ with respect to certain exposure limits. In determining the acceptable IAQ of a space, this study proposes that the measured indoor radon level must be accompanied with the confidence levels of the assessment. Radon levels in Hong Kong offices were studied by a cross-sectional measurement in 216 typical offices and a year-round longitudinal measurement in one office. The results showed that 96.5% (94.0-99.0% at 95% confidence interval) and 98.6% (97.0% to >99.9% at 95% confidence interval) of the sampled offices would satisfy action radon levels of 150 and 200 Bq m -3, respectively. The same results were then used to quantify the prior knowledge on radon level distributions of an office and the probable errors of the adopted sampling schemes. This study proposes an epistemic approach, with the prior knowledge and a sample test result, to assess the acceptance against an action radon level of an office in Hong Kong. With the certainty of the test results determined for judgmental purposes, it is possible to apply the method to an office for follow-up tests of acceptance.

  13. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Anita; Chan, Grace; Shiu, YY; Lam, Ko-Chuen; Young, Daniel; Ho, Daniel WH; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs). Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants’ cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001) and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014). Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active Mind cognitive-training program was effective in improving the cognitive function and QoL for community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. PMID:23440076

  14. The impact of immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Kris Yuet Wan; Bai, Dorothy Li; Chan, Noel P T; Wong, Janet Y H; Tarrant, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Researchers have found breastfeeding disparities between immigrant and native-born women in many countries. However, most studies on immigration and breastfeeding practices have been in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of length of time since immigration on the breastfeeding practices of Mainland Chinese immigrants living in Hong Kong. We recruited 2704 mother-infant pairs from the postnatal wards of four public hospitals in Hong Kong. We examined the effect of migration status on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding duration was progressively shorter as the time since immigration increased. When compared with mothers who had lived in Hong Kong for Hong Kong-born participants had a 30% higher risk of stopping any breastfeeding (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.10-1.63]) and exclusive breastfeeding (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.11-1.58]). In both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants, breastfeeding cessation was associated with return to work postpartum and the husband's preference for infant formula or mixed feeding. Intention to exclusively breastfeed and to breastfeed for >6 months, and previous breastfeeding experience substantially reduced the risk of breastfeeding cessation for both Hong Kong-born and immigrant participants. Health care professionals should consider immigration history in their assessment of pregnant women and provide culturally adapted breastfeeding support and encouragement to this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hi-Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009, the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94% adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1% were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females. Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  16. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  17. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  18. Infodemiology of alcohol use in Hong Kong mentioned on blogs: infoveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kl; Ho, Sy; Lam, Th

    2013-09-02

    In 2007 and 2008, the beer and wine tax in Hong Kong was halved and then abolished, resulting in an increase of alcohol consumption. The prevalence of the Internet and a high blogging rate by adolescents and adults present a unique opportunity to study drinking patterns by infodemiology. To assess and explain the online use of alcohol-related Chinese keywords and to validate blog searching as an infoveillance method for surveying changes in drinking patterns (eg, alcohol type) in Hong Kong people (represented by bloggers on a Hong Kong-based Chinese blogging site) in 2005-2010. Blog searching was done using a blog search engine, Google Blog Search, in the archives of a Hong Kong-based blog service provider, MySinaBlog from 2005-2010. Three groups of Chinese keywords, each representing a specific alcohol-related concept, were used: (1) "alcohol" (ie, the control concept), (2) "beer or wine", and (3) "spirit". The resulting blog posts were analyzed quantitatively using infodemiological metrics and correlation coefficients, and qualitatively by manual effort. The infodemiological metrics were (1) apparent prevalence, (2) actual prevalence, (3) prevalence rate, and (4) prevalence ratio. Pearson and Spearman correlations were calculated for prevalence rates and ratios with respect to per capita alcohol consumption. Manual analysis focused on (1) blog author characteristics (ie, authorship, sex, and age), and (2) blog content (ie, frequency of keywords, description of a discrete episode of alcohol drinking, drinking amount, and genres). The online use of alcohol-related concepts increased noticeably for "alcohol" in 2008 and "spirit" in 2008-2009 but declined for "beer or wine" over the years. Correlation between infodemiological and epidemiological data was only significant for the "alcohol" prevalence rate. Most blogs were managed by single authors. Their sex distribution was even, and the majority were aged 18 and above. Not all Chinese keywords were found. Many of

  19. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  20. Empirical Study on Conservative and Representative Heuristics of Hong Kong Small Investors Adopting Momentum and Contrarian Trading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Sheung-Chi; Hon, Tai-Yuen; Wong, Wing-Keung; Woo, Kai-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new Bayesian approach has been developed to explain some market anomalies. In this paper, we conduct a questionnaire survey to examine whether the theory holds empirically by studying the conservative and representative heuristics by Hong Kong small investors who adopt momentum and/or contrarian trading strategies. In addition, our study provides evidence for the small investors on their time horizon and risk tolerance when facing uncertainty in their investments. Our findings are...

  1. Direct and Interaction Effects of Co-Existing Familial Risk Factors and Protective Factors Associated with Internet Addiction among Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Cheng, Kit-man; Law, Rita W.; Tse, Vincent W. S.; Lau, Mason M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is prevalent among adolescents and imposes a serious public health threat. Familial risk and protective factors may co-exist and interact with each other to determine IA. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 9,618 Secondary 1 to 4 students in Hong Kong, China. About 16% of the surveyed students were classified as…

  2. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and fertility awareness among Chinese university students in Hong Kong: a comparison with Western samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C H Y; Chan, T H Y; Peterson, B D; Lampic, C; Tam, M Y J

    2015-02-01

    What are the levels of awareness regarding female fertility and the intentions and attitudes towards parenthood among Chinese university students in Hong Kong compared with their counterparts in the West? Chinese university students in Hong Kong were similarly over-optimistic about the age-related fertility decline, although they were less inclined to have children and undergo fertility treatment compared with their Western counterparts. Past studies of highly educated young adults in Europe and the USA have found that they are not sufficiently aware of the age-related decline in female fertility, and falsely believe that advanced reproductive treatments such as IVF will overcome fertility problems associated with age. Little is known about the perceptions of Chinese students in Hong Kong, a modernized Chinese city where the fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. An online cross-sectional survey of Chinese university students in Hong Kong was conducted in 2013. Results were compared with two similar studies in Sweden and the USA. A total of 367 university students in Hong Kong (275 female, 92 male; mean age 23) responded to an e-mail invitation to participate in an online survey. Intentions and attitudes towards parenthood and awareness regarding female fertility were assessed using the Swedish Fertility Awareness Questionnaire. Like their Western counterparts, a large proportion of Chinese university students underestimated the age-related fertility decline (92%) and overestimated the fertility treatment success rate (66%). However, they were less inclined to have children, were more aware of and less concerned with infertility and were less motivated to seek solutions in the event of a fertility problem. These comparisons were significant at P International comparisons warrant caution because the Hong Kong sample was older than the US sample (mean age 20), but not older than the Sweden sample (mean age 24). While this study was consistent with past

  3. Sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction among solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong: the mediating role of sense of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xue Bai,1 Shuyan Yang,2 Martin Knapp3 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK Abstract: Based on survey data collected from 151 community-dwelling solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong, the present study used path analysis to examine the mediating role of sense of loneliness in the relationship between different sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction. The results showed that sense of loneliness mediated the effects of support from families, friends, and support for others on life satisfaction. In addition, a formal source of social support was not associated with life satisfaction among solitary older adults, although those with a more secure financial status had greater overall life satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of enhancing awareness among social and health care service providers about the negative effects of insufficient social support on older adults’ sense of loneliness and life satisfaction. Family and friendship networks should be expanded for solitary older adults. Keywords: life satisfaction, path analysis, solitary older adults, sense of loneliness, social support

  4. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  5. Evaluation of services of the integrative health clinic in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Kwok, Nedra W L; Wong, Thomas K S

    2008-10-01

    (i) To provide a profile of the clients who have used the Integrative Health Clinic's services, (ii) to determine the clients' extent of satisfaction with the services received and (iii) to assess whether integrative therapies can/should be recommended to other clinics. Based on the integration of various health paradigms and the use of health promotion strategies, our Integrative Health Clinic in Hong Kong provides a range of different therapies for integrated symptom management. The integrative therapies are derived from conventional, complementary and alternative medicine. Design. Postal survey, followed by routine data analysis. Hong Kong Chinese clients attending a residential community health clinic were surveyed about health status and satisfaction towards the services received. A total of 489 clients (30.8% were male and 69.2% female) were registered with the clinic during the study period. The mean age (SD) was 47.8 (15.4) years. The customer satisfaction survey found that traditional Chinese medicine consultation was the most frequently used modality of the Integrative Health Clinic, followed by pain management. Out of the 489 clients, those who attended the Integrative Health Clinic only once in the study period for an annual health assessment and those who died during the period were excluded from the survey, giving a total of 276 eligible clients. Out of the 276 clients, 52.5% (128) responded to the survey that asked them to evaluate their satisfaction with the services received at the clinic and the performance of the clinic's practitioners who interacted with them. For practitioner performance, the percentage of respondents who gave a rating of satisfaction was found to range between 86.3-64.3%, while the percentage of respondents who gave a rating of dissatisfaction ranged from 13.7-35.7%. Overall, the survey found that most aspects of the Integrative Health Clinic's services were rated as satisfactory. The overwhelming satisfaction of clients with

  6. Adolescent and parental perceptions of medical decision-making in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong share similar perceptions with their Western counterparts regarding their capacity for autonomous decision-making, and secondarily whether Chinese parents underestimate their adolescent children's desire and capacity for autonomous decision-making. 'Healthy Adolescents' and their parents were recruited from four local secondary schools, and 'Sick Adolescents' and their parents from the pediatric wards and outpatient clinics. Their perceptions of adolescents' understanding of illnesses and treatments, maturity in judgment, risk-taking, openness to divergent opinions, pressure from parents and doctors, submission to parental authority and preference for autonomy in medical decision-making are surveyed by a 50-item questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale. Findings indicate that Chinese adolescents aged 14-16 perceive themselves to possess the necessary cognitive abilities and maturity in judgment to be autonomous decision-makers like their Western counterparts. Paradoxically, although they hesitate to assert their autonomy, they are also unwilling to surrender that autonomy to their parents even under coercion or intimidation. Parents tend to underestimate their adolescents' preferences for making autonomous decisions and overestimate the importance of parental authority in decision-making. '14-and-above' Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong perceive themselves as capable of autonomous decision-making in medically-related matters, but hesitate to assert their autonomy, probably because of the Confucian values of parental authority and filial piety that are deeply embedded in the local culture. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Laboratory for studying radon mitigation methods in high-rise office buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Hung, L.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    1996-01-01

    A territory-wide survey of indoor radon level in 1993 showed that 17% of offices Hong Kong have radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 compared with 4% for dwellings. Consequently, the Radioisotope Unit Radon Analysis Laboratory (RURAL) is being built for studying radon mitigation methods applicable to high-rise office buildings. The laboratory consists of three rooms; the main exposure room is built of concrete and is surrounded by the buffer room; and all controls and operations are done inside the control room. The exposure room can, with the aid of the buffer room, simulate any environmental conditions that can be faced by a real building. The pressure, temperature and humidity can be adjusted to any meteorological conditions that can be found in Hong Kong. Pressure differential and temperature differential can be adjusted to simulate the arrival of fronts, troughs or typhoons. Aerosol concentration and distribution inside the exposure room are controllable as well as the ventilation conditions. Various mitigation methods will be tested under different conditions. Passive methods include application of radon barriers to building structures and active methods include the use of air cleaners; techniques to increase radon daughters plateout or reduce their attachment to aerosols; and various modifications to the ventilation systems. Mitigation techniques involving modifications to the building strictures and building services will also be developed with the help of the RURAL. (author)

  8. Factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, P; Tak-Ying, S A; Wyatt, P A

    2000-06-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated the issues linked to Hong Kong nurses work-related health. The present study investigated factors related to stress and coping among Chinese nurses in Hong Kong. The researchers employed a cross-sectional survey and made within-group comparisons of nurses' stress and coping. Using stratified random sampling the researchers selected nurses from the mailing list of a local professional organization. One hundred and sixty-eight (33.6%) nurses responded. Nurses reported lower stress levels than other workers assessed with the same measure. Paediatric nurses reported the highest stress levels. Nurses at the lower grades reported higher stress levels than nurses at the higher grades. Single nurses had marginally higher stress scores than married nurses and females had slightly higher stress scores than males. However, none of these results were statistically significant. The respondents' major sources of stress were related to nursing issues like too much work, interpersonal relationships, and dealing with hospital administration. The respondents coped with their stresses by seeking support from friends and colleagues, using different cognitive strategies and through leisure activities. There was a statistically significant link between the respondents' stress and sickness levels. The results raise issues about the nature of nurses' working experiences.

  9. Generation of and control measures for, e-waste in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Shanshan; Lau Kayan; Zhang Chan

    2011-01-01

    While accurately estimating electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) generation is important for building appropriate infrastructure for its collection and recycling, making reliable estimates of this kind is difficult in Hong Kong owing to the fact that neither accurate trade statistics nor sales data of relevant products are available. In view of this, data of e-products consumption at household level was collected by a tailor-made questionnaire survey from the public for obtaining a reasonable e-waste generation estimate. It was estimated that on average no more than 80,443 tonnes (11.5 kg/capita) of waste is generated from non-plasma and non-liquid crystal display televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners and personal computers each year by Hong Kong households. However, not more than 17% of this is disposed as waste despite a producer responsibility scheme (PRS) not being in place because of the existence of a vibrant e-waste trading sector. The form of PRS control that can possibly win most public support is one that would involve the current e-waste traders as a major party in providing the reverse logistics with a visible recycling charge levied at the point of importation. This reverse logistic service should be convenient, reliable and highly accessible to the consumers.

  10. Perceptions of building professionals on sustainable development: A comparative study between Hong Kong and Shenyang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, S.M.; Zhao, C.M.; Cheng, W.Y. [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2006-07-01

    It is logical to believe that the building professionals (architect, structural engineers, building services engineers, etc.) are the relevant persons that may influence the decision-making process on a real estate development process. Accordingly, the attitudes and perception of building professionals should have a significant influence on sustainable development. This article describes a survey concerning the perceptions of different building professionals, which include architects, construction engineers and building services engineers, on the environment, resource sustainability, and green consumerism in two major cities in China: Hong Kong and Shenyang. It is recognized that energy is central to sustainable development and in 2006/2007, the United Nation Commission on Sustainable Development will focus on energy issue. The discussion in this article will concentrate on the building professionals' perception on energy related issues. Nevertheless, the findings in respect of their awareness of the environment, resources sustainability and other related issues are also summarized. At global level, apart from the need to preserve historical buildings, the professionals in Shenyang feel that 'exhaustion of natural resources' is of major concern and energy preservation is significant. However, the Hong Kong professionals do not consider energy resource sustainability is of urgency. (author)

  11. The Self-assessment Practices of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Findings with a New Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi

    Self-assessment is a core skill that enables students to engage in self-regulated learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Self-assessment Practice Scale and to depict the characteristics of self-assessment practices of Hong Kong secondary students using this newly developed instrument. A total of 6,125 students from 10 Hong Kong secondary schools completed the survey. Both Rasch and factor analyses revealed a two-dimension scale structure (i.e., Self-directed Feedback Seeking and Self-reflection). The two subscales demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and suggestions for further improvement were proposed. The findings regarding self-assessment practices of secondary students indicated that, in general, students were quite used to engaging in self-reflection based on available feedback, but they were less disposed to taking the initiative to seek feedback on their own performance. Key demographic variables, e.g., gender and year level, played important roles in students' self-assessment practices. Girls had significantly higher self-assessment measures on both scales than did boys. Junior students had higher measures on both scales than did their senior counterparts. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  12. Walking in the high-rise city: a Health Enhancement and Pedometer-determined Ambulatory (HEPA program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung AYM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Angela YM Leung,1,2 Mike KT Cheung,3 Michael A Tse,4 Wai Chuen Shum,5 BJ Lancaster,1,6 Cindy LK Lam7 1School of Nursing, 2Research Centre on Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 3Centre on Research and Advocacy, Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, 4Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, 5Sheng Kung Hui Holy Carpenter Church Social Services, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 7Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Due to the lack of good infrastructure in the public estates, many older adults in urban areas are sedentary. The Health Enhancement and Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory (HEPA program was developed to assist older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension to acquire walking exercise habits and to build social support, while engaged in regular physical activity. This study aimed to describe the HEPA program and to report changes in participants’ walking capacity and body strength after 10-week walking sessions. A pre- and postintervention design was used. Pedometers were used to measure the number of steps taken per day before and after the 10-week intervention. Upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, and quality of life were assessed. A total of 205 older adults completed the program and all health assessments. After the 10-week intervention, the average number of steps per day increased by 36%, from 6,591 to 8,934. Lower body strength, upper body strength, and aerobic fitness increased significantly after 10 weeks, along with improvement in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF™-12 physical and mental health component summary scores. A social support network was built in the neighborhood, and the local environment was

  13. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.

  14. The associations between religion, bereavement and depression among Hong Kong nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-07-04

    This paper is to examine the associations between religion, bereavement and depression among nursing professionals using a cross-sectional survey design. There is little empirical evidence in Asia suggesting that religion may either increase or lower the likelihood of nursing professionals being depressed. We analyzed the results of a Mental Health Survey soliciting data from 850 Hong Kong nurses (aged 21-59, 178 males) regarding their mental well-being and associated factors, including participants' socio-economic profile and recent life-events. Multiple linear regression analyses examined associations between religion, bereavement and depression. Religious faith is weakly associated with lower self-reported depression in bereavement. Our findings confirm those studies suggesting that religion positively affects mental health and yet healthcare providers have yet to assimilate this insight.

  15. Local and regional anthropogenic influence on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta Region of China. While the sources of the region's fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the region, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the regional levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the region as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the

  16. Plus Ca Change, Plus C'Est La Meme Chose: Attitudes towards English Language Learning in Hong Kong--Frederick Stewart's Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickley, Gillian

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that the attitudes of the people of Hong Kong toward learning English, during both an earlier period and at present, are similar and deeply entrenched. The increasing emigration of Hong Kong people, mainly to Anglophone countries, makes an international understanding of the attitude of Hong Kong people toward learning English very…

  17. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  18. An Integrative Study of Photochemical Air Pollution in Hong Kong: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong is situated in the Pearl River delta of Southern China. This region has experienced phenomenal economic growth in the past 30 years. Emissions of large amount of pollutants from urban areas and various industries coupled with subtropical climate have led to frequent occurrences of severe photochemical air pollution. Despite the long-term control efforts of the Hong Kong government, the atmospheric levels of ozone have been increasing in the past decade. To obtain an updated and more complete understanding of photochemical smog, an integrative study has been conducted during 2010-2014. Several intensive measurement campaigns were carried out at urban, suburban and rural sites in addition to the routine observations at fourteen air quality monitoring stations in Hong Kong. Meteorological, photochemical, and chemical-transport modeling studies were conducted to investigate the causes/processes of elevated photochemical pollution . The main activities of this study were to (1) examine the situation and trends of photochemical air pollution in Hong Kong, (2) understand some underlying chemical processes in particular the poorly-understood heterogeneous processes of reactive nitrogen oxides, (3) quantify the local, regional, and super-regional contributions to the ozone pollution in Hong Kong, and (4) review the control policy and make further recommendations based on the science. This paper will give an overview of this study and present some key results on the trends and chemistry of the photochemical pollution in this polluted subtropical region.

  19. Work injury management model and implication in Hong Kong: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cecilia Suk-Mei; Cheng, Andy Shu-Kei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the work injury management models in literatures and the essential components in different models. The resulting information could be used to develop an integrated holistic model that could be applied in the work injury management system in Hong Kong. A keyword search of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases was conducted. A total of 68 studies related to the management of an injury were found within the above mentioned electronic database. Together with the citation tracking, there were 13 studies left for selection after the exclusion screening. Only 7 out of those 13 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. It is noticeable that the most important component in the injury management model in the reviewed literatures is early intervention. Because of limitations in Employees' Compensation Ordinance in Hong Kong, there is an impetus to have a model and practice guideline for work injury management in Hong Kong to ensure the quality of injury management services. At the end of this paper, the authors propose a work injury management model based on the employees' compensation system in Hong Kong. This model can be used as a reference for those countries adopting similar legislation as in Hong Kong.

  20. The Currency of Historicity in Hong Kong: Deconstructing Nostalgia through Soy Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, as the end of the millennium approached, the production of nostalgia exploded all around the world. For Hong Kong, nostalgia became a reminder of the golden age that had transformed the city into one of the “Four Asian Tigers” in the decades following the end of the Second World War. While yearning for the better days of the past, Hong Kong coincidentally experienced destabilisation. As the rest of the world, especially the “baby boomers,” mourned the end of a productive era, Hong Kong locals were disturbed by the affirmation of the handover to China in 1997. In the context of these events, a creative rush to nostalgia in cultural manufacturing swept across the city. In the hope of highlighting the uniqueness of nostalgic production in Hong Kong, this study analyses two sets of TV commercials produced by local beverage company Vitasoy. Through the deconstruction of selected historical events, Vitasoy successfully reinvented its brand and, in contrast to general criticism of the concept, generated a positive connotation for nostalgia on the path towards Hong Kong’s search for an identity.

  1. Child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong: incidence rate and seasonal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong; Jiang, Fan

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the incidence and seasonal patterns of child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong. A retrospective study of subjects aged under 19 years with a primary diagnosis of child maltreatment admitted to hospitals in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2010. Data were retrieved from the centralised database of all 42 public hospitals in the Hospital Authority. Child maltreatment incidence rate. A consistent seasonal pattern was found for non-sexual maltreatment in children aged 6-18 years (pmaltreatment or among children under 6 years. The seasonal pattern of child maltreatment coincided with the two school examination periods. The annual child maltreatment hospitalisation rate in Hong Kong in 2010 was 73.4 per 100 000 children under 19 years, more than double that in 2001. A peculiar seasonal pattern and an alarming increasing trend in child maltreatment hospitalisation were observed in Hong Kong, which we speculated to be related to school examination stress and increasing socioeconomic disparity. Our findings highlighted differences in the trends of child maltreatment between Hong Kong and the West. Professionals and policymakers should be made aware of these trends and develop effective strategies to tackle child maltreatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  3. Why is Design-Build Commonly Used in the Public Sector? An Illustration from Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Design and Build (D&B procurement method is one of the systems advocated to overcome inadequacies with the traditional procurement method. In recent years, this innovative procurement method has been put to practice in Hong Kong where a vast amount of infrastructure works is taking place. This paper aims to illustrate the applicability of design-build in the Hong Kong setting.As most D&B projects are undertaken by the public sector of Hong Kong, the main features of a public sector project and reasons for its wider use on D&B are fully examined in the paper. To further explore the benefits of D&B in actual practice, structured interviews have been conducted with clients, contractors and consultants running D&B projects in Hong Kong. Summary of major problems of running D&B projects from the previous study by the authors is also outlined. With the increasing use of D&B in the public sector of Hong Kong and worldwide, more research can be undertaken on the quantitative comparison of the traditional mode of procurement and how to carry out a D&B project successfully so as to develop a knowledge base for the D&B procurement method.

  4. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-11-01

    Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Phorse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Allergy in Hong Kong: an unmet need in service provision and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y T; Ho, H K; Lai, Christopher K W; Lau, C S; Lau, Y L; Lee, T H; Leung, T F; Wong, Gary W K; Wu, Y Y

    2015-02-01

    Many children in Hong Kong have allergic diseases and epidemiological data support a rising trend. Only a minority of children will grow out of their allergic diseases, so the heavy clinical burden will persist into adulthood. In an otherwise high-quality health care landscape in Hong Kong, allergy services and training are a seriously unmet need. There is one allergy specialist for 1.5 million people, which is low not only compared with international figures, but also compared with most other specialties in Hong Kong. The ratio of paediatric and adult allergists per person is around 1:460 000 and 1:2.8 million, respectively, so there is a severe lack of adult allergists, while the paediatric allergists only spend a fraction of their time working with allergy. There are no allergists and no dedicated allergy services in adult medicine in public hospitals. Laboratory support for allergy and immunology is not comprehensive and there is only one laboratory in the public sector supervised by accredited immunologists. These findings clearly have profound implications for the profession and the community of Hong Kong and should be remedied without delay. Key recommendations are proposed that could help bridge the gaps, including the creation of two new pilot allergy centres in a hub-and-spoke model in the public sector. This could require recruitment of specialists from overseas to develop the process if there are no accredited allergy specialists in Hong Kong who could fulfil this role.

  6. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  7. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  8. The Impact of Curiosity and External Regulation on Intrinsic Motivation: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon-keung, Yau; Man-shan, Kan; Lai-fong, Cheng Alison

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to identify: (1) the factors affecting the intrinsic motivation of university students in Hong Kong; and (2) gender differences in the perception of intrinsic motivation in Hong Kong higher education environment. The factors of curiosity and external regulation with intrinsic motivation are taken into investigation…

  9. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  10. Students' Choice of Sub-Degree Programmes in Self-Financing Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoebe; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Mak, Connie K. Y.; Chan, Jason K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The higher education sector in Hong Kong has restructured substantially from elite to mass higher education since the introduction of education reform by the Hong Kong government in 2000. To stay ahead in this competitive environment in the education sector, management teams of self-financing institutions have to compete for students and identify…

  11. Social Foundations of Public-Private Partnerships in Education: The Historical Cases of Post-War Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…

  12. Challenges to Globalisation, Localisation and Sinophilia in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the music curricula of Hong Kong (HK), Mainland China and Taiwan have focused on Western music, but with the advent of music technology and the new tripartite paradigm of globalisation, localisation and Sinophilia this has begun to change. Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei share a common historical culture and their populations are…

  13. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Attitude: A Comparison between Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph; Tao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares risk perception and risk-taking attitude between Hong Kong and mainland China undergraduate students using a Chinese version of the 30-item domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale (Blais and Weber 2006b). Compared with their counterparts from mainland China, Hong Kong university students reported higher levels of risk…

  14. Aspects of the Two Language System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Benjamin K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…

  15. Developing Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Visual Literacy in the New Secondary School Curriculum in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi-Kim; Jhaveri, Aditi Dubey

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the planned introduction of visual literacy into the New Secondary School Curriculum can play a crucial role in enabling students to think critically and creatively in Hong Kong's highly visual landscape. As Hong Kong's educational system remains entrenched in long-established and conventional pedagogies, the primacy given…

  16. Influenza Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Elderly Population in Hong Kong: The Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, P. K. H.; Lau, J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of influenza on elderly can be severe and fatal. Influenza vaccination (IV) has been shown to be effective in reducing influenza-related complications, but the IV uptake among elderly in Hong Kong remains low. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IV among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong using the Health Belief…

  17. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  18. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  19. Application of Sociology of Education on Early Childhood Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices in Hong Kong: Insight from David Riesman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Grace; Ho, Kwok Keung

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present multiple themes that are intermingled with one another, aiming to bring an overview of sociology of education and its application in the Hong Kong situation. One of the themes concerns how sociology of education has intertwined with the socio-political aspect of Hong Kong before and after year 1997 resulting in different…

  20. It Takes Two to Tango: Inclusive Schooling in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H. Greenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of students with autism and other special needs into the general education curriculum continues to be a challenging process for school communities in the United States of America (US and increasingly abroad. Although inclusion is a challenging process for those involved, the global demand is growing. Traditionally this initiative has originated from advocates such as parents and communities who represent the students. With enough pressure from constituents of the system, those efforts may be converted into policy through the local education department. The US has led the inclusion movement and many other developed nations have followed suit in recent decades. Consequently more and more schools are focused on building inclusive school communities. These programs see the value of a balanced approach that emphasizes curriculum coupled with pedagogy. This paper provides an overview of the history of the inclusion movement in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China. Three main types of school systems in the region are explained, and one successful inclusive school model will be described with outcome data included. Multiple factors that affect the development of the inclusion movement will also be discussed.

  1. Determinants of spirometric abnormalities among silicotic patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi C; Chang, Kwok C; Law, Wing S; Yew, Wing W; Tam, Cheuk M; Chan, Chi K; Wong, Man Y

    2005-09-01

    Silicosis is the second commonest notified occupational disease in Hong Kong. To characterize the determinants of spirometric abnormalities in silicosis. The spirometric patterns of consecutive silicotic patients on confirmation by the Pneumoconiosis Medical Board from 1991 to 2002 were correlated with demographic characteristics, occupational history, smoking history, tuberculosis (TB) history and radiographic features by univariate and multiple regression analyses. Of 1576 silicotic patients included, 55.6% showed normal spirometry, 28.5% normal forced vital capacity (FVC>or=80% predicted) but reduced forced expiratory ratio (FERjob type, history of TB, size of lung nodules and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) were all significantly associated with airflow limitation on univariate analysis (all P<0.05), while sex and profusion of nodules were not. Only age, cigarette pack-years, history of TB, size of lung nodules and PMF remained as significant independent predictors of airflow obstruction in multiple logistic regression analysis. After controlling for airflow obstruction, only shorter exposure duration, history of TB and profusion of nodules were significant independent predictors of reduced FVC. As well as age, history of TB, cigarette pack-years, PMF and nodule size contributed comparable effects to airflow obstruction in multiple linear regression analyses, while profusion of nodules was the strongest factor for reduced vital capacity. In an occupational compensation setting, disease indices and history of tuberculosis are independent predictors of both airflow obstruction and reduced vital capacity for silicotic patients.

  2. Not so great expectations: sex and housewives in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ho, Petula Sik

    2008-01-01

    The study explores the life of married women who are being described as having "good," "normal," "blessed" sexuality. The case of si-nais (housewives) in Hong Kong shows that we can never assume that married women (or any social category) are privileged by virtue of their status on the sexual hierarchy. The blessings of social respectability apparently enjoyed by these women may work to enable or hinder women's expression of their erotic desires and sexual fulfillment, depending on their special social circumstances. These women's imagination and experience of good sex is composed of a multitude of components. Women may feel good because they can achieve other psychological and social aims that are important in their lives (which could be related to the maintenance of marriage or the peace of the family). Women may feel good because of the erotic satisfaction that they derive from different pursuits including interests, leisure or other intimate relationships, rather than sexual fulfillment in terms of orgasm or physical pleasure. Women may reformulate their pleasure variously at different stages of their lives. Social respectability, orgasm, emotional intimacy, or any other specific element, may all enter or leave the formula for good sex.

  3. Suicide news reporting accuracy and stereotyping in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-10

    The mass media are often criticized for oversimplifying the causes of suicide and overlooking some of the risk factors. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support this assertion. The study aims to examine the accuracy of news reports in Hong Kong (HK) and in particular whether or not such reports stereotype victims according to gender and suicide method. Data from a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study of 150 HK suicides were utilized. The reports of the PA cases from five major HK newspapers were collected and reviewed to identify whether or not there was a match in terms of the cases' profile and risk factors. The age, gender, and method of the suicides were largely reported correctly (>70%) but accounts of risk factors were seldom accurate (Media stereotyping of gender-specific suicide and charcoal-burning suicide was identified. The study was based on a HK sample so the findings are not necessarily applicable elsewhere. The HK mass media generally demonstrated poor accuracy in reporting suicide risk factors. Their reporting was also problematic in terms of stereotyping gender- and method-specific suicides. Clinical practitioners should be alerted to these findings when working with the media. They can also adopt this novel usage of PA data to extract further information from other PA studies and thereby broaden the investigation of reporting accuracy and stereotyping of suicide to more diverse social contexts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  5. Gender Perspectives on Adolescent Eating Behaviors: A Study on the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Junior Secondary Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,…

  6. An Examination of the Predictive Relationships of Self-Evaluation Capacity and Staff Competency on Strategic Planning in Hong Kong Aided Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests…

  7. The characteristics of household food waste in Hong Kong and their implications for sewage quality and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Feixiang; Dai, Ji; Hong, Yuze; Wong, Meiyin; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Guanghao

    2018-04-01

    Food waste (FW) is a worldwide environmental issue due to its huge production amount. FW separation from municipal solid waste followed by different treatment strategies has been widely accepted. Food waste disposer (FWD) is a promising approach to separate and collect household food waste (HFW), which has been widely applied in many countries. However, the feasibility of FWD application in many countries is still being debated due to the major concerns over the impact of FWD on the wastewater treatment plants. In order to investigate the feasibility of FWD application, FW characterization is a key work to be conducted in advance. Since the FW characteristics largely vary by region, reliable and representative FW characteristics in different countries should be investigated. To provide such information for further studies on FW management for Hong Kong, HFW was collected from Hong Kong typical households over one year and analyzed systemically in this study. The FW composition varied little from place to place or season to season, and the values observed were comparable with results reported from other countries and regions. Based on the reliable HFW characteristics obtained from one-year survey coupled with statistical analysis, simulated HFW for Hong Kong consisting of 50% fruits, 20% vegetables, 20% starchy food and 10% meat was proposed for future studies. On the other hand, the FWD treatment caused more than 50% of the biodegradable organic content in HFW to dissolve. With a ratio of 1 g food waste to 1 L sewage, total solids in the wastewater stream were predicted to increase by 73%, total chemical oxygen demand by 61%, soluble chemical oxygen demand by 110%, nitrogen by 6% and phosphorus by 16%. Theoretically, 22 million m 3 /year of additional methane could be generated if 50% of Hong Kong residential buildings equipped with FWD. That would certainly increase pollutant loading on the wastewater treatment plants, but also energy recovery potential

  8. Family functioning of child-rearing Japanese families on family-accompanied work assignments in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohashi, Naohiro; Honda, Junko

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of employees on overseas assignments accompanied by their families has increased steadily, little is known about the effects of this experience on family functioning. Japanese families on family-accompanied assignments living in Hong Kong were compared with families living in Japan (consisting of 135 and 248 paired partners, respectively). Applying an ecological framework, family functioning was examined using the Feetham Family Functioning Survey-Japanese (FFFS-J). Japanese wives living in Hong Kong rated family functioning lower, particularly in the area of "relationship between family and family members." Between paired marital partners living in Hong Kong, the level of satisfaction in the area of "relationship between family and society" was significantly lower for wives than for husbands. This study provides application of the family ecological framework in families in a multicultural environment and identifies potential areas for family assessment and intervention that may of interest to health care professionals who care for families living away from their home countries.

  9. Overprotection and the psychological states of cerebral palsy patients and their caretakers in Hong Kong: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Fung, Boris K K; Fung, Amy S M; Chow, S P; Ip, W Y; Lee, Stella F Y; Leung, Eva Y P; Ha, Kennis W Y

    2008-08-01

    To examine the relation between perceived overprotection and the psychological states of cerebral palsy patients and their primary caretakers in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional survey, in which data of 14 pairs of cerebral palsy patients and their caretakers were analysed. Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital, Hong Kong. Cerebral palsy patients and their primary caretakers in Hong Kong. Perceived overprotection and psychological states. Nearly two thirds of the 14 patients (mean age of 15 years) and 86% of the 14 primary caretakers (mean age of 47 years) perceived various levels of overprotection. For both patients and caretakers, perceived overprotection was positively associated with anxiety and unhappiness. The patients' and caretakers' psychological states and perception of overprotection were not related to the actual motor ability of the patients. Perceived overprotection of the patients was not related to that of the caretakers. Caretakers should be mindful that a well-meaning move may have undesirable consequences. More support and child-rearing education should be considered for caretakers.

  10. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  11. Catholic Church-State Relations in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: A Review of 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice K.F. Leung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Catholic Church and the Hong Kong British Government formed warm relations when the Church became the contractor of the government to provide education and social and medical service. The British did not provide democracy to Hong Kong but allowed ample freedom including religious freedom which the Hong Kong Catholics would like to protect in the post-colonial period under the Communist Party rule. For religious freedom, right after Hong Kong became the Special Administrative Region (HKSAR, the Hong Kong Catholic Church under the prophetic and vocal leadership of Bishop Joseph Zen, became very active in political participation. Zen’s leadership was short-lived (1996-2009 and the soft-spoken Bishop John Tong replaced him with a different approach of consolidating the church without antagonising the government with social issues.

  12. Prevalence of travel related illness amongst a group of Chinese undergraduate students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah AS, A M; Hedley, A J; Fielding, R

    2000-01-01

    Regional and global travel by Asian residents is increasing. Young people seeking new experiences through travel may be particularly at risk of a wide spectrum of health problems. This study assesses travel-associated health risks and examines the prevalence and likely impact of pretravel health advice among Chinese undergraduate students in Hong Kong. Year 1 and year 3 undergraduate students of the University of Hong Kong were surveyed during September to December 1996, using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A total of 1,067 subjects were required to give a power of 95% (p =.50+/-3%). Of 1,197 students (514 male and 680 female) surveyed, 52% had traveled outside Hong Kong at least once within the previous 12 months. Of these travelers (n = 578), 41% had developed one or more health problems, 7% had to consult a doctor and 2% needed hospitalization during travel, and 8% developed health problems within 2 weeks of returning for which they had to consult a doctor. Most (75%) took no pretravel health advice and 48% took no travel health precautions. About half (41%) of those who received advice received this from nonexpert sources. Those more likely to develop health problems were aged over 20 years (Odds Ratio, 1.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.10), in financial difficulties (1.60, 1.02-2.51), ever-smokers (1.69, 1.03-2.77), reporting poorer current health status (1.64, 1.04-2.57). Also, those who sought health advice from nonprofessional sources (2.13, 1.03-4.01) and took precautions (1.88, 1.33-2.63) were more likely to develop health problems. This study demonstrated that young Chinese adults, with the benefits of higher education, are potentially at risk of a variety of avoidable travel-related health problems. Taking pretravel health advice from nonprofessional sources was common among respondents, but taking precautions did not reduce health problems. The comprehensibility and effectiveness of the advice and appropriateness of precautions taken

  13. Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Chau, Alex Mh; Lo, Edward Cm; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-08

    This study aimed to assess the dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children and study the determinants of dental caries and dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed from 2011 to 2012 with ethics approval. Stratified random sampling was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 7 primary schools in Hong Kong. The participating parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children's diet and oral health habits. The children were examined for caries status with WHO criteria by 3 calibrated examiners. Detection of dental erosion followed Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 704 children were recruited and 600 (316 boys, 53%) participated in the survey. There were 124 children (21%) with caries experience (DMFT > 0) and their DMFT was 0.34 ± 0.76. About half of their decay was unfilled (DT = 0.16 ± 0.52) The DMFT of girls and boys were 0.45 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.61, respectively (p = 0.001). Girls also had a higher DT (0.21 ± 0.62 compared with 0.11 ± 0.41, p = 0.013) and FT than boys (0.23 ± 0.63 compared with 0.12 ± 0.44, p = 0.016). Most children (75%) had at least some sign of erosion (BEWE > 0), but no severe erosion (BEWE = 3). Logistic regression showed girls who consumed soft drinks and took vitamin C supplements had higher caries risk. Dental erosion was more severe among the children who had caries experience and consumed fruit juice. The 12-year-old Hong Kong children had low caries experience, and almost half of the decay was left untreated. Although severe erosion was not found, many children had early signs of erosion.

  14. Acculturation Attitudes and Sociocultural Adaptation of Chinese Mainland Sojourners in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyi Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates the ways for a group of doctoral students from Chinese Mainland to acculturate in Hong Kong. With the help of questionnaires, the difficulties that the sojourners have encountered in social situations are measured. It is found out that age and gender may have influenced the participants’ acculturation strategies, and interpersonal relationship is that which the subjects have the most difficulties with, while academic domain is the area with the least difficulties. Meanwhile, the results have shown that competence of local language is not a determinant factor of the sociocultural adaptation, and female subjects seem to adapt better than male subjects. Keywords: sojourner, acculturation, sociocultural adaptation, acculturation strategy

  15. Predicting the 137Cs Contamination of Freshwater Fish in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.B.; Au, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive method for estimating the 137 Cs contamination of freshwater fish in Hong Kong after an acute deposition is presented. This method applies a published aquatic model to the freshwater fish culture ponds in Hong Kong. The predicted transfer coefficient, in terms of peak concentration in fish (wet weight) per unit deposition, is found to be generally lower than those observed in some European and UK lakes after the Chernobyl accident. While the water-fish concentration factor is undoubtedly an important factor, some unique features of the local freshwater fish culture systems, such as the absence of further radioactivity input from catchment to the fish ponds after deposition, and high removal of radioactivity by sedimentation, also play significant roles. Sensitivity of model parameters and uncertainties of prediction are also studied. This predictive model can serve as a useful tool in emergency planning and in countermeasure implementation during a nuclear emergency in Hong Kong. (author)

  16. The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong: A Participant’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Yu-shek Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Occupation Campaign in Hong Kong ended on December 15, 2014 after 79 days reflected the protesters and pro-democracy groups’ wish to tell the world that they are not going to give up the cause of democracy and that they will continue to fight despite the understanding that it will be extremely difficult to change the decision of the Chinese leadership in the short term. In the eyes of the supporters of the pro-democracy movement, the challenge facing Hong Kong people is not just fighting for a democratic electoral system, but also struggle to maintain their core values, their lifestyles, and their individual dignity – an uphill battle given that the local business community firmly toes the Beijing line. While the political struggles of the young people of Hong Kong are perceived to have brought hope to the pro-democracy movement, the prospects for democracy remain far from promising.

  17. Trigeneration: A new way for landfill gas utilization and its feasibility in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaoli; Yang Hongxing; Zhang Guoqiang

    2008-01-01

    Application of landfill gas (LFG) means a synergy between environmental protection and energy production. This paper presents a review of the status of LFG application. To more efficiently utilize the LFG in Hong Kong, a trigeneration scheme is proposed as a new way of LFG utilization. The feasibility of LFG trigeneration in Hong Kong is evaluated from the views of primary energy-saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction as well as economic benefit. The proposed scenario is compared with the conventional scenarios of LFG treatment and utilization. It is shown that LFG for trigeneration has a higher energy saving and GHG emission reduction potentials. The new scheme is also more economical than the conventional way of LFG utilization. Some policy recommendations are also given to promote the biomass energy utilization from waste landfills in Hong Kong

  18. Technology-Supported Educational Innovations in Finland and Hong Kong: A Tale of Two Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of case studies about innovative ICT-supported pedagogical practices in two educational systems, namely Finland and Hong Kong. The two systems were selected for this in-depth comparison for three main reasons. First, Finland and Hong Kong performed well in several international comparative studies of educational achievement. Second, the case studies collected via the SITES Module 2 indicated rather different profiles between Finnish and Hong Kong schools in terms of ICT infrastructure and pedagogical practices. Third, further analysis of the case studies data indicated differences in emergent pedagogical characteristics between the cases collected in Asia and in Western Europe. The paper aims at exploring in detail two research questions with regard to innovative pedagogical practices using technology. Firstly, are there systemic differences in the nature of the educational innovations across countries? Secondly, are there systemic differences in the change mechanisms and factors influencing change across countries?

  19. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management - A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K M; Yeung, C L; Xiong, Z R; Chung, S H

    2016-12-01

    With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost. It is suggested to consider municipal solid waste management in a holistic view and improve the utilization of waste management infrastructures. A mathematical model which adopts integer linear programming and mixed integer programming has been developed for Hong Kong municipal solid waste management. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to simulate different scenarios which provide decision-makers important information for establishing Hong Kong waste management system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hong Kong - The Hong Kong Alliance of Patients' Organizations: Working constructively to increase hospital openness and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Alliance of Patients' Organizations (HI(APO) comprises 44 affiliated patient groups who advocate across the region, improving patient experiences and increasing advocacy and awareness. Initially established to increase accountability to patients and representation in a changing health system, the Alliance has worked to expand patient input on local and territorial decision-making by partnering with individual hospitals and increasing links with the Hospital Authority Board. Patients are now represented on most committees affecting patient care and the delivery of health services, and more widely in health care policy decision-making. The Alliance advocates for patients as active and constructive consumers rather than passive recipients of services and lobbies for better representation and involvement in treatment decisions. It has also increased media exposure which has helped to grow representation so that patients are now present on all 11 Authority Committees and are asked for their views. The patient ambassadors programme offers training for patients to be representatives at ward level and within the local hospital committee; and by building constructive relationships over time with hospital partners, HKAPO affiliate organizations have been able to start making improvements in the training of professionals in hospitals and informing staff about patient engagement, advocating for new clinical interventions and a more patient-centred approach.

  1. Safety Challenges and Improvement Strategies of Ethnic Minority Construction Workers: A Case Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlin; Luo, Xiaowei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yue; Sapkota, Bibek

    2018-04-18

    Due to cultural differences, ethnic minority construction workers are more difficult to manage and more vulnerable to accidents. This study aims to identify the major barriers faced by ethnic minority workers from their own perspectives and determine potential strategies to enhance safety climate of construction projects, thus ultimately improve their safety performance. A survey with modified Nordic safety climate questionnaire was conducted in a certain sub-contractor in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews, status quo description, major challenge investigation and safety knowledge tests were carried as well. The top three most important safety challenges identified are improper stereotypes from the whole industry, lack of opportunities for job assignment, and language barriers. To improve the safety performance, employers should allocate sufficient personal protective equipment and governments should organize unannounced site visits more frequently. Besides, the higher-level management should avoid giving contradictory instructions to foremen against to the standards of supervisors.

  2. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' stress and their coping strategies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine K L; So, Winnie K W; Fong, Daniel Y T

    2009-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' stress and their coping strategies in clinical practice. Two hundred five nursing students completed a self-administrative survey including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory. Results showed that students perceived a moderate level of stress (M = 2.10, SD =0.44). The most common stressor was lack of professional knowledge and skills. Among the four types of coping strategies (transference, stay optimistic, problem solving, and avoidance), transference was the most frequently used. Furthermore, senior students who perceived a higher level of stress from taking care of patients were more likely to choose problem-solving strategies. Senior students who had no religious belief and perceived a higher level of stress from teachers and nursing staff were more likely to use avoidance strategies. The results provided valuable information for clinical educators in identifying students' needs, facilitating their learning in the clinical setting, and developing effective interventions to reduce stress.

  4. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  5. Barriers of Chinese primary care attenders to seeking help for psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai Sing; Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lo, Tak Lam; Chao, David Vai Kiong; Lam, Edmund Wing Wo

    2016-05-15

    Most of the previous studies on help seeking for psychological distress were derived from Western countries. This study investigated the barriers to help-seeking for psychological distress among Chinese primary care attenders in Hong Kong. Nine focus groups and 6 individual interviews were conducted among Chinese primary care attenders with/without known distress, patients' significant others and the general public. The identified barriers were investigated in a questionnaire survey with data from 1626 primary care attenders recruited from 13 private clinics and 6 public clinics. Worries about side effects of drugs (79.9%, 95% CI:(77.9%, 81.8%)) and drug dependency (74.7%, 95% CI:(72.5%, 76.8%)) were rated as the top barriers in the survey. Qualitative interviews found both worries and actual experience of the side effects of drugs, which weakened patients' trust in the treatment. Factor analysis on all barrier items suggested three factors: 1) worries of treatment, 2) uncertainties on primary care physicians' capacity, 3) public's limited knowledge on distress and sources of help. Distress level, education level and age were associated with factor 1, whereas distress level and healthcare setting were associated with the other two factors. Qualitative interviews revealed that not having a regular primary care physician in the public setting discouraged disclosure of psychological problems. The findings were based on self-reported data from the respondents. Hong Kong is influenced by a mixed Chinese and Western culture. Relevant public education in a Chinese context should target at reducing patients' worries of drug treatment and strengthening the image of primary care physicians as a feasible source of help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Alice K Y; Chu, M C; Chen, P P; Ma, M; Gin, Tony

    2007-10-01

    To describe experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Prospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chronic pain who participated in the first six Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programmes between 2002 and 2005. Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement is a 14-day structured, multidisciplinary out-patient programme conducted over 6 weeks. It includes pain education, cognitive re-conceptualisation, training in communication skills and coping strategies, graded physical exercises and functional activities training. It aims to improve patient function and quality of life, despite persistent pain. Changes in scores from baseline values after joining the programme, with respect to several assessment tools. These included the following: visual analogue pain scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire, and duration of physical tolerances, medication utilisation, and work status records. Forty-five patients were available for analysis. After the Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programme, improvements in Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire (role physical and vitality), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were demonstrated (P<0.05). The duration of standing and sitting tolerances increased (P<0.05). An improvement in employment rate was also evident (P=0.01). The initial results of our management programme in Chinese patients with chronic pain are encouraging. This type of programme should be promoted more widely in this group of patients, as it appears to improve physical function, psychological well-being, and productivity.

  7. Statutory Instrument No. 126, The Nuclear Installations (Hong Kong) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to Hong Kong, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of Hong Kong causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  8. "Killed Out of Love": A Frame Analysis of Domestic Violence Coverage in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miriam

    2017-11-01

    A frame analysis was conducted on a Hong Kong newspaper to determine whether news coverage of female fatalities at the hands of their intimate partners was reported in conventional domestic violence ways or if there were culture-specific explanations. Overall, most coverage supported known views of domestic violence, justifying the perpetrator and categorizing the issue as isolated crime. However, a few stories highlighted the historical subordination of women under patriarchy in Confucianism as an important cultural factor. Findings have implications for the lack of generalization of the social problem, and the understanding of cultural and political power in Hong Kong society.

  9. Testing Weak-Form Efficiency of The Chinese Stock Market and Hong Kong Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhuolin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the random walk hypothesis to determine the validity of weak-form efficiency for Shanghai, Shenzhen and Hong Kong Stock Exchanges. Daily returns from 2001-2010 for Shanghai A and B shares, Shenzhen A and B shares and Hong Kong Hang Seng Index are used in this study. The random walk hypothesis is examined by using four statistical methods, namely a serial correlation test, an Augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root test, a runs test and a variance ratio test. The empirical re...

  10. New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yaxing; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Kwok, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    The choice of proper wind comfort criterion is considered to be crucial to reliable assessment of pedestrian level wind comfort. This paper aims to propose a wind comfort criterion that can be applied to Hong Kong, in which the wind comfort is seriously deteriorated by the moderated airflow, part...... represent the weak wind condition and provide suitable assessments of the wind comfort in Hong Kong. Moreover, the findings in this study provide scientific basis for future policy-making and the proposed criteria can also help city planners to improve the pedestrian level wind comfort....

  11. A feasible reform for the electricity supply industry in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H.W.; Wang, J.H.; Engriwan, W.; Lo, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    With the current scheme of control regulation for the Hong Kong electricity supply industry expiring in 2008, the Government has sent out a consultation paper seeking views from the general public on its reform and possible future development. This paper investigates the characteristics of the current agreement and the rationale for feasible reform of the Hong Kong ESI. It leads to a discussion on a proposed feasible reform using performance-based regulation approach modeling and the associated implementation issues related to price capping, risk analysis, performance indices, quality monitoring and governance

  12. Enforcing the Right to Family Life in Hong Kong Courts: The Case of Dependant Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chuen Ngai Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Hong Kong courts’ seemingly robust protection of fundamental rights and civil liberties, enforcing family rights remains extremely difficult. While the right to family life is safeguarded by both domestic and international human right instruments, applicants in judicial review cases are usually not able to rely on it to challenge the decisions made by the immigration authority. This paper examines the challenges in enforcing the right to family life in Hong Kong’s Dependant Policy with a particular focus on the Hong Kong Court of Appeal’s recent decision in BI v Director of Immigration. The immigration reservation, entered into by the United Kingdom when ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has become a justification for a restrictive immigration regime even after the transfer of sovereignty. The Hong Kong courts also repeatedly accord wide discretion to immigration authority. The courts’ reluctance to scrutinize socio-economic policies reveals one of the key weaknesses in enforcing fundamental rights in Hong Kong by the way of judicial review.

  13. Consumption of Pornographic Materials among Hong Kong Early Adolescents: A Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of pornographic materials was examined in 3,638 secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Results showed that over 80% of the respondents had never consumed pornographic materials in the past year. Internet pornography was the most common medium that adolescents used when viewing pornographic materials. Males reported a higher level of pornography consumption than did females. Participants who were born in mainland China were more likely to consume pornographic materials than their Hong ...

  14. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  15. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12-15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young's (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  16. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998 criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 % could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %. The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.

  17. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Massei

    Full Text Available Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts, administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations.

  18. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larina Chi-Lap Yim

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  20. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  1. Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air quality in ice skating rinks has become a public concern due to the use of propane- or gasoline-powered ice resurfacers and edgers. In this study, the indoor air quality in three ice rinks with different volumes and resurfacer power sources (propane and gasoline) was monitored during usual operating hours. The measurements included continuous recording of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The average CO, CO 2 , and TVOC concentrations ranged from 3190 to 6749 μg/m 3 , 851 to 1329 ppm, and 550 to 765 μg/m 3 , respectively. The average NO and NO 2 concentrations ranged from 69 to 1006 μg/m 3 and 58 to 242 μg/m 3 , respectively. The highest CO and TVOC levels were observed in the ice rink which a gasoline-fueled resurfacer was used. The highest NO and NO 2 levels were recorded in the ice rink with propane-fueled ice resurfacers. The air quality parameters of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and SO 2 were fully acceptable in these ice rinks according to HKIAQO standards. Overall, ice resurfacers with combustion engines cause indoor air pollution in ice rinks in Hong Kong. This conclusion is similar to those of previous studies in Europe and North America

  2. Evidence for the 2008 economic crisis exacerbating depression in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sing; Guo, Wan-Jun; Tsang, Adley; Mak, Arthur D P; Wu, Justin; Ng, King Lam; Kwok, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    There is a lack of population-level research on the relationship between economic contraction and specific mental disorders and how individual-level variables may mediate such a relationship. Two cross-sectional surveys using identical random sampling and diagnostic methods were conducted among Hong Kong adults in 2007 (January-February) and 2009 (April-May). 3016 and 2011 Chinese speaking adults completed structured interviews based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV). The twelve-month prevalence of DSM-IV major depressive episode (MDE) was significantly higher in 2009 (12.5%) than 2007 (8.5%). A significant increase of prevalence was found in both male and female respondents, those in the highest (55-65 years) age group, having secondary education level, were married/cohabited, divorced/widowed, employed, home-making, and in the lowest and high-middle income groups. Those with large investment loss had a significantly higher prevalence of MDE (20.3%) than those with less or no-investment loss (9.2-13.7%). The symptom pattern and severity of depression in 2007 and 2009 were similar. Economic contraction triggered by a global financial crisis was associated with a significant increase in the risk of depression in the Hong Kong population. This increase was not explained primarily by unemployment and had a significant contribution from employed, home-making, high-middle income, and having married people. A holistic perspective that encompasses both ecological and individual levels of analysis is essential for studying the net impact of economic contraction on depression across communities and sociodemographic groups and for health policy planning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic cigarette use and its association with smoking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used in adolescents with unknown impacts on conventional cigarette smoking. We examined the associations of e-cigarette use with smoking intention, nicotine addiction and smoking cessation in Chinese adolescents. A total of 45,128 students (age 14.6 ± 1.9; boys 51.4%) from 75 randomly selected schools in Hong Kong reported e-cigarette use (in the past 30 days), conventional cigarette use and socio-demographic characteristics in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of intention to smoke, morning smoking urge, intention to quit and quit attempts; and beta-coefficient (β) of cigarette consumption per day were calculated in relation to e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use was associated with intention to smoke with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.74 (1.30-2.31) in all students, 2.18 (1.12-4.23) in never and 2.79 (2.05-3.79) in ever smokers (non-significant interaction by smoking status). The associations were also significant in experimental and former smokers but not in current smokers. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with heavier smoking (β 2.54, 95% CI 1.28-3.81) and morning smoking urge (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.50-3.11), and non-significantly associated with lower quit intention (0.76, 0.52-1.09) and attempts (0.80, 0.56-1.23). E-cigarette use was associated with smoking intention in never, experimental and former smokers in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with nicotine addiction but not quit intention and attempts. Prospective studies with detailed measurements on e-cigarette use are warranted for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation of predictors of successful aging in the workplace among Hong Kong Chinese older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M S

    2012-03-01

    We examined associations between successful aging in the workplace (adaptability and health, positive relationship, occupational growth, personal security, and continuous focus on goals) and two major factors of work stressors (work family conflict and discrimination against older workers) and coping resources (perceived organizational support, supportive human resource policies, and social support from friends and family) among Chinese older workers in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we also examined whether coping resources moderate the negative effect derived from work stressors on successful aging. A total of 242 Chinese full-time workers aged 40 years or above were recruited in a self-administered questionnaire survey study in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression results showed that family-to-work conflict was significantly related to successful aging, except the dimension of personal security. Work-to-family conflict and discrimination, however, were not related to successful aging in the workplace. In terms of coping resources, perceived organizational support was related to all dimensions of successful aging in the workplace. We also found that training and development was a significant correlate of occupational growth. Social support from friends and family was positively related to three successful aging dimensions, including adaptability and health, personal security and continuous focus on goals. Finally, when facing discrimination in the workplace, support from organizations and from friends and family were particularly important for old-older workers (aged 55 years or above) to achieve better adaptability and health. Perceived organizational support and social support from friends and family were important correlates of successful aging in the workplace. Limitation and recommendations for organizational intervention were discussed.

  5. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  6. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian Lao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD; and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. RESULTS: The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7% of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%. Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. CONCLUSION: Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing

  7. Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' self-reported smoking and perceptions of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lai, Hak Kan; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent smoking has been associated with general parenting style, although potential differences between fathers and mothers were seldom investigated, especially in non-Western populations. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between Hong Kong adolescents' smoking and their perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles. In a school-based survey in 2006-2007, 33,408 adolescents (44.6 % boys; mean age 14.5 ± 1.3 years) provided information on smoking and the frequency of care and control by each parent, who was classified into one of four adolescent-reported parenting styles: authoritative (high care, high control), authoritarian (low care, high control), permissive (high care, low control), or neglectful (low care, low control). Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of current smoking (past 30 days) for parenting variables, considering potential effect modification by age, sex and parental smoking. Maternal care and control were strongly and significantly associated with lower odds of adolescent current smoking. However, such association was weak for paternal care and observed only in girls. Conversely, paternal control was positively associated with current smoking, especially if the father smoked. The lowest AORs of current smoking were associated with authoritative mothers, permissive fathers and combinations of maternal and paternal parenting styles with an authoritative mother whether or not the father was authoritative. Maternal care, control and authoritative parenting were associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking in Hong Kong. Paternal care was only weakly associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking, and paternal control was even associated with higher odds of smoking.

  8. Threat to democracy: Physical and mental health impact of democracy movement in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna; Lau, Kam Man; Ng, Sin Man; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and critical predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms and self-rated health, following the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 1208 Chinese Hong Kong citizens (mean age=46.89 years; 63% female) in the first two weeks of February 2015. Respondents gave their informed consent and reported personal, social, and economic resource loss since the Umbrella Movement (Conservation of Resources-Evaluation), current anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and self-rated health (1=very good, 4=very bad). A total of 47.35% (95% CI=44.55, 50.17) respondents reported moderate/severe anxiety symptoms and 14.4% (95% CI=12.54, 16.50) reported moderate/severe depressive symptoms; 9.11% (95% CI=7.61, 10.86) reported "poor" or "very poor" health. Multivariable regressions revealed that personal and social resource loss was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms and greater odds of "very poor" health (adjusted odds ratios/incidence rate ratios=5-102%), independent of lower education level and income and being unmarried. This study was cross-sectional in nature and thus could not determine causality from the associations between resource loss and outcome variables. Second, the telephone survey relied on self-reports; response bias and social desirability could influence respondents' answers and discount data validity. Third, potential confounders such as preexisting mental and physical health issues and concurrent predictors like exposure to the Umbrella Movement were not assessed. This is one of the first studies following any recent political movement (e.g., The Arab Spring) to quantify distress and the associated correlates of distress among affected citizens. Perceived psychosocial resource losses were critical predictors of poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-02-01

    To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. A school-based cross-sectional survey. Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire, Sleep Quality Index, Morningness/ Eveningness scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, academic performance, and personal data were administered. The average school-night bedtime was 23:24, and total sleep time was 7.3 hr. During weekends, the average bedtime and rise time was delayed by 64 min and 195 min, respectively. The prevalence of sleep disturbances occurring > or = 3 days per week in the preceding 3 months were: difficulty falling asleep (5.6%), waking up during the night (7.2%), and waking up too early in the morning (10.4%). The prevalence of > or = 1 of these three symptoms was 19.1%. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that circadian phase preference was the most significant predictor for school night bedtime, weekend oversleep, and daytime sleepiness. Perceived stress was the most significant risk factor for sleep disturbance. Students with marginal academic performance reported later bedtimes and shorter sleep during school nights, greater weekend delays in bedtime, and more daytime sleepiness than those with better grades. The prevalence of sleep deprivation and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong adolescents is comparable to those found in other countries. An intervention program for sleep problems in adolescents should be considered.

  10. Chinese translation and validation of a parental feeding style questionnaire for parents of Hong Kong preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson; Keung, Vera; Lee, Albert; Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin

    2014-11-21

    Childhood obesity is a major public health issue in many countries, including China. The importance of parenting relative to the healthy development of children requires the development of instruments for assessing parental influence on child dietary pattern. This study aimed to confirm the internal reliability and validity of a self-report measure on parental feeding styles, including emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, prompting or encouragement to eat, and control over eating. A 27-item parental feeding style questionnaire (PFSQ) was translated into Chinese and then translated back into English to verify consistency. The questionnaire was then used to conduct a cross-sectional survey on the parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. The internal reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined by Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. 4,553 completed questionnaires were received. Cronbach's alpha of subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.81, and the overall reliability was good (alpha = 0.75). The factor structure of this questionnaire was similar to that of the original and Turkish versions. One-factor structure was identified for emotional feeding, instrumental feeding (four items), and prompting or encouragement to eat, whereas a two-factor structure was revealed for control over eating. The Chinese version of the PFSQ has good reliability and validity in assessing parental feeding styles in Hong Kong. Researchers can use this instrument to improve their understanding on how parental feeding styles may affect the dietary patterns and ultimately the weight statuses of children among Chinese-speaking populations across different countries.

  11. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  12. Studies on common illnesses and medical care utilization patterns of adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, J T; Yu, A; Cheung, J C; Leung, S S

    2000-12-01

    To estimate the prevalences of common illnesses in Hong Kong adolescents, the sociodemographic and selected risk factors associated with these illnesses, and their health care utilization behavior and attitudes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3355 participating secondary school students (response rate = 98%). Self-reported 3-month prevalences were obtained for cough/cold/influenza (55.2%), digestive disorders (34.6%), accidental injuries (29.5%), headache/dizziness (23.6%), chronic anxiety/insomnia (20.1%), skin problems (9.5%), asthma (3.8%), liver disease (1.3%), and menstrual pain (13.8% of female students). Self-perceived poor health, smoking, and alcohol consumption were associated with many of these illnesses. Treatment choice depended on the illness suffered (e.g., most students with respiratory problems consulted medical practitioners, whereas most with chronic anxiety/insomnia did not). Many students lacked trust in their doctors, doctor-shopped, relied heavily on self-medication, did not comply with prescribed treatments, would not seek help about medical problems, felt they had insufficient access to health information, and wanted confidential health care. This study examined for the first time the common illnesses and health care utilization patterns of Hong Kong adolescents. Students with chronic anxiety/insomnia were much less likely to seek care, indicating a need for better education on mental health. Efforts to prevent smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents need to be strengthened. The students' attitudes, poor compliance and help-seeking behaviors suggest suboptimal use of the health care system. Our findings are useful for international comparisons by medical practitioners, health care managers, and researchers.

  13. The needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y

    2014-10-01

    This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners

  14. Information Technology Integration in Teacher Education: Supporting the Paradigm Shift in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar Tin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the integration of information technology (IT) at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, presenting the rationale for this move, characteristics of IT integration, and program development issues for making IT application a critical component of contemporary teacher education. The paper presents a framework for program development and…

  15. Reimagining Communities and Implementing Social Learning: Contemporary Community Theatre Development in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have encountered political, social, economic and cultural challenges. During this period, their community theatres have played distinctive roles in activating their public space to reimagine their communities, form dialogues with their governments and construct learning experiences amongst various…

  16. The Professionalization of Hong Kong Teachers: Dilemma between Technical Rationality and Individual Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace C. L.

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the dilemma between professionalization and professionalism in the development of teaching into a bureaucratic organization in Hong Kong. Professionalization and bureaucratization are simultaneous processes. Teaching as an occupation has grown from a state of idiosyncrasy to a profession with defined boundaries. However,…

  17. A System-Wide Professional Learning Approach about Inclusion for Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Loreman, Tim; Sharma, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines changes in attitudes, teaching efficacy, and concerns about inclusive education in a sample of 2361 teachers in Hong Kong who took a professional learning course about inclusive education. Participants completed a questionnaire seeking demographic information and their perceptions about these three aspects of inclusive…

  18. Internationalising Teacher Education for a "Glocal" Curriculum: South Koreans Learning to Teach Hong Kong Liberal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Han, Ana Yoon Jin

    2016-01-01

    Internationalisation in education facilitates student and teacher mobility. Though Hong Kong has embraced internationalisation in education, international university students can face challenges related to cultural difference. In teacher education, these challenges can be amplified, as student-teachers face expectations to teach schoolchildren…

  19. Differences in Perceived Approaches to Learning and Teaching English in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Barley; Chik, Pakey

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates differences in approaches to learning and teaching English as a second language (ESL) as reported by 324 mixed-ability Grade 7 Hong Kong ESL students and 37 ESL secondary school teachers with different backgrounds. Information about participants' perceived approaches to learning/teaching English were collected through a…

  20. Motivation Change of Pre-Service English Teachers: A Hong Kong Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy; Yuan, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the motivations towards teaching of six pre-service English teachers enrolled on a teacher education course in Hong Kong. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, using data gathered from pre- and post-course interviews with individual participants, their dialogue journals with the teacher…

  1. An International Study of Career Drivers of Accounting Students in Singapore, Australia and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yew Ming; Koh, Hian Chye; Pragasam, John

    2008-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the career drivers of accounting students in Singapore, Australia and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The study examines the motivational factors that steer accounting students into choosing accounting as a programme of study in their respective countries. Comparative analyses are performed to…

  2. Colonialism and Secondary Technical Education in Hong Kong: 1945-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wai Wah; Kan, Flora

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the colonial experience (1945-1997) on the planning of secondary technical education in Hong Kong. Specifically, the origins of secondary technical institutions and their positioning in secondary education are examined. Primary source materials are used as the basis of investigation and analysis, supplemented…

  3. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…

  4. Revisiting the Big Six and the Big Five among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study replicated investigation of the link between Holland's six career interest types and Costa and McCrae's big five personality traits in a Chinese context. A sample of 79 university students from Hong Kong evaluated their own abilities and responded to the Short-Version Self-Directed Search (SVSDS) and the NEO Five-Factor…

  5. The Recalibration of Neoliberalisation: Repoliticising Higher Education Policy in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses a recent policy change in higher education in Hong Kong to determine the significance of politics in the conceptual understanding of higher education governance. To achieve this objective, the article examines the tension between the global agenda, which is characterised by neoliberal ideology and practices, and local needs,…

  6. No More Peking Ducks in Hong Kong: Provoking Critical Thinking through "Subversive Teaching."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gwendolyn

    Education in Hong Kong has been developed along a British model that uses examination results to determine students' academic futures: to be allowed to go on to a university to study or to go into the workplace with a tenth-grade education. The system has been described by likening students to Peking ducks who are forced to eat, fattened up for…

  7. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  8. Outdoor Adventure Education in East Asia: Interpreting Data from Outward Bound Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Funnell, Aaron; Riley, Mike; Chan, Bacon; Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is philosophically rooted in Western values, yet it has been implemented in non-Western cultures, such as East Asia. This paper examines how OAE functions in East Asia, through data from Hong Kong. Although some cultural differences are clear, there is no compelling evidence that OAE cannot provide benefits in…

  9. Difference in compliance with Standard Precautions by nursing staff in Brazil versus Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Chan, Jackie Hoi Man; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Gir, Elucir

    2015-07-01

    The Standard Precautions (SP) are measures to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens, and should be used by health professionals in the care of all patients regardless of their condition of infection. However, suboptimal compliance with SP has been consistently reported in the nursing literature. This study evaluated the differences of compliance with SP among nurses from Brazil and Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 countries-Hong Kong and Brazil-with nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administered questionnaire with demographic data and responses to a 20-item Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale. The compliance rate of 560 nurses was 69.4% for the Brazilian sample and 57.4% for the Hong Kong sample. The additional clinical experience of the Brazilian nurses versus those in Hong Kong may be related to differences in compliance with SP between nurses. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Negotiating Global Citizenship, Protecting Privilege: Western Expatriates Choosing Local Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julian M.; O'Connor, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We examine school choices made by western expatriate parents in post-colonial Hong Kong in order to understand the essence of imagined global citizenship and its implications for existing ethnic and class inequalities in the education system. Responding to changes in the global job market, a small but increasingly visible group of parents are…

  11. Research Productivity of Returnees from Study Abroad in Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun; Postiglione, Gerard A.; Azman, Norzaini

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes whether academics with advanced degrees from foreign universities are more research productive than their domestic counterparts in the three selected East Asian higher education systems--Korea, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The three systems have relatively large proportions of foreign degree holders among their professoriates. The…

  12. Rethinking Hegemony and Resistance to Political Education in Mainland China and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is on Hong Kong and mainland Chinese university student reactions, in two time periods, to national themes in education as part of state attempts to establish and maintain legitimacy. The author argues that among these reactions is one of resistance to the process of state hegemony. To make this point, the article builds…

  13. An Assessment of the Role of Hong Kong Schools in Promoting Civic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wai Chun Cherry; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2017-01-01

    Hong Kong underwent tremendous changes after the transfer of its sovereignty to China in 1997. This study attempts to explore the changing role of schools in preparing students for future democratic citizenship in the post-colonial era. Different researchers have postulated that schools play a crucial role in the political socialization process in…

  14. Changes in energy intensiveness of Hong Kong economy, 1995-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Larry C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Primary Energy Requirements (PER) slackened appreciably since the late 1990s in Hong Kong while Final Energy Requirements (FER) actually declined. Yet GDP continued to grow at a respectable average annual growth rate during the period, leading to a drastic drop in the energy intensiveness of the economy. The article analyzed the factors that contributed to the emergence of the above phenomena and discussed its consequences. The factors that led to the drop in energy intensiveness with respect to FER includes the rising electrification of the fuel mix, improvements in energy end-use efficiency (partly induced by government policy), and changes in the structure of the Hong Kong economy. With respect to the decline in PER energy intensiveness, the following aspects are pertinent: the share of electricity consumption accounted for by nuclear imports, the efficiency of electricity generation in Hong Kong (partly determined by the type of fuels used) and losses due to transmission and distribution as well as station consumption (system losses). The decline in energy intensiveness is good to Hong Kong, both in terms of the economy and the environment. Its ramifications will be briefly discussed.

  15. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  16. Perspectives on the Cultural Appropriacy of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David Robert

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact of Chinese culture on the school curriculum in Hong Kong. Argues that the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) transplanted from western-based concepts is not commensurate with the local Chinese cultural context, and therefore leads to many problems when being implemented in schools. (Author/VWL)

  17. Assessing the Demand for Annuities in an Undeveloped Market: Evidence from Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-L. Chou (Kee-Lee); J. Inkmann (Joachim); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); W.S. Chan (Wai)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow to design an attractive annuity for an undeveloped market and how to assess the potential demand for such a product? We first conduct a discrete choice experiment among participants of a large-scale occupational defined contribution pension scheme in Hong Kong to identify desired

  18. Scalar politics, language ideologies, and the sociolinguistics of globalization among transnational Korean professionals in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.J.; Canagarajah, S.; Lan, S.; Powers, D.G.

    This paper argues that the sociolinguistics of globalization is accompanied by a constitutive scalar politics. Based on ten interviews with Korean professionals in Hong Kong, we report that Korean migrants’ use and experience of English is characterized by competing language ideologies we identify

  19. Effective Spelling Strategies for Students with Dyslexia in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Nicole; Chan, Ying; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of five spelling strategies used to teach junior secondary school students with dyslexia. Participants were 30 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. The teachers commented on five spelling strategies: the phonological strategy, an integration of phonological and orthographical strategies, the rule-based…

  20. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  1. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are analyzed to characterize the sources impacting the Hong Kong area. The ratios of different VOC species, m,p-xylenes-to-ethylbenzene, C6H14-to-toluene and p-xylene-to-total xylenes are used for diagnostic analyses. Photochemical age analysis shows that the sources of reactive aromatics, the most important contributor to the photochemical reactivity, do not appear to be preferentially located in downtown Hong Kong. In addition, they do not appear to be dominated by mobile emissions based on the analyses of speciated VOC data from an earlier study, but related to industrial, waterfront, and fuel-storage activities. The ratios, p-xylene-to-total xylenes and dSO2/dNOy, suggest that the anomalously high pollutant concentrations in western Hong Kong in the early morning hours of two episode days appear to have come from transport of urban-type emissions. Comparison of observed ambient ratios of selected VOC and their ratios in the speciated VOC emission inventories for Hong Kong and adjacent Pearl River Delta (PRD Region gives mixed results. The observed ratio C6H14-to-toluene is consistent with the speciated version of the VOC emission inventory. The ratios of selected alkanes are not. This may be caused by the inaccuracies in the inventory and/or the speciation method.

  2. Ethnicity, Language-in-Education Policy and Linguistic Discrimination: Perspectives of Nepali Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Chura Bahadur; Adamson, Bob

    2018-01-01

    Educational issues in relation to ethnicity and language education policies have been underexplored in Asian contexts. In particular, issues related to ethnic and linguistic minority students have not received much attention in the post-colonial context of Hong Kong. This paper highlights challenges and tensions faced by Nepali ethnic minority…

  3. Language Choice and Identity Construction in Peer Interactions: Insights from a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    Informed by linguistic ecological theory and the notion of identity, this study investigates language uses and identity construction in interactions among students with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds in a multilingual university. Individual and focus-group interviews were conducted with two groups of students: Hong Kong (HK) and…

  4. Heritage and Identity: Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue; Patkin, John

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the language attitudes, language practices and identity construction of a group of ethnic minority students in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Drawing on data from focus group and individual interviews, this research shows that the ethnic minority students negotiate and contest their heritage identity by utilizing their…

  5. Cultural Identity in Teaching across Borders: Mainland Chinese Pre-Service Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explores transformations in the cultural identities of a group of pre-service teachers from mainland China during their educational experiences in Hong Kong, and how these transformations subsequently impact their professional identity. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 16 cross-border pre-service teachers from a…

  6. Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong: Language Ideologies and Discursive Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Mak, Barley; Qu, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how ethnic minority students in Hong Kong secondary schools discursively construct their identities in relation to culture, heritage, and social discourse. It finds that the ethnic minority students negotiate their identities within multiple positioning from parents, school, and the broader social discourse on minority…

  7. Early intervention for psychotic disorders: Real-life implementation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-03-01

    Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of the Visual-Motor Integration of Preschool Children in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Ng

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The local reference developed in this study yielded additional insights for occupational therapists and psychologists with regard to the application of the VMI (fifth edition for Hong Kong children aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months.

  9. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  10. Principal Leadership in an Era of Accountability: A Perspective from the Hong Kong Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan; Ko, James

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study into the leadership practices of Hong Kong principals working within an environment of increasing accountability. The study set out to investigate the relationships between sets of principal leadership practices and the levels of "alignment," "coherence and structure" and…

  11. Comparative Study of Cognitive Styles in Egypt, Greece, Hong Kong and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Michael; El-Kot, Ghada; Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive Style Inventory scores for business undergraduates in Greece (n=48), Egypt (n=45), and the United Kingdom (n=42) and postgraduates/managers in Egypt (n=20), Hong Kong (n=38) and the United Kingdom (n=21) indicated that, among undergraduates of different cultures, there were no significant style differences. Some differences in the…

  12. A Case Study: Reading Strategies Training Scheme in a Hong Kong Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a case study on a reading programme, named Reading Strategies Training Scheme (RSTS), for second language learning in a Hong Kong primary (elementary) school. The scheme, serving learners of English as a second language from Primary One to Six (ages 6--12), was developed by the school's English teaching team. As it was being…

  13. Learned Helplessness in Inclusive Music Classrooms: Voices of Hong Kong Primary Schools Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2015-01-01

    In Hong Kong, inclusive education is concerned with educating all students, including those who are categorised as having special educational needs (SEN). This qualitative study reports three challenges faced by primary schools music teachers required to implement inclusive education. The first two challenges echo those reported…

  14. Emotions and Pair Trust in Asynchronous Hospitality Cultural Exchange for Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung; Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2012-01-01

    Social and emotional dynamics have an impact on students' learning processes in online-learning situations. This study explores university students' emotions and trust levels resulting from collaborative communication behaviors when they interacted as part of a Food and Tourism course in Taiwan and Hong Kong. More specifically, students' emotions…

  15. Regional Education Profile: Asia. China, Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Developments in international education in Asia during 1985 are considered in three essays presented in the Biennial International Education Seminars conducted by the Institute of International Education. Countries covered by the essays and the authors are: China, Hong Kong, and Thailand (Jay Henderson); Macau (Josef Silny and Jay Henderson); and…

  16. Causes of childhood blindness in a school for the visually impaired in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D S P; Lai, T Y Y; Cheung, E Y Y; Lam, D S C

    2005-04-01

    To identify the causes of blindness in children attending a school for the blind in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional observational study. School for blind children in Hong Kong. Eighty-two blind students at the Ebenezer School and Home for the Visually Impaired were examined between December 1998 and August 1999. Demographic data were obtained from students and a questionnaire assessment made of their medical and ocular history. Visual acuity was assessed and visual loss classified according to the World Health Organization classification of visual impairment. Complete ophthalmic assessments were performed in all students including slit-lamp examination and dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. The mean age of the students was 12.2 years. Ten (12.2%) had a family history of eye disease. Major past medical illnesses were reported in 50% with prematurity and diseases of the central nervous system found in 26.8% and 11.0% of students, respectively. The most common anatomical site for visual impairment was the retina (47.6%), followed by diseases of the optic nerve (14.6%), and diseases of the anterior segment and the lens (14.6%). The pattern of childhood blindness in Hong Kong is similar to that seen in other developed countries. Preventable causes of childhood blindness, such as prematurity and birth asphyxia, were responsible for a large proportion of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment of such conditions may reduce the incidence of childhood blindness in Hong Kong.

  17. Validation of the Beliefs against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be…

  18. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  19. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  20. Play and Theory of Mind in Early Childhood: A Hong Kong Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wong, Richard Kwok Shing; Wong, Paul Yau Ho; Ho, Fuk Chuen; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2017-01-01

    The study seeks to understand the relation between preschool children's mode of participation and negotiation strategies during play and their theory of mind (ToM) development in the Hong Kong context. Forty-two 5-year-old children were recruited. Their emotional and cognitive ToMs were assessed along with expressive language ability. Children's…