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Sample records for hong in-ju song

  1. Source rock properties of lacustrine mudstones and coals (oligocene Dong Hom Formation), onshore Song Hong Basin, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H.; Nielsen, L.H.; Nytoft, H.P. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tru, V.; Duc, N.A. [Vietnam Petroluem Inst., Hanoi (Vietnam)

    2005-01-01

    Oligocene lacustrine mudstones and coals of the Dong Ho Formation outcropping around Dong Ho, at the northern margin of the mainly offshore Cenozoic Song Hong Basin (northern Vietnam), include highly oil-prone potential source rocks. Mudstone and coal samples were collected and analysed for their content of total organic carbon and total sulphur, and source rock screening data were obtained by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. The organic matter composition in a number of samples was analysed by reflected light microscopy. In addition, two coal samples were subjected to progressive hydrous pyrolysis in order to study their oil generation characteristics, including the compositional evolution in the extracts from the pyrolysed samples. The organic material in the mudstones is mainly composed of fluorescing amorphous organic matter, liptodetrinite and alginite with Botryococcus-morphology (corresponding to Type I kerogen). The mudstones contain up to 19.6 wt.% TOC and Hydrogen Index values range from 436-572 mg HC/g TOC. From a pyrolysis S{sub 2} versus TOC plot it is estimated that about 55% of the mudstones' TOC can be pyrolised into hydrocarbons; the plot also suggests that a minimum content of only 0.5 wt.% TOC is required to saturate the source rock to the expulsion threshold. Humic coals and coaly mudstones have Hydrogen Index values of 318-409 mg HC/g TOC. They are dominated by huminite (Type III kerogen) and generally contain a significant proportion of terrestrial-derived liptodetrinite. Upon artificial maturation by hydrous pyrolysis, the coals generate significant quantities of saturated hydrocarbons, which are probably expelled at or before a maturity corresponding to a vitrinite reflectance of 0.97%R{sub o}. This is earlier than previously indicated from Dong Ho Formation coals with a lower source potential. The composition of a newly discovered oil (well B10-STB-1x) at the NE margin of the Song Hong Basin is consistent with contributions from both source rocks

  2. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  3. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai–Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-01-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai–Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore ...

  4. Bulgarians: Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Walter W., Comp.

    Words and sheet music for 21 Bulgarian songs are presented. The document is part of an ethnic heritage teaching unit on folk arts and music of the Bulgarian people. The objective of the project is to help American students in elementary, junior high, and high schools understand and appreciate Bulgarians and their culture. Songs are presented in…

  5. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  6. The song of Iopas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Kinsey

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available The Song of Iopas plays an important part in the development of the relationship between Dido and Aeneas. There is no symbolism in the Song and no attempt to arouse Roman prejudice against the Carthaginians.

  7. the theological hub of song of songs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anhang über den Prediger. Göttingen: Rudolph Deuerlich. FiSCHer, S. 2010. Das Hohelied Salomos zwischen Poesie und Erzählung: Erzähltextanalyse eines poetischen Textes. Tübingen: mohr Siebeck. (FAT 72). Flint, P.w.. 2005. The book of Canticles (Song of Songs) in the Dead Sea Scrolls. In: A. C.. Hagedorn (Hrsg.).

  8. Strawberry Square. Song Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tom

    Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…

  9. The Power of Song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    . The representations of community and the survival strategies suggested by these songs are designed to teach an effective history lesson for our contemporary age, when the American middle class is again dwindling and beset with dangers of social déroute from all sides. In the larger context of the CD-set the songs...... from and about the Depression Era are placed in the company of other songs about migration and questing for truth and sanctuary, whether of a religious or socio-economic nature. The paper will attempt an evaluation of the efficacy of music and song in the teaching of American history and in community...

  10. SECRETS OF SONG VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the song videos as TV and Internet-genre. In addition, it considers problems of screen images creation depending on the musical form and the text of a songs in connection with relevant principles of accent and phraseological video editing and filming techniques as well as with additional frames and sound elements.

  11. The Tuning Song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Provides the song "Can't Get in Tune Blues" to help orchestra string students determine whether their instruments are in tune. Explains that the song teaches students the pitch relationships among strings and gives them valuable open-string bowing practice. Includes the music and one variation. (CMK)

  12. Song Wen-ai

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Song Wen-ai. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 21 Research Article. Classification of Stellar Spectra with Fuzzy Minimum Within-Class Support Vector Machine · Liu Zhong-bao Song Wen-ai Zhang Jing Zhao ...

  13. Eurovision Song Contes, beyond the song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura ORTIZ MONTERO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Broadcasting Union (EBU was born in 1950 to improve service radio and television through collab-oration and sharing content. This was, initially, limited only to news and sports. Therefore, in order not to be based only on that content, in 1956 they opted to create an event where music was a link between peoples: the Eurovision Song Contest. Sixty-one years later, the Song Contest has become one of the longest running programs in television in the world as well as one of the events that have the highest audience. The objective of this research is to know if the Eurovision Song Contest fulfills the purposes of the EBU, which refer to cultural diversity and the identity of peoples.

  14. Mongghul Love Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Limusishiden; Jugui

    2004-01-01

    In this film, the first 26 minutes are love songs sung in Mongghul; the remaining songs are sung in Mongghul and local Qinghai dialect, but all are Mongghul melodies. Several of these love songs are locally considered to be very old. The three singers reported that before 1984, Mongghul love songs were sung in Mongghul, but this is now much less common, and Mongghul love songs are more commonly sung in Chinese. 在这段影片中的前二十六分唱的是土族情歌,剩下的歌是以土族语和本地的青海方言唱的歌,但全部都是土族歌的旋律。有几首情歌在本地算是很老的。有三个歌手报道称一九八四...

  15. Erotic fantasy, spirituality and Song of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G. van der Merwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fantasy plays an essential role in sexual activities. This article investigates (erotic fantasy from a literary text perspective according to Song of Songs in the Christian Bible. The Song, according to many commentaries, starts with a reference to sex in Canticle 1:2, �Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth! For your love is better than wine�. Although the word sex is not mentioned in the Song, it is referred to and implied a number of times in the deep structure of the text. The fantasies of this most beautiful woman (beauty, a secondary motif in the Song that is complementary to the main theme of love are part of the rhetoric of the poet (probably a woman to convince the reader about the enjoyment and beauty of erotic love. These could most likely stimulate erotic fantasies when reading the text. Part of the poet�s rhetoric is the way in which she describes this most beautiful woman and her most attractive lover using metaphors, allusions, symbols and similes to evoke all sorts of imaginations and fantasies in the mind of the reader to complement the erotic fantasies of the reader. The investigation of the composition and �lived experiences� (spiritualities of erotic fantasies is approached from the perceptions of how the entanglement of the reader in the text augments fantasies, how the dynamic interaction between the text of Song of Songs and the reader involves the reader in the fantasies and spiritualities of the protagonists and the poet, how the lived experiences of the composed images and erotic fantasies in the text of the Song grip and involve the reader in the text and finally how the use or application of human senses in fantasies can intensify the lived experiences of fantasies. This research points out how God�s love and concern for his creatures are present as revealed in the relationship between two lovers. His love and concern are clearly visible in the enjoyment and pleasure given by God to humans in his

  16. Happy Handwashing Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-25

    This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along!  Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 2/25/2010.

  17. Neurobiology of song learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Birdsong is a culturally transmitted behavior that depends on a juvenile songbird’s ability to imitate the song of an adult tutor. Neurobiological studies of birdsong can reveal how a complex form of imitative learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood at the level of underlying circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies that illuminate the neurobiological mechanisms for singing and song learning. PMID:19892546

  18. A Marshmallow and a Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Music exists in time. One cannot get to the end of the song before going through the song. Is this significant for helping children wait? And can the way we present a singing game activity intensify the delay of what might be a gratifying moment at the end of the song? In this article, the author reflects on whether music can teach delayed…

  19. Ivan Zajc's Bulgarian Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanka Georgieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of newly discovered historiographic documents, this study traces the »biography« of Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian songs. It specifies some disputed details with regard to the numbering and structure of two vocal cycles; it submits a transcript of a music sheet of the song Robstvo (The Yoke, op. 843a and the original of an unknown composition Majko kleta (Poor Mother on the verses of the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov which has not been registered by Hubert Pettan in Zajc’s catalogue of works. This exploration, together with the historiographic focus, highlights the connection of these opuses with the Bulgarian poetry which gained wide popularity through the anthology Bulgarian Songs by August Harambašić. Indeed, some details which Zajc indicated on the title pages of his scores, lead to this assumption. At the same time, the spread of the songs in Bulgaria indicates the connection of the Croatian composer with Bulgarian musicians, choral societies, schools etc., as a result of which in the first decade of the 20th century Zagreb’s Hrvatski glazbeni zavod became an attractive educational centre for many young Bulgarian people. Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian Songs have not only enriched the artistic repertoire of Bulgarian choral societies. They outline one of the lines of active multicultural transfer between Bulgaria and Croatia on the border between the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The melodies of his marches, creating the spirit of the struggles for national liberation of Bulgarian nation, have become part of the newly created national musical culture and have been often accepted as Bulgarian in their origin.

  20. Makin' Music: Songs, Rhythm, and Creative Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberstein, Terry

    1996-01-01

    The power of music to create a coherent group is amazing. Music can be used to help focus attention, encourage group unity, involve everyone, and allow creative self-expression. Discusses different song styles, simple rhythm instruments, and song writing. Song-leading tips include song choice, teaching techniques, motions, song sheets, and three…

  1. TEACHING ENGLISH THROUGH SONGS

    OpenAIRE

    Drmota, Eda

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis addresses the use of music in teaching English and discusses many aspects of music and language learning. The theoretical part introduces music as an important factor in people's lives and presents reasons for its decisive role in acquiring a foreign language. It also provides a comparison between language and music and their effect on human brains. The attention is paid to songs which are presented as an effective pedagogical tool indispensible especially in young learners...

  2. Song 7, 'A Seeing off Song'

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Qianma

    2011-01-01

    .wav audio file This song says, please be careful on your way. When you leave, I sincerely bless you. When you come back, I’ll restrain the dog to allow you to enter my home. Please don’t forget the people who love you. We bless and support you constantly. 这首歌的歌意为,在你的路上要小心。在你离别的时候我真心实意地祝福你。当你回来的时候我会为你挡着狗让你进入我的家。不要忘记爱你的人们。我们时常都祝福和支持你。 གླུ་འདིའི་ནང་དོན་ནི་ཁྱོད་ཀྱི་ལམ་ནང་དུ་སེམས་ཆུང་བྱོས། ཁྱོད་འགྲོ་བའི་དུས་སུ་ངས་སེམས་པ་རྣམ་དག་གིས་ཁྱོད་ལ་སྨོན་ལམ་འདེབས། ཁྱོད་ཕྱིར་ལོག་པའི་དུས་སུ་ངས་ཁྱི་བཀ...

  3. The Last Song

    OpenAIRE

    Yumiko Sato

    2009-01-01

    Through my work as a hospice music therapist I’ve come to believe that people who are dying have an inner awareness of their own impending deaths. When I was a music therapy intern, I met a patient who was the first to reveal to me this inner awareness of death’s approach. This is a story of Herb, a former singer, whose life was filled with music. As his Alzheimer’s disease got worse, the only thing that comforted him was music. By singing his last song one day he taught me the mystery of dyi...

  4. Blessed with song

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Morriston Orpheus Choir from Swansea sing in the CERN control center.The Morriston Orpheus Choir from Swansea were joined by the Welsh First Minister Rhodri Morgan at the LHC control room on Sunday 12 October. Lyn Evans, a fellow Welshman, was excited to have them here at CERN. "The control room has been somewhat quieter recently than on the 10 September," he said later in his speech at the LHC inauguration ceremony, "but last week, some fellow countrymen of mine, the wonderful Morriston Orpheus choir from Wales, paid us a visit and blessed the LHC with song."

  5. Slangs in Beyonce Knowles' Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Masa Gintings, Christina Septiani Manurung and

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on sociolinguistics problems. It deals with the use of slang.The writer focuses on Beyonce Knowles's songs lyrics as the scope of data. Theobjectives of the study were to find out the types of slang are used in BeyonceKnowles' songs and to reason for the use of the types of slang in BeyonceKnowles' songs. The data that support this study by using descriptive qualitativedata by reading some references related to the subject matters. The findingsshowed Abbreviation and Baby'...

  6. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  7. Editorial - Songs on the Soundtrack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coyle, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Screen Sound number 3, 2012, includes various approaches to our theme - Songs on the Soundtrack - from textual analyses of specific films, to an historical/social analysis of music in popular films...

  8. Music Therapy, Song and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    André Brandalise

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship between therapist, client and music can also be considered as part of a communication system. Illness can seriously affect the functioning of this system in the music therapy process. The musical form song is used very often in therapeutic processes. It can be very efficient in the treatment. This article intends to make a reflection about the links between Music Therapy, Song and Communication.

  9. Song hybridization events during revolutionary song change provide insights into cultural transmission in humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Rendell, Luke; Lamoni, Luca; Poole, M Michael; Noad, Michael J

    2017-07-24

    Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing. In hybrid songs the current and new songs were spliced together in two specific ways: ( i ) singers placed a single hybrid phrase, in which content from both songs were combined, between the two song types when transitioning from one to the other, and/or ( ii ) singers spliced complete themes from the revolutionary song into the current song. Sequence analysis indicated that both processes were governed by structural similarity rules. Hybrid phrases or theme substitutions occurred at points in the songs where both songs contained "similar sounds arranged in a similar pattern." Songs appear to be learned as segments (themes/phrase types), akin to birdsong and human language acquisition, and these can be combined in predictable ways if the underlying structural pattern is similar. These snapshots of song change provide insights into the mechanisms underlying song learning in humpback whales, and comparative perspectives on the evolution of human language and culture.

  10. Hong Kong - Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver nogle forløb i SARS epidemien fra efteråret 2002 til sommeren 2003 i Hong Kong. Epidemien blev starten på samarbejdet mellem universitet i Hong Kong og Aalborg Universiter, hvor man i en årrække har forsket i udviklingen af ventilationssystemer der kan forhindre sygdomsspredning...

  11. Reading the Song of Songs through a spiritual direction lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy E. Lam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, integrates the biblical and the experiential, and offers a poetics-praxis paradigm for use in contemporary spiritual praxis. With the poem’s metaphorical vineyard (a figurative term for the beloved herself serving as hermeneutical key, the beloved’s experience of love is interpreted through a multifaceted reading that is intrinsic to the poem, namely: eros [yearning]; mythos [searching]; mustikos [finding]; and kosmos [birthing]. In following the inner dynamism and dramatic tensions across the eight chapters of the Song, the fourfold reading traces the beloved’s transformation from a neglected vineyard (Can 1:6 to a generative vineyard (Can 8:12. The article concludes that transformation in love is a journey from depletion (the giving away of self towards deification (the giving of self in love, and suggests tending one’s own vineyard as a living testament to divine love and a living sacrament in the world.

  12. Reading the Song of Songs through a spiritual direction lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy E. Lam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of the Song of Songs in spiritual direction is rare; yet, the Song of Songs (or Canticle of Canticles is a highly conducive case as it provides in nuce the poetics, lyrics, erotics, and aesthetics of human and divine love which is found nowhere else in Scripture. This article draws on these unique features, integrates the biblical and the experiential, and offers a poetics-praxis paradigm for use in contemporary spiritual praxis. With the poem’s metaphorical vineyard (a figurative term for the beloved herself serving as hermeneutical key, the beloved’s experience of love is interpreted through a multifaceted reading that is intrinsic to the poem, namely: eros [yearning]; mythos [searching]; mustikos [finding]; and kosmos [birthing]. In following the inner dynamism and dramatic tensions across the eight chapters of the Song, the fourfold reading traces the beloved’s transformation from a neglected vineyard (Can 1:6 to a generative vineyard (Can 8:12. The article concludes that transformation in love is a journey from depletion (the giving away of self towards deification (the giving of self in love, and suggests tending one’s own vineyard as a living testament to divine love and a living sacrament in the world.

  13. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  14. BUILDING VOCABULARY USING POP SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Rahmatika Kayyis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find out whether there is a significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of first semester students taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium. This study involved 64 students of first semesterof STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung in the academic year of 2012/2013 as the objects of the study. The result of the study shows there is a significant difference in the student’s vocabulary mastery between the experimental group who are taughtusing English pop songs and that taught without using English pop songs as a medium.The mean of post test score of the experimental group is 16.93 while the mean score of the control group is 14.54. The result of t-test shows that t-observed value which is higher than the t-value of the table (2.572>1.99, with a probability value of 0.008 which is lower than the significance level (0.008 < 0.05. In conclusion, the use of English pop songscould improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.Keywords: Vocabulary, English Pop Songs

  15. What's turning the wheel? The theological hub of Song of Songs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different interpretations are evaluated for their contribution towards a better under-standing of the theology of Song of Songs. Chapter 4:16-5:1 is presented as the structural centre of Song of Songs. Linear, cyclic and concentric structures point to the centrality of this passage. It has a key-function for the theology of the book ...

  16. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  17. Retrocession of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    part of the Colony of Hong Kong. 9Edgar Holt, The Opium Wars in China (London: Putnam and Company, Ltd., 1964), p. 253; Hong Kong, Laws, Statutes, etc...stateless 8 8 Hilary Ng’weno, "Uganda and Racism," New York Times, 9 November 1972, p. 47. 67 . . . .. . . . . . .I These done in duplicate, each of the...1 and 2. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1908. Holt, Edgar, The Opium Wars in China. London: Putnam and Company, Ltd, 1964. Hong Kong

  18. Producing song: the vocal apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2004-06-01

    In order to achieve the goal of understanding the neurobiology of birdsong, it is necessary to understand the peripheral mechanisms by which song is produced. This paper reviews recent advances in the understanding of syringeal and respiratory motor control and how birds utilize these systems to create their species-typical sounds. Songbirds have a relatively homogeneous duplex vocal organ in which sound is generated by oscillation of a pair of thickened labia on either side of the syrinx. Multiple pairs of syringeal muscles provide flexible, independent control of sound frequency and amplitude, and each side of the syrinx exhibits a degree of acoustic specialization. This is in contrast to many non-songbirds, including vocal learners such as parrots, which have fewer syringeal muscles and use syringeal membranes to generate sound. In doves, at least, these membranes generate a harmonic signal in which the fundamental frequency is regulated by respiratory pressure in the air sac surrounding the syrinx and the overtones are filtered out by the vocal tract. The songs of adult songbirds are generally accompanied by precisely coordinated respiratory and syringeal motor patterns that, despite their relative stereotypy, are modulated in real time by somatosensory feedback. Comparative studies indicate songbirds have evolved species-specific motor patterns that utilize the two sides of the syrinx in specific ways and enhance the particular acoustic effects characterizing the species song. A vocal mimic tutored with heterospecific song uses the same motor pattern as the tutor species when he accurately copies the song, suggesting that physical or physiological constraints on sound production have had a prominent role in the evolution of species-specific motor patterns. An understanding of the relationship between the central processing and peripheral performance of song motor programs is essential for an understanding of the development, function, and evolution of these

  19. Interspecific song imitation by a Prairie Warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Byers; Brodie A. Kramer; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2013-01-01

    Song development in oscine songbirds relies on imitation of adult singers and thus leaves developing birds vulnerable to potentially costly errors caused by imitation of inappropriate models, such as the songs of other species. In May and June 2012, we recorded the songs of a bird that made such an error: a male Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)...

  20. Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, song during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key feature of humpback whale behavior, documented primarily on the breeding grounds, is the repertoire of the males' song. Song is made up of single units combined together into phrases, which are repeated to make up themes. A song consists of several themes sung in succession. This study qualitatively investigates ...

  1. Popular Songs, Literary Texts: A Literary Analysis of Fuji Songs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attention and yield fruits which are as illuminating aesthetically and culturally as the analysis of written literature. Finally, the paper establishes the fact that popular songs, though orally composed, orally transmitted and aurally perceived, contribute significantly to man‟s apprehension of life and the human condition.

  2. V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "V. Tormis: "Bridge of Song" - Bridge of Song; Singing aboard ship; Brides Farewell; Kihnu Island Wedding Songs; 17 Estonian Wedding Songs; Three Estonian Game Songs; Four Estonian Lullabies. Estonian Radio Choir / Toomas Kapten. Finlandia 4509 96937-2; 56:52 DDD; "People of Kalevala" - God protect us from war; Vespian Winter; Eagle Flew From the North East; Plague Memory; Vainamoinen's Words of Wisdom; The Seventeenth Rune of Kalevala. National Male Choir of Estonia. Finlandia 0630 12245-2; 56:52 DDD

  3. The singer and the song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, C. P. H.

    2014-01-01

    speech learning. While there is a strong focus on central processing of song production, we still have limited insights into the functional output of the motor neural circuits. This review focuses on recent developments in motor control, biomechanics and feedback mechanisms of sound production...

  4. Courtship song analysis of Drosophila muscle mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Samya; Wajda, Mathew P; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2012-01-01

    As part of the mating ritual, males of Drosophila species produce species-specific courtship songs through wing vibrations generated by the thoracic musculature. While previous studies have shown that indirect flight muscles (IFM) are neurally activated during courtship song production, the precise role of these muscles in song production has not been investigated. Fortunately, IFM mutants abound in Drosophila melanogaster and studies spanning several decades have shed light on the role of muscle proteins in IFM-powered flight. Analysis of courtship songs in these mutants offers the opportunity to uncover the role of the IFM in a behavior distinct than flight and subject to different evolutionary selection regimes. Here, we describe protocols for the recording and analysis of courtship behavior and mating song of D. melanogaster muscle transgenic and mutant strains. To record faint acoustic signal of courtship songs, an insulated mating compartment was used inside a recording device (INSECTAVOX) equipped with a modified electret microphone, a low-noise power supply, and noise filters. Songs recorded in the INSECTAVOX are digitized using Goldwave, whose several features enable extraction of critical song parameters, including carrier frequencies for pulse song and sine song. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that deletion of the N-terminal region of the myosin regulatory light chain, a mutation known to decrease wing beat frequency and flight power, affects courtship song parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. Shirangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  6. 25. Mudugar songs, Emettemaattu vanthattu

    OpenAIRE

    Alex, Rayson K.

    2013-01-01

    .mp3 audio file A melancholic song of the sacrifice of a son sung by Vasanthu of Thudoor Hamlet. The collection is a result of the WOLP funding that Dr Rayson K Alex received in 2011. The project was to collect the oral literature of an indigenous community called Mudugar. Mudugar live in the mountainous land of Attapady, Palakkad District, Kerala State, South India. The photographs, video-documentaries, audio files and translated interviews are materials collected over a period of two yea...

  7. Song learning in brood-parasitic indigobirds Vidua chalybeata: song mimicry of the host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne; Payne; Woods

    1998-06-01

    Brood-parasitic village indigobirds, Vidua chalybeata, were bred in captivity and foster-reared by their normal host, red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala, or by an experimental foster species, Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata. Male indigobirds reared by Bengalese finches developed the songs of Bengalese finches, and males reared by firefinches developed songs of firefinches. Males copied their foster father only when they had lived with him long after independence (45 days post-fledging), while males separated normally at independence (22-24 days post-fledging) copied songs of other individuals and not songs of their foster father. Males reared by Bengalese finches showed no preference to learn firefinch song over songs of the experimental foster species or other control finch species even when they had lived with firefinches as companions from the time of fledging to independence. Males copied several song themes, acquired the same number of mimicry songs, and acquired their songs at the same age, whether reared by Bengalese finches or by firefinches. When they lived with other indigobirds, the male indigobirds copied mimicry songs of male indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. We predicted mimicry-song specificity and repertoire size in experimental indigobirds from a hypothesis of an early developmental period when young indigobirds focus their attention on their foster parents, and a later period when they direct their attention to other birds with similar songs. The predictions, based on field observations of wild birds, were that (1) males reared by a novel foster species other than the normal host would learn the song of that foster species, and (2) males that left their foster parents at the normal time of independence would copy the songs of other individuals, including other adult indigobirds that mimicked the same foster species. Begging calls of young indigobirds did not mimic the calls of young firefinches. Indigobirds reared alone

  8. Politics, The Eurovision Song contest and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    While the Eurovision Song Contest attests to be a non-political event, there are always strong political elements running through the different stages of this contest each year, whether it be issues to do with national song selections, the staging of the contest or the much discussed Eurovision voting patterns. This post will consider the politics of the contest with respect to Ireland’s participation in it. The political dimensions of the Eurovision Song Contest and Ireland...

  9. Song decrystallization in adult zebra finches does not require the song nucleus NIf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arani; Mooney, Richard

    2009-08-01

    In adult male zebra finches, transecting the vocal nerve causes previously stable (i.e., crystallized) song to slowly degrade, presumably because of the resulting distortion in auditory feedback. How and where distorted feedback interacts with song motor networks to induce this process of song decrystallization remains unknown. The song premotor nucleus HVC is a potential site where auditory feedback signals could interact with song motor commands. Although the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf) appears to be the primary auditory input to HVC, NIf lesions made in adult zebra finches do not trigger song decrystallization. One possibility is that NIf lesions do not interfere with song maintenance, but do compromise the adult zebra finch's ability to express renewed vocal plasticity in response to feedback perturbations. To test this idea, we bilaterally lesioned NIf and then transected the vocal nerve in adult male zebra finches. We found that bilateral NIf lesions did not prevent nerve section-induced song decrystallization. To test the extent to which the NIf lesions disrupted auditory processing in the song system, we made in vivo extracellular recordings in HVC and a downstream anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in NIf-lesioned birds. We found strong and selective auditory responses to the playback of the birds' own song persisted in HVC and the AFP following NIf lesions. These findings suggest that auditory inputs to the song system other than NIf, such as the caudal mesopallium, could act as a source of auditory feedback signals to the song motor network.

  10. Political Party Songs: Analysis of the Theme in a Song Topo By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political party songs came back to live in 1993 after Lesotho returned to democratic rule following the suspension of the constitution in 1970. It was through these songs that followers of different political parties expressed their feelings of sadness, happiness or hope. This paper analyses one song titled Topo by the band ...

  11. Female song in New World wood warblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadje eNajar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have revealed that female birdsong is widespread and multifunctional. Female song was likely ancestral among songbirds and persists in many lineages today. Nevertheless, many species lack female song, and researchers are interested in understanding the selective factors that promote and counter the persistence of this trait. Female song is associated with life-history traits including year-round territoriality, non-migratory behavior, sexual monochromatism, and monogamy. Most studies examining these relationships have looked at clades with a migratory ancestor and have found that gains of migratory behavior are strongly correlated with losses of female song (and duetting. Here we ask if the reverse pattern exists: in a large clade of songbirds with a migratory ancestor, do losses of migratory behavior correlate with gains of female song and visual signaling traits? We investigated correlations between female song, migration and dichromatism in 107 species of New World Warblers (Family Parulidae. All of these species are predominantly monogamous and territorial when breeding, 50 (47% are migratory, 49 (46% are monochromatic, and 25 (23% show female song. On a robust genetic phylogeny maximum likelihood methods recover migration and monochromatism as the ancestral state in warblers. Female song is generally not reconstructed as present in any deep nodes of the phylogeny, indicating that most extant species with female song evolved this trait independently and relatively recently. Gains of female song do not correlate with losses of migration. Losses of dichromatism do correlate with losses of migration. Thus, in this clade, visual signals are associated with sedentary versus migratory lifestyles, but female acoustic signals are not. Our results show a different pattern from that seen in similar studies and support the hypothesis that losses, but not gains, of female song are driven by life history.

  12. Using Songs in Developing Intercultural Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliia Shayakhmetova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Songs in teaching English are not used to the full extent. To confirm this, we created a set of exercises based on the use of songs to form socio-cultural and regional knowledge, to familiarize students with the culture and way of life of Great Britain, to gain a deeper understanding of the representatives of this linguistic cultural community. The next step was carrying out a survey on revealing the effectiveness of using songs in EFL class, more precisely their effect on the developing of intercultural competence. Following methods were used to conduct the survey: the questionnaire of teachers and students, to determine the role of English songs in the developing of intercultural competence; the analysis of English language course books to determine the presence of songs focusing on their cultural significance; Life in the UK Test, a test to check the knowledge of the history and culture of Britain. The results of the research showed the expediency of using song to develop intercultural competence. Moreover, use of songs aroused interest among students; they expressed the opinion that lyrics have a much deeper meaning and varied information than they thought before using them in English classes. They expressed a desire to continue using songs during classes in keeping with this approach.

  13. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the neural basis of song, a universal human behavior. The relationship of words and melodies in the perception of song at phonological, semantic, melodic, and rhythmic levels of processing was investigated using the fine temporal resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG). The observations reported here may shed light on…

  14. SONGS AND IMPLICATIONS ON THE NIGERIAN SOCIETY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singing has become part of Yorùbá culture and indeed, the human race as a ... for serious caution because it may have negative effects also as we shall .... economic and religious life of the human race in general cannot be underestimated. It is music that gives melody to a song. This implies that not all songs require music.

  15. An automated procedure for evaluating song imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Mandelblat-Cerf

    Full Text Available Songbirds have emerged as an excellent model system to understand the neural basis of vocal and motor learning. Like humans, songbirds learn to imitate the vocalizations of their parents or other conspecific "tutors." Young songbirds learn by comparing their own vocalizations to the memory of their tutor song, slowly improving until over the course of several weeks they can achieve an excellent imitation of the tutor. Because of the slow progression of vocal learning, and the large amounts of singing generated, automated algorithms for quantifying vocal imitation have become increasingly important for studying the mechanisms underlying this process. However, methodologies for quantifying song imitation are complicated by the highly variable songs of either juvenile birds or those that learn poorly because of experimental manipulations. Here we present a method for the evaluation of song imitation that incorporates two innovations: First, an automated procedure for selecting pupil song segments, and, second, a new algorithm, implemented in Matlab, for computing both song acoustic and sequence similarity. We tested our procedure using zebra finch song and determined a set of acoustic features for which the algorithm optimally differentiates between similar and non-similar songs.

  16. Pete Seeger: If I Had a Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Songwriter, political activist, ethnomusicologist, gardener, singer, environmentalist, storyteller, woodcutter, history buff, cookieholic...Pete Seeger is all these and more. One has probably heard his name before, and maybe one can attach it to certain songs or political movements. Seeger is 91 years old and keeps active singing, writing songs,…

  17. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  18. Diel and Spatial Dependence of Humpback Song and Non-Song Vocalizations in Fish Spawning Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vocalization behavior of humpback whales was monitored over vast areas of the Gulf of Maine using the passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing technique (POAWRS over multiple diel cycles in Fall 2006. The humpback vocalizations comprised of both song and non-song are analyzed. The song vocalizations, composed of highly structured and repeatable set of phrases, are characterized by inter-pulse intervals of 3.5 ± 1.8 s. Songs were detected throughout the diel cycle, occuring roughly 40% during the day and 60% during the night. The humpback non-song vocalizations, dominated by shorter duration (≤3 s downsweep and bow-shaped moans, as well as a small fraction of longer duration (∼5 s cries, have significantly larger mean and more variable inter-pulse intervals of 14.2 ± 11 s. The non-song vocalizations were detected at night with negligible detections during the day, implying they probably function as nighttime communication signals. The humpback song and non-song vocalizations are separately localized using the moving array triangulation and array invariant techniques. The humpback song and non-song moan calls are both consistently localized to a dense area on northeastern Georges Bank and a less dense region extended from Franklin Basin to the Great South Channel. Humpback cries occur exclusively on northeastern Georges Bank and during nights with coincident dense Atlantic herring shoaling populations, implying the cries are feeding-related.

  19. Is the woman in the Song of Songs really that free?1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ndoga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Song of Songs has often been treated as a platform for feminist liberationist causes. This study aims to re-examine some feminist ideological readings of the Song of Songs. Although feminist scholars insist thal the female "voice" is very conspicuous in the Song, the male voice is also constantly ''there'' and equally strong. Thus, the Song does not celebrate the supremacy of either gender, but praises mutuality and equality. As analysis of a sample text, 1:2-4, is carried out, using a "newcomer" approach (at least to Old Testament studies, namely socio-rhetorical criticism. This approach allows an integrated scientific approach to the reading and rereading of texts from various angles. Ideological questions come into focus, such as: What exactly does an ideology involve or imply? Whose ideological reading is the best reading of the text? Is there such a thing as a best reading of a text? Does the Song of Songs itself prescribe a particular ideological reading? Finally, applications and principles as derived from the exegetical findings are summarised to encourage a wider readership and use for the Song of Songs.

  20. Evolution and plasticity: Divergence of song discrimination is faster in birds with innate song than in song learners in Neotropical passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Montgomery, Graham A; Schluter, Dolph

    2017-09-01

    Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27). We found that nonlearners evolved mean acoustic differences slightly faster than did leaners, and that the mean evolutionary rate of song discrimination was 4.3 times faster in nonlearners than in learners. These unexpected results may be a consequence of significantly greater variability in song traits in song learners (by 54-79%) that requires song-learning oscines to evolve greater absolute differences in song before achieving the same level of behavioral song discrimination as nonlearning suboscines. This points to "a downside of learning" for the evolution of species discrimination, and represents an important example of plasticity reducing the rate of evolution and diversification by increasing variability. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Cradle songs of Avatime women (Ghana) | Adom | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cradle songs of Avatime women (Ghana). B Adom ... Cradle song performances are part of the enculturation process through which babies are introduced to music and linguistic behaviour. The songs are mostly performed by women for ... Traditionally, most of the songs are acquired aurally from older relatives. Analyses of ...

  2. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  3. Beyond Language: Metaphor as an Expressive Resource in the Song of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio R. Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the old debate on which kind of interpretation is more appropriate for the Song of Songs, namely, literal or allegorical, and to what extent. Treating the poem as a literary work and letting it speak for itself, metaphor emerges as the main expressive resource referring to a multi-dimensional reality. The analysis of metaphor in the Song of Songs, based on selected samples, reveals highly developed metaphoric speech in the poem, with images accumulating and interacting in multiple, concurrent and mutually enriching levels of meaning. Behind this complex intertwining of metaphors there emerges the main referent for the book as a whole. Metaphor, then, appears as a particularly adequate means of articulating both anthropological and theological discourse.Key words: Song of Songs, Metaphor, Love.

  4. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…

  5. Subtitling and dubbing songs in musical films

    OpenAIRE

    Gato, Martha García

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTAudiovisual translation (AVT) is a type of translation subjected to numerous constraints. Until now, many studies have been carried out about subtitling and dubbing in films. In musical films, which have been less studied, language transfer is mainly made through songs and, due to their characteristics, their translation is additionally constrained. This article provides some insights into some elements that make translation of songs for dubbing and subtitling a complex task using son...

  6. Developmental stress, song-learning, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Searcy, William A; Nowicki, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The evolution of enhanced cognitive ability has sometimes been attributed to sexual selection. An association between the mating success of males and their cognitive ability could arise either through male-male competition or through female choice. Specifically in the latter case, sexual selection would act more readily if males advertized their cognitive ability through display. Most traits involved in sexual display, however, seem unlikely to have any inherent relationship with cognition beyond that which arises through the effect of cognitive abilities on acquisition of resources and, in turn, the effect of resources on development of the display trait. In contrast, for displays whose development and expression require learning, a direct link with cognition is possible because of a shared dependence on brain function. The parallel effects of developmental stress on song-learning and cognition provide a compelling explanation for an association between attributes of the song and cognitive ability. We outline the hypothesis that sexually selected qualities of song serve as an indicator of cognitive abilities. We first present evidence that song-learning is itself a challenging cognitive task. We then give evidence that sexual selection favors well-learned song. Next, we review evidence that song and cognitive ability both are affected by developmental stresses. We consider recent experimental data testing the relationship between song and cognitive ability. Finally, we suggest that the accuracy with which songs are learned may be an optimal indicator of other cognitive abilities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Using Song to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Muflihah, Tatik

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary mastery is one of the requirements for students to be able to communicate both in spoken and written. There are many ways to improve students’ vocabulary mastery used by the language teacher. This paper aims to examine the use of English song to motivate students in learning English. In addition, this concerns on the use of English song to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. The respondents were fifteen elementary students of community groups of orphans An-nur Surabaya. The data ...

  8. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  9. Song forms from Kustilj and neighbouring villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina PLANJANIN SIMIC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Song-forms constitute one of the four sub-categories of folklore within the classification of children’s folklore The song-forms reflect children's responses in relation to nature. They are dedicated to animals that children find interesting and dear. In the distant past, they were performed at fixed hours and days, on certain places and there was a number of their repetition, but over the past centuries, they lost the initial position and became the motive for play and recreational activities for children. In the examples collected for this paper, what can be observed and singled out are a few basic melodic and rhythmic motifs that also occur in children's songs around the world, the connection between children's rhythm with the text, simplicity and the syllable of melody as well as the fact that the tone of these songs often relates to archaic diatonic infra-pentatonic series. In addition to educational and entertainment features, these songs reveal a mentality, way of thinking, creativity and spiritual development of a generation that will grow up at the beginning of the 21st century.

  10. Long-range order in canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  11. AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.

    2008-11-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, ``AstroCappella 2.0,'' has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K--12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the U.S., and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops.

  12. TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNERS THROUGH SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yuliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through this paper, the writer wants to show that through songs, children could enhance their language skills, such as speaking, listening and writing.

  13. Na Mele o Hawai'i Nei; 101 Hawaiian Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Samuel H., Comp.; Mahoe, Noelani, Comp.

    The songs in this collection of Hawaiian traditional and Christmas songs are postmissionary and owe their musical origin to missionary hymns dating from the mid-1850's to 1968. Nearly all are sung often today and are well known to Hawaiian singers. Many have not been translated before. Each song appears in Hawaiian and English, prefaced by brief…

  14. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  15. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  16. The communicative functions of post-2000 Shona popular songs: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some studies have been carried out on these songs in the context of popular music, none have attempted a linguistically-grounded analysis of the songs and in particular their classification for easier study. In order to get to grips with the communicative functions of the songs, categorising them according to what ...

  17. Songs of '76: A Folksinger's History of the Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Oscar

    This collection of songs about the United States Revolutionary War is suggested as supplementary materials for teaching about the Bicentennial. Sixty-three songs illuminate the human side of both the "Rebel Americans" and the British loyalists. Preceding each song is a brief historical narrative which sets the stage for understanding the…

  18. Hong Kong: Ten Years After the Handover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    ... to where they stood prior to the Handover. There also is unease about the independence of Hong Kong's judicial system and the protection provided by Hong Kong's Basic Law in light of decisions made by the Chinese government...

  19. Understanding sex differences in form and function of bird song: The importance of studying song learning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eRiebel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is a culturally transmitted mating signal. Due to historical and geographical biases, song (learning has been predominantly studied in the temperate zones, where female song is rare. Consequently, mechanisms and function of song learning have been almost exclusively studied in male birds and under the premise that inter- and intrasexual selection favoured larger repertoires and complex songs in males. However, female song is not rare outside the temperate zones and song in both sexes probably is the ancestral state in songbirds. Some song dimorphisms seen today might therefore be manifestations of secondary losses of female song. What selection pressures have favoured such losses and other sexual dimorphisms in song? Combined mapping of phylogenetic and ecological correlates of sex differences in song structure and function might provide important clues to the evolution of male and female song. This requires parameterization of the degree of sexual dimorphism. Simple comparison of male-female song might not provide enough resolution, because the same magnitude of difference (e.g. repertoire overlap could result from different processes: the sexes could differ in how well they learn (‘copying fidelity’ or from whom they learn (‘model selection’. Different learning mechanisms might provide important pointers towards different selection pressures. Investigating sex-specific learning could therefore help to identify the social and ecological selection pressures contributing to sex differences in adult song. The study of female song learning in particular could be crucial to our understanding of i song function in males and females and ii the evolution of sex-specific song.

  20. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  1. Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, song during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a study conducted in Hawaii (Mercado et al. 2003). The current ini- tial description will allow for these necessary multi-year compari- sons for stock G. Transitional phrases in Colombian song are composed of a combination of units present in the previous and subsequent themes, thus acting as a transition between the two ...

  2. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  3. The 12 Ways to Health Holiday Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    This song (sung to the tune of The Twelve Days of Christmas) describes how to stay safe and healthy during the holidays and all year long.  Created: 12/14/2007 by CDC Office of Women's Health.   Date Released: 12/23/2007.

  4. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mockford, Emily J; Marshall, Rupert C; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low......-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less...... degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban...

  6. Early nutritional stress impairs development of a song-control brain region in both male and female juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at the onset of song learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ian F; Kempster, Bethany; Zanette, Liana; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    Birdsong is a sexually selected trait and is often viewed as an indicator of male quality. The developmental stress hypothesis proposes a model by which song could be an indicator; the time during early development, when birds learn complex songs and/or local variants of song, is of rapid development and nutritional stress. Birds that cope best with this stress may better learn to produce the most effective songs. The developmental stress hypothesis predicts that early food restriction should impair development of song-control brain regions at the onset of song learning. We examined the effect of food restriction on song-control brain regions in fledgling (both sexes, 23–26 days old) song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Food restriction selectively reduced HVC volume in both sexes. In addition, sex differences were evident in all three song-control regions. This study lends further support to a growing body of literature documenting a variety of behavioural, physiological and neural detriments in several songbird species resulting from early developmental stress. PMID:16959649

  7. Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie; Osiejuk, Tomasz S; Rybak, Fanny; Aubin, Thierry

    2010-01-07

    In songbirds, song complexity and song sharing are features of prime importance for territorial defence and mate attraction. These aspects of song may be strongly influenced by changes in social environment caused by habitat fragmentation. We tested the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation induced by human activities influences song complexity and song sharing in the skylark, a songbird with a very large repertoire and whose population recently underwent a large decline. We applied powerful mathematical and statistical tools to assess and compare song complexity and song sharing patterns of syllables and sequences of syllables in two populations: a declining population in a fragmented habitat, in which breeding areas are separated from each other by unsuitable surroundings, and a stable population in a continuous habitat. Our results show that the structure of the habitat influences song sharing, but not song complexity. Neighbouring birds shared more syllables and sequences of syllables in the fragmented habitat than in the continuous one. Habitat fragmentation seems thus to have an effect on the composition of elements in songs, but not on the number and complexity of these elements, which may be a fixed feature of song peculiar to skylarks.

  8. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (Psmoking and, to a lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in

  9. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students' lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%-75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%-75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%-75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%-75% =87.36±17.02) (Pcigarette smoking and, to a lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in cessation, and lessen SHS exposure

  10. Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2011-02-01

    Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Creativity in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Pauline

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines discourses of creativity in English-language education in post-colonial Hong Kong, where educational reform has mandated a change from transmissive to interactive modes of teaching and learning and a shift towards more creative methods of teaching English. The literature is reviewed with regard to discourses of creativity both…

  12. Role of gene regulation in song circuit development and song learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, D F

    1997-11-01

    The songbird has emerged as an important model for study of brain-behavior relationships by virtue of its rich natural advantages and from the pioneering efforts of explorers using anatomical and behavioral approaches. Now, molecular biology is providing a new and complementary paradigm for discerning songbird brain organization and function. Here, I review the work over the last 10 years that has laid the foundation for approaching songbird biology from the molecular perspective. As a result of this work, specific hypotheses can now be framed and tested regarding the mechanisms behind song circuit formation, behavioral plasticity, and the boundaries of adaptability. Age-related changes in more than 15 molecules have been observed in the song system of juvenile zebra finches, and these changes seem to define specific phases in circuit development. In adult songbirds, ordinary song-related activities such as singing and listening cause dramatic increases in gene expression in brain areas specific to each activity. The sensitivity of gene activation is modulated as a result of experience in adulthood and also changes during juvenile song learning. These studies have provided unexpected insights into the functional organization of the song circuit and the potential role of extrinsic modulatory systems in directing and limiting plastic change in the brain. With this rich base of knowledge, and techniques of gene manipulation on the horizon, answers to old questions seem within our reach: What sets the boundaries of neural plasticity? What limits learning?

  13. Religious Values In Song Lyrics Tingkilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadli Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.

  14. Cultural voting : The Eurovision Song Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburgh, Victor; Noury, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the voting behavior and ratings of judges in a popular song contest held every year in Europe. The dataset makes it possible to analyze the determinants of success, and gives a rare opportunity to run a direct test of vote trading, or logrolling. Though the votes cast may appear as resulting from logrolling, we show that they are rather driven by linguistic and cultural proximities between singers and voting countries.

  15. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  16. Parallelism in Arandic Song-Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myfany Tuprin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ceremonial song-poetry performed by Arandic people of central Australia is characterized by parallelism of sound, form and meaning in both auditory and visual modalities. Parallelism, in all its manifestations, operates at multiple levels of the hierarchically structured poetic form. In the period Arandic people call the Altyerre, “Dreaming,” ancestral spirit-beings created the land and laid the lore through actions and song. This included the creation of women’s song-poetry called awelye. Awelye is sung in group unison as a series of many short verses that relate to each group’s inherited estate lands, their ancestors, and to the ceremonial performance itself. Actions that mirror the meaning of the verses accompany the singing, such as painting designs on the body, placing a ritual object in the ground, and dancing. This paper considers the role of parallelism in the poetic function of language (Jakobson 1987, and facilitates the merging of the everyday realm with that of the performer’s ancestors, which Stanner so aptly translates as the “everywhen.”

  17. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences...... contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living...

  18. Can the Song of Songs be described (also as a form of dark green religion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Viviers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bron Taylor defines dark green religion as: �� a deep sense of belonging to and connectedness in nature, whilst perceiving the earth and its living systems to be sacred and interconnected�. It not only emphasises a felt kinship with the rest of life but also evokes awe, wonderment and humility towards nature that binds to something �greater than oneself�. Do the intimate �oneness� and living in the moment of the two young lovers in the Song also extend to a diminishing of the self and an experience of oneness with a greater, timeless, mysterious reality? In order to determine whether the Song of Songs complies with a form of nature spirituality, the notions of belonging, interconnectedness and sacredness were investigated as they appear in this ancient book of love. It was found that the Song is representative of a form of dark green religion of a non-doctrinaire, immanent kind. It exhibits ubiquitously the notions of belonging and connection (kinship with nature, an interconnectedness and interdependency of the web of life and the sacredness of the earth and its inhabitants (their intrinsic worth that evokes awe, wonderment and humility. The experience of sensuality, living mindfully in the moment, transforms into a timeless spirituality of connection to �another, mysterious world�.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The relevance of reader-oriented appreciations of biblical texts, notably ecological hermeneutics, is demonstrated; this approach can also be extended to other sacred texts apart from the Bible; furthermore, it points to the need for the ongoing dialogue with the natural sciences.Keywords: dark green religion; nature spirituality; belonging;interconnectedness; sacredness; Song of Songs

  19. Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysanne Snijders

    Full Text Available For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called "dear enemy" relations. Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping

  20. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird,1 Hugo Staines-Orozco2 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Calle Estocolmo, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico Background: Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure on their respiratory system.  Objective: To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%] and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1 nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2 nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3 smokers. Results: The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%, females (54%, who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%. Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49% and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%. The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55 than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65 and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13

  1. Description of Idiomatic Expression Found in Guns N’ Roses songs

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Chandra Xaverius Putra

    2011-01-01

    A paper with title “ Description of Idiomatic Expression Found in Guns N’ Roses Songs. Describing idiomatic expression in three songs of Guns N’ Roses, which are chosen randomly in Use Your Illusion I album. The method of reseach applies in this study is library reseach, and method of analysis the data is descriptive method. This study is analyzed because most of people can sing a English song, but most of them can not understand the meaning of the song. Describing idiomatic expression in a ...

  2. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  3. Unschooling In Hong Kong: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina RILEY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although homeschooling, and more recently, unschooling, is slowly gaining acceptance in the United States; unschooling in Hong Kong is rare and considered risky. The Educational Bureau of Hong Kong (EDB tends to discourage alternative forms of education, believing that traditional schooling is the best way to educate students. This case study focuses on the unschooling experience of Karen Chow and her family. Karen is one of the first individuals to choose to unschool her children in Hong Kong. She is also the founder and executive member of EDiversity.org, an organization focused on rethinking education and educational alternatives in Hong Kong.

  4. Improvised Song in Schools: Breaking Away from the Perception of Traditional Song as Infantile by Introducing a Traditional Adult Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Ayats

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article revolves around a project aimed at incorporating improvised song into primary school education. Among its objectives, this pilot scheme aimed to solve the problem of infantilization and the lack of functionality affecting the traditional school repertoire of songs in Catalonia by introducing a hitherto untested genre of traditional song into the official curriculum. The findings obtained in five centers suggest that this traditional form of oral expression through singing obtains positive results in the 10-12- year-old age group, and manages to break free of the clichés about traditional song pre-existing in the school environment.

  5. The temporal dimension of epic songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since research into south-Slav epic songs began, finding its place within philological sciences, the musical component has been marginalized. In extreme cases the correlation between poetry and music was even denied. In the relatively few (ethnomusicological works dealing with the epic songs that correlation was observed mainly on the macro-formal level. The author maintains that any systematic research of the functional melopoetic structure of Serbian epic songs should include the temporal features of music. The article is an essay on the methodology in which the poetry–music relationship is investigated from the point of view of their temporal dimension. The flow of music–poetry content is observed from the perspectives of tempo and rhythm, primarily as relations between durations on different structural levels. The chosen examples consist of two variants of an epic song, typical of their kind, which have the same subject and structural bases. The performers were two gusle-players, so that the performing bodies were the same. In the course of analysis, focus was directed on the musical equivalents of elements of poetic structure considered to be constant, or at least showing strong tendencies towards expression in verse forms. The analysis demonstrated that the musical component was the critical value needed to differentiate the systems of relations between the poetic and musical components, i.e. styles of interpretation. The chosen individual styles represent contrasting approaches to the organization of the poetic content in time. Although the temporal dimension in both examples is semanticised, its values in those styles are diametrically different. At one extreme a construction is found in which the relation of morphological unit values on poetical and musical levels demonstrates a specific interaction on the structural level. The symmetry on the macro plan depends on the constancy of the verse length, but it cannot be maintained that

  6. Unity and Difference in Andean Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Maurice Pigott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the concepts of “unity” and “difference” in Andean songs. The verses pertain to the Masha ritual enacted annually in Mangas, central Peru, and combine Quechua (the indigenous language with Spanish. Through detailed exegesis of the texts, this essay argues that, far from being irreconcilable, “unity” and “difference” are best understood as mutually informing since the recognition of difference opens up the parameters of potential exchange. This optic is informed by a worldview that emphasizes “relation” over “entities.”

  7. Beck's Song Reader: An Unbound Music Book

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...

  8. A content analysis of Amharic Songs on Nile River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    berhanu engidaw getahun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the content of Amharic songs on Nile river in Ethiopia. Lyrics of eight recent and eight previous songs were qualitatively analyzed using initial coding from which final categories are established through constant comparative method. Major themes the analysis revealed consist of call for unity and collaboration among Ethiopians, a representation  of Nile as untapped treasure and a natural beauty, regret about missed opportunities of not utilizing the Nile for national development, condemning Nile in personified terms, and optimism in recent progresses in utilizing Nile. A shift is noted in the themes of the songs with previous songs emphasizing the beauty and fertility of Nile and recent songs portraying Nile as an untapped wealth. The extent to which the songs discuss Nile vary. Previous songs raise Nile sparingly while recent songs have entire albums devoted to Nile signalling that attention to Nile is increasing. Findings of the study have implication for public relations, for community mobilization and for the politics of Nile waters.

  9. Political Protest Songs and Actual Protest Values: Analysis of Fela's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Tears and Blood and Bob Marley's Stand up, Get up, using in-depth analysis of the songs' lyrics plus opinion survey of their listeners. Finding is that the actual protest values of the two songs are high in meditation upon protest problem and ...

  10. Using English Songs: An Enjoyable and Effective Approach to ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chunxuan

    2009-01-01

    How can ELT be made enjoyable and effective? One feasible pedagogical application is to integrate English songs into ELT. Song, a combination of music and lyrics, possesses many intrinsic merits, such as a kaleidoscope of culture, expressiveness, recitability and therapeutic functions, which render it an invaluable source for language teaching.…

  11. Image/Music/Voice: Song Dubbing in Hollywood Musicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Marsha

    1995-01-01

    Uses the practice of song dubbing in the Hollywood film musical to explore the implications and consequences of the singing voice for imaging practices in the 1930s through 1960s. Discusses the ideological, technological, and socioeconomic basis for song dubbing. Discusses gender, race, and ethnicity patterns of image-sound practices. (SR)

  12. Unimagining Song : Making Kin in the Vocal Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonelli, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners in the soundsinging tradition are frequently subjected to evaluations of their vocal music that refuse to label it as singing or song. While these evaluations might be considered justified based on certain commonplace definitions of singing and song, I argue here that these terms refer

  13. Using English Language Arts to Teach a Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2017-01-01

    Music and reading domains require similar auditory processing skills. Students employ these skills when learning a new song through an oral/aural or rote-teaching approach. In this article, I review literature on the effectiveness of immersion and phrase-by-phrase approaches for teaching a song with or without words. Then, using an amusing…

  14. Cryptanalysis of Song's advanced smart card based password authentication protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiador, Juan E.; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Peris-Lopez, P.; Clark, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Song \\cite{Song10} proposed very recently a password-based authentication and key establishment protocol using smart cards which attempts to solve some weaknesses found in a previous scheme suggested by Xu, Zhu, and Feng \\cite{XZF09}. In this paper, we present attacks on the improved protocol, showing that it fails to achieve the claimed security goals.

  15. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  16. Folklore and Folk Songs of Chittagong: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.

  17. Songs as Elements in the Generic Structure of Film Musicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Plemenitaš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the description of film musicals as a subgenre of the genre family of musicals. Their dramatic structure is examined in terms of the generic elements that constitute the progression of a story expressed through the combination of spoken dialogue, songs and dance. The function of songs in the generic structure of film musicals is examined in the framework of the systemic-functional theory of register and genre. Special attention is given to the role of songs in the unfolding of the narrative. The theoretical observations about the role of songs in the register and genre of film musicals are then illustrated with an analysis of the use of songs in the TV musical High School Musical 2.

  18. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH CHILDREN'S SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Valeria A. Buryakovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural specificity of children's songs is determined by the extralinguistic and linguistic characteristics that most clearly are seen in the light of comparative analysis. For a long historical period there was a stream of cultural phenomena from Western Europe to Russia including the UK, which is reflected in the language including children's songs. The purpose of the study is to identify the similarities and differences of children's songs in Russian and English folklore cultures. It is established that the main differences of the Russian song culture from the European one are determined by historical, religious, regional, ethnic, musical, poetic and other traditions. The similarities are observed in the structural, phonetic and genre-themed events. At the same time, Russian and English children's songs differ from each other in their lexical-grammatical and stylistic peculiarities, the set of concepts and characters.

  19. Songs as a Medium for Embedded Reproductive Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn R. Hobbs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years.

  20. Songs as a medium for embedded reproductive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Dawn R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-09-12

    Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years.

  1. Own song selectivity in the songbird auditory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirier, Colline; Boumans, Tiny; Vellema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play a role in song learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of norepinephrine in bird's own song selectivity, a prope......BACKGROUND: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play a role in song learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of norepinephrine in bird's own song selectivity...... NCM. This latent own song selective signal, which is only revealed under conditions of very low noradrenergic activity, might play a role in the auditory feedback and/or the integration of this feedback with the motor circuitry for vocal learning and maintenance....

  2. Neural song preference during vocal learning in the zebra finch depends on age and state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Teresa A; Konishi, Masakazu

    2005-02-05

    The zebra finch acquires its song by first memorizing a model song from a tutor and then matching its own vocalizations to the memory trace of the tutor song, called a template. Neural mechanisms underlying this process require a link between the neural memory trace and the premotor song circuitry, which drives singing. We now report that a premotor song nucleus responds more to the tutor song model than to every other stimulus examined, including the bird's own song (BOS). Neural tuning to the song model occurred only during waking and peaked during the template-matching period of development, when the vocal motor output is sculpted to match the tutor song. During the same developmental phase, the BOS was the most effective excitatory stimulus during sleep. The preference for BOS compared to tutor song inverted with sleep/wake state. Thus, song preference shifts with development and state. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  4. Hong Kong : Een studie van de huisvestingscyclus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Bol, R.; Van Hoof, P.; Huijbregts, R.

    1996-01-01

    Deze reis is door de drie organisatoren "Hong Kong 96" genoemd. Deze datering is inderdaad wenselijk, we hebben immers nog het Hong Kong mogen zien dat volop in de running is om een belangrijke plaats in dit deel van de wereld in te nemen. De speculaties over het hoe en wat na 1997 waren gedurende

  5. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  6. FAROESTE CABOCLO: PSYCHOANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF THE SONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Teixeira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to integrate the psychoanalytic concepts of discontent, violence, aggressiveness and enemy with the acclaimed song “Faroeste Caboclo”, an important legacy of Brazilian Pop-Rock from the 1980s. The song narrates the saga of João de Santo Cristo, an orphan whose life story was characterized by uneasiness, racial discrimination, and difficulty to deal with authority figures, which turned him into a renowned drug dealer. With an ending marked by passional tragedy, culminating with the death of all the main characters, the plot is traversed by violence, aggressiveness and hate. This demonstrates how the story unfolds to the field of alterity through the emergence of friendship and enmity, allowing a thorough discussion and comprehension of João de Santo Cristo’s story. Assuming that music is both an individual form of expression and a form of apprehension and description of social reality, this study sought to comprehend the psychic dimensions demonstrated in the lyrics, which narrate a story that is very similar to real life stories of many adolescents involved in violent criminality in Brazil. The main objective was to discuss the possible meanings of these lyrics, hence promoting a constructive dialog between psychoanalysis and culture.

  7. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  8. In search of the song template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adret, Patrice

    2004-06-01

    The auditory template theory-the conversion of memorized song to produced song using feedback as an error-correction mechanism-is central to neurobiological studies of birdsong learning. The essence of the theory is the construction of a complex sound replica based on a set of both genetic and environmental instructions. These premises, as yet unchallenged, have stimulated much research on the process of vocal imitation. Two somewhat distinct, but closely related streams of research have emerged. One seeks to determine the neural mechanisms that underlie the formation, storage, and retrieval of vocal memories as a consequence of experience during a sensitive phase-the template concept in its purest form. The other aims at establishing an explanatory basis for genetically based species differences in auditory responsiveness; here, the prime focus is on innately specified templates that guide learning preferences in young, naïve birds. The chapter begins with an historical overview of conceptual issues. Then recent progress in the attempt to characterize template properties is reviewed, focusing on selected studies of sparrows, nightingales, and zebra finches. The chapter concludes with a discussion of research strategy and tactics, including suggestions for criteria that must be met in identifying neural substrates for template specification and localization. The chapter is intended to provide a conceptual framework for further progress in this critical area.

  9. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2009-09-01

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Rössler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  10. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  11. Two Neural Measures Differ between Urban and Rural Song Sparrows after Conspecific Song Playback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B. Sewall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings

  12. The Preparation of Educational Psychologists in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong

    2014-01-01

    Modeled after the British system, school psychologists in Hong Kong are called educational psychologists. Hong Kong is the first location in Asia to have a recognized specialty vocation in educational psychology and a program for their professional preparation. The first program in Hong Kong, established by the University of Hong Kong in 1981…

  13. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  14. Tips for Teaching: Using Songs and Chants as a Source of Predictable Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    This article suggests using songs and chants as a source of predictable text in developing students' reading skills. It offers new songs to familiar tunes to aid in content specific instruction. Benefits of using songs and chants in classroom instruction include repeated exposure to words, the versatility songs provide, and the pleasure of…

  15. Early experience and plasticity of song in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, AE; TenCate, C; Slater, PJB

    1996-01-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn song primarily at 35-65 days of age, but birds deprived of experience at that stage may modify their songs later. Experiments on 5 groups examined the effect of varying early social experience on the plasticity of adult song. Major changes of song in

  16. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  17. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  18. A nonmusician with severe Alzheimer's dementia learns a new song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Umbach, Heidi; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-02-01

    The hallmark symptom of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) is impaired memory, but memory for familiar music can be preserved. We explored whether a non-musician with severe AD could learn a new song. A 91 year old woman (NC) with severe AD was taught an unfamiliar song. We assessed her delayed song recall (24 hours and 2 weeks), music cognition, two word recall (presented within a familiar song lyric, a famous proverb, or as a word stem completion task), and lyrics and proverb completion. NC's music cognition (pitch and rhythm perception, recognition of familiar music, completion of lyrics) was relatively preserved. She recalled 0/2 words presented in song lyrics or proverbs, but 2/2 word stems, suggesting intact implicit memory function. She could sing along to the newly learnt song on immediate and delayed recall (24 hours and 2 weeks later), and with intermittent prompting could sing it alone. This is the first detailed study of preserved ability to learn a new song in a non-musician with severe AD, and contributes to observations of relatively preserved musical abilities in people with dementia.

  19. Songs and implications on the Nigerian society: Yorùbá songs in focus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singing has become part of Yorùbá culture and indeed, the human race as a whole. It is as old as man's existence. This implies that no society in the world does not sing. Singing is an art and it forms part of the people's literature. The importance of song in the political, social, economic and religious life of the human race in ...

  20. [Voices of madness in song: outlooks on madness and the insane in Brazilian songs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2011-12-01

    This article is the result of research associated with the representation of madness and the insane in contemporary Brazilian songs. Michel Foucault's considerations about the history of madness and those of Mary Jane Spink about discursive practices and the production of meaning formed the theoretical base for the study. The methodology consisted in mapping the circulation of words and meanings about madness in thirty songs collected by Google's search engine. The results of the mapping reveal the polyphony of the literary/musical discourse, and a heterogeneous discursive panorama in which five zones of meaning about madness and the insane stand out. Thus, it can be concluded that these signs are prevalent on a day-to-day basis, Some of the meanings in the songs refer to institutionalized ways of dealing with madness, others constitute modes of subjectivity that flee from routine treatment. By delineating symbolic formations that permeate social imagery, this article brings systematic attention to popular representations of various forms of madness of relevance to multidisciplinary fields in mental health, discussing their appearance in popular music and their possible repercussions.

  1. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  2. An Interrogative Hermeneutics of Popular Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Moore

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for the analytically-enriched discussion of meaning in recorded popular song. It argues for a middle way between assumptions of universal and entirely relativist meaning, based fundamentally on Gibson’s ecological psychology. It begins from the position that a listener encounters not a recording as communicable object, but a persona instantiated by a recording. Focus on the persona necessitates discussion of the personic environment constituted by the remainder of the musical fabric, and leads to a formulation of authenticity which acknowledges the weight put on this quality by many audiences. The paper then explores embodied meaning as a way of approaching the way that music feels, again acknowledging audience concern, and closes with a focus on the ecological position. Each of these stages in the argument is provided with a variety of illustrations. 

  3. Cohesion Devices On The Lyrics Of Bob Marley's Songs

    OpenAIRE

    WIBIARTA, ARDITYA

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Cohesion, Cohesion Devices, Lyric, Bob Marley. This study is about cohesion devices found in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs. The objectives are to reveal the kinds of grammatical and lexical cohesion used in the lyrics of Bob Marley's songs.In conducting this study, the researcher uses descriptive qualitative method, because the data in the form of words, phrases, and sentences. The data of this study is taken form the lyrics of five Bob Marley's songs, they are: Get Up, Stand Up,...

  4. Universal patterns in sound amplitudes of songs and music genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Freire, F. C. M.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report a statistical analysis of more than eight thousand songs. Specifically, we investigated the probability distribution of the normalized sound amplitudes. Our findings suggest a universal form of distribution that agrees well with a one-parameter stretched Gaussian. We also argue that this parameter can give information on music complexity, and consequently it helps classify songs as well as music genres. Additionally, we present statistical evidence that correlation aspects of the songs are directly related to the non-Gaussian nature of their sound amplitude distributions.

  5. Songs as Elements in the Generic Structure of Film Musicals

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Plemenitaš

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the description of film musicals as a subgenre of the genre family of musicals. Their dramatic structure is examined in terms of the generic elements that constitute the progression of a story expressed through the combination of spoken dialogue, songs and dance. The function of songs in the generic structure of film musicals is examined in the framework of the systemic-functional theory of register and genre. Special attention is given to the role of songs in the unfoldi...

  6. [Of songs and theater. Sex education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, K I

    1995-04-01

    In two regions of Tanzania, school teachers and health workers developed an education program on HIV called Ngao, which means shield, symbolizing the fact that youth must be prepared to protect themselves against HIV infection. The program targets 14-year-old students. School health workers and teachers underwent 3 days of training on AIDS. After the training, the teachers organized about 20 training meetings where they used flipcharts, black boards, posters, brochures, and manuals for students. They learned about using participative teaching methods and how to organize students to direct class discussions. Students made their own posters; enlivened discussions with 6-7 peers; directed and performed skits in which they together tried to conquer HIV risks or acquire negotiation skills; and wrote songs, plays, and poems about ways youth can protect themselves or ways to address AIDS in their community. The plays, skits, poems, and songs were performed in front of younger children to also inform them about AIDS. Students wore special T-shirts with the logo of the Ngao program, which stimulated discussion on the program. Information on condom use was introduced as an option. Dignitaries, religious leaders, and parents participated in discussions on the program and on AIDS control strategies for the community to adopt. Initially, the program was implemented in 6 schools in urban and rural areas. The students had more knowledge and more positive attitudes towards persons with AIDS than those in comparison schools. They were also less likely to become sexually active in the near future. Teachers and health workers enjoyed teaching the program's curriculum. They felt that the program better equipped and prepared the students to protect themselves against HIV infection. After the pilot project, the program was revised to make it a permanent part of the curriculum in primary schools. An expanded version will be integrated into the health program of secondary schools.

  7. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Seasonality in song behaviour revisited: seasonal and annual variants and invariants in the song of the domesticated canary (Serinus canaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Leitner, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The song of the domesticated canary (Serinus canaria) is one of the most widely used models to study the neural correlates of behavioural plasticity and the mechanisms of female mate choice. However, only few studies have described the song behaviour in detail and monitored their changes throughout the year, and these data are restricted to the "Waterslager" strain. Here, we studied the song characteristics of the male common domesticated canary at different times of the year, the spring breeding and autumnal non-breeding season, and monitored the birds' songs up to the following breeding season. During breeding, males have increased plasma levels of testosterone, and songs are on average longer and consist of fewer non-repeated syllable types compared to the non-breeding season. When subsequent seasons are compared, song duration and the proportion of non-repeated syllable types change seasonally but not across years. Repertoire size remains constant throughout seasons although syllable types are exchanged. Syllable carry-over is significantly higher from one breeding season to the next than between the breeding and non-breeding season. Further, the repertoire of the breeding season contains more potentially sexually attractive syllable types than that of the non-breeding season. These data show that overall song structure is retained throughout the year while seasonality occurs in the temporal pattern and in repertoire composition.

  9. Hong Kong Dreams and Disney Fantasies: How Hong Kong Disneyland (Controversially) Indigenizes Space, Labor, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Banh, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONHong Kong Dreams and Disney Fantasies: How Hong Kong Disneyland (Controversially) Indigenizes Space, Labor, and ConsumptionbyJenny BanhDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Anthropology University of California, RiversideDr. Yolanda Moses, ChairpersonIn 2005, Hong Kong imported the ultimate piece of Americana - Disneyland: the globe's largest media company and themepark operator. This dissertation looks at how the Hong Kong Disneyland indigenizes in terms of Sp...

  10. GENDER ROLES IN PAKISTANI-URDU WEDDING SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Bushra Zaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urdu wedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation, and towards the understanding of the process of construction and perpetuation of gender-based stereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is to understand the portrayal of each gender along with the question that does such portrayal underlines the traditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking a discourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textual data from the lyrics of the seventeen wedding songs. The song selection was based on purposive sampling technique. The data were collected through transcription and recording of the audios of the songs. As a result of thematic analysis thirteen themes emerged, ten portraying the female gender and four portraying the male gender. These themes reveal important findings that support and reinforce the gender-based stereotypes and also reflect gender hierarchy, normative heterosexual relationships, kinship norms and gender subversions.

  11. Wanderthirst around Igbo neigbourliness in tales, songs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... songs and practices: a reflection on the pristine survival of the pre – modern Awgu people. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... obedience identifies with values, philosophies and mores of a social group (as represented by Obierika).

  12. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  13. Songs2See - Learn to play by playing

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Estefanía; Dittmar, Christian; Grollmisch, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    Songs2See is a music game developed based on pitch detection, sound separation, music transcription, interface development and audio analysis technologies. While keeping the entertainment and excitement of normal video games, Songs2See provides the users with a practice tool that makes the process of learning to play a musical instrument, a more enjoyable and engaging one. The two key features of this application are: 1. The use of real musical instruments instead of game controllers, 2. The ...

  14. The Eurovision Song Contest, Preferences and European Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone - perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences...... as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bilateral trade....

  15. The Eurovision Song Contest, Preferences and European Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, Ari; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Already Beckerman (1956) and Linder (1961) suggested that international trade is not determined by supply side factors alone – perceptions about foreign countries and country preferences matter. We explore the relation between exports, cultural distance, income differences and country preferences as revealed by voting in the European Song Contest. We conclude that preferences influence trade through several channels, and that results of the European Song Contest are a robust predictor of bila...

  16. Music and Songs in Lolita, novel and film

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchet, Marie,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to stress the importance of music and song in Nabokov's Lolita (1955), and also in Kubrick's interpretation of it in his film (1962). Indeed Kubrick's adaptation does bring about, as Linda Hutcheon puts it, a "transcoding process" from the code of writing into the code of film (Hutcheon 7), which is itself multisemiotic, as film associates moving and still images, language, and, of course, music. The analysis begins with a scrutiny of songs in ...

  17. Breathtaking Songs: Coordinating the Neural Circuits for Breathing and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marc F; Goller, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The vocal behavior of birds is remarkable for its diversity, and songs can feature elaborate characteristics such as long duration, rapid temporal pattern, and broad frequency range. The respiratory system plays a central role in generating the complex song patterns that must be integrated with its life-sustaining functions. Here, we explore how precise coordination between the neural circuits for breathing and singing is fundamental to production of these remarkable behaviors. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  18. The Attribution of Emotion and Meaning to Song Lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, William Forde; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effect of music on the interpretation of song lyrics. Listeners were presented with sung lyrics, spoken lyrics, or written poetry, and judged the text for emotional valence and meaningfulness. Experiment 1 revealed that, for some songs, music influenced whether lyrics were interpreted as conveying a positive or negative message. Experiment 2 showed that for familiar music. sung lyrics were judged as more meaningful than the same lyrics presented as spoken text, suggesting that...

  19. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  20. Peripheral motor dynamics of song production in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Franz; Cooper, Brenton G

    2004-06-01

    Singing behavior in songbirds is a model system for motor control of learned behavior. The target organs of its central motor programs are the various muscle systems involved in sound generation. Investigation of these peripheral motor mechanisms of song production is the first step toward an understanding of how different motor systems are coordinated. Here we review physiological studies of all major motor systems that are involved in song production and modification in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Acoustic syllables of zebra finch song are produced by a characteristic air sac pressure pattern. Electromyographic (EMG) and sonomicrometric recording of expiratory muscle activity reveals that respiratory motor control is tightly coordinated with syringeal gating of airflow. Recordings of bronchial airflow demonstrate that most of the song syllables are composed of simultaneous independent contributions from the two sides of the syrinx. Sounds generated in the syrinx can be modified by the resonance properties of the upper vocal tract. Tracheal length affects resonance, but dynamic changes of tracheal length are unlikely to make a substantial contribution to sound modification. However, beak movements during song contribute to sound modification and, possibly, affect the vibratory behavior of the labia. Rapid beak aperture changes were associated with nonlinear transitions in the acoustic structure of individual syllables. The synergy between respiratory and syringeal motor systems, and the unique bilateral, simultaneous, and independent sound production, combined with dynamic modification of the acoustic structure of song, make the zebra finch an excellent model system for exploring mechanisms of sensorimotor integration underlying a complex learned behavior.

  1. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics.

  2. How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Mitra, Partha P; Fehér, Olga; Pytte, Carolyn; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2005-02-17

    Sleep affects learning and development in humans and other animals, but the role of sleep in developmental learning has never been examined. Here we show the effects of night-sleep on song development in the zebra finch by recording and analysing the entire song ontogeny. During periods of rapid learning we observed a pronounced deterioration in song structure after night-sleep. The song regained structure after intense morning singing. Daily improvement in similarity to the tutored song occurred during the late phase of this morning recovery; little further improvement occurred thereafter. Furthermore, birds that showed stronger post-sleep deterioration during development achieved a better final imitation. The effect diminished with age. Our experiments showed that these oscillations were not a result of sleep inertia or lack of practice, indicating the possible involvement of an active process, perhaps neural song-replay during sleep. We suggest that these oscillations correspond to competing demands of plasticity and consolidation during learning, creating repeated opportunities to reshape previously learned motor skills.

  3. The emotionality of William Blake's poems: a quantitative comparison of Songs of Innocence with Songs of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, C

    2001-04-01

    Analyses of the words contained in William Blake's Songs of Experience and Songs of Innocence with the new Dictionary of Affect, a tool listing the pleasantness, activation, and imagery of several thousand words, indicated that the Innocence poems were both more pleasant and more active than the Experience poems. On the whole, both sets of poems were richly imaged, rather pleasant in tone, and more emotional than both normative English and the work of Blake's Romantic contemporaries.

  4. Independent evolution of song structure and note structure in American wood warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, J. Van

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of how evolutionary convergence within shared environments shapes some features of bird song while leaving others unaffected, using as an example the songs of 51 North American wood warblers (Parulinae). I combined published information on breeding habitats and evolutionary relationships to show that the structure of warbler songs is correlated with habitat, whereas the structure of the notes that comprise the songs is relatively unaffected by habitat and more closely related to phylogenetic history. The results confirm known relationships between bird song and habitat, including correlations between song frequency and the type and density of canopy foliage, and between the number and arrangement of notes in the song and foliage density and moisture. More importantly, the results suggest that individual notes and whole songs are to some extent functionally independent, because the configuration of notes shows more evidence of evolutionary constraint than does the way notes are assembled into songs.

  5. Recognition of geriatric popular song repertoire: a comparison of geriatric clients and music therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to determine geriatric clients' recognition of 32 popular songs and songs from musicals by asking whether they: (a) had heard the songs before; (b) could "name the tune" of each song; and (c) list the decade that each song was composed. Additionally, comparisons were made between the geriatric clients' recognition of these songs and by music therapy students' recognition of the same, songs, based on data from an earlier study (VanWeelden, Juchniewicz, & Cevasco, 2008). Results found 90% or more of the geriatric clients had heard 28 of the 32 songs, 80% or more of the graduate students had heard 20 songs, and 80% of the undergraduates had heard 18 songs. The geriatric clients correctly identified 3 songs with 80% or more accuracy, which the graduate students also correctly identified, while the undergraduates identified 2 of the 3 same songs. Geriatric clients identified the decades of 3 songs with 50% or greater accuracy. Neither the undergraduate nor graduate students identified any songs by the correct decade with over 50% accuracy. Further results are discussed.

  6. The song system of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J; Hodges, Donald A; Fox, Peter T; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2004-08-01

    Although sophisticated insights have been gained into the neurobiology of singing in songbirds, little comparable knowledge exists for humans, the most complex singers in nature. Human song complexity is evidenced by the capacity to generate both richly structured melodies and coordinated multi-part harmonizations. The present study aimed to elucidate this multi-faceted vocal system by using 15O-water positron emission tomography to scan "listen and respond" performances of amateur musicians either singing repetitions of novel melodies, singing harmonizations with novel melodies, or vocalizing monotonically. Overall, major blood flow increases were seen in the primary and secondary auditory cortices, primary motor cortex, frontal operculum, supplementary motor area, insula, posterior cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Melody repetition and harmonization produced highly similar patterns of activation. However, whereas all three tasks activated secondary auditory cortex (posterior Brodmann Area 22), only melody repetition and harmonization activated the planum polare (BA 38). This result implies that BA 38 is responsible for an even higher level of musical processing than BA 22. Finally, all three of these "listen and respond" tasks activated the frontal operculum (Broca's area), a region involved in cognitive/motor sequence production and imitation, thereby implicating it in musical imitation and vocal learning.

  7. FROM REBEL SONGS TO MORO SONGS: POPULAR MUSIC AND MUSLIM FILIPINO PROTEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Talusan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rank-and-file supporters of the Bangsamoro rebellion (1972-1977 articulated their personal sentiments about the war in a genre called “rebelsongs.” The lyrics reveal that fighters’ personal aspirations often diverged from the official aims of separatist leaders. This article examines how rebel songs transitioned into “Moro songs” in the post-martial law era and why they came to more narrowly reflect the movement’s official goals of Moro unity and Islamic renewal. While Muslim separatists hinged their ideology on the concept of a shared religion and history distinct from the rest of the Philippines, the musical vehicle they approved to convey aspirations for political and religious autonomy was not, however, indigenous genres, such as tudtol or dindiken. Rather, Moro songs set Magindanaon lyrics to the melodies of American folk, country and rock ballads—such as Bryan Adams’s “Straight from the Heart”—to frame protests against the Philippine government’s incursion into the homeland, the fight for religion and calls for Muslim unity. By endorsing this hybrid genre to broadcast separatist goals, the movement opened up a communicative space for its message to internal and external audiences, across cultural and national boundaries.

  8. THE ROLE OF COURTSHIP SONGS IN REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AMONG POPULATIONS OF GREEN LACEWINGS OF THE GENUS CHRYSOPERLA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Marta Martínez; Henry, Charles S

    1992-02-01

    Male and female lacewings tremulate during courtship, establishing duets that always precede copulation. Three distinct courtship songs are found in populations of the green lacewing Chrysoperla plorabunda (P1, P2 and P3 song morphs). Analysis of five features of the songs for individuals collected from Connecticut, Idaho, Oregon and California showed few differences within song morphs, but sympatric song morphs differed significantly in temporal features of the songs and their mode of presentation. Playback experiments using recorded songs were performed on females with all possible sympatric and allopatric combinations of females and recorded songs. The results showed that females strongly prefer to duet with recordings of males of their own song type and usually showed no responses to songs of other types. Thus, song differences are effective barriers to reproduction between the sympatric morphs. Our results support the hypothesis that the three song morphs are true biological species. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  10. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Searcy, William A; Peters, Susan; Hughes, Melissa; DuBois, Adrienne L; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and model notes. Song repertoire size, which reflects song complexity, was also measured. At 1 year of age, subjects were given a battery of five cognitive tests that measured speed of learning in the context of a novel foraging task, color association, color reversal, detour-reaching, and spatial learning. Bivariate correlations between the three song measures and the five cognitive measures revealed no significant associations. As in other studies of avian cognition, different cognitive measures were for the most part not correlated with each other, and this result remained true when 22 hand-reared female song sparrows were added to the analysis. General linear mixed models controlling for effects of neophobia and nest of origin indicated that all three song measures were associated with better performance on color reversal and spatial learning but were associated with worse performance on novel foraging and detour-reaching. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that learned aspects of song signal cognitive ability.

  11. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness.

  12. Disneyland in Hong Kong — Green Challenge (A)

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Tsai; Shubo Philip Liu

    2011-01-01

    In mid-1999, the Walt Disney Company and the Hong Kong Government were involved in intense discussions about the possibility of building the Hong Kong Disneyland theme park on Lantau Island. This case presented detailed information about the proposed theme park and the associated decision making process with a particular emphasis on sustainable development. It also lays out the characteristics of the Hong Kong Government and Hong Kong people that might have played a role in decision making.Th...

  13. The language of poetic texts in contemporary Tuvan pop songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyumaa M. Saaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a linguistic analysis of lyrics of modern Tuvan pop songs. While studying them is important for understanding contemporary songwriting in Tuva, it is also necessary to discover what linguistic means, functional styles and vocabulary are used by modern authors of popular lyrics. The study can also help identify how contemporary global trends influence songwriting in means of linguistics. Three groups of songs can be defined in Tuvan pop music. The first of them comprises songs written by both professional poets and amateurs with good writing skills. Their texts have homogenous literary style and are intended for general audience (rather than specific groups of listeners. They do not feature any jargon or youth slang. The second group consists of “songs of the people” which are still popular and relevant, but not classified as folklore. This group also contains songs previously banned by censorship, and those written by ex-convicts. Their lyrics differ in style, and the vocabulary is also heterogenous: they can include slang and contain vernacular language. The third group includes songs following popular global and Russian trends, which  triggered rapid evolution in Tuvan songwriting. There is significant number of authors or even creative unions, who write both lyric and music. They are stylistically uneven, contain a lot of neologisms, borrowed vocabulary, slang and jargon words and sometimes even macaronic (mixed language. The author provides a more in-depth analysis of lyrics belonging to the third group of songs. They can be divided into 6 thematic subgroups which greatly vary in lexical content and the use of tropes. The lyrics of contemporary Tuvan songs are quite close to the everyday language young people use. Active employment of jargon in the language of young and middle-aged people, especially in lyrics of modern songs, steadily decreases the literary norms of Tuvan language. The author emphasizes that

  14. Cues to androgens and quality in male gibbon songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barelli

    Full Text Available Animal vocal signals may provide information about senders and mediate important social interactions like sexual competition, territory maintenance and mate selection. Hence, it is important to understand whether vocal signals provide accurate information about animal attributes or status. Gibbons are non-human primates that produce loud, distinctive and melodious vocalizations resembling more those of birds than of other non-human primates. Wild gibbons are characterized by flexibility in social organization (i.e., pairs and multimale units as well as in mating system (i.e., monogamy and polyandry. Such features make them a suitable model to investigate whether the physiology (hormonal status and socio-demographic features find their correspondence in the structure of their songs. By combining male solo song recordings, endocrine outputs using non-invasive fecal androgen measures and behavioral observations, we studied 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multimale of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar residing at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. We collected a total of 322 fecal samples and recorded 48 songs from 18 adult animals. Our results confirmed inter-individuality in male gibbon songs, and showed a clear correlation between androgen levels and song structures. Gibbons with higher androgen levels produced calls having higher pitch, and similarly adult individuals produced longer calls than senior males. Thus, it is plausible that gibbon vocalizations provide receivers with information about singers' attributes.

  15. On the composition of modal structures of Tuvan traditional songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayasmaa D.-B. Baranmaa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of musical language of song folklore of Tuvans – the scale – is as yet underinvestigated in contemporary Tuvan musicology. The author is studying the effect of structural principles in scale and sound gamut of Tuvan folk songs. The theory of monodic scales (S.P. Galitskaya, E.V. Gertsman, Yu.G. Kon, Kh.S. Kushnarev, etc. forms the methodological basis for the analysis. The object of our studies are manuscripts of traditional Tuvan songs published by Russian musicologists (A. N. Aksenov, Z. K. Kyrgys, etc. serves as material base for analysis. The analysis revealed that traditional Tuvan songs are usually based on two- or three-part composite gamut structures. This significantly enriched the substantial aspect of the process by complicating types of links between the sounds, making the medium more profound, compact and complete. Scale links and subscales were detected that can interconnect in four manners (discrete, monolithic, catenary, inclusive. Conjunction principles are illustrated by a few folk songs. Catenary and inclusive manners of conjunctions have been noticed to be dominating. A vast variety of different link combinations has been detected. This is a point where intonational abundance of folklore melos reveals its inexhaustibility.

  16. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  18. Songs of the Universe - The AstroCappella Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, K. M.; Smale, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band. A multimedia music CD ("AstroCappella 2.0") has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, and the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift astronomy satellites. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. We describe here the history, content, and educational strategy behind the AstroCappella Project, and the plans for its future development.

  19. Towards an understanding of speech and song perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Besouw, Rachel M; Howard, David M; Ternström, Sten

    2005-01-01

    The human singing voice plays an important role in music of all societies. It is an extremely flexible instrument and is capable of producing a tremendous range of sounds. As such, the human voice can be hard to classify and poses a major challenge for automatic audio discrimination and classification systems. Speech/song discrimination is an implicit goal of speech/music discrimination, where a division is sought between speech and song, such that the singing voice can be grouped together with other musical instruments in the same category. However, the division between speech and song is unclear and even human attempts at speech/song discrimination can be highly subjective and open to discussion. In this paper we present the results of a test that was designed to investigate differences in auditory perception for speech and song. Twenty-four subjects were instructed to attend to either the words or pitch, or both words and pitch of context-free spoken and sung phrases. After presentation of each phrase, subjects were asked to either type the words that they recalled, or select the correct pitch contour from a choice of four graphical representations, or do both, depending on the task specified before presentation of the phrase. The results of the experiment show a decrease in the amount of linguistic information retained by subjects for sung phrases and also a decrease in accuracy of response for the sung phrases when subjects attended to both words and pitch instead of words or pitch alone.

  20. Intra-Nationalization of Higher Education: The Hong Kong Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the internationalization of higher education initiatives of Hong Kong, being one of the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, within the context of the Chinese Mainland-Hong Kong (CM-HK) relations. Historical, social, economic, and political ties between Hong Kong and the Mainland of China, their economic and political…

  1. A Korean Legend: Hungbu and Nolbu; and Korean Songs We Can Sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta; And Others

    A Korean legend and a number of Korean songs are presented in this illustrated booklet. English translations and a pronunciation guide are provided. Musical notations are included for the songs presented. (EB)

  2. Vocal neighbour-mate discrimination in female great tits despite high song similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumenrath, Sandra H.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    are important, and the female's ability to recognize her mate's song should therefore be adaptive. In a neighbour-mate discrimination playback experiment, we presented 13 incubating great tit females situated inside nestboxes with a song of their mate and the same song type from a neighbour. Each female...... differences between their mate's song and a neighbour's rendition of the same song type despite being inside nestboxes, which are known to alter the received song structure and intensity. We suggest that this female discrimination ability inside nest holes is mediated by a high perceptual sensitivity towards......Discrimination between conspecifics is important in mediating social interactions between several individuals in a network environment. In great tits, Parus major, females readily distinguish between the songs of their mate and those of a stranger. The high degree of song sharing among neighbouring...

  3. Shostakovich: Two Fables, Op. 4. Four Songs, Op. 46 / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: Two Fables, Op. 4. Four Songs, Op. 46. Songs on Verses by British Poets, Op. 140. From Jewish folk poetry, Op. 79. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" DG CD 439860-2GH

  4. Interrelation/Coexistence between Human/Nonhuman in Nature: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Baradaran Jamili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the interrelation and coexistence between human and nonhuman in nature in William Blake’s (1757-1827 Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience (1789-1794. The paper looks at his poems in the light of ecocentrism, especially the theories of Lawrence Buell (1939- and Ashton Nichols (1953- , who articulate ecocentrism as a word which expresses the interconnection between human and nonhuman in nature and environment. The word, ecocentrism, denotes nature and environment as the central and essential parts of the world to represent them as a web or system wherein all members and parts, including human and nonhuman, are related and connected to each other so closely that they cannot exist and live separately and lonely. By human, it refers to who is a creature in the web, who links to other creatures and entities so closely that he cannot be isolated from them. The linkage and coexistence are the matter which can be viewed in some of the poems of William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. Blake watches environment and nature carefully, and in some of the poems of two mentioned collections such as “The Echoing Green,” “Nurse’s Song,” “Holy Thursday,” “The School Boy,” to name just a few, he illustrates a situation of life in which human has close relation and connection to other creatures. According to Blake, human and nonhuman have such a vital relationship so that no one can live without the others. All creatures and beings in an organism have an effect on each other, and they are interrelated. The paper shows interconnection and coexistence between human and nonhuman in Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience due to portrayal and representation of nonhuman creatures in the world. It defines some nonhuman terms such as nature and environment and then focuses on the interrelation and coexistence between human and nonhuman in Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience in

  5. Water in oral songs of the year cicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmanović Ana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a frequent motif in ritual songs of the year cycle. Its meaning of a boundary is important for forming a notion of the place where ritual actions are performed. On the other hand, its fertile potential corresponds with its function of ritual mean or goal. Within the chronotope, it is often connected with temporal boundaries - morning and night. Ritual songs model water as being, to whom the participants direct their songs in the ritual, but it is also the boundary across which inhuman beings enter the human world. It establishes communication with that unearthly world fulfilling the communicative function. Different realizations of water motif in oral lyric show its importance in traditional culture.

  6. Tangled up in grief: Bob Dylan's songs of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Keverne

    This article argues that much can be learned about the ways in which individuals grieve through a careful analysis of the presentation of loss in creative fiction, especially in terms of unconscious and uncensored responses presented indirectly through figurative language and structural patterns. It takes Bob Dylan's collection of songs about the anguish caused by lost love, Blood on the Tracks, as an example. An examination of the songs included in, and some rejected for, the album reveals developing responses to grief resulting from relationship breakdown, including the search for the absent one and for reconciliation; the intrusion of deep pain into everyday situations; the problem of infidelity and guilt; the attempt to reach a more detached perspective; the consequences of the pain becoming unbearable; and the attempt at a kind of closure. Taken together, the songs reveal how complex and contradictory responses to the agony of loss can be.

  7. Birdsong "transcriptomics": neurochemical specializations of the oscine song system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter V Lovell

    Full Text Available Vocal learning is a rare and complex behavioral trait that serves as a basis for the acquisition of human spoken language. In songbirds, vocal learning and production depend on a set of specialized brain nuclei known as the song system.Using high-throughput functional genomics we have identified approximately 200 novel molecular markers of adult zebra finch HVC, a key node of the song system. These markers clearly differentiate HVC from the general pallial region to which HVC belongs, and thus represent molecular specializations of this song nucleus. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that several major neuronal cell functions and specific biochemical pathways are the targets of transcriptional regulation in HVC, including: 1 cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions (e.g., cadherin/catenin-mediated adherens junctions, collagen-mediated focal adhesions, and semaphorin-neuropilin/plexin axon guidance pathways; 2 cell excitability (e.g., potassium channel subfamilies, cholinergic and serotonergic receptors, neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors; 3 signal transduction (e.g., calcium regulatory proteins, regulators of G-protein-related signaling; 4 cell proliferation/death, migration and differentiation (e.g., TGF-beta/BMP and p53 pathways; and 5 regulation of gene expression (candidate retinoid and steroid targets, modulators of chromatin/nucleolar organization. The overall direction of regulation suggest that processes related to cell stability are enhanced, whereas proliferation, growth and plasticity are largely suppressed in adult HVC, consistent with the observation that song in this songbird species is mostly stable in adulthood.Our study represents one of the most comprehensive molecular genetic characterizations of a brain nucleus involved in a complex learned behavior in a vertebrate. The data indicate numerous targets for pharmacological and genetic manipulations of the song system, and provide novel insights into mechanisms that might

  8. Bowhead whale songs sung by females in Disko Bay, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi; Christoffersen, Mads; FØrasier, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    , and more rarely mate attraction. In the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, a closely related species to the bowhead whale, the female produces simple calls during sexual interactions that attract other males to mating groups. We suggest that our results may indicate that the elaborate songs...... for this species. Bowhead whale song has long been hypothesized to be produced by male whales as a reproductive advertisement; however, no data on the sex of singers has ever been reported. In this study, we determine the sex of singing bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in Disko Bay, West Greenland, by localizing...

  9. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp......The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...

  10. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ON THE SONGS OF THE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    SARTORI, Ilaria; ABDULMUHEIMEN, Abdulnassir

    2010-01-01

    Harari songs, called gey fäqär, "the songs of the city, " are among the signifi cant expressions of local intangible cultural heritage. Traditional gey fäqär (usually employing a voice-percussion confi guration) are presently mostly performed at weddings: women sing in choir, led by an expert singer/poet (wāli); they may also play solo (salley) or in duo (ğāliyei, kōtankōt). Harari sung verses, fixed or improvised, are quite stratifi ed semantically; themes include religion, patriotism, frien...

  11. The Potential Contribution of Love-Sex Songs to the Spread or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the potential contribution of Oromo love-sex songs to the spread or prevention of the HIV/AIDS. It also shows how Oromo love songs express Oromo beliefs, sexual values, customs, meanings and interpretations of masculinity. The Oromo recite various songs to praise love/sex and lovers; they express, ...

  12. Na Mele Ho Ona Auao (The Songs That Instruct). Hawaiian Studies Music Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This music resource book is a compilation of traditional Hawaiian mele (songs) for use as a tool in music instruction and as a means to educate students in both the Hawaiian language and in various aspects of Hawaiian culture. Music and words are provided for each song as well as an English translation. The first section is comprised of songs or…

  13. Individuality in the female songs of wild Silvery Gibbons (Hylobates moloch) on Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmann, Robert; Geissmann, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This is the first study comparing individuality in the songs among several gibbon species. All gibbon species produce loud, long and elaborate song bouts in the early morning. Silvery gibbons (Hylobales moloch) ,i differ from other hylobatids, however, in that duet song bouts are absent, male

  14. Element repertoire: change and development with age in Whitethroat Sylvia communis song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, T.J.S.; Hansen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Song repertoires are often important determining factors in sexual selection. In several species, older males have larger repertoires than 1-year-old males. The development of large song repertoires by an individual is, however, poorly understood. We studied song element repertoire changes in fiv...

  15. The Relationship of Neurogenesis and Growth of Brain Regions to Song Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…

  16. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  17. CAN LACK OF EXPERIENCE DELAY THE END OF THE SENSITIVE PHASE FOR SONG LEARNING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLATER, PJB; JONES, A; TENCATE, C

    1993-01-01

    Some bird species will modify their songs in adulthood, whereas in others, once developed, song appears relatively fixed. However, even in some of the latter, social experience may lead birds to learn songs later than was previously thought possible. Do age-limited learners really exist or is

  18. L'Italiano tra le Note: The Value and Power of a Song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Mariagrazia

    A series of class exercises for Italian language instruction based on a song, "La Vita Mia" by Amedeo Minghi, is presented. The song was selected because of its rich literary content and appealing melody. Objectives, in-class activities, and homework assignments are outlined. In them, students listen to the song, discuss the relationship…

  19. Teaching Listening Skills to Young Learners through "Listen and Do" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…

  20. Why Do We "Skip to My Lou," Anyway? Teaching Play Party Songs in Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on teaching play party songs in a general music curriculum, using their authentic form and historical context. The history of play party songs is discussed, as well as the social conditions in America during the time they were used in the late 19th to mid-20th century. Descriptions of the songs include variations in lyrics and…

  1. Persistence of song types in Darwin's finches, Geospiza fortis, over four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Eben; Podos, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Learned bird songs evolve via cultural evolution, with song patterns transmitted across generations by imitative learning. In Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands, males learn songs from their fathers, and song types can be maintained across multiple generations. However, little is known about the time frame over which specific song types are preserved, in the face of copy errors and corresponding modifications to song structure. Here we investigate cultural evolution in songs of male Geospiza fortis, at Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, comparing songs recorded in 1961 by R. Bowman (20 individuals) to those recorded in 1999 by J. Podos (16 individuals). For each individual, we characterized four timing and six frequency parameters, and assessed inter-individual variation in song structure using multivariate analysis. Several 1961 song types persisted into 1999, some with remarkable fidelity. Variation among song types was extensive during both years, and we detected no changes in 10 vocal parameters across the sampling period. These results illustrate temporal continuity in a culturally acquired trait, and raise questions about mechanisms that promote stability in song structure. PMID:20392717

  2. Music therapy students' recognition of popular song repertoire for geriatric clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanweelden, Kimberly; Juchniewicz, Jay; Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has found that music therapists, who work with geriatric clients in singing activities, indicated they know and use 3 times more popular or popular style music (songs from musicals) than folk songs. The purposes of the current study were to determine music therapy majors' recognition of popular songs and songs from musicals by asking whether they: (a) had heard the songs before, (b) could "name the tune" of each song, and (c) list the decade each song was composed. Results showed that students had previously heard many of the songs; however, this was not an indication of whether they could name the song title or the decade in which it was composed. Additionally, percentage data indicated that My Favorite Things and You Are My Sunshine were the most heard/recognized songs, Over the Rainbow was the most correctly named song title, and Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue was the song most correctly identified by decade. Further results and discussion are included.

  3. The Representation of Women in Street Songs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mahraganat

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Falaky, Mai Samir

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called "Mahraganat." The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both…

  4. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song organ...

  5. Female song and vocal interactions with males in a Neotropical wren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Hall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is thought to function primarily in same-sex competition, mate attraction, and reproductive stimulation of a partner. However, these conclusions are based largely on studies of the song of male birds in north-temperate species. We investigate female song in a Neotropical wren, Thryophilus pleurostictus, using observations and experiments to test the function of female song. Female banded wrens sang much less often than males, their songs were shorter, and their repertoire of song types was smaller. Females did not seem to sing for same-sex competition for resources or mates: female song rate did not increase in response to simulated intrusion, and females sang in response to less than one-third of playbacks simulating territorial intrusion by either unpaired or paired females. Territorial defense is important for both survival and reproduction in species that occupy all-purpose territories year-round, but female involvement in territorial defense was limited. Females were more likely to approach simulated intruders when their partner approached more closely, and were closer to their partner during playback simulating a pair of intruders, perhaps contributing to defense jointly with their partner. Females did not appear to use song to attract males for mating: only 25% of females sang in response to playback simulating an unpaired male during the nest-building period, and they were less likely to sing shortly before laying when they were more likely to be fertile. Female song in banded wrens seemed to be used primarily for communicating with their breeding partner: female songs overlapped or began within one second of a song by their partner more often than expected by chance, and male vocal behavior changed in response to song by their partner. However, the low rate of female song in banded wrens suggests this function does not select for song elaboration, consistent with the view that same-sex competition is the main driver of female

  6. Memory in the making: localized brain activation related to song learning in young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobes, Sharon M H; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2010-11-07

    Songbird males learn to sing their songs from an adult 'tutor' early in life, much like human infants learn to speak. Similar to humans, in the songbird brain there are separate neural substrates for vocal production and for auditory memory. In adult songbirds, the caudal pallium, the avian equivalent of the auditory association cortex, has been proposed to contain the neural substrate of tutor song memory, while the song system is involved in song production as well as sensorimotor learning. If this hypothesis is correct, there should be neuronal activation in the caudal pallium, and not in the song system, while the young bird is hearing the tutor song. We found increased song-induced molecular neuronal activation, measured as the expression of an immediate early gene, in the caudal pallium of juvenile zebra finch males that were in the process of learning to sing their songs. No such activation was found in the song system. Molecular neuronal activation was significantly greater in response to tutor song than to novel song or silence in the medial part of the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). In the caudomedial mesopallium, there was significantly greater molecular neuronal activation in response to tutor song than to silence. In addition, in the NCM there was a significant positive correlation between spontaneous molecular neuronal activation and the strength of song learning during sleep. These results suggest that the caudal pallium contains the neural substrate for tutor song memory, which is activated during sleep when the young bird is in the process of learning its song. The findings provide insight into the formation of auditory memories that guide vocal production learning, a process fundamental for human speech acquisition.

  7. The Use of Song Worksheet to Enhance EFL Elementary School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance students’ vocabulary mastery through the use of song worksheet. Twenty -two fourth graders of an elementary school in Indonesia were selected as participants. Action research was adopted in this study consisting of three cycles. To find out students’ achievement, vocabulary test was given. To investigate students’ responses, observation and interview were implemented.Findings showed that song worksheet could enhance students’ vocabulary mastery. They also gave positive responses to the use of song worksheet. However, students complained that the songs were too fast. This study supports the use of songs in the EFL context which could make teaching - learning processes more fun

  8. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  9. Sibling Incest: A Hong Kong Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsun, O. K. Angela

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study of a Hong Kong Chinese adult survivor of brother-sister incest. Discusses her symptoms, feelings toward incest, parental response at disclosures, and implications for practice. Also discusses Chinese cultural influences that affect the family and lead to secrecy and shame. (CR)

  10. Visual Chunking Skills of Hong Kong Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Ada K. H.; Cheng-lai, Alice; Tso, Ivy F.; Shu, Hua; Li, Wenling; Anderson, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the development of visual chunking skills in the processing of Chinese characters among Hong Kong pupils. One-hundred-seventy-nine primary school students from first, second and fourth grades were administered a character copying task. Children as young as 6 years of age were aware of character units and were able to apply…

  11. Timetabling in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Lam-For; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a survey that was conducted to understand the scope of timetabling in Hong Kong secondary schools. The use of computers for timetabling is explored, and it is concluded that further research on appropriate software to automate timetabling is needed. (LRW)

  12. A Literary Discourse of Nigerian Children's Accretive Songs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper has chosen to discuss Nigerian childlore and specifically children's accretive songs with a view to highlighting their socio-cultural, political and aesthetic values. Furthermore, the paper shows how children's play culture reflects broader debates about creativity; thereby confirming the symbiosis between adults' ...

  13. Discursive Features of Selected Political Song Texts of the 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anchored on the theoretical guide of Systemic Functional Linguistics, songs are explicated in the study as vehicles of multiple significations transcending territorial corridors of entertainment but ultimately devolving into a myriad of ideological, psychological, socio-cultural and idiosyncratic imperatives. The study concludes ...

  14. Tula song folklore: genre-stylistic and dialectic peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovskaya Nelli Alexandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of Tula folklore recorded in the western part of the Tula region, in terms of genre, stylistic and linguistic features. The relevance of the study is related to the fact that Tula folk songs has not been studied, linguistic features of the works are not subjected to serious analysis. The article describes the features of the genre of songs recorded in Belevsky district of Tula region, including the ancient fortunetelling chants, wedding ceremony songs, romantic ballads etc., it is cited numerous examples in the lyrics that reflect the dialectal features of the phonetic, grammatical, lexical levels. According to the authors, a modern folk song genre retains its diversity and is a kind of storeroom containing priceless linguistic wealth. The analysis allows to draw conclusions about the presence and well-preserved in the recorded music of South Russian dialect phonetic and grammatical features. So far, there is no established typology of Tula dialects, therefore, according to the authors, the fixation of folklore in the territories bordering on Tula dialects, is very important and interesting for further descriptive and comparative work on identifying the eastern and south-south-west differences in Tula dialects.

  15. Lighting up the Brain with Songs and Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Songs and stories have a strong relationship to each other and have the capacity to boost brain development, increase vocabulary, and promote future academic success. The sounds and foundational structures of reading and singing provide young children with successful pathways for advancing language skills, increasing memory, and promoting emerging…

  16. Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2 / Michael Tanner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanner, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2: Six Romances on texts by Japanese poets, Op. 21. Six Poems on Marina Tsvetayeva, Op. 143. Suite on Verses of Michelangelo, Op. 145. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". DG 447 085-2GH (71 minutes:DDD)

  17. Neural mechanisms of song memory formation in juvenile zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, S.

    2015-01-01

    There are many parallels between the acquisition of spoken language in human infants and song learning in songbirds, at the behavioural, neural, genetic and cognitive levels. Both human infants and juvenile songbirds are able to imitate sounds from adults of the same species (often their parents),

  18. Preserving American Folk Heritage through Story and Song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    Underscoring folklore's appropriateness to multicultural classroom settings are its connection with past and present cultures, its constancy and change, and its potential for oral transmission of human values. Most importantly, folktales and songs enable children to participate in the history of universal human emotions. To effectively include…

  19. Songs about Cancer, Gene Expression, and the Biochemistry of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    These three biology songs can be used for educational purposes to teach about biochemical concepts. They touch on three different topics: (1) cancer progression and germ cells, (2) gene expression, promoters, and repressors, and (3) electronegativity and the biochemical basis of photosynthesis.

  20. "Not" Just Wanna Have Fun: Teaching Listening Skills with Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Amalia Qistina

    2013-01-01

    Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would…

  1. SEXUAL IMPRINTING AND SONG LEARNING - 2 OF ONE KIND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, C; VOS, DR; MANN, N

    1993-01-01

    Imprinting and song learning in birds are usually categorized under the same heading as 'exposure', 'template' or 'programmed' learning. These terms point to several similarities between the processes, but exactly how similar they are and whether the similarity implies a direct causal linkage is not

  2. Acoustic Communication in Birds-Differences in Songs and Calls ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Acoustic Communication in Birds - Differences in Songs and Calls, their Production and Biological Significance. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 44-55 ...

  3. Animal behaviour: a song and dance about lyrebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Raoul A; Hall, Michelle L

    2013-06-17

    Coordinating movements to music is often considered a uniquely human skill. A new study dispels this notion by showing that male Australian lyrebirds also perform 'dance' moves which are predictably matched with specific songs in their display routines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's songs and human factor development: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They impose a foreign and alien memory which potentially dislocates children's consciousness. This is manifest in the manner in which 'London' and other symbols of the Western order are canonised. On the other hand, indigenous Shona children's songs provide a functional and value-laden curriculum of life and ...

  5. Invasive plant erodes local song diversity in a migratory passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Aubree Benson; Erick Greene

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect...

  6. Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst

  7. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Head movements encode emotions during speech and song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    When speaking or singing, vocalists often move their heads in an expressive fashion, yet the influence of emotion on vocalists' head motion is unknown. Using a comparative speech/song task, we examined whether vocalists' intended emotions influence head movements and whether those movements influence the perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, vocalists were recorded with motion capture while speaking and singing each statement with different emotional intentions (very happy, happy, neutral, sad, very sad). Functional data analyses showed that head movements differed in translational and rotational displacement across emotional intentions, yet were similar across speech and song, transcending differences in F0 (varied freely in speech, fixed in song) and lexical variability. Head motion specific to emotional state occurred before and after vocalizations, as well as during sound production, confirming that some aspects of movement were not simply a by-product of sound production. In Experiment 2, observers accurately identified vocalists' intended emotion on the basis of silent, face-occluded videos of head movements during speech and song. These results provide the first evidence that head movements encode a vocalist's emotional intent and that observers decode emotional information from these movements. We discuss implications for models of head motion during vocalizations and applied outcomes in social robotics and automated emotion recognition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Translating Igbo Songs into English: An Interpretative Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Translating Igbo Songs into English: An Interpretative Approach. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Like in other African countries, translation from and into Nigerian languages becomes necessary not only for communication purposes, but also to fulfil two ...

  10. Juegos, Canciones, Poemas y Adivinanzas (Games, Songs, Poems and Riddles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Printed in Spanish, this booklet contains games, songs, poems, riddles, and sayings for use with Puerto Rican migrant children. Eleven matching exercises present Spanish vocabulary related to clothing, food, and musical instruments. Eleven word search games teach Spanish names for body parts, masculine and feminine nouns, famous names, fruits and…

  11. Strike up Student Interest through Song: Technology and Westward Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…

  12. Teachers' Perspectives in Using Disney Songs in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Integrating popular music as part of the public school music curriculum has been a topic of debate among many educators and researchers. Songs from the Disney Corporation, specifically from movies, television shows, and performers specifically marketed by Disney, are particularly significant due to their widespread popularity. In this article, the…

  13. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  14. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  15. Move to the Music: Protest Songs in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettway, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Teachers don't typically encourage students to bring iPods to school, but when a girl in Ken Giles's class brought him "One Tribe," a song by the Black Eyed Peas, he was thrilled. Giles, a music teacher in Washington, D.C., uses protest music to illustrate the connections among culture, art, history and social movements and to help his students…

  16. The Song of the Earth: A Pragmatic Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In "The Song of the Earth," Jonathan Bate promotes "ecopoesis", contrasting it with "ecopolitical" poetry (and by implication, other forms of writing and expression). Like others recently, including Simon James and Michael Bonnett, he appropriates the notion of "dwelling" from Heidegger to add force to this distinction. Bate's argument is…

  17. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  18. 92 A Literary Discourse of Nigerian Children's Accretive Songs (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Limiting itself to Ibibio and. Yoruba Children's playlore, as arche types, this paper attempts an analysis of some Children's accretive songs providing refreshing insights into the genre and highlighting their socio-cultural values, religious implications; language and literary relevance. In this regard the present article points to ...

  19. The Poetic and Musical Forms of Yoruba Songs | Vidal | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yoruba songs constitute a large spectrum of forms to be found in Africa. The study of their classification in terms of form has always begged for study. Yoruba vocal music is generally classified by the Yoruba society on the basis of (a) Performing modes and contents (b) Occasion for performance or context (c) Musical ...

  20. Fin whale song variability in southern California and the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Oleson, Erin M; Buccowich, Jasmine; Rice, Ally; Bayless, Alexandra R

    2017-08-31

    Songs are distinct, patterned sounds produced by a variety of animals including baleen whales. Fin whale songs, which consist of short pulses repeated at regular interpulse intervals (IPIs), have been suggested as a tool to distinguish populations. Fin whale songs were analyzed from data collected from 2000-2012 in Southern California and from 2004-2010 in the Gulf of California using autonomous acoustic recorders. IPIs were measured for each identifiable song sequence during two random days of each month with recordings. Four distinct song types were identified: long doublet, short doublet, long triplet, and short triplet. Long and short doublets were the dominant songs in Southern California, while long and short triplets were dominant in the Gulf of California. An abrupt change in song type occurred in both areas during the monitoring period. We argue that each song type is unique to a population and these changes represent a shift in the primary population in the monitoring area. Occasional temporal and spatial song overlap indicated some exchange or visitation among populations. Fin whales appear to synchronize and gradually modify song rhythm over long time scales. A better understanding of the evolutionary and ecological importance of songs to fin whale populations is needed.

  1. Humpback whale song on the Southern Ocean feeding grounds: implications for cultural transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen C Garland

    Full Text Available Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean.

  2. Humpback whale song on the Southern Ocean feeding grounds: implications for cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Noad, Michael J; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean.

  3. Yolk testosterone, postnatal growth and song in male canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wendt; Vergauwen, Jonas; Eens, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotype. The first studies on the functional consequences of maternal yolk androgens have focused on early life stages and their role in sibling competition. However, recent longitudinal studies reported long-lasting effects of maternal yolk androgens on offspring phenotype, mostly concerning traits that are sensitive to androgens. This suggests that maternal yolk androgens could play an important role in sexual selection, since the expression of many male sexual characters is testosterone-dependent. Using male canaries as a model, we examined the consequences of an experimental elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations on early development as well as long-lasting effects particularly on song, which is one of the most important sexual characters in male songbirds. Elevated yolk testosterone concentrations inhibited male growth, possibly in interaction with an existent ectoparasite exposure. Males hatched from testosterone-treated eggs (T-males) did not have enhanced competitive skills, in contrast to previous studies. The elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations delayed song development but did not affect adult song phenotype. This is intriguing, as yolk testosterone possibly induced developmental stress, which is known to reduce song quality. We hypothesize that yolk testosterone has either no direct effect on adult song phenotype, or that positive effects are merged by the negative effects of developmental stress. Finally, females mated with T-males invested more in their clutch indicating that females either assess T-males as more attractive (differential allocation hypothesis) or compensated for lower offspring viability (compensation hypothesis).

  4. Sex-linked inheritance of hearing and song in the Belgian Waterslager canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Timothy F; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J; Mundinger, Paul C

    2004-12-07

    Belgian Waterslager canaries have less sensitive hearing at high frequencies and produce songs with more energy at low frequencies than wild-type canaries. A backcross pedigree between Belgian Waterslager canaries and a domestic strain with wild-type song revealed inheritance patterns consistent with a factor of major effect located on the Z sex chromosome affecting both poor high-frequency hearing at 4 kHz and the relative energy in the spectra of the learned songs of males. Hearing thresholds at 4 kHz were significant predictors of the relative amount of song energy at 4 kHz for individual males. One hypothesis for the mechanistic basis of this correlation between hearing and song abnormalities is that a reduction in the ability to hear higher-frequency songs biases males towards learning lower-frequency songs.

  5. Does twitter song amplitude signal male arousal in redwings (Turdus iliacus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, H.M.; Balsby, T.J.S.; Espmark, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bird songs may vary in amplitude for several reasons. Variations due to differences in environmental conditions are well known but whether signal information varies with song amplitude is less well known. In some species quiet songs are heard as a soft twitter. These twitter songs are common...... in Turdus species and may be used during escalated close range encounters when a quiet song will attract less attention from others. Male redwings (T. iliacus) sing a terminating twitter part that is quieter and highly variable both between and within males compared with the introductory motif part....... The twitter song of redwings, however, is often louder than the twitter in other Turdus species, especially during escalated song encounters. The seasonal variation in twitter duration also suggests that the twitter may signal increased aggression. We tested how male redwings responded to an assumed...

  6. AHP 37: AN INTRODUCTION TO AMDO TIBETAN LOVE SONGS, OR LA GZHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skal bzang nor bu སྐལ་བཟང་ནོར་བུ།

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La gzhas , or Amdo Tibetan love songs, are sung between young men and women to express their love to each other. Several terms are available for this type of love song in Amdo Tibetan. La gzhas is the most common term for such songs in written Tibetan, la meaning 'mountain pass' and gzhas 'song'. In oral Amdo Tibetan, it is la-ye , a homophone of the literary term. Ri glu literally means mountain song, and this term matches the Chinese term for love songs, shan'ge. These two terms indicate where this song is often sung, in the mountains, far away from houses, villages and tents, in places where there are few people around. Rogs 'then has a more romantic connotation, rogs meaning friend or lover, and 'then meaning to pull, or hookup. ...

  7. Ayuntamiento de Hong-Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitch, A.

    1963-11-01

    Full Text Available This town hall comprises five buildings, each with a particular function, but all expressing a mutual coherence and architectural unity. The main building features a large entrance hall, leading to the concert hall and the theatre. On the first floor there is a dancing hall with accommodation for 500 people. The banquet hall can seat 500, it is situated on the second floor, and is fitted to supply both Chinese and European food. It can operate as an ordinary restaurant. The concert hall has been designed for an audience of 1,500, with a stage suitable for an orchestra of 100 players and 120 dancers. Although its primary purpose is the holding of symphony concerts, it can be adapted to Chinese opera and other types of stage displays. The theatre has 467 seats, and its acoustical properties are such that chamber music can also be performed in it. Another building of this project is a 12 storey tower. On the lower floor weddings and civil ceremonies are held. There are libraries on the second and sixth floors. An exhibition hall occupies the seventh floor. On the eighth there are two lecture rooms, and on the ninth offices and a workshop. A museum and an art gallery take up the tenth and eleventh floors. The air conditioning installations, engine room and other ancillary services are situated on the top of the building. Part of the project includes a garden commemorating the Hong-Kong volunteers who died in the period 1941-45: it stands on an elevated site, and a polygonal shaped chapel completes this memorial. On the outside the tower is faced in marble, whilst the concert hall walls are in polished granite. A sole of blue enamelled brick extends along the whole perimeter of the central block, including the wall surrounding the memorial garden.Comprende un grupo de cinco edificios dedicados a fines diversos, pero a. los que se les ha imprimido una coherencia y unidad que aumenta su valor individual. La edificación principal presenta el gran hall

  8. The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saktanli, S. Cem

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

  9. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  10. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  11. High Degree of Autonomy: The Reversion of Hong Kong to Chinese Sovereignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choyke, Michele

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the People's Republic of China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong calls for maintaining Hong Kong's lifestyle and "high degree of autonomy" for fifty years after its transition to the Hong Kong SAR...

  12. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies.

  13. Developmental social environment imprints female preference for male song in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Akari; Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Kato, Masahiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Osakada, Takuya; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Sexual imprinting is important for kin recognition and for promoting outbreeding, and has been a driving force for evolution; however, little is known about sexual imprinting by auditory cues in mammals. Male mice emit song-like ultrasonic vocalizations that possess strain-specific characteristics. In this study, we asked whether female mice imprint and prefer specific characteristics in male songs. We used the two-choice test to determine the song preference of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. By assessing the time engaged in searching behavior towards songs played back to females, we found that female mice displayed an innate preference for the songs of males from different strains. Moreover, this song preference was regulated by female reproductive status and by male sexual cues such as the pheromone ESP1. Finally, we revealed that this preference was reversed by cross-fostering and disappeared under fatherless conditions, indicating that the behavior was learned by exposure to the father's song. Our results suggest that female mice can discriminate among male song characteristics and prefer songs of mice from strains that are different from their parents, and that these preferences are based on their early social experiences. This is the first study in mammals to demonstrate that male songs contribute to kin recognition and mate choice by females, thus helping to avoid inbreeding and to facilitate offspring heterozygosity.

  14. Developmental Social Environment Imprints Female Preference for Male Song in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Akari; Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Kato, Masahiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Osakada, Takuya; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual imprinting is important for kin recognition and for promoting outbreeding, and has been a driving force for evolution; however, little is known about sexual imprinting by auditory cues in mammals. Male mice emit song-like ultrasonic vocalizations that possess strain-specific characteristics. Objectives In this study, we asked whether female mice imprint and prefer specific characteristics in male songs. Methods and Findings We used the two-choice test to determine the song preference of female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. By assessing the time engaged in searching behavior towards songs played back to females, we found that female mice displayed an innate preference for the songs of males from different strains. Moreover, this song preference was regulated by female reproductive status and by male sexual cues such as the pheromone ESP1. Finally, we revealed that this preference was reversed by cross-fostering and disappeared under fatherless conditions, indicating that the behavior was learned by exposure to the father's song. Conclusions Our results suggest that female mice can discriminate among male song characteristics and prefer songs of mice from strains that are different from their parents, and that these preferences are based on their early social experiences. This is the first study in mammals to demonstrate that male songs contribute to kin recognition and mate choice by females, thus helping to avoid inbreeding and to facilitate offspring heterozygosity. PMID:24505280

  15. Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, X Y; Alström, P; Yang, X J; Lei, F M

    2013-04-01

    In common with human speech, song is culturally inherited in oscine passerine birds ('songbirds'). Intraspecific divergence in birdsong, such as development of local dialects, might be an important early step in the speciation process. It is therefore vital to understand how songs diverge, especially in founding populations. The northward expansion of the Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) into north China in the last 30 years provides an excellent opportunity to study birdsong evolution. We compared ~4400 songs from newly established northern populations with ~2900 songs from southern populations to evaluate song divergence after recent expansion. The total pool of syllables and especially song types was considerably smaller in the north than in the south, indicating 'founder effects' in the new population. The ancestral pattern of mosaic song dialects changed into a pattern of wide geographical sharing of a few song types and syllables, likely the result of fewer geographical barriers to 'meme flow', and the recent spread across a large area in the north. Our results suggest that song evolution and vocal trait shifts can arise rapidly after range expansion, and that in the Light-vented Bulbul 'founder effects', geographical isolation, and recent rapid expansions played important roles in the evolution of song dialects. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Resounding attachment: cancer inpatients' song lyrics for their children in music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; O'Brien, Emma; Magill, Lucanne; Ballinger, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Scant attention focuses on supporting parent-child communication during the parents' cancer hospitalizations. Parents may struggle to remain emotionally available. Caregiver absences may threaten secure attachment relationships with infants and elicit problems amongst older children. Music therapists help many parents with cancer to compose songs for their children. Their lyric analysis may provide insight into song writing's communicative and therapeutic potential. Two song lyric groups were comparatively analyzed (based on grounded theory). One group included 19 songs written by 12 patients with the first author. Another included 16 songs written by 15 patients with three music therapists (including two authors), which were previously published or recorded for the public. Songs were composed by 20 mothers and seven fathers for at least 46 offspring. All parents had hematological or metastatic diseases. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Comparable lyrical ideas in the two parent song groups included: love; memories; yearning for children; metaphysical presence (now and afterlife); loss and grief; the meaning and helpfulness of the children in their lives; hopes for and compliments about their children; encouragement; requests; personal reflections; existential beliefs; and suggestions about to whom the children can turn. Parents' song lyric messages may support their children during the parents' illnesses and through the children's developmental transitions and possible bereavement. Some parents use song writing for catharsis and to encourage their children's continuing attachment with them after death. Through promoting parent-child connectedness and emotional expression, therapeutic song writing can be a valuable oncologic supportive care modality.

  17. Political Participation : A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract “Political participation” - A qualitative study of citizens in Hong Kong Thesis in Political Science, D-level Author: Liza Bergström Tutor: Michele Micheletti On July 1, 1997 China resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Ever since long before the handover until today scholars ask whether and how the changes in Hong Kong’s political status are affecting politics in Hong Kong. This paper is situated in this on-going academic debate. Its purpose is to investigate whether system changes...

  18. Slimming company websites in Hong Kong: implications for women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Lai, Wing-Fu

    2011-07-01

    This study sought to investigate, with a focus on the Hong Kong context, how commercial slimming websites portray the body image of beauty to the public, and to explore practical implications for related public health practices and health policy formulation. Commercial entities in the Hong Kong slimming industry were retrieved from the Hong Kong Yellow Page Directory and Yahoo Hong Kong Directory, and selected websites were coded and further analyzed. We found that irresponsible tactics are used in the slimming industry such that irresponsible messages prevail. Collaborative efforts from multidisciplinary sectors are needed to tackle the situation.

  19. Hong Kong and Beijing: Trip Report

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Claude Albert

    1992-01-01

    This report contrasts the political and economic atmosphere of Hong Kong and Beijing. It examines the issues in relations between China and the United States and speculates about the possible successors to power in China. Finally, it reports on a conference on security and development in Northeast Asia, jointly sponsored by Georgia Tech, U.S.A. and the Institute of Global Concerns, Beijing Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. http://archive.org/details/hongkongbeijingt00buss...

  20. Organic foods consumers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew H. T. Yap

    2012-01-01

    Asian organic foods consumers’ behaviour is worth investigating to sustain the continuous growth of organic foods consumption. Hence, Fiona has the ambition to employ the innovation diffusion theory to profile and understand organic foods consumers in Hong Kong in her research proposal. The process of writing an acceptable research proposal is challenging, tedious and time consuming as depicted in Fiona’s experience. Hence, this case study provides the opportunity for educators, students, and...

  1. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  2. Spatial movements and social networks in juvenile male song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N; Reed, Veronica A; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The time between fledging and breeding is a critical period in songbird ontogeny, but the behavior of young songbirds in the wild is relatively unstudied. The types of social relationships juveniles form with other individuals can provide insight into the process through which they learn complex behaviors crucial for survival, territory establishment, and mate attraction. We used radio telemetry to observe social associations of young male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) from May to November. Juvenile song sparrows were frequently observed in social flocks and generally associated with more birds in the summer than in the autumn months. Most juvenile subjects formed stable social relationships with other birds and were seen with the same individual on up to 60% of the days observed. The strongest associations occurred with other juvenile males, and these individuals were often seen social relationships and suggest that these associations may be important for the ecology of young birds and the ontogeny of their behaviors.

  3. A hierarchical approach for speech-instrumental-song classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Arijit; Chakraborty, Rudrasis; Dhara, Bibhas Chandra; Saha, Sanjoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Audio classification acts as the fundamental step for lots of applications like content based audio retrieval and audio indexing. In this work, we have presented a novel scheme for classifying audio signal into three categories namely, speech, music without voice (instrumental) and music with voice (song). A hierarchical approach has been adopted to classify the signals. At the first stage, signals are categorized as speech and music using audio texture derived from simple features like ZCR and STE. Proposed audio texture captures contextual information and summarizes the frame level features. At the second stage, music is further classified as instrumental/song based on Mel frequency cepstral co-efficient (MFCC). A classifier based on Random Sample and Consensus (RANSAC), capable of handling wide variety of data has been utilized. Experimental result indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Living, Breathing Songs: Singing Along with Bob Dylan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Negus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking issue with approaches to Bob Dylan’s art that are preoccupied with his lyrics, this article suggests a route into thinking about his music by focusing on how Dylan’s vocal melodies work at the intersection of speech and singing. Drawing on Gino Stefani’s work on popular melodies, this article explores this issue through a discussion of how people sing along with Dylan’s songs at concerts. The discussion focuses on the song “It Ain’t Me Babe,” and examines more general points about the ways in which Dylan’s melodies connect with the everyday lives of his listeners.

  5. AHP 12: Silence in the Valley of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zla ba sgrol ma ཟླ་བ་སྒྲོལ་མ།

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text and more than one hundred full-page color plates document Tibetan folk music (particularly work songs, and local life in the Sman shod Valley, Sde dge County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Bo nyed, a local elder, describes the situation that motivated this timely documentation, "In the past we sang constantly, but now people don't sing no matter where they are or what they are doing. Now everyone is silent." The text includes richly contextualized and annotated transcriptions of the songs' Tibetan lyrics with English translations. Audio materials related to this publication can be found at: http://www.oralliterature.org/collections/zlaba001.html

  6. National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh VanHandel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.

  7. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  8. Appreciating the Power of a Song--and a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    For 8-year-old Josh Greiner, the old cliche that music is a universal language has new meaning. As he adapts to a world where being non-verbal sometimes makes it hard to fit in, Josh is coming to understand the power of a song to break everyday communication barriers and provide motivation to try things. Music has always been a part of his daily…

  9. Increasing Young Learners’ Vocabulary Mastery By Using English Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicih Kurnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary is basic part of language when we learn english. Nowadays, introducing english vocabulary can be started in the kindergarten school. In early age, the young learners are easy to accept the language that has been given by teacher. Therefore, young learner in early age (approximately 3-4 years old should get stimulation and learn English vocabulary in order to get preparation to study in higher level. This research was conducted to increase the young learners’ vocabulary mastery in b class of tungga dewi day-care. The classroom action research was implemented in this research. The teaching technique using songs were implemented through teaching and learning activities in two cycles of classroom action research. Each cycle of classroom action research was planning, acting, observing and reflecting. In this research, instruments to gather the data were field notes and observation checklists. Field notes and observation checklists were applied to take the data during the teaching learning process. The data would be analysed in order to solve the problems. Songs were applied in the activities of the first cycle of classrooms action research. The result of the first cycle was not quiet successful because the average of post –test score in cycle one was 37,8. Therefore, the teacher-researcher conducted the second cycle. The second cycle was conducted based on the result of the first cycle. Songs were combined the body movement in second cycle of the classroom action research. The result of the second cycle was successful because the average of post-test score was 77,78. As a conclusion, it can be concluded that the implementation of english songs could help to increase the young learner’s vocabulary mastery.

  10. Songs about cancer, gene expression, and the biochemistry of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    These three biology songs can be used for educational purposes to teach about biochemical concepts. They touch on three different topics: (1) cancer progression and germ cells, (2) gene expression, promoters, and repressors, and (3) electronegativity and the biochemical basis of photosynthesis. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):98-99, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Using Science Songs to Enhance Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students ...

  12. I Cannot Sing You Here, But For Songs Of Where

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, John

    2013-01-01

    This CD/digital album is the culmination of practice-led research, released internationally on Scottish independent label Armellodie Records on the 6th May 2013. The research explicitly addresses potential defining characteristics and the status of contemporary alt-folksong and its roles in the articulation of place through a collection of twelve original songs. The work approaches the term ‘place’ from the direction of subjectivity and the performance of identity as they relate to geographic...

  13. Does song complexity matter in an intra-sexual context in common blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Sacher, Thomas; Coppack, Timothy

    Bird song is thought to be subject of both inter- and intra-sexual selection and song complexity a signal of male quality. One aspect of song complexity, repertoire size, correlates with estimates of male quality in several passerine species.  The Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) has a large...... repertoire of different song patterns which are organized in a complex structure without fixed song types. Previous studies found that Blackbirds show large individual differences in repertoire sizes and use these repertoires in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts. In this study we investigate the signal...... value of repertoire size in Blackbirds in an intra-sexual context with the hypothesis, that males use the repertoire sizes of rivals as a cue to assess their quality. We conducted playback experiments in which we broadcast songs of conspecifics with different repertoire sizes to the test birds...

  14. Perceptual chunking in the self-produced songs of Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suge, Rie; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    Like humans, songbirds, including Bengalese finches, have hierarchical structures in their vocalizations. When humans perceive a sentence, processing occurs in phrase units, not words. In this study, we investigated whether songbirds also perceive their songs by chunks (clusters of song notes) rather than single song notes. We trained male Bengalese finches to react to a short noise in a Go/NoGo task. We then superimposed the noise onto recordings of their own songs and examined whether the reaction time was affected by the location of the short noise, that is, whether the noise was placed between chunks or in the middle of a chunk. The subjects' reaction times to the noise in the middle of a chunk were significantly longer than those to the noise placed between chunks. This result was not observed, however, when the songs were played in reverse. We thus concluded that Bengalese finches perceive their songs by chunks rather than single notes.

  15. Song Repertoire and Origins of Crimean Population of Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita (Sylviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishchenko A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Song repertoire of geographically isolated Chiffchaff population that formed in Crimean mountains in 1990s is analyzed. There are 42 song elements in the Crimean Chiffchaff repertoire. A quarter of their song elements appear to be specific for this population because it is absent in neighboring European Chiffchaff populations from regions to the north (Ph. c. abietinus subspecies and west (Ph. c. collybita subspecies. Comparison of song elements of Crimean Chiffchaffs with those of Caucasian birds of Ph. c. caucasica subspecies shows that they belong to same vocal population: specific elements in Crimean Chiffchaff songs are found also in songs of Caucasian birds. This is evidence that breeding population of Chiffchaff in Crimea originated from the species expansion from Caucasus, and that Crimean Chiffchaffs belong to Ph. c. caucasica subspecies.

  16. Representation of the bird's own song in the canary HVC: contribution of broadly tuned neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehongre, K; Del Negro, C

    2011-01-26

    In songbirds, neurons in the song nucleus HVC exhibit a striking example of selective auditory response, firing more to playback of the bird's own song (BOS) than to conspecific songs. This song selectivity has been found in various songbird species, both those that sing a single individual-specific song as well as those, such as the canary, in which both song structure and individual-identity encoding in song is more complex. In the present study, we investigated how the BOS is represented in the HVC of anesthetized long-day canaries by using temporal and spectral variants of the BOS stimulus. We addressed the question of how selective HVC neurons were by quantifying the number of song elements, called phrases, that evoked auditory responses. Phrases that were individual-specific or that were frequently delivered in an individual's songs did not drive HVC neurons to a greater degree than others. Reordering phrases or altering their acoustic structure caused a decrease in the auditory responsiveness of HVC neurons. This sensitivity to the spectral and temporal features of the BOS involved neurons that failed to respond to BOS variants or were driven by a reduced number of phrases, as well as neurons whose auditory responsiveness extended beyond the features of the individual's song, responding to phrases that were not sung by the bird itself. Therefore, the neural strategy by which BOS structure is represented in the canary HVC may require something other than a strict representation of the repertoire of song components. We suggest that the individual's song could be coded, at least in part, by an ensemble of broadly tuned neurons. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CšD II, 4 – IV, 9. A Song of David for Each Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staalduine - Sulman, E.; Lorein, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Sequel of G.W. Lorein, EvS-S, 'A Song of David for Each Day: The Provenance of the Songs of David', RevQ 85 (2005), 33-59. The authors discuss the text, language and contents of the second, third and fourth of the Songs of David (šîrē Dawîd), found in the Cairo Genizah (hence the siglum CšD), and

  18. Architecture for Automated Tagging and Clustering of Song Files According to Mood

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet Singh; Ashutosh Kapoor; Vishal Kaushik; Hima Bindu Maringanti

    2012-01-01

    Music is one of the basic human needs for recreation and entertainment. As song files are digitalized now a days, and digital libraries are expanding continuously, which makes it difficult to recall a song. Thus need of a new classification system other than genre is very obvious and mood based classification system serves the purpose very well. In this paper we will present a well-defined architecture to classify songs into different mood-based categories, using audio content analysis, affec...

  19. Long Narrative Songs from the Mongghul of Northeast Tibet : Texts in Mongghul, Chinese, and English

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    " Containing ballads of martial heroism, tales of tragic lovers and visions of the nature of the world, Long Narrative Songs from the Mongghul of Northeast Tibet: Texts in Mongghul, Chinese, and English is a rich repository of songs collected amongst the Mongghul of the Seven Valleys, on the northeast Tibetan Plateau in western China. These songs represent the apogee of Mongghul oral literature, and they provide valuable insights into the lives of Mongghul people—their hopes, dreams, and w...

  20. Songs of Darwin's finches diverge when a new species enters the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, B. Rosemary; Grant, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Bird species sing different songs and as a result rarely breed with each other. Species are not static but can shift in acoustic and morphological space, yet maintain their distinctiveness. Investigating such a situation in a community of Darwin's finches sheds light on the origin and maintenance of premating barriers between species. Explanations for songs divergence generally invoke morphological changes to the sound-producing apparatus, environmental changes influencing transmitting properties of song, avoidance of acoustical interference with other species, and random processes including copying errors. We investigated changes in songs of Geospiza fortis (medium ground finch) and Geospiza scandens (cactus ground finch) from 1978 to 2010 on Daphne Major Island, Galápagos. The habitat did not change significantly; however, the finch community changed. The socially aggressive congener Geospiza magnirostris (large ground finch), singing in the same frequency band (2–4 kHz), colonized Daphne in 1983 and increased in numbers. Temporal features of the songs of G. fortis and G. scandens, especially trill rate and song duration, diverged from G. magnirostris songs as it became increasingly common. Changes in song were not a passive consequence of a change in beak morphology. Instead they arose as a bias during song imprinting and production. Sons of both G. fortis and G. scandens sang faster songs than their respective fathers and thereby differed more from G. magnirostris in their songs than did their fathers. Divergence from an aversive or confusing stimulus during learning illustrates a “peak shift” that may be a common feature of song evolution and speciation. PMID:21048082

  1. Songs in the english class: a strategy to encourage tenth graders' oral production

    OpenAIRE

    Cuestas Cifuentes, Marlén

    2009-01-01

    This research project examines a strategy in which English songs are used to encourage oral production of tenth graders. It aims at providing a solution to our students’ low speaking proficiency in the English language and to the complexity of working with a large number of students per class. Students involved in this project provided useful data through their participation in activities using English songs. They had the opportunity of speaking in English about their favorite songs; also, we...

  2. The foxes that ruin the vineyards - a literal interpretation of Song of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on a literal interpretation of Song of Songs 2:15. Initially, this verse is identified as an independent unit, as a song intended to scare off. Now it forms part of a garden / countryside scenery (2:8-17). In 2:15 the co-workers of the lover are addressed. They are asked to create an intimate mood by setting the ...

  3. War songs and songs of war: the poetry in B minor by Fabrizio De André

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleiton Lentz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2nd half of last century, the Italian composer Fabrizio De André (1940-1999 occupied a prominent place in the history of Italian song and even the modern Italian poetry. His fans admire the moral courage and artistic coherence with which he, in the post-war Italian society, through his libertarian and pacifist songs, portrayed the world of the marginalized, the rebels and the prostitutes, and other characters on the margins of society, among those, the war combatant, hero of lost victories on the battlefield. Three of his songs are emblematic: La Ballata dell'eroe, La Guerra di Piero and Girotondo. Three poems that talk about war, death, and the figure of the combatant as an outcast of society, that kills him and then relegates him to oblivion, on behalf of the Fatherland. Exposing his provocative vision of post-war society by showing two videos of the composer is the purpose of this presentation.

  4. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Erin M; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here.

  5. Metabolic and respiratory costs of increasing song amplitude in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Anne Zollinger

    Full Text Available Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.

  6. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Oleson

    Full Text Available Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here.

  7. Assessing Hong Kong's Blueprint for Internationalising Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical assessment of the key recommendations for internationalising higher education in Hong Kong issued by the University Grants Committee in December 2010. Key topics include the rationale for internationalisation, the process by which internationalisation will be carried out, the proposal that Hong Kong aspire to become…

  8. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  9. Facing Reality in University English Teaching in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph P.

    This paper focuses on those aspects of which teachers must be aware when teaching university students in Hong Kong. These aspects include cultural factors, the influence of political, social, and educational developments in Hong Kong over the years, and the students' feelings of achievement in attending the university. In terms of language,…

  10. Hong Kong Perspectives on Educational Technology Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Yuen, H. K.; Wang, Minhong; Churchill, Daniel; Law, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This is the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Association for Educational Communications and Technology (HKAECT; see http://www.hkaect.org/). The silver anniversary annual meeting will be held at the University of Hong Kong December 8--10, with the theme of the conference being "Communication and Education: New Media, Knowledge Practices, and…

  11. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  12. The Cultural Obstacles of Counseling Licensure in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gigi; Yeung, Marine

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive package of counseling credentialism comprises certification, registration, and licensing. Counseling in Hong Kong adheres to certification for which diverse counseling master's programs exist. In addition, counselors can register as members of professional counseling organizations such as the Hong Kong Professional Counseling…

  13. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  14. Examining Negative Attitudes toward Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This article details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking (PBM) is being phased out, to be completely superseded by OSM. It is a specific follow-up to a larger study (Coniam, 2009a) involving 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate…

  15. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  16. The song of the Brazilian population of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae, in the year 2000: individual song variations and possible implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arraut Eduardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The song of the Brazilian population of the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae was studied in its breeding and calving ground, the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil, from July to November 2000. Aural and spectral analyses of digital recordings were completed for approximately 20 song cycles, totaling 5 hours of song from 10 different recording events. We identified 24 note types, organized in five themes. All songs presented the same themes and the order in which they were sung did not vary. We registered the appearance of a note type and the disappearance of a phrase ending, which indicate that the song changed as the season progressed. Moreover, we detected individual variation in the way singers performed certain complex note types. As songs are transmitted culturally, it is likely that singers have different abilities to compose and/or learn new notes. If, as it has been previously suggested, 'new' songs are preferred to 'old' ones, these more able singers will be sending out information about their learning abilities that could be used by other whales to decide whether or not to interact with them.

  17. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  18. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge.

  19. East Asia Review, 1973. 1. Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P

    1974-05-01

    Developments in the field of population and family planning during 1973 in Hong Kong are reviewed. The most significant event of the year was the start of the government family planning program. Hong Kong $2.4 million has been allocated to cover the cost of the government's participation in a phased program to integrate family planning services into its maternal and child health program. 4 part-time clinics run by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong became the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department in October 1973. In January 1974, 4 full-time clinics will be taken over, and the remaining clinics in maternal and child health centers will be turned over beginning April 1974. This should 3e completed by the end of 1974. The crude annual birth rate for 1973 was 19.8 per thousand. In 1972 it was 19.7. The death rate remained at around 5. The population growth rate increased to around 3%, of which about half was due to immigration from China. There was a 5.8% increase in new acceptors from January 1973 to November 1973. The Association increased its use of the mass media, particularly radio and television. In 1972, the Association conducted a "Study of the Impact of Industrialization on Fertility in Hong Kong" in conjunction with the Social Research Center of the Chinese University. It was determined that industrialization has affected fertility in a number of interrelated ways. Higher education levels, better employment opportunities (particularly for women), urbanization, desire for improved living standards, and postponement of marriage, which are the primary effects of industrialization, have resulted in changing attitudes toward children and childbearing as reflected in the finding that the percentage of people using contraceptives rose from 44% in 1967 to 48% in 1972. In the future, the Association will establish new clinics in those parts of the colony not presently being reached, and it will develop services to reach such groups as working

  20. Proper Name as a Marker of a Cosmogonic Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Toporova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the internal integrity of the Eddic Grímnismál (Sayings of Grímnir, putting forward that the proper name is the key element for understanding the structure and meaning of this Eddic song. The name with transparent semantic motivation can both explicate the key features of denotata in thulas that represent comprehensive classification schemes, and implicate them (cf. the multiplicity of names of Odin, concealing his true name and nature. The author considers the end of the song, when Odin unveils his identity, rejects his false names and uses a true one (I, Odin, as a marker of Odin’s special ecstatic state revealing the knowledge about the origin and the structure of the universe, as well as the true essence of Odin. The opposition of the names explicating the properties of named objects (personalized elements of the universe in the concept of cosmogenesis: rivers, deers, etc. and subjects (i.e. actors, like Valkyries or Odin himself, on the one hand, and the names implicating them, on the other, is neutralized in the act of sacrifice when Odin comprehends the origin and the structure of the universe. Proper names are, thus, interpreted as a clip uniting the two parts of Grímnismál — the prose frame and the main poetic part of the song. The author argues that Grímnismál represents an ideal model of the universe embodied by the first and best proper name.

  1. Rethinking Eurovision Song Contest as a Clash of Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Merve ŞIVGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern era’s understanding of culture overlooked culture, as a social and cultural analysis category as well as a way of life. This point of view has lost its validity and culture gained significance as an area where rulership and power struggle exists. Especially the privileged existence of popular culture; having an interdependence attachment to power relations in addition to an allowing structure for alternative discourses other than the official discourse is a cruicial asset. This article examines Eurovision Song Contest with its over 50 years of traditionaled history, as a noteworthy television program of popular culture. Despite often being considered as “kitsch”, the contest refers more than of an ordinary song competition. The artists who participate in the contest compete for the country they represent rather than an individual race which takes “national identity” more on stage. In this respect the contest has a stimulus effect on national consciousness. This alerted effect can clearly be seen on public debates just before, during and after the contest. It is claimed in this study that Turkey’s position in Eurovision Song Contest offers a view of the “cultural struggle” towards Western civilization since the beginning of the modernization process. In this framework this study primarily focuses on the relationship between identity and culture, followed by the role of popular culture in the construction of cultural identity. Afterwards the study tries to discover how does this contest became a tool of cultural struggle in Turkish society by analyzing the news and the discource of the news that took place in national print media.

  2. Using point-set compression to classify folk songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    on the discovery of translational equivalence classes (TECs) of maximal translatable patterns (MTPs) in point-set representations of the melodies. The twelve algorithms consisted of four variants of each of three basic algorithms, COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm. The main difference between...... similarity between folk-songs for classification purposes is highly dependent upon the actual compressor chosen. Furthermore, it seems that compressors based on finding maximal repeated patterns in point-set representations of music show more promise for NCD-based music classification than general...

  3. Song and Self-Discovery: Touching the Pattern that Connects

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Wersal

    2006-01-01

    This essay is a personal account of the power of song in health recovery and self-discovery. It follows the author’s process of grappling with questions of where beauty lies and how to access it, and of the interplay and co-creation between artist, art, and perceiver. The author highlights music’s "resolving" qualities: helping one to resolve past issues and hurt, and to strengthen one’s resolve to heal. Told in an appreciative tone, this is a story of synergy and healing. Together, we sing o...

  4. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  5. Crab Hole Mosquito Blues — The Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-26

    This podcast is a song about a major epizoodemic of a serious human and equine disease written and performed by the MARU Health Angels Band. Band members: K.M. Johnson, T.E. Walton (Retired); D.F. Antczak (Cornell University); W.H. Dietz (CDC); and D.H. Martin (Louisiana State University Health Science Center).  Created: 4/26/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/26/2011.

  6. Songs in the Young Learner Classroom: A Critical Review of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Glenn M.

    2017-01-01

    Songs have been a common feature of young learner classrooms for decades, and numerous publications describe how songs should be employed in order to improve motivation and facilitate the acquisition of various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, and listening skills. However, empirical research examining the effects…

  7. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  8. Quantitative integration of genetic factors in the learning and production of canary song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinger, Paul C; Lahti, David C

    2014-04-22

    Learned bird song is influenced by inherited predispositions. The canary is a model system for the interaction of genes and learning on behaviour, especially because some strains have undergone artificial selection for song. In this study, roller canaries (bred for low-pitched songs) and border canaries (whose song is higher pitched, similar to the wild-type) were interbred and backcrossed to produce 58 males that sorted into seven genetically distinct groups. All males were tutored with the same set of songs, which included both low- and high-pitched syllables. Individuals were consistent within genetic groups but differed between groups in the proportion of low- versus high-pitched syllables they learned and sang. Both sex-linked and autosomal factors affected song learning and song production, in an additive manner. Dominant Z-chromosome factors facilitated high-pitched syllable learning and production, whereas the sex-linked alleles associated with the switch to low-pitched syllables under artificial selection were largely recessive. With respect to autosomal effects, the most surprising result is that males in the same genetic group had almost identical repertoires. This result challenges two common preconceptions: that genetic changes at different loci lead to distinct phenotypic changes, and that genetic predispositions affect learning in simple and general ways. Rather, different combinations of genetic changes can be associated with the same phenotypic effect; and predispositions can be remarkably specific, such as a tendency to learn and sing one song element rather than another.

  9. The Great Tunes of the Hough: Music and Song in Alan Garner's "The Stone Book Quartet "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Although song and music are often elements in children's books, little critical attention has gone into examining their literary uses. Alan Garner's "The Stone Book Quartet" is an example of four texts for children in which music plays a vital role. The several snatches of traditional songs found throughout the quartet bring to life the culture of…

  10. Nank' uDisemba : Songs of the Lumko district showing the difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional songs of the Thembu Xhosa area around Lumko Mission, about 60 kilometres east of Queenstown in the Eastern Cape Province, include songs about prostitutes and the sexual promiscuity of women who are unmarried or living without a husband. This type of sexual behaviour is a direct result of the migratory ...

  11. The role of indigenous song: A critique of the dominant discourse in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of indigenous song: A critique of the dominant discourse in education. ... This article explores the role and value of indigenous songs in education. ... The primary focus is to add other meaningful pedagogical instructions through African indigenous music and dance that has been relegated for centuries in South ...

  12. Influence of Songs in Primary School Students' Motivation for Learning English in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…

  13. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia eMenyhart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996. Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999. Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language.

  14. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers' song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyhart, Otília; Kolodny, Oren; Goldstein, Michael H; DeVoogd, Timothy J; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in an individual's mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch's song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999). Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual's full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language.

  15. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  16. Teacher Views about Using Songs in Teaching English to Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the views of Turkish state primary school EFL teachers about songs and using songs in teaching English to young learners. English language teachers' (n = 52) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have strong beliefs about the pedagogical…

  17. Structural design principles of complex bird songs: a network-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks--transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures--are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a 'small-world' architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date.

  18. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide

  19. Rain songs and the observance of the rain cult amongst the Lobedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples of rain songs that I recorded at the tribal capital of the Lobedu rainqueen, Modjadji, will then be discussed. The focus of my discussion in the second part will be on (a) the pre-text, reflecting on the circumstances and background surrounding the performance of rain songs;(b) the main text, namely the transcription ...

  20. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  1. Does song repertoire size in Common Blackbirds play a role in an intra-sexual context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Bird song is thought to have a function in both inter- and intra-sexual contexts with song complexity serving as an honest signal of male quality. Theory predicts that males use repertoire sizes to estimate rivals’ fighting ability. Here we tested whether element repertoire size plays a role in a...

  2. The sex-determination genes fruitless and doublesex specify a neural substrate required for courtship song

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rideout, Elizabeth J; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    Courtship song is a critical component of male courtship behavior in Drosophila, making the female more receptive to copulation and communicating species-specific information [1-6]. Sex mosaic studies have shown that the sex of certain regions of the central nervous system (CNS) is critical to song

  3. Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an antarctic feeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpert, Alison K; Peavey, Lindsey E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.

  4. Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an antarctic feeding ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K Stimpert

    Full Text Available Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.

  5. Songs as Sources of Ijebu-Ode Fashion History | Akinwumi | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the songs eulogized the role of one of the Ijebu textile merchants. In some cases, the song composers were the wearers of the dress-fabrics to which assumed or real qualities were given, thus showing glimpses of the state of the art of fabrics of those times. This espousal of textile technology is a significant aspect of ...

  6. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  7. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  8. Political participation in Hong Kong: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S W; Cheng, B S

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate nurses' level of political participation and their perception of political efficacy. This is a descriptive study. A self-completed questionnaire survey was conducted. Some items in the adopted questionnaire were modified to suit the Hong Kong situation. A convenience sample was used. Three hundred and fifty registered nurses that were studying nursing degree programmes in the three universities in Hong Kong were invited to participate in the study. Three hundred and eleven registered nurses completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there were some positive signs of both political awareness and participation in nurses. However, political activities were mainly confined to voting in general elections. Attempts to influence politicians were not evident. Subjects generally have low political efficacy, and they did not feel that nurses had the power to influence the government's policy. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the barriers to nurses' political participation and the recommendations for nursing professional development.

  9. The Hong Kong Peak Tram Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hui Chiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong Peak Tram Illusion is the perceived slant of buildings towards the peak away from the vertical while observers travel on the Hong Kong peak tram. We measured the perceived tilt of the buildings from true vertical (illusion size using a rotary pitch while an identical pitch read the slope of the hill. The illusion was hypothesized to be jointly determined by at least four factors: (i the reclining position of the observer, (ii the frame of the tram window, (iii the direction of motion, and (iv additional reference cues from outside the window. Our results showed that the illusion: (i was reduced by up to 20% when observers sat with a wedge on their back and up to 40% when they stood up. (ii remained even when observers moved closer to the window to avoid the effect of the frame. (iii was 20% larger when the tram was descending, as opposed to ascending. (iv was less apparent during the day. The illusion appears to be due to integration of the above sensory information as it cannot be accounted for by each factor alone. The illusion provides a unique venue to study cross-modal sensory interaction in the nature setting.

  10. The politics of power, pleasure and prayer in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolman Filip V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first annual Eurovision Song Contest in 1956, politics and popularity have intersected to influence the ways in which Eurovision songs have reflected the complex forms of European nationalism. With the Eurovision victory of Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ at the 52nd Eurovision in Helsinki the politics of regionalism and nationalism fully enveloped Southeastern Europe, creating the impression that old and new European alignments, from Habsburg nostalgia to an emerging Balkan brotherhood, overwhelmed the criteria that would otherwise mean that the grand prix would go to the best song. Taking Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ 2007 as a point of departure, this article examines the extremely complex set of networks that intersect at the Eurovision Song Contest and the national rituals and competitions that transform the power and pleasure driving European popular song in the twenty-first century.

  11. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola

    2014-01-01

    convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production......Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified...... and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes....

  12. Strawberry Square II: Take Time Song Book. 33 Lessons in the Arts to Help Children Take Time with Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Tom, Comp.

    Designed to accompany a series of telelessons to stimulate art activities in grades 2 and 3, this songbook correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in this book are: Take Time; The Frog's Flute; Howjido; 59th Street Bridge Song; The Put-Togetherer; Good Morning Starshine; Let the Sunshine In; Elephant Song; Spin…

  13. First evidence of conspecific brood parasitism in song sparrows with comments on methods sufficient to document this behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; J. Letitia Grenier; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard; Mark E. Hauber

    2006-01-01

    Conspecific brood parasitism occurs in many songbird species but has not been reported in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). In three separate study areas where breeding Song Sparrows experience heavy nest predation pressure and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism, we observed six instances in which newly laid eggs were attributable to female Song Sparrows...

  14. Investigating the Role of Pop Songs on Vocabulary Recall, Attitude and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners: The Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Pouya; Rezaei, Omid; Murnani, Zeinab Toghyani; Moeinmanesh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Pop songs are, in fact, an ideal source for incidental vocabulary learning because teenagers often spend large amounts of their free time listening to music and in particular to pop songs. Employing an experimental approach, this study attempted to investigate the role of pop songs on vocabulary recall, attitude and retention of Iranian advanced…

  15. Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus sons and daughters acquire song elements of mothers and social fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is regarded as a classic example of a sexually-selected trait and has been primarily studied in systems with male song. Complex solo female song is emerging from the shadows of overlooked phenomena. In males, rearing conditions affect male song complexity, and males with complex songs are often more successful at mate attraction and territorial defense. Little is known about the ontogeny or function of complex female song. Here we examine song elements in fledgling superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus in relation to the song elements of adult tutors. Male and female superb fairy-wrens produce solo song year-round to defend a territory. We ask if sons and daughters acquire song elements from sex-specific vocal tutors. We found that sons and daughters produced the song elements of their mothers and social fathers, and that sons and daughters had comparable song element repertoires at age 7-10 weeks. We conclude that sons and daughters increase their song element repertoire when vocally imitating elements from several vocal tutors, and that both sexes acquire elements from male and female vocal tutors in this system.

  16. What Radio Can Do to Increase a Song's Appeal: A Study of Canadian Music Presented to American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathleen M.; Silva, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether it was possible to quickly and easily increase the appeal of unfamiliar rock songs presented to American college students. In Experiment 1, reading an essay about an artist increased the appeal of the artist's songs, but repeated exposure to the songs did not. In Experiments 2a and 2b, repeatedly following an…

  17. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, Beau A; Mayes, Wade D; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-09-01

    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX) in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for 2 weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared with birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The song of oscines provides an extensively studied model of age-dependent behaviour changes. Male and female receivers might use song characteristics to obtain information about the age of a signaller, which is often related to its quality. Whereas most of the age-dependent song changes have been studied in solo singing, the role of age in vocal interactions is less well understood. We addressed this issue in a playback study with common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos. Previous studies showed that male nightingales had smaller repertoires in their first year than older males and males adjusted their repertoire towards the most common songs in the breeding population. We now compared vocal interaction patterns in a playback study in 12 one year old and 12 older nightingales (cross-sectional approach. Five of these males were tested both in their first and second breeding season (longitudinal approach. Song duration and latency to respond did not differ between males of different ages in either approach. In the cross-sectional approach, one year old nightingales matched song types twice as often as did older birds. Similarly, in the longitudinal approach all except one bird reduced the number of song type matches in their second season. Individuals tended to overlap songs at higher rates in their second breeding season than in their first. The higher levels of song type matches in the first year and song overlapping by birds in their second year suggest that these are communicative strategies to establish relationships with competing males and/or choosy females.

  19. Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Saito

    Full Text Available Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET. We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song, sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics, and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody. The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition.

  20. CHINESE NARRATIVE SONG: STRUCTURE, LANGUAGE AND HISTORICAL DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О А Леонтович

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the cultural and linguistic features of Chinese narrative songs of the 20th - early 21st centuries. They are explored through the theoretical frameworks and research instruments of narratology, cultural anthropology and linguistics (M. Bakhtin, R. Barthes, G. Genette, V. Propp, T. Todorov, etc.. The paper highlights the most important changes of narrative songs determined by historical events in China during the period under investigation: a dynamics of themes, plots and attitudes towards related events - from ideological praise of the Communist party and Chair-man Mao - to a more personalized narration about people’s life and love in a globalized world; b evo-lution of characters from selfless fighters for communism with clearly defined social identity - to general-ized lyrical personalities motivated by love, suffering, kinship and loyalty to their country; c growth of genre variability due to the relaxation of ideological pressure and the influence of Western musical culture; d return to the values of ancient Chinese culture and restoration of traditional national identity, implemented in background knowledge, binary oppositions and intertextual connections; e new forms of linguistic expression.The findings indicate that the algorithm of text analysis developed in the course of the research may be used to investigate other types of Chinese narratives, as well as narratives from other cultures.

  1. DEVELOPING PODCAST OF ENGLISH SONG AS MEDIA FOR ELT LISTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirudin Latif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Listening is one of the fundamental language skills.Based on the pre survey research, many students at Senior High School were not interested in listening course.This research tried to develop podcast of English song (PES as the media in order to help the teacher in the teaching of listening and make the students interested in listening course. The type of the reseacher is developmental research.The steps of this research are self evaluation, expert review and one-to-one, small group, and field test. The subjects of this research are the students of SMAN 03 Metro and SMK Muhammadiyah 03 Metro. The researcher collected the data by giving some questionnaires to the expert review and students to find out whether the media is applicable and suitable or not. The result showed that: first, most of the studentsfelt fun and enjoyable in the learning process of listening course. Second, PES media was applicable, the students were active, very enthusiastic, excited with PES media.   Key Words: English song, Listening media, Podcast.

  2. Music Therapy by Proxy: Using Humanised Images in Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chambers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing awareness, exploration and expression of emotionally sensitive issues can be difficult for some clients in music therapy. They may find it hard to express emotion through improvised music and may turn instead to the perceived security of the repetition of known songs.This paper presents the results from a completed research PhD, a qualitative case study based on naturalistic clinical practice, which examined the song choices of one woman in a medium-secure forensic unit over the three-year course of her music therapy. A descriptive narrative account was subjected to analysis according to a modified form of therapeutic narrative analysis (Aldridge and Aldridge 2002, resulting in the abstraction of a series of generative metaphoric images, framed within a chronological series of events. Crucially, these images were found to be humanised figures, yet they were also emotionally decentred or depersonalised. When approached from the philosophical and methodological perspective of behaviourism, which views these as conditioned responses associating music with life experiences as part of a process of developing self-identity, such images can be seen to provide an unspoken voice for the client’s feelings to be expressed in a manner that is personally revealing, socially acceptable, culturally accessible and therapeutically constructive.I assert that using these third-person characters as a form of proxy facilitates mutual reference and experimentation, and places music firmly at the heart of a socially constructed process of music therapy.

  3. Experience dependence of neural responses to different classes of male songs in the primary auditory forebrain of female songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Woolley, Sarah M N; Cassey, Phillip; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2013-04-15

    There is both extensive species-specificity and critical experience-dependence in the recognition of own species songs in many songbird species. For example, female zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata raised by their parents show behavioral preferences for the songs of the father over unfamiliar conspecific males and for unfamiliar songs of conspecifics over heterospecifics. Behavioral discrimination between different species' songs is also displayed by females raised without exposure to any male songs but it is diminished in females raised by heterospecific foster parents. We tested whether neural responses in the female auditory forebrain paralleled each of these known behavioral patterns in song-class discrimination. We analyzed spike rates, above background levels, recorded from single units in the L2a subregion of the field L complex of female zebra finches. In subjects raised by genetic parents, spike rates were similar to songs of fathers and unfamiliar male zebra finches, and higher to unfamiliar conspecific over unfamiliar heterospecific songs. In females raised in isolation from male songs, we also found higher spike rates to unfamiliar conspecific over heterospecific songs. In females raised by heterospecific foster parents, spike rates were similar in response to songs of the foster father and unfamiliar males of the foster species, similar between unfamiliar songs of conspecifics and the heterospecific foster species, and higher to unfamiliar songs of the foster species over a third finch species. Thus, in parallel to the experience-dependence of females' behaviors in response to different male song classes, differences in social experiences can also alter neural response patterns to male song classes in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546

  5. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  6. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    2016-01-01

    Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated...

  7. Gigantiform cementoma occurring in two populations, London and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    1992-05-01

    The gigantiform cementoma presents as multiple opacities in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws. Sixteen cases are presented, six of British Negresses and 10 of Hong Kong Chinese females. The differential diagnosis and management are briefly reviewed.

  8. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation: A Hong Kong Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Holning; Stotzer, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Various parties have called on Hong Kong to pass legislation proscribing sexual orientation-based employment discrimination. The government has suggested that data on discrimination should inform debate on this matter. This survey of 792 self-identified sexual orientation minorities in Hong Kong examined (1) the prevalence of sexual orientation-based discrimination, (2) risk factors associated with experiencing discrimination, and (3) the relationship between experiencing employment discrimin...

  9. English Football and Its Hong Kong Television Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Victor

    2006-01-01

    In his paper "English Football and Its Hong Kong Television Audience," Victor Fan applies Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's thought in their Kafka. Pour une littérature mineure to map the relationship between the English Premier League of football (soccer) and its Hong Kong television audience/spectatorship. Fan first introduces the background of the English Premier League in relation to its increasing subjugation under Thatcherite and post-Thatcherite consumerist economy. He then examines ...

  10. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of spo...

  11. Acoustic divergence with gene flow in a lekking hummingbird with complex songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart.

  12. Influence of social conditions in song sharing in the adult canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehongre, Katia; Aubin, Thierry; Del Negro, Catherine

    2009-11-01

    In songbirds, experience of social and environmental cues during a discrete period after birth may dramatically influence song learning. In the canary, the ability to learn new songs is assumed to persist throughout life. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether social context could guide changes in adult song. Three groups of canaries were kept in different social and temporal conditions. Results showed that the multiple hierarchical levels of the canary song structure were affected by social environment: songs of males housed together for 2 years were more similar than those of males that spent the same time in individual cages in regard to acoustic parameters, syllable repertoire and repertoire of sequences of two-syllable types. However, social housing did not result in the emergence of a group-specific vocal signature within songs. In conclusion, these results suggested that under the influence of social factors, a copying process could allow adult canaries to adjust, at least in part, their songs to those of other individuals.

  13. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W.; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the “life cycle” of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data. PMID:28386241

  14. Discourse Analysis of a Song Lyric Entitled "We Will Not Go Down”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Risdianto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This library research aimed at finding the three aspect of discourse analysis: contextual, grammatical and lexical aspect of Michael Heart’s song lyrics entitled “We will not go down (Song for Gaza. After analysis it can be found that the life experience and background of the song writer and singer is closely related to the idea proposes within the song lyrics. Whereas, the result of the grammatical and lexical analysis gives a depiction of cohesion and coherence of the song discourse of “We will not Go Down (Song for Gaza”. There are eight (8 forms of first plural personal pronoun of “We”, four (4 second plural personal pronoun of ‘You” and seven (7 third personal pronouns in various forms. On the other side, it is difficult to find lexical aspects of this song discourse. There is only one form of anaphoric repetition. The repetition of the sentence “We Will Not Go Down” seven times is to influence the hearers whether they are supporters or opponents of the idea brought by the singer/the author that whatever happens Palestinian people will not surrender to every force, nation or people that want to colonialize them.

  15. Speech versus song: multiple pitch-sensitive areas revealed by a naturally occurring musical illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-02-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory-motor integration.

  16. The organisation of musical semantic memory: evidence from false memories for familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M; Kennerley, Jo

    2014-01-01

    By adapting a well-known paradigm for studying memory for words-the Deese-Roediger-McDermott or DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959, Roediger & McDermott, 1995)-the two experiments reported here explore memory for song titles and song clips. Participants were presented with five song titles (Experiment 1a) or five 30-second song clips (Experiment 1b) for each of nine popular artists (e.g., Robbie Williams). The most popular song identified for each artist in a pilot task was omitted from the sets of titles/clips. Following a distractor task, participants were asked to write down as many of the songs as they could recall. They were also asked to return a week later and complete a second recall task. Participants falsely recalled a significant number of the related but non-presented songs in both experiments and this increased a week later, while correct recall for presented items decreased. The results are discussed in terms of theory for musical memory as well as in the context of providing a novel method for exploring the organisation of musical memory.

  17. The song must go on: resilience of the songbird vocal motor pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barish Poole

    Full Text Available Stereotyped sequences of neural activity underlie learned vocal behavior in songbirds; principle neurons in the cortical motor nucleus HVC fire in stereotyped sequences with millisecond precision across multiple renditions of a song. The geometry of neural connections underlying these sequences is not known in detail though feed-forward chains are commonly assumed in theoretical models of sequential neural activity. In songbirds, a well-defined cortical-thalamic motor circuit exists but little is known the fine-grain structure of connections within each song nucleus. To examine whether the structure of song is critically dependent on long-range connections within HVC, we bilaterally transected the nucleus along the anterior-posterior axis in normal-hearing and deafened birds. The disruption leads to a slowing of song as well as an increase in acoustic variability. These effects are reversed on a time-scale of days even in deafened birds or in birds that are prevented from singing post-transection. The stereotyped song of zebra finches includes acoustic details that span from milliseconds to seconds--one of the most precise learned behaviors in the animal kingdom. This detailed motor pattern is resilient to disruption of connections at the cortical level, and the details of song variability and duration are maintained by offline homeostasis of the song circuit.

  18. Characterizing Listener Engagement with Popular Songs Using Large-Scale Music Discovery Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Blair; Ruan, Feng; Baker, Casey W; Berger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Music discovery in everyday situations has been facilitated in recent years by audio content recognition services such as Shazam. The widespread use of such services has produced a wealth of user data, specifying where and when a global audience takes action to learn more about music playing around them. Here, we analyze a large collection of Shazam queries of popular songs to study the relationship between the timing of queries and corresponding musical content. Our results reveal that the distribution of queries varies over the course of a song, and that salient musical events drive an increase in queries during a song. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of queries at the time of a song's release differs from the distribution following a song's peak and subsequent decline in popularity, possibly reflecting an evolution of user intent over the "life cycle" of a song. Finally, we derive insights into the data size needed to achieve consistent query distributions for individual songs. The combined findings of this study suggest that music discovery behavior, and other facets of the human experience of music, can be studied quantitatively using large-scale industrial data.

  19. Cultural change in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, N.; Miller, L.A.; Tougaard, J.; Helweg, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Some humpback whales migrate annually from Antarctic feeding grounds to the seas around the Tongan Islands to give birth and mate. The Tongan humpbacks are considered part of Southern Hemisphere Group V that splits during migration, some swimming to Eastern Australia and others to various Polynesian Islands. During this time long complex songs are produced. The song is thought to be a male breeding display and may serve either as an intra-sexual or an inter-sexual signal or both. It is in a constant state of change that occurs every season. Since these changes are directional they cannot be described by drift, and singers incorporate changes as they occur, thus song must be shared through cultural transmission. This investigation describes the cultural changes that occurred in 158 songs recorded from Tongan humpbacks through the 1990s. The rate of change differed within years, some themes were retained for as much as five years and others were lost after only two years. The farther apart the years the less similar are the songs, as in the humpback songs of the Northern Hemisphere. The largest number of changes seems to have occurred in the early 1990s where all themes seemed to have been lost and new ones originated. What initiates these changes remains speculative, but we assess some hypotheses in relation to humpback whale behaviour and cultural transmission in avian song. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005.

  20. TRANSLATION QUALITY OF JKT48‟S SONGS LYRICS: INDONESIAN VS ENGLISH VERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Anggiarima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On expressing ourselves using songs, lyrics play a grat role, regardless the lyrics are a translated version from another language than our mother tongue. This research focuses on JKT48‘s songs lyrics, which are both Indonesian and English translation of Japanese songs sung by its sister group, AKB48. Many Indonesian listeners feel that when listening to JKT48‘s songs, they feel that the translation is weird, they cannot receive the meaning of the songs. This is because on translating AKB48‘s songs, the translator not only has to translate the words, but also to adapt the words‘ syllables with the melody. Also, Japanese language has a different structure with both Indonesian and English language, therefore, it needs more effort on understanding a translated Japanese songs. The researcher interviewed JKT48 fans in the largest JKT48 online fan forum, JKT48 no Fansu. She asked on which translation do the fans can catch the meaning better, Indonesian or English, as well as the reason why they think so. Also, she asked what suggestions do they give for the betterment of JKT48‘s translated lyrics.

  1. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Karene Hoi Ting; Tate, Jacqueline E; Chan, Ching Ching; Chan, Martin C W; Chan, Paul K S; Poon, Kin Hung; Siu, Sylvia Luen Yee; Fung, Genevieve Po Gee; Ng, Kwok Leung; Chan, Iris Mei Ching; Yu, Pui Tak; Ng, Chi Hang; Lau, Yu Lung; Nelson, E Anthony S

    2016-09-22

    Rotavirus is a common infectious cause of childhood hospitalisation in Hong Kong. Rotavirus vaccines have been used in the private sector since licensure in 2006 but have not been incorporated in the government's universal Childhood Immunisation Programme. This study aimed to evaluate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation. This case-control study was conducted in the 2014/2015 rotavirus season in six public hospitals. Hospitalised acute gastroenteritis patients meeting inclusion criteria were recruited and copies of their immunisation records were collected. Case-patients were defined as enrolled subjects with stool specimens obtained in the first 48h of hospitalisation that tested positive for rotavirus, whereas control-patients were those with stool specimens obtained in the first 48h of hospitalisation testing negative for rotavirus. Vaccine effectiveness for administration of at least one dose of either Rotarix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) or RotaTeq(®) (Merck Research Laboratories) was calculated as 1 minus the odds ratio for rotavirus vaccination history for case-patients versus control-patients. Among the 525 eligible subjects recruited, immunisation records were seen in 404 (77%) subjects. 31% (162/525 and 126/404) tested positive for rotavirus. In the 404 subjects assessed for vaccine effectiveness, 2.4% and 24% received at least 1 dose of either rotavirus vaccine in case- and control-patients respectively. The unmatched vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation for administration of at least one dose of either rotavirus vaccines was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%, 98%). The matched analyses by age only and both age and admission date showed 96% (95% CI: 72%, 100%) and 89% (95% CI: 51%, 97%) protection against rotavirus hospitalisation respectively. Rotavirus vaccine is highly effective in preventing hospitalisation from rotavirus disease in young Hong Kong children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  2. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  3. The role of courtship song in female mate choice in South American Cactophilic Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Patricia P; Hasson, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Courtship songs have undergone a spectacular diversification in the Drosophila buzzatii cluster. Accordingly, it has been suggested that sexual selection has played a significant role in promoting rapid diversification, reproductive isolation and speciation. However, there is no direct evidence (i.e., song playback experiments with wingless males) supporting this tenet. Moreover, several studies have showed that the courtship song in the genus Drosophila is not always used in female mate choice decisions, nor plays the same role when it is taken into account. In this vein, we use an approach that combines manipulative and playback experiments to explore the importance and the role of courtship song in female mate choice in four species of the D. buzzatii cluster and one species of the closely related D. martensis cluster for outgroup comparison. We also investigate the importance of courtship song in sexual isolation in sympatry between the only semi-cosmopolitan species, D. buzzatii, and the other species of the D. buzzatii cluster. Our study revealed that the courtship song is used by females of the D. buzzatii cluster as a criterion for male acceptance or influences the speed with which males are chosen. In contrast, we showed that this characteristic is not shared by D. venezolana, the representative species of the D. martensis cluster. We also found that the studied species of the D. buzzatii cluster differ in the role that conspecific and heterospecific songs have in female mate choice and in sexual isolation. Our findings support the hypothesis that divergence in female preferences for courtship songs has played a significant role in promoting rapid diversification and reproductive isolation in the D. buzzatii cluster. However, evidence from D. venezolana suggests that the use of the courtship song in female mate choice is not a conserved feature in the D. buzzatii complex.

  4. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    species of moths including members of the Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae and Crambidae. Males of nine species, 70%, produced broadband ultrasound close to females. Peak frequencies ranged from 38 to above 100 kHz. All sounds were of low intensity, 43-76 dB SPL at 1 cm [64+/-10 dB peSPL (mean +/- s......Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae......) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...

  5. Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Pajala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eurovision Song Contest (ESC offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst the European map was rarely used during the first decades of the ESC, it became a central visual element of the show in the 1990s, a period of great political change in Europe. Since then, the ESC maps have pictured an ever widening image of Europe, gradually moving towards a dynamic, moving image of Europe and finally, dispensing with a coherent map of Europe altogether.

  6. Measuring Cultural Dynamics Through the Eurovision Song Contest

    CERN Document Server

    García, David

    2013-01-01

    Measuring culture and its dynamics through surveys has important limitations, but the emerging field of computational social science allows us to overcome them by analyzing large-scale datasets. In this article, we study cultural dynamics through the votes in the Eurovision song contest, which are decided by a crowd-based scheme in which viewers vote through mobile phone messages. Taking into account asymmetries and imperfect perception of culture, we measure cultural relations among European countries in terms of cultural affinity. We propose the Friend-or-Foe coefficient, a metric to measure voting biases among participants of a Eurovision contest. To validate how this metric represent cultural affinity, we designed a model of a random, biased Eurovision contest. Simulations of this model show how our metrics can detect negative affinities and serve as an estimator for positive affinities. We apply this estimator to the historical set of Eurovision contests from 1975 to 2012, finding patterns of asymmetry a...

  7. Song, Poetry and Images in Writing: Sami Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Gaski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an overview of Sami literature, past and present, with a specific emphasis on the connection between tradition and innovation, in which literature is regarded in a broader sense than only limited to the written word. Thus the relationship between the traditional epic yoik songs and contemporary poetry is being dealt with, as is the multimedia approach that several Sami artists have chosen for their creative expression. It is almost more the rule than an exemption that Sami artists express themselves through the use of more than only one medium. Through the introduction to Sami literature, the reader also gets acquainted with the history and the culture of the Sami, who are the indigenous people of the northern regions of Scandinavia, Finland and the Kola peninsula in Russia.

  8. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR A ROBOTIC NETWORK OF TELESCOPES - SONG

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Andersen; F. Grundahl; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; S. Frandsen; U. G. Jorgensen; H. Kjeldsen; P. Pallé; J. Skottfelt; A. N. Sorensen; E. Weiss

    2014-01-01

    E l p r o y e c t o S O N G b u s c a e s t a b l e c e r u n a r e d d e p e q u e ̃ n o s t e l e s c o p i o s p o r t o d o e l m u n d o p a r a o b s e r v a r l a s estrellas de manera ininterrumpida durante d ́ıas, semanas y hasta meses. Ac ́a describimos los aspectos fun- damentales para la construcci ́on de una red de este tipo y c ́omo operaremos cada observatorio como parte de la red entera. Los observatorios SONG trabajar ́an con autonom ́ıa y pueden ser controlados completamente...

  9. “Much more than a song contest”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Krogh; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use the concept of the potlatch to explore the organization and valuation of the Eurovision Song Contest held in Copenhagen in 2014. As economic and budgetary scandal marred the event, many bystanders questioned the meaning and sense of this mega event, which we consequently set......” by describing the actors’ arduous work to create value through different project logics that were brought to the table. Hence, we argue, the event can be understood as what Mauss termed a total social phenomenon in which much more than merely economic issues are at stake. However, in valuing the event not much...... work was put into enacting values transgressing the realm of the quantifiable, which left these as intangibles. As a consequence, we urge for a more engaged and caring approach to valuating cross-sectorial innovation projects....

  10. Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brenton G; Goller, Franz

    2004-01-23

    Many birds perform visual signals during their learned songs, but little is known about the interrelationship between visual and vocal displays. We show here that male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) synchronize the most elaborate wing movements of their display with atypically long silent periods in their song, potentially avoiding adverse biomechanical effects on sound production. Furthermore, expiratory effort for song is significantly reduced when cowbirds perform their wing display. These results show a close integration between vocal and visual displays and suggest that constraints and synergistic interactions between the motor patterns of multimodal signals influence the evolution of birdsong.

  11. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  older adults by using music.

  12. Rob Donn MacKay: finding the music in the songs

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Ellen Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the musical world and the song compositions of eighteenth-century Sutherland Gaelic bard Rob Donn MacKay (1714-1778). The principal focus is musical rather than literary, aimed at developing an analytical model to reconstruct how a non-literate Gaelic song-maker chose and composed the music for his songs. In that regard, the thesis breaks new ground in at least two ways: as the first full-length study of the musical work of Rob Donn, and as the first ful...

  13. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within....... This is consistent with the shorter polyterritorial distances of flycatchers in the deciduous forest. Furthermore, song degradation was stronger inside the nestboxes. Being inside may, therefore, reduce a female's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs. This may be one reason why female pied flycatchers...

  14. Childhood injury prevention in Hong Kong Hong Kong Childhood Injury Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Injury is a major health problem in Hong Kong children. During the past two decades, injury and poisoning have surpassed infectious diseases as the leading cause of childhood mortality in Hong Kong. These two are also the leading cause of childhood disability. In 1995, injury and poisoning caused approximately 2% of the deaths among children aged 0 to 1 years, 26% of the deaths among children aged 1 to 4 years, and 36% of all deaths of children aged 4 to 14 years. Road traffic accidents, drowning and submersion, and accidental falls accounted for 30%, 20%, and 20%, respectively, of all deaths from unintentional injury in children younger than 15 years of age. Exact morbidity figures for injury and poisoning are not available but injuries are known to account for approximately 30% of paediatric attendances at the accident and emergency departments of regional hospitals, 20% of all hospitalisations among children, and 65% of surgical or orthopaedic admissions. It has been estimated that approximately 2.9% of children will be admitted to hospital for an injury at least once before their fourth birthday. Hong Kong is a small, highly urbanised, and densely populated place that has undergone tremendous socio-economic development in the past three decades. The pattern of injuries has changed and shows some special characteristics. Information on the extent of the problem, the type of injury, and contributing factors are scarce. Preventive measures are reactive in nature, piecemeal, and usually not subject to evaluation. It is recommended that childhood injury prevention be accorded a high priority, child safety be given prime consideration in all policies involving children, and more research be conducted.

  15. Item and order information in semantic memory: students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F

    2011-02-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested on memory for the "CU Fight Song" in order to examine serial position effects in semantic memory while controlling for familiarity across positions. In Experiment 1, students reconstructed the order of the nine lines of the song. Students with previous exposure to the song performed better and showed a more bowed serial position function than did students with no knowledge of the song. Experiment 2 added a task assessing memory of item information. One word was removed and replaced with a blank in each line, and an alternative word was offered as an option, along with the correct word. Students selected the word that fit into each blank and then reconstructed the order of the lines. There was a bow-shaped curve for order reconstruction, but not for item selection, which implies that the serial position function in semantic memory stems from order, rather than item, information.

  16. Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: they're playing your song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, M D; Hennis, L K; Rubin, D C

    1999-11-01

    Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, and year of popularity for each excerpt. They also performed a cued memory test for the lyrics. The older adults' emotionality ratings were highest for songs from their youth; they remembered more about these songs, as well. However, the stimuli failed to cue many autobiographical memories of specific events. Further analyses revealed that the older adults were less likely than the younger adults to retrieve multiple attributes of a song together (i.e., title and artist) and that there was a significant positive correlation between emotion and memory, especially for the older adults. These results have implications for research on long-term memory, as well as on the relationship between emotion and memory.

  17. Amak Island trip report - notes on the Amak song sparrow and Amak vole

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Both the Amak Island song sparrow (Melospiza melodia amaka) and Amak vole (Microtus oeconomus amakensis) are currently category 2 candidate species under the...

  18. Gloomy Sunday: did the "Hungarian suicide song" really create a suicide epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David

    The effect of art on suicide risk has been a neglected topic in suicidology. The present article focuses on what is probably the best known song concerning suicide, Gloomy Sunday, the "Hungarian suicide song." An analysis of historical sources suggests that the song was believed to trigger suicides. It was, for example, banned by the BBC in England until 2002. The alleged increase in suicides in the 1930s associated with the playing of the song may be attributed to audience mood, especially the presence of a large number of depressed persons as a result of the Great Depression. The influence of music on suicide may be contingent on societal, social, and individual conditions, such as economic recessions, membership in musical subcultures, and psychiatric disturbance. Further research is needed on art forms, such as feature films, paintings, novels, and music that portray suicides in order to identify the conditions under which the triggering of suicides occurs.

  19. Literary Style in Percy Bysshe Shelley's “Song to the Men of England”

    OpenAIRE

    Setyarini, Margani Rahma

    2015-01-01

    Penelitianiniberfokuspadagayapenulisansastradalampuisi Percy Bysshe Shelley berjudul “Song to the Men of England”. Kajianpenulismerupakanpengembangandaripenelitiansebelumnyatentangbagaimana Shelley menulispuisitersebut.Tujuandaripenelitianiniadalahuntukmendeskripsikanhubunganantar kata dalampuisiuntukmembangungayapenulisansastra;untuk mendeskripsikanaspeklinguistikdanfiturpribadi dalampuisiuntuk membentukgayasastra; dan untukmendeskripsikanaspeklinguistik dan fitur personal untukmemperkuathub...

  20. The Poetics of the Ancestor Songs of the Tz’utujil Maya of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Brien-Rothe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to define the relationship between a song tradition that survives in the Mayan highlands of Guatemala, and 16th century poetic Mayan literature. This song tradition of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala is slowly disappearing as the socio-cultural context in which it flourished changes. By comparing the poetics of the song texts (including their rhythmic structure, versification, and use of poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia to the poetics of the Popol Vuh, a K’iché Maya text probably copied from a manuscript that predates the Spanish invasion, a continuity is discovered that places the song texts squarely within the tradition of Mayan literature and suggests common origins.

  1. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires.

  2. Sport Culture of Hong Kong: Recent Development and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie T. C. Lam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is well-known for its beautiful natural harbor, vibrant nightlife, as well as tremendous entertainment and shopping opportunities. It is a paradise for outdoor activities such as golfing, hiking, fishing, and water sports. Throughout the city, there are extensive hiking trails that are over 30 miles long and navigate through beautiful scenic areas and parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the sport culture of Hong Kong, including the development and administration of sports and sporting events. After a thorough review on the sports development of Hong Kong, it was found that the following three main themes would guide the direction of future sports development: (a promoting “Sports for All,” (b fostering high performance sports, and (c equipping Hong Kong to host international sports events. In this regard, the Hong Kong Government provides a wide range of sports facilities and funding to support the development of sports. In addition, sport development is also supported by the business sector in Hong Kong. Among those different departments, the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD takes an active role in promoting sports in the community and administers funding support for relevant organizations under the established sports policy. The LCSD not only develops and manages a wide range of sports and recreational facilities for use by the general public, but also supports and organizes sports and recreational programs for the community. For instance, the most exciting projects people cannot wait to see their completion are the HK$19.7 billion Kai Tak Sports Complex and the Tseung Kwan O Football Training Centre that is supported with a grant of HK$133 million from the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  3. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  4. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  5. Atypical song reveals spontaneously developing coordination between multi-modal signals in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfner, Amanda R; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The courtship and dominance behavior of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) consists of a multi-modal display, including song as well as postural and wing movements. The temporal sequences of the acoustic and the visual display are coordinated. In adult male cowbirds the largest wing movements of the display are synchronized with silent periods of song, but it is unknown how this coordination emerges during song development. Here we investigate how visual display features are coordinated with song by using atypical song sequence structure of isolation-reared male cowbirds. In birds with atypical song, all components of the visual display were highly similar to those of "normal" song displays, but their timing was slightly different. The number of maximal wing movement cycles of isolation-reared males was linked to the number of sound units in the song, and was therefore reduced during the abbreviated song types of isolates. These data indicate that young cowbirds do not need to be exposed to a model of the visual display during ontogeny and that there is synchronization with the temporal structure of song. A physiological link between respiratory and syringeal control of silent periods between sound units and wing movement cycles may be driving this synchronization.

  6. Atypical song reveals spontaneously developing coordination between multi-modal signals in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Hoepfner

    Full Text Available The courtship and dominance behavior of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater consists of a multi-modal display, including song as well as postural and wing movements. The temporal sequences of the acoustic and the visual display are coordinated. In adult male cowbirds the largest wing movements of the display are synchronized with silent periods of song, but it is unknown how this coordination emerges during song development. Here we investigate how visual display features are coordinated with song by using atypical song sequence structure of isolation-reared male cowbirds. In birds with atypical song, all components of the visual display were highly similar to those of "normal" song displays, but their timing was slightly different. The number of maximal wing movement cycles of isolation-reared males was linked to the number of sound units in the song, and was therefore reduced during the abbreviated song types of isolates. These data indicate that young cowbirds do not need to be exposed to a model of the visual display during ontogeny and that there is synchronization with the temporal structure of song. A physiological link between respiratory and syringeal control of silent periods between sound units and wing movement cycles may be driving this synchronization.

  7. A Chroma-based Tempo-insensitive Distance Measure for Cover Song Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    In the context of music, a cover version is a remake of a song, often with significant stylistic variation. In this paper we describe a distance measure between sampled audio files that is designed to be insensitive to instrumentation, time shift, temporal scaling and transpositions. The algorithm...... was submitted to the Music Information Retrieval eXchange (MIREX) 2007 audio cover song identification task, where it came fourth of the eight submitted algorithms....

  8. Moths produce extremely quiet ultrasonic courtship songs by rubbing specialized scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    Insects have evolved a marked diversity of mechanisms to produce loud conspicuous sounds for efficient communication. However, the risk of eavesdropping by competitors and predators is high. Here, we describe a mechanism for producing extremely low-intensity ultrasonic songs (46 dB sound pressure....... The male's song suppresses the escape behavior of the female, thereby increasing his mating success. Our discovery of extremely low-intensity ultrasonic communication may point to a whole undiscovered world of private communication, using "quiet" ultrasound....

  9. The effects of songs in foreing language classroom on vocabulary retention and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ajenjo San Martín, Carlota

    2013-01-01

    This study compares two ways of vocabulary instruction in an English as a Foreign Language class. With this research I want to investigate the effects of the new methodology of songs on students’ memory and motivation when learning a foreign language compared with the traditional vocabulary instruction. One class of 1st bachiller divided into two groups of students took part in this research. Group 1, the experimental group, listened to one song, and group two, the control grou...

  10. The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the song of two passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara DeLeon

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution.

  11. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  12. Songs of Darwin's finches diverge when a new species enters the community

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, B. Rosemary; Grant, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Bird species sing different songs and as a result rarely breed with each other. Species are not static but can shift in acoustic and morphological space, yet maintain their distinctiveness. Investigating such a situation in a community of Darwin's finches sheds light on the origin and maintenance of premating barriers between species. Explanations for songs divergence generally invoke morphological changes to the sound-producing apparatus, environmental changes influencing transmitting proper...

  13. Evidence of bias in the Eurovision song contest: modelling the votes using Bayesian hierarchical models

    OpenAIRE

    Blangiardo, M; Baio, G

    2014-01-01

    The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual musical competition held among active members of the European Broadcasting Union since 1956. The event is televised live across Europe. Each participating country presents a song and receive a vote based on a combination of tele-voting and jury. Over the years, this has led to speculations of tactical voting, discriminating against some participants and thus inducing bias in the final results. In this paper we investigate the presence of positive or ne...

  14. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros.

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    Beate Apfelbeck

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI. Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes

  15. Placing Music Artists and Songs in Time Using Editorial Metadata and Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bountouridis, D.; Veltkamp, R.C.; van Balen, J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the novel task of situating music artists and songs in time, thereby adding contextual information that typically correlates with an artist’s similarities, collaborations and influences. The proposed method makes use of editorial metadata in conjunction with web mining techniques, aiming to infer an artist’s productivity over time and estimate the original year of release of a song. Experimental evaluation over a set of Dutch and American music confirms the practicalit...

  16. The Oppressions On Women As Portrayed In Beryonce’s Selected Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Kris, Indri Hariyanti

    2016-01-01

    This thesis entitled The Oppressions On Women As Portrayed In Beyonce Selected Songs. In those selected songs, Beyonce portrays the social phenomenon of the women who often get bad treatment of social and family. This thesis covers the analysis of oppressions or the pressures experienced by women either physically or emotionally. This thesis also covers the analysis of the solutions that Beyonce given to the oppressions that are experienced by women. The conclusion of this thes...

  17. EEG correlates of song prosody: A new look at the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Magne, Cyrille L.; Edward W Large

    2011-01-01

    Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called textsetting. Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners’ attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning m...

  18. EEG Correlates of Song Prosody: A New Look at the Relationship between Linguistic and Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Magne, Cyrille L.; Edward W Large

    2011-01-01

    Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called “textsetting.” Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners’ attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning...

  19. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

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    Anja Nordt

    Full Text Available Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula. We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.

  20. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.

  1. Sleepless in Town – Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  2. Female song occurs in songbirds with more elaborate female coloration and reduced sexual dichromatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Howard Webb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elaborate plumages and songs in male birds provide classic evidence for Darwinian sexual selection. However, trait elaboration in birds is not gender-restricted: female song has recently been revealed as a taxonomically-widespread trait within the songbirds (oscine Passerines, prompting increased research into likely functions and social/ecological correlates. Here we use phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to test for an evolutionary association between female song and plumage color elaboration in songbirds. If there is an evolutionary trade-off between signaling modes, we predict a negative correlation between acoustic and visual elaboration. This trade-off hypothesis has been commonly proposed in males but has mixed empirical support. Alternatively, if song and plumage have similar or overlapping functions and evolve under similar selection pressures, we predict a positive correlation between female song and female plumage elaboration. We use published data on female song for 1,023 species of songbirds and a novel approach that allows for the reliable and objective comparison of color elaboration between species and genders. Our results reveal a significant positive correlation between female colorfulness and female song presence. In species where females sing, females (but not males are on average more colorful – with concomitantly reduced average sexual dichromatism. These results suggest that female plumage and female song likely evolved together under similar selection pressures and that their respective functions are reinforcing. We discuss the potential roles of sexual versus social selection in driving this relationship, and the implications for future research on female signals.

  3. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music–language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exh...

  4. White-crowned sparrow males show immediate flexibility in song amplitude but not in song minimum frequency in response to changes in noise levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A

    2017-07-01

    The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.

  5. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Steroid interactions with structure and function of avian song control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoogd, T J

    1986-05-01

    Following the pioneering work of Nottebohm, the brain regions involved in song production in songbirds have become a focus of extensive research in several laboratories. As both singing behavior and the neuroanatomy of song control regions are strongly affected by sex steroids in many songbird species, this system has become regarded as an ideal model system in which one can potentially determine how steroids affect neuronal anatomy, how altered anatomy leads to altered physiology, and how the altered physiology causes changes in singing. In the initial part of this review, I shall focus on canaries and zebra finches as most of our knowledge of the song system has been obtained from these two species. I shall describe singing behavior, the constituents of the song system, what is known of how these nuclei contribute to song, and how each is affected by steroid fluctuations. I shall then speculate on new ways of posing questions on hormone--anatomy interaction in this system (which I will illustrate with preliminary data from my own lab). This review will be brief as several reviews of aspects of the song system have recently been published (Arnold, 1982; Nottebohm, 1984; Arnold and Gorski, 1984; DeVoogd, 1984; Konishi, 1985).

  7. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eChabout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  8. MEDIA ART AND LANGUAGE TRIANGLE: A RESEARCH ON THE LANGUAGE OF TURKEY IN EUROVISION SONG CONTEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eurovision song contest with its fifty years history which is the biggest music- art organization of the world has gone down in history. The contest which is also one the most viewed television program has been an example of globalization and language standardization. İn this article there has been a research on the language of the songs participated to Eurovision song contest from 1975 till today. There has been also a research on the question of “should the song of Turkey be in Turkish or English?” There has been a research and an analysis on the language of the Turkish entry songs for the contest which has the discussion of language and art. There has been a point of how the countries defeated by the globalization by using the English language and not their native language. There has been a discussion for the use of Turkish language and the concept of Turkish which has a big historical background. There has been a discussion of the role of the concept of language in Eurovision Song contest.

  9. Buzzwords in females' ears? The use of buzz songs in the communication of nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Differences in individual male birds' singing may serve as honest indicators of male quality in male-male competition and female mate choice. This has been shown e.g. for overall song output and repertoire size in many bird species. More recently, differences in structural song characteristics such as the performance of physically challenging song components were analysed in this regard. Here we show that buzz elements in the song of nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos hold the potential to serve as indicators of male quality and may therefore serve a communicative function. Buzzes were produced with considerable differences between males. The body weight of the males was correlated with one measure of these buzzes, namely the repetition rate of the buzz subunits, and individuals with larger repertoires sang buzzes at higher subunit-rates. A model of buzz performance constraints suggested that buzzes were sung with different proficiencies. In playback experiments, female nightingales showed more active behaviour when hearing buzz songs. The results support the idea that performance differences in the acoustic fine structure of song components are used in the communication of a large repertoire species such as the nightingale.

  10. Prediction of Potential Hit Song and Musical Genre Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterola, Christopher; Abundo, Cheryl; Tugaff, Jeric; Venturina, Lorcel Ericka

    Accurately quantifying the goodness of music based on the seemingly subjective taste of the public is a multi-million industry. Recording companies can make sound decisions on which songs or artists to prioritize if accurate forecasting is achieved. We extract 56 single-valued musical features (e.g. pitch and tempo) from 380 Original Pilipino Music (OPM) songs (190 are hit songs) released from 2004 to 2006. Based on an effect size criterion which measures a variable's discriminating power, the 20 highest ranked features are fed to a classifier tasked to predict hit songs. We show that regardless of musical genre, a trained feed-forward neural network (NN) can predict potential hit songs with an average accuracy of ΦNN = 81%. The accuracy is about +20% higher than those of standard classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA, ΦLDA = 61%) and classification and regression trees (CART, ΦCART = 57%). Both LDA and CART are above the proportional chance criterion (PCC, ΦPCC = 50%) but are slightly below the suggested acceptable classifier requirement of 1.25*ΦPCC = 63%. Utilizing a similar procedure, we demonstrate that different genres (ballad, alternative rock or rock) of OPM songs can be automatically classified with near perfect accuracy using LDA or NN but only around 77% using CART.

  11. Transcending the Versification of Oraliture: Song-Text as Oral Performance among the Ilaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akingbe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oraliture is a terminology that is often employed in the description of the various genres of oral literature such as proverbs, legends, short stories, traditional songs and rhymes, song-poems, historical narratives traditional symbols, images, oral performance, myths and other traditional stylistic devices. All these devices constitute vibrant appurtenances of oral narrative performance in Africa. Oral narrative performance is invariably situated within the domain of social communication, which brings together the raconteur/performer and the audience towards the realisation of communal entertainment. While the narrator/performer, plays the leading role in an oral performance, the audience’s involvement and participation is realised through song, verbal/choral responses, gestures and, or instrumental/musical accompaniment. This oral practice usually take place at one time or the other in various African communities during the festival, ritual/religious procession which ranges from story- telling, recitation of poems, song text and dancing. This paper is essentially concerned with the illustration of the use of song- text, as oral performance among the Ilaje, a burgeoning coastal subethnic group, of the Yoruba race in the South Western Nigeria. The paper will further examine how patriotism, history, death and anti-social behaviours are evaluated through the use of songs among the Ilaje.

  12. Differential degradation of antbird songs in a Neotropical rainforest: Adaptation to perch height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Winkler, Hans; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2001-12-01

    Habitat characteristics that affect transmission and degradation of acoustical signals should influence strongly the evolution of bird songs. In this study propagation properties of songs of five antbird species were measured in a rainforest in southern Venezuela. The investigated species (Myrmothera campanisona, Thamnophilus aethiops, Thamnophilus amazonicus, Myrmotherula axillaris, and Herpsilochmus dorsimaculatus) use different song post heights at all levels of the rainforest. Because there is a height-specific pattern in degradation, it is hypothesized that their songs are adapted to species-specific transmission paths. To test this assumption, transmission parameters (excess attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio) were measured for the songs at five different heights and at three different distances. In three of the five species, the results indicate a strong influence of environmental conditions on the design of the vocalizations. Degradation was minimized by the concentration of the signal to a narrower frequency range, the usage of lower frequencies, or a slower time structure for the songs near the ground. The results are discussed in relation to acoustical models of sound propagation and physiology, and it is suggested that height-dependent degradation within a forest is an important selection pressure for transmissibility in avian communication.

  13. Vocal Features of Song and Speech: Insights from Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire

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    Julia Merrill

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences between speech and song are often examined. However, the perceptual definition of these two types of vocalization is challenging. Indeed, the prototypical characteristics of speech or song support top-down processes, which influence listeners' perception of acoustic information. In order to examine vocal features associated with speaking and singing, we propose an innovative approach designed to facilitate bottom-up mechanisms in perceiving vocalizations by using material situated between speech and song: Speechsong. 25 participants were asked to evaluate 20 performances of a speechsong composition by Arnold Schoenberg, “Pierrot lunaire” op. 21 from 1912, evaluating 20 features of vocal-articulatory expression. Raters provided reliable judgments concerning the vocal features used by the performers and did not show strong appeal or specific expectations in reference to Schoenberg's piece. By examining the relationship between the vocal features and the impression of song or speech, the results confirm the importance of pitch (height, contour, range, but also point to the relevance of register, timbre, tension and faucal distance. Besides highlighting vocal features associated with speech and song, this study supports the relevance of the present approach of focusing on a theoretical middle category in order to better understand vocal expression in song and speech.

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  15. The Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.

  16. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Chi Man Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their choice of wine. Employing an online survey, the results suggest that Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers look for the top three most searched attributes: wine origin, grape variety, and food and wine pairing. A simple means differences test indicated that a traditional label design is favored over modern and contemporary wine labels, and that yellow is the most preferred color. However, a data-driven segmentation analysis reveals that about 95% of young Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers prefer “elegant contemporary” labels with red as the dominant color. These findings could be useful for wineries entering this market and for wine label designers who wish to better understand how Hong Kong wine consumers assess alternatives when choosing a bottle of wine.

  17. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  18. The Hong Kong schools solar education programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, J. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture

    2003-02-01

    The Hong Kong schools solar education programme brings together Government, its Design and Education sectors, an electricity utility, CLP RI, academic researchers (PV HKU Research Group) and construction professionals to implement a programme that provides hands-on experience, IT skills and problem-based learning opportunities for (all) HK primary and secondary school children. Intended to raise their awareness and real understanding of the contribution of renewable energy technologies to everyday life, the programme has a further objective to expand the experience of local construction professionals in RET installations. At the same time the programme aims to create the start-up market for new industries specialising in related technology components, boosting their commercialisation and reducing costs plus reviving HK's industry sector. It's ultimate goal is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions through setting the school target of 25% energy generation from RET technologies. BIPV installations are the initial technology. These are combined with a specially developed school BEMS and website-based monitoring system from which the first pilot school will be assessed. Mini-installations are to be funded and installed in all HK schools through the HK PV Consortium. (author)

  19. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  20. Does a rival’s song elicit territorial defense in a tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjeevan Dadwal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of bird song and the way in which it is delivered has been argued to be adapted mainly for territorial defense. We performed a field experiment with the combination of playbacks and a model to test how much song actually relates to increased territorial defense in the territorial tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat, during breeding season (Feb–May, 2015 at Haridwar, Himalayan Foothills, India. As expected, the results of the experiment indicated that song was the major cue used by territory holders to cope with rival intrusions. The song rate was particularly escalated during simulated territorial interactions when the model was presented with a playback song of conspecifics. Behaviors such as restlessness (perch change, the height of perch, and distance from the model appeared to be of relatively lesser importance. To our knowledge, no avian species from the Indian subcontinent has been studied to provide evidence that song can escalate aggressive response by a territory owner.

  1. A Validity Study of the MWEP Scale in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the validity of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile, MWEP, in the Hong Kong setting. Purposive quota sampling is adopted to solicit data from a total of 140 respondents with equal gender distribution across seven age groups in Hong Kong. Factor analysis reveals that similarity exists between factor loadings in original MWEP model of Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth (2002 and the model in the current study with Hong Kong samples. However, the MWEP items in the current study does not map exactly into the seven dimensions proposed by Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth. The leisure and the morality/ethics dimensions match with the original scale respectively with good and poor reliabilities, but the hard work and wasted time dimensions have intertwined and appeared to be inseparable.

  2. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Developmental issues of university students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Cheung, Boris P M

    2013-01-01

    Four domains of developmental issues of university students in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, behavioral and lifestyle problems of university students are identified, including alcohol consumption, Internet addiction, cyber-pornography, irregular sleep patterns, and interpersonal violence. Second, the mental health problems of university students, including suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety problems, are outlined. Third, issues on self-determination (including establishment of personal goals), self-confidence, and materialism of the students are reviewed. Fourth, issues related to students' connection to the society, including egocentrism and civic engagement, are discussed. The views of employers about university graduates in Hong Kong are also examined. With the emergence of developmental issues among Hong Kong university students, it is argued that promoting the psychosocial competencies of university students via positive youth development programs is an important strategy in addressing such issues.

  4. Black hole blues and other songs from outer space

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Janna

    2016-01-01

    The authoritative story of the headline-making discovery of gravitational waves—by an eminent theoretical astrophysicist and award-winning writer. From the author of How the Universe Got Its Spots and A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines, the epic story of the scientific campaign to record the soundtrack of our universe. Black holes are dark. That is their essence. When black holes collide, they will do so unilluminated. Yet the black hole collision is an event more powerful than any since the origin of the universe. The profusion of energy will emanate as waves in the shape of spacetime: gravitational waves. No telescope will ever record the event; instead, the only evidence would be the sound of spacetime ringing. In 1916, Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves, his top priority after he proposed his theory of curved spacetime. One century later, we are recording the first sounds from space, the soundtrack to accompany astronomy’s silent movie. In Black Hole Blues and Other Songs fro...

  5. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-12-01

    Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13 species of moths including members of the Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae and Crambidae. Males of nine species, 70%, produced broadband ultrasound close to females. Peak frequencies ranged from 38 to above 100 kHz. All sounds were of low intensity, 43-76 dB SPL at 1 cm [64+/-10 dB peSPL (mean +/- s.d.), N=9 species]. These quiet and/or hyper-frequency ultrasounds are audible to nearby mates, but inaudible to unintended receivers. Although largely unknown because it is so inconspicuous, acoustic communication using low intensity ultrasound appears to be widespread among hearing moths. Thus, acoustic communication may be the norm rather than the exception.

  6. Increased genetic diversity of HIV-1 circulating in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 group M strains are characterized into 9 pure subtypes and 48 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs. Recent studies have identified the presence of new HIV-1 recombinants in Hong Kong and their complexity continues to increase. This study aims to characterize the HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses were performed by using HIV-1 pol sequences including protease and partial reverse transcriptase isolated from 1045 local patients in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2008. For the pol sequences with unassigned genotype, the evidence of recombination was determined by using sliding-window based bootscan plots and their env C2V3 region were also sequenced. Epidemiological background of these patients was further collected. The pol phylogenetic analyses highlighted the extent of HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Subtype B (450/1045; 43.1% and CRF01_AE (469/1045; 44.9% variants were clearly predominant. Other genotypes (126/1045; 12.1% including 3 defined subtypes, 10 CRFs, 1 unassigned subtype and 33 recombinants with 11 different mosaic patterns were observed. Recombinants of subtype B and CRF01_AE were mainly found among local Chinese MSM throughout 2004 to 2008, while the CRF02_AG and subtype G recombinants were circulating among non-Chinese Asian population in Hong Kong through heterosexual transmission starting from 2008. Our study demonstrated the complex recombination of HIV-1 in Hong Kong and the need in developing surveillance system for tracking the distribution of new HIV-1 genetic variants.

  7. Further differentiating item and order information in semantic memory: students' recall of words from the "CU Fight Song", Harry Potter book titles, and Scooby Doo theme song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Michael F; Healy, Alice F; Neath, Ian

    2017-01-01

    University of Colorado (CU) students were tested for both order and item information in their semantic memory for the "CU Fight Song". Following an earlier study by Overstreet and Healy [(2011). Item and order information in semantic memory: Students' retention of the "CU fight song" lyrics. Memory & Cognition, 39, 251-259. doi: 10.3758/s13421-010-0018-3 ], a symmetrical bow-shaped serial position function (with both primacy and recency advantages) was found for reconstructing the order of the nine lines in the song, whereas a function with no primacy advantage was found for recalling a missing word from each line. This difference between order and item information was found even though students filled in missing words without any alternatives provided and missing words came from the beginning, middle, or end of each line. Similar results were found for CU students' recall of the sequence of Harry Potter book titles and the lyrics of the Scooby Doo theme song. These findings strengthen the claim that the pronounced serial position function in semantic memory occurs largely because of the retention of order, rather than item, information.

  8. A Computer Analysis Study of the Word Style in Love-songs of Tshang yang Gya tsho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghong, Li; SunTing; Lei, Guo; Hongzhi, Yu

    Based on the statistical methods of corpus and the 124 love-songs of Tshang yang Gya tsho as the studying object, this paper have set up the principles of vocabulary segmentation and built the love-songs corpus of Tibetan and Tibetan-Chinese grammar separation lexicon corpus. Then it did quantitative research on the achievement of "love-songs" in the language arts from three aspects: the length of the vocabularie's, the frequency rate of the vocabularies, and the distribution of the term's number in the verses and the songs. In addition it also introduced a new kind of researching idea and method for the study of Tibetan literature.

  9. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure......, with intermedia songs being more complex. We explored the possibilities of song as a subspecies isolating mechanism by testing if male schoeniclus Reed Buntings reacted differently to field playbacks of songs from their own subspecies group, from the foreign subspecies group and from a control species...

  10. Using Religious Songs as an Integrative and Complementary Therapy for the Management of Psychological Symptoms Among African American Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Worthy, Valarie C; Kurtz, Melissa J; Cudjoe, Joycelyn; Johnstone, Peter A

    Acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, meditation, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and, to a lesser extent, music are among those integrative and complementary therapies with known beneficial effects on psychological symptoms. However, noticeably absent from this research is the use of religious song as a type of integrative and complementary therapy. The aim of this study was to explore how religious songs were used to alleviate psychological symptoms associated with a cancer diagnosis among a sample of older African American cancer survivors. Thirty-one older African American cancer survivors residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving criterion sampling, open-ended semistructured interviews, and qualitative content analysis. Participants used religious songs in response to feeling depressed, low, or sad; feeling weak and seeking strength to endure treatment; and feeling worried, anxious, or fearful. Religious songs were also a source of support and hope. Types of religious songs included instructive, thanksgiving and praise, memory of forefathers, communication with God, and life after death. Religious songs appear to be an important form of religious expression in this population and used to manage psychological symptoms. Integrative and complementary oncology therapy has generally focused on yoga, meditation, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral techniques. However, religious songs are an important strategy used among older African American cancer patients. Religious songs can be readily integrated into cancer care. The incorporation of religious songs into spiritually based support groups and other integrative and complementary therapies might enhance health outcomes among this medically underserved cancer population.

  11. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats.

  12. A sensorimotor area in the songbird brain is required for production of vocalizations in the song learning period of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piristine, Hande C; Choetso, Tenzin; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-11-01

    Sensory feedback is essential for acquiring and maintaining complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback reaches the song control circuits primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (Nif), which provides excitatory input to HVC (proper name)-a premotor region essential for the production of learned vocalizations. Despite being one of the major inputs to the song control pathway, the role of Nif in generating vocalizations is not well understood. To address this, we transiently inactivated Nif in late juvenile zebra finches. Upon Nif inactivation (in both hemispheres or on one side only), birds went from singing stereotyped zebra finch song to uttering highly variable and unstructured vocalizations resembling sub-song, an early juvenile song form driven by a basal ganglia circuit. Simultaneously inactivating Nif and LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), the output nucleus of a basal ganglia circuit, inhibited song production altogether. These results suggest that Nif is required for generating the premotor drive for song. Permanent Nif lesions, in contrast, have only transient effects on vocal production, with song recovering within a day. The sensorimotor nucleus Nif thus produces a premotor drive to the motor pathway that is acutely required for generating learned vocalizations, but once permanently removed, the song system can compensate for its absence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1213-1225, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  14. Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong 1981-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong are analyzed for the period 1981-1993. "During the period 1981 to 1993, men and women in Hong Kong showed a tendency towards delayed marriage. The number of re-marriages was on the rise, echoing an increasing number of divorces in the same period. This article examines the marital condition of the population, tendency to marry and certain socio-economic characteristics of brides and bridegrooms in the past 13 years. The number of divorces and the divorce rates are also discussed." excerpt

  15. Perception of wine labels by Hong Kong Chinese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Vicky Chi Man; Tchetchik, Anat; Cohen, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Despite Hong Kong׳s growing wine consumption and the abundance of retail brands available there, the demanding choice task faced by its wine consumers, who are more subject to a mix of Chinese and Western cultural influences than consumers in other South Asian countries, has not been studied until now. This exploratory study aims to delve into the importance of wine label attributes for Hong Kong Chinese wine consumers, and to shed light on the ways in which their perceptions affect their cho...

  16. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Wan, Sabrina Hei-Man; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2017-01-01

    As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK) from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK. PMID:29088113

  17. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  18. Merging the arts of song and dance: New methodical options for teaching students within the disciplines of song and dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Karen Hagen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To learn, acquire knowledge, and develop skills is an embodied process. In this article, the authors argue that merging the fields of song and dance is dependent on a deeper understanding of how the mind and the body interact, and they utilize the concept of enactive cognition to explain these processes. The authors maintain that students need insight into these processes in order to improve their learning and, consequently, their performance. Retrospective examples taken from three educational situations within the musical theatre context elucidate the discussion of the concepts of alignment and breathing. These frequently used concepts are often a source of confusion and misunderstanding for the student. To alleviate this, a stronger, interdisciplinary dialogue among the singing and dance teachers who are involved in the genre of musical theatre needs to be developed. The authors suggest collaborative teaching as a means to develop the teaching methods and as the pathway to attaining a common base when integrating the skills of singing and dancing.

  19. Song exposure regulates known and novel microRNAs in the zebra finch auditory forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an important model for neuroscience, songbirds learn to discriminate songs they hear during tape-recorded playbacks, as demonstrated by song-specific habituation of both behavioral and neurogenomic responses in the auditory forebrain. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs may participate in the changing pattern of gene expression induced by song exposure. To test this, we used massively parallel Illumina sequencing to analyse small RNAs from auditory forebrain of adult zebra finches exposed to tape-recorded birdsong or silence. Results In the auditory forebrain, we identified 121 known miRNAs conserved in other vertebrates. We also identified 34 novel miRNAs that do not align to human or chicken genomes. Five conserved miRNAs showed significant and consistent changes in copy number after song exposure across three biological replications of the song-silence comparison, with two increasing (tgu-miR-25, tgu-miR-192 and three decreasing (tgu-miR-92, tgu-miR-124, tgu-miR-129-5p. We also detected a locus on the Z sex chromosome that produces three different novel miRNAs, with supporting evidence from Northern blot and TaqMan qPCR assays for differential expression in males and females and in response to song playbacks. One of these, tgu-miR-2954-3p, is predicted (by TargetScan to regulate eight song-responsive mRNAs that all have functions in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Conclusions The experience of hearing another bird singing alters the profile of miRNAs in the auditory forebrain of zebra finches. The response involves both known conserved miRNAs and novel miRNAs described so far only in the zebra finch, including a novel sex-linked, song-responsive miRNA. These results indicate that miRNAs are likely to contribute to the unique behavioural biology of learned song communication in songbirds.

  20. Hormonal acceleration of song development illuminates motor control mechanism in canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliende, Jorge A; Méndez, Jorge M; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2010-12-01

    In songbirds, the ontogeny of singing behavior shows strong parallels with human speech learning. As in humans, development of learned vocal behavior requires exposure to an acoustic model of species-typical vocalizations, and, subsequently, a sensorimotor practice period after which the vocalization is produced in a stereotyped manner. This requires mastering motor instructions driving the vocal organ and the respiratory system. Recently, it was shown that, in the case of canaries (Serinus canaria), the diverse syllables, constituting the song, are generated with air sac pressure patterns with characteristic shapes, remarkably, those belonging to a very specific mathematical family. Here, we treated juvenile canaries with testosterone at the onset of the sensorimotor practice period. This hormone exposure accelerated the development of song into stereotyped adultlike song. After 20 days of testosterone treatment, subsyringeal air sac pressure patterns of song resembled those produced by adults, while those of untreated control birds of the same age did not. Detailed temporal structure and modulation patterns emerged rapidly with testosterone treatment, and all previously identified categories of adult song were observed. This research shows that the known effect of testosterone on the neural circuits gives rise to the stereotyped categories of respiratory motor gestures. Extensive practice of these motor patterns during the sensorimotor phase is not required for their expression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. When songs about genetics. Social representations and their impact in science learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mateu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work has its foundations on the necessity of adequating the teaching of school Genetics to the cultural diversity of the present-day classrooms. Thus, the social representations present in the music, adolescents usually listen to were researched. Assuming that songs are themselves massive communication acts and that these socially constructed representations are shared by most adolescents, the investigation was orientated to the way in which the songs influence the way of thinking, communicating and behaving of social actors. In addition to this, it was put into consideration the possibility of lyrics becoming an obstacle for the accurate learning of school Genetics. The corpus of analysis includes 334 songs, both lyrics and melodies, of a variety of musical genres. The results show a strong tendency of the scientific concepts to be re signified in the different cultural context in which they are used, both considering the discursive framework and the musical genre of each song. The present work states that understanding the meaning, popular knowledge print on scientific concepts through song, can be used as a starting point as well as a source of resources for the planning of provoking, thematic and pedagogical activities aimed to produce critical thinking and learning of school Genetics.

  2. The Effect of English Verbal Songs on Connected Speech Aspects of Adult English Learners’ Speech Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Tayari Ashtiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of English verbal songs on connected speech aspects of adult English learners’ speech production. 40 participants were selected based on the results of their performance in a piloted and validated version of NELSON test given to 60 intermediate English learners in a language institute in Tehran. Then they were equally distributed in two control and experimental groups and received a validated pretest of reading aloud and speaking in English. Afterward, the treatment was performed in 18 sessions by singing preselected songs culled based on some criteria such as popularity, familiarity, amount, and speed of speech delivery, etc. In the end, the posttests of reading aloud and speaking in English were administered. The results revealed that the treatment had statistically positive effects on the connected speech aspects of English learners’ speech production at statistical .05 level of significance. Meanwhile, the results represented that there was not any significant difference between the experimental group’s mean scores on the posttests of reading aloud and speaking. It was thus concluded that providing the EFL learners with English verbal songs could positively affect connected speech aspects of both modes of speech production, reading aloud and speaking. The Findings of this study have pedagogical implications for language teachers to be more aware and knowledgeable of the benefits of verbal songs to promote speech production of language learners in terms of naturalness and fluency. Keywords: English Verbal Songs, Connected Speech, Speech Production, Reading Aloud, Speaking

  3. Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use in rap song lyrics, 1979-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the role of changing images of drinking and alcoholic beverage use in rap music from its beginnings in the United States in the late 1970s to the late 1990s. A sample of 341 rap music song lyrics released from 1979 to 1997 were selected using Billboard and Gavin rating charts. Song lyrics were coded for music genres, alcohol beverage types and brand names, drinking behaviors, drinking contexts, intoxication, attitudes towards alcohol and consequences of drinking. From 1979 to 1997, songs with references to alcohol increased fivefold (from 8 to 44%); those exhibiting positive attitudes rose from 43% to 73%; and brand name mentions increased from 46% to 71%. There were also significant increases in songs mentioning champagne and liquor (mainly expensive brand names) when comparing songs released after 1994 with those from previous years. In addition, there were significant increases in references to alcohol to signify glamour and wealth, and using alcohol with drugs and for recreational purposes. The findings also showed that alcohol use in rap music was much more likely to result in positive than negative consequences. Many of these findings are consistent with the idea that rap music has been profoundly affected by commercial forces and the marketing of alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is possible that the increase in references to alcoholic beverages in rap music, particularly spirits, is a reflection of a broader advertising culture which increasingly associates African Americans with alcohol use.

  4. Environmental and genetic control of brain and song structure in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Joseph L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Bennett, Andrew T D; Catchpole, Clive K; Brighton, Roswitha; Leitner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Birdsong is a classic example of a learned trait with cultural inheritance, with selection acting on trait expression. To understand how song responds to selection, it is vital to determine the extent to which variation in song learning and neuroanatomy is attributable to genetic variation, environmental conditions, or their interactions. Using a partial cross fostering design with an experimental stressor, we quantified the heritability of song structure and key brain nuclei in the song control system of the zebra finch and the genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Neuroanatomy and song structure both showed low levels of heritability and are unlikely to be under selection as indicators of genetic quality. HVC, in particular, was almost entirely under environmental control. G × E interaction was important for brain development and may provide a mechanism by which additive genetic variation is maintained, which in turn may promote sexual selection through female choice. Our study suggests that selection may act on the genes determining vocal learning, rather than directly on the underlying neuroanatomy, and emphasizes the fundamental importance of environmental conditions for vocal learning and neural development in songbirds. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Causes and consequences of song amplitude adjustment in a territorial bird: a case study in nightingales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brumm Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal amplitude, one of the crucial factors for the exchange of acoustic signals, has been neglected in studies of animal communication, but recent studies on song variation in Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos have revealed new insights into its importance in the singing behavior of territorial birds. In nightingales song amplitude is not maximized per se, but is individually regulated according to the level of masking background noise. Also, birds adjust their vocal intensity according to social variables, as in male-male interactions. Moreover, during such interactions, males exploited the directionality of their songs to broadcast them in the direction of the intended receivers ensuring the most effective signal transmission. Studies of the development of this typical long-range signaling suggest that sound level is highly interrelated with overall developmental progression and learning, and thus should be viewed as an integral part of song ontogeny. I conclude that song amplitude is a dynamic feature of the avian signal system, which is individually regulated according to the ecological demands of signal transmission and the social context of communication.

  6. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: The Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-minute time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-minute intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress.

  7. Changes in humpback whale song occurrence in response to an acoustic source 200 km away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J; Ellison, William T; Parijs, Sofie M Van

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species.

  8. Changes in humpback whale song occurrence in response to an acoustic source 200 km away.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Risch

    Full Text Available The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM, we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species.

  9. He Started the Whole World Singing a Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Cates

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, music has moved people in powerful ways, so much so that, at times, it leaves them speechless. They realize that it is a song, full of notes and rhythms, yet at the same time, it makes them become profoundly aware that there is something more, humming just below the surface. My presentation seeks to enter into this music moment by asking why these types of moments even occur. Does music speak or communicate? If so, does it communicate something meaningful and significant? What is the mechanism by which music conveys this meaning? How can this meaning be articulated in words? Many fields of science such as neuroimaging and psychoacoustics have revealed an empirical connection between language and music, namely that the human brain processes and understands music as communication and speech. Building upon this, I then discuss musical meaning by stating that music has both intrinsic, structural meaning, as well as extrinsic, referential meaning, and that together, these two paradigms of meaning aid the listener in experiencing the full nature of the music itself. I next introduce the field of theology, showing how throughout the Bible, all of creation has musically celebrated the presence of an immanently transcendent God. With all of these things in mind, I postulate that music has the capacity to act as a channel through which one can hear a linguistic God speaking vitality, order, beauty, depth, structure, and wonder into His creation by His Word and Spirit. The presentation concludes by asserting that music has the capacity to reveal the presence of God in our everyday lives through the divine realities of hope, faith, and love.

  10. Love Song 1, 'Madami (My Love for You)'

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Qianma

    2011-01-01

    .wav audio file This song says, “I bless you from my immaculate heart. Different people respond differently at various times, but my feelings for you won't change. I’ll always think about you.” 这首歌说道:“我从我纯洁的内心祝福你。不同的人在各种时期有不同的回答,但是我对你的感觉不会有任何变化。我会一直都想着你”。 གླུ་འདིས་འདི་ལྟར་བཤད་ཡོད་དེ། ངས་ཁྱོད་ལ་དྭངས་གཙང་གི་སེམས་པ་ནང་ནས་སྨོན་ལམ་ཞུ། མི་འདྲ་བའི་མིེ་ཡིས་དུས་མི་མཐུན་པར་ལན་འདེབས་པའང་འདྲ་བ་མ་རེད། འོན་ཀྱང་ངས་ཁྱོད་ལ་བཅངས་པའི་སེམས་པ་ནི་ནམ་ཡང་འགྱུར་བ་མེད། ངས་དུས་རྒྱུན་དུ་ཁྱོད་རང་སེམས་ལ་དྲན་ནས་འད...

  11. Quality assessment of groundwater from shallow aquifers in Hong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high fluoride in the groundwater in Hong area is clearly geogenic and due to chemical weathering and subsequent decomposition, dissociation and dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals (nacaphite) within the porphyritic granite portion. The high content of fluoride and iron in the groundwater may have contributed to ...

  12. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  13. Teaching Business Ethics in Hong Kong: Challenges and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Dennis P.; Lam, Joanna Kit Chun; Chiu, Randy K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching business ethics to undergraduate business students at the Hong Kong Baptist University. Provides an anecdotal account to illustrate that in non-Western cultural contexts, figurative rather than scientific language often captures the essence of qualitative phenomena. Underscores the importance of understanding and…

  14. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  15. Students' and Faculty's Perception of Academic Integrity in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Theresa; Ng, Hing-Man; Kai-Pan, Mark; Wong, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity; their understanding of experiences pertaining to different aspects of academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism); and to examine the underlying reasons behind academic integrity violations in a Hong Kong context.…

  16. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  17. Teacher Educators' Pedagogical Principles and Practices: Hong Kong Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Edmond Hau-Fai; Joughin, Gordon; Kennedy, Kerry J.; Tse, Harrison; Yu, Wai Ming

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to explore the teaching practices of lecturers within one department of a university-level institute of education in Hong Kong. A sample of 19 teachers were interviewed in the study. Short interview schedules were designed to elicit teachers' descriptions of how they taught and the thinking behind their pedagogical practices. A…

  18. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  19. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…

  20. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  1. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  2. Mathematics Achievement of Mainland Immigrant Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main features of globalization is the increasing mobility of population. As an immigrant society, Hong Kong has witnessed waves of Mainland Chinese arrivals and assimilation into her mainstream, particularly around the change of sovereignty period. School-aged children constitute a substantial fraction of the new population. Given their…

  3. Multicultural Hong Kong: Alternative New Media Representations of Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Nesterova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities experience misrecognition, prejudice and discrimination in Hong Kong. In response to these challenges, multicultural education there aims to enable young people to recognize diversity in a more tolerant, open-minded way. Educators have been encouraged to not rely only on textbooks, but to include news and digital media…

  4. Intention and constraints of Hong Kong secondary school Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hong Kong, the development of Unified Sports is at an embryonic stage. Working on the front line, Physical Education (PE) teachers play an important role in promoting students' participation in Unified Sports. This study was designed to explore teachers' intention and constraints in promoting participation in Unified ...

  5. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  6. Ageing, Loss, and Learning: Hong Kong and Australian Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Pike, Lucinda; Tam, Maureen; Buys, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the discussion of loss and its relationship to learning is based on the analysis of interview data from 39 older adults in Hong Kong and 40 in Australia. The focus of the research was on ageing and learning. The phenomenon of life changes, specifically losses, and their relationship to learning was frequently mentioned, and this…

  7. Communication in Hong Kong Accident and Emergency Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Eloise; Pun, Jack; Lock, Graham; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Espindola, Elaine; Ng, Carman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from the first qualitatively driven study of patient–clinician communication in Hong Kong Accident and Emergency Departments (AEDs). In light of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority’s policy emphasis on patient-centered care and communication in the public hospitals it oversees, we analyze clinicians’ perceptions of the role and relevance of patient-centered communication strategies in emergency care. Although aware of the importance of effective communication in emergency care, participants discussed how this was frequently jeopardized by chronic understaffing, patient loads, and time pressures. This was raised in relation to the absence of spoken interdisciplinary handovers, the tendency to downgrade interpersonal communication with patients, and the decline in staff attendance at communication training courses. Participants’ frequent descriptions of patient-centered communication as dispensable from, and time-burdensome in, AEDs highlight a discrepancy between the stated Hong Kong Hospital Authority policy of patient-centered care and the reality of contemporary Hong Kong emergency practice. PMID:28462303

  8. Secondary School Students' Views of Climate Change in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz; Pang, Ming-Fai

    2017-01-01

    Though there has been an increased focus on climate change in Hong Kong's educational policy and curriculum over the last decade, little is known about the impact of curricular implementation on young people's environmental and climate change-related views, attitudes, awareness, or behaviors. This paper examines the state of climate change…

  9. Language Policies for Hong Kong Schools since 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Vincent; Adamson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Language in education debates in Hong Kong focus on the role and status of English (as the former colonial language and an important means for international communication); Cantonese, the mother tongue of the majority of the population; and Putonghua, the national language of China. This paper examines the language policy formulated in 1997-1998,…

  10. Attitudes towards Languages and Code-Mixing in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John P.

    1983-01-01

    Examines, through a matched-guise technique, the conflict in attitudes and behavior toward the use of a mixture of Cantonese and English (MIX) among English-Cantonese bilingual students in Hong Kong. Results indicate hostility toward MIX but produce evidence that it is a useful, culturally neutral choice and that it may have covert status in the…

  11. People of Hong Kong: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Hong Kong in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. The first section describes the…

  12. The population geography of Hong Kong, 1949-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, V F

    1983-06-01

    "This paper attempts a comprehensive account of the changes in population of Hong Kong in 1949-81. It has given detailed treatment to the two major factors: migration and natural growth, that underly such changes. The spatial process of population is also examined against the government's post-war urban development policies." excerpt

  13. Differentiated Instruction: Hong Kong Prospective Teachers' Teaching Efficacy and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sally Wai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Catering for learner diversity is one of the key areas in the recent educational reform in Hong Kong. Pre-service teacher education acts as a fundamental way to equip pre-service teachers ready for accommodating diverse learning needs and to build up pre-service teachers' self-efficacy. The purpose of the study is to examine prospective teachers'…

  14. Adolescent Health in Hong Kong: Disturbing Socio-Demographic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between self-assessed health status and socio-demographic variables were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong, a modern society with traditional Chinese ethno-cultural origin. Health status was self-rated in four aspects: overall health, physical health, mental health, and health effects on…

  15. Teacher Empowerment as Perceived by Principals in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government first introduced school-based management (SBM) to the education profession in 1991. The principal is a pivotal factor in fostering an environment for change. SBM and teacher empowerment calls for new modes of leadership: teachers lend their expertise, and principals become facilitators rather than directors. The purpose of…

  16. Teacher Empowerment as Perceived by Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government first introduced school-based management (ABM) to the education profession in 1991, but little attention has been paid on the role of teachers in school reforms. Under SBM, teachers are key players in determining school policies and practices. It is believed that teachers' dedication and performance are the most important…

  17. American Minimalism: The Western Vernacular in Norman Mailer’s The Executioner’s Song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the western vernacular and minimalist tendencies in Norman Mailer’s 1980 Pulitzer Prize winning “true-life story” The Executioner’s Song.  Mailer’s use of a lean, often flat style of narration is read in relation to Truman Capote’s “non-fiction novel” In Cold Blood to measure the extent to which Mailer moved beyond a conventional novelistic approach. The article positions The Executioner’s Song alongside earlier minimalist styles in American Literature and takes stock of Mailer’s use of oral storytelling techniques and panoramic perspectives. Mailer’s minimal presence in the narrative and the original capital punishment proceedings is established, with support from early reviews, debates surrounding the genre of The Executioner’s Song and interviews given by the author since its publication in 1979.

  18. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Heller

    Full Text Available Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string and mirror ( =  soundbox.

  19. [Feeling with intelligence, thinking with emotion: science and technology in the songs of Humberto Gessinger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Rafael Cava

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the thematic units of science and technology in the songs of Humberto Gessinger. We conducted an analysis of three songs, according to the studies of the Bakhtin Circle, by observing the inclusion of words and expressions of science in this poetic production. It transpires from this analysis that by including these words into popular song, Gessinger brings echoes of scientific texts into this genre, prosifying his poetry by adding an "unfinished" element. Since for Bakhtin prose is more dialogical and is in closer contact with its socio-historical context - compared to poetry - we conclude that by including scientific-technological words and themes in his compositions, Gessinger becomes an active participant of the discussions about postmodernity.

  20. Perceiving speech rhythm in music: listeners classify instrumental songs according to language of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87, B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic differences in a purely musical context (i.e., in instrumental music without words). In Experiment 1a, listeners successfully classified instrumental renditions of French and English songs having highly contrastive rhythmic differences. Experiment 1b replicated this result with the same songs containing rhythmic information only. In Experiments 2a and 2b, listeners successfully classified original and rhythm-only stimuli when language-specific rhythmic differences were less contrastive but more representative of differences found in actual music and speech. These findings indicate that listeners can use rhythmic similarities and differences to classify songs originally composed in two languages having contrasting rhythmic prosody.

  1. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  2. The Effectiveness of Song Technique in Teaching Paper Based TOEFL (PBT’S Listening Comprehension Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Kuswoyo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among three sections that follow the Paper-Based TOEFL (PBT, many test takers find listening comprehension section is the most difficult. Thus, in this research the researcher aims to explore how students learn PBT’s listening comprehension section effectively through song technique. This sounds like a more interesting and engaging way to learn language because music is a very powerful motivational tool for learning language. To reach the goal of this study, the researcher applied the grammar approach. It is an appropriate approach since the main idea of grammar-based listening exercises is to analyze the language by its components and reconstruct an incomplete text. Besides, the researcher employed an English song as the media the researcher uses the top- down model for the Listening Process.  In this research, the writer tries to share his experience in teaching listening in English department of Teknokrat College by implementing song technique.

  3. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A. Potvin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1 or pink noise (Study 2. We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers’ songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only. While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats.

  4. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION OF COURTSHIP SONGS AMONG CRYPTIC SPECIES OF THE CARNEA GROUP OF GREEN LACEWINGS (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE: CHRYSOPERLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles S; Wells, Marta Lucía Martínez; Simon, Chris M

    1999-08-01

    Although traits of related species are likely to be similar due to common ancestry, mating signals are an exception. In singing insects, for example, song similarity has been documented only for allopatric or allochronic species pairs, and even then, not often. Where song similarity does occur, it has been logically attributed to the inheritance of ancestral traits rather than convergence. It is quite common for related, sympatric insect species to differ dramatically in calling song, which is predicted by evolutionary theory to maximize intraspecific mating success. Given that there are a limited number of ways to make sounds on anatomically similar organs and given that there would be no selective pressure for songs to differ in widely separated geographic areas, convergence in songs among related species living on different continents might be expected. Here we present the first well-documented case of such convergence, in a group of sibling, cryptic species characterized by substrate-borne vibrational mating songs. In this example from green lacewings of the carnea group of the genus Chrysoperla, a variety of statistical tests shows that one species in North America and another in Asia possess songs that are strikingly similar to each other. DNA data demonstrate that the species involved belong to divergent speciose lineages, and behavioral data demonstrate that the convergent songs are readily accepted by members of both species. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Musical skill in dementia: a violinist presumed to have Alzheimer's disease learns to play a new song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Anne; Beatty, William W; Nixon, Sara Jo; Lutz, Lanna J; Paulk, Jason; Paulk, Kayla; Ross, Elliott D

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies have described patients with possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who continued to play familiar songs skillfully, despite their dementias. There are no reports about patients with dementia who successfully learned to play new songs, and two papers describe failures of patients with AD to learn to play a new song although they continued to play familiar songs competently. In the present paper we describe a moderately demented patient (SL) with probable AD who learned to play a song (Cossackaya!) on the violin that was published after the apparent onset of his dementia. He showed modest retention of the song at delays of 0 and 10 minutes. This contrasts with his profound disturbance in both recall and recognition on other anterograde memory tests (word lists, stories, figures, environmental sounds, sounds of musical instruments), and marked impairment on measures of remote memory (famous faces, autobiographical memory). SL showed milder deficits in confrontation naming, verbal fluency and attention, but no dyspraxia or aphasic comprehension deficits. Except for the Block Design test, his visuospatial skills were intact. SL's learning of the new song in the absence of any evidence of episodic memory is reminiscent of patients with temporal lobe amnesia who show better memory for song melody than for lyrics or verse, although his retention was not as good.

  6. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  7. Territorial responses of male blue tits to simulated dynamic intrusions: effects of song overlap and intruder location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    song alternating. A territory owner should therefore perceive an intruder overlapping its songs and staying inside its territory as a greater threat than one alternating and exiting the territory quickly. To test this hypothesis we used playback to interact with territorial male blue tits, Parus...

  8. Environmental protection in Hong Kong amidst transition: Is Hong Kong ready to manage its environment by law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Hung Lo, Carlos

    1995-05-01

    Within the context of political democratization, this article explores environmental protection in Hong Kong since the government lauched a ten-year program to “save the environment” in 1989. Examining environmental management by law from a social-choice perspective, it argues that the government has yet to reach an integrative policy orocess. Hence the preconditions for an integrative set of environmental legislation are absent. Institutionally, without a comprehensive green policy, the current arrangements lack a vision as an integrative force to promote effective coordination among various sectoral environmental coordination among various sectoral environmental programs. The dominant approach of policy and law enforcement through consultation has rendered impossible strict enforcement of environmental rules and regulations as local economic growth enjoys a priority over environmental protection. At a time of environmental awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared awakening, the people of Hong Kong are not yet prepared to participate in environmental management in a strict legal manner. The overall observation is that Hong Kong has yet to see more mature political, legal, administrative, and social conditions for managing its environment within a legal framework.

  9. Degradation of song in a species using nesting holes: the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Lampe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitat, but also the nest hole of a hole-nesting species, will degrade the song during transmission. We investigated how the sounds degrade in a sound transmission experiment with the song of the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Ten different song elements were transmitted to microphones placed inside and outside a nest box. On average, song degradation was much greater inside than outside the nest boxes, especially with respect to excess attenuation and blurring of the song elements. Being inside a nest box therefore strongly reduces a Pied Flycatcher's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs or eavesdropping on singing interactions.O habitat, mas também a cavidade do ninho de uma espécie nidificando em ocos, provoca uma degradação do som durante sua transmissão. Pesquisamos como os sons são degradados num experimento de transmissão sonora usando o canto do pássaro Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Dez elementos diferentes do canto foram enviados para microfones colocados dentro e fora de uma caixa de nidificação. Em média, a degradação do canto foi muito maior dentro do que fora do ninho, particularmente no que diz respeito ao excesso de atenuação e à borrada dos elementos do canto. Estar dentro de uma cavidade de nidificação, portanto, reduz fortemente a capacidade da espécie de detectar e reconhecer cantos ou de interceptar interações vocais.

  10. The rise of author-performed song in Tuva (1921–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Yu. Suzukey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of author-performed song in Tuva, the history of which begins when the People’s Republic of Tuva was declared in 1921. This crucial moment in the history of the region, which bore a strong influence of the October Revolution in Russia and of the following years of social change, had a profound impact on songwriting in the 1920s. The songs expressed gratitude to the October Revolution, Lenin and the Russian people for helping Tuvans get rid of the socially oppressive system (“The Glorious International”, “Freedom from Torment”, “The Great River”, “The Emergency Session of the Khural”, “No More Oppression”, etc.. New songs glorified such iconic features of new life as the first schools, the birth of national literature and the new system of writing, the change in attitude to women, the rise of the new generation of authors, the construction of a new automobile road, etc. In the 1930s further socioeconomic transformation gave rise to songs like “I Am a Kolkhoz Member”; “The Tractor Driver”, “The Propagandist”, “The Beautiful Soviet Land”, etc. By the end of the 1930s Tuva got its first amateur composers and author-performed songs. The arrival of theater, dance and music professionals from the USSR at the beginning of the 1940s at the bequest of PRT’s government led to a sea change in professionalization of Tuvan performing arts. In 1951 A. Chyrgal-ool became the first Tuvan student to join a conservatoire in Kazan which he graduated from in 1957. His works composed in 1950s marked a new stage in the rise of professional music in the region. Thus Tuvan song art featured almost the same trends and developments as most other ethnic groups in the Soviet Union.

  11. Robust behavioral effects of song playback in the absence of testosterone or corticosterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Reichard, Dustin G; Ferguson, Stephen M; Whittaker, Danielle J; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2012-09-01

    Some species of songbirds elevate testosterone in response to territorial intrusions while others do not. The search for a general explanation for this interspecific variation in hormonal response to social challenges has been impeded by methodological differences among studies. We asked whether song playback alone is sufficient to bring about elevation in testosterone or corticosterone in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), a species that has previously demonstrated significant testosterone elevation in response to a simulated territorial intrusion when song was accompanied by a live decoy. We studied two populations of juncos that differ in length of breeding season (6-8 vs. 14-16 weeks), and conducted playbacks of high amplitude, long-range song. In one population, we also played low amplitude, short-range song, a highly potent elicitor of aggression in juncos and many songbirds. We observed strong aggressive responses to both types of song, but no detectable elevation of plasma testosterone or corticosterone in either population. We also measured rise in corticosterone in response to handling post-playback, and found full capacity to elevate corticosterone but no effect of song class (long-range or short-range) on elevation. Collectively, our data suggest that males can mount an aggressive response to playback without a change in testosterone or corticosterone, despite the ability to alter these hormones during other types of social interactions. We discuss the observed decoupling of circulating hormones and aggression in relation to mechanisms of behavior and the cues that may activate the HPA and HPG axes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EEG correlates of song prosody: A new look at the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called textsetting. Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners’ attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning metronome clicks with all, some or none of the strong syllables in sung sentences. Electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were taken while participants listened to the sung sentences (primes and performed a lexical decision task on subsequent words and pseudowords (targets, presented visually. Comparison of misaligned and well-aligned sentences showed that temporal alignment between strong/weak syllables and strong/weak musical beats were associated with modulations of induced beta and evoked gamma power, which have been shown to fluctuate with rhythmic expectancies. Furthermore, targets that followed well-aligned primes elicited greater induced alpha and beta activity, and better lexical decision task performance, compared with targets that followed misaligned and varied sentences. Overall, these findings suggest that alignment of linguistic stress and musical meter in song enhances musical beat tracking and comprehension of lyrics by synchronizing neural activity with strong syllables. This approach may begin to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs, and how rhythmic attending facilitates learning and recall of song lyrics. Moreover, the observations reported here coincide with a growing number of studies reporting interactions between the linguistic and musical dimensions of song, which likely stem from shared neural resources for processing music and speech.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF ENGLISH SONG TOWARD STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AND STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Faliyanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is the important aspect for the students when they are studying English. The students need fresh method to make them enjoy in learning process. The teacher should be able to deliver the material well. Using media appropriately is also needed for teachers. The objectives of this research are to know whether English song can improve the students’ vocabulary at the second semester of English education study program in University of Muhammadiyah Metro, to reveal whether English song English song influence the students’ motivation at the second semester of English education study program in learning process, to portray how much English song influence the students’ vocabulary mastery and students’ motivation at the second semester of English education study program in academic year 2015/2016 The population in this research is 40 students. It is consist 2 classes and each class consists of 20 students..The result of the data analysis proved that the value of t-test (tobs is 8,742 and ttable is 2,021. It means that tobs is higher than ttable(8,742>2,021. Based on the criteria for testing hypothesis was if the value of t obtained is higher than t table at significant level 0,05 the null hypothesis (Ho is rejected and hypothesis alternative (HI is accepted. After viewing the result of One Sample t-test, the writer came to conclusion that “there was significant Influence of English Song Toward Students’ Vocabulary Mastery and students’ motivation at the second semester of English education Study Program in the Muhammadiyah University of Metro Academic Year 2015/2016”.   Key words: English song, Students’ Motivation, Vocabulary Mastery.

  14. EEG Correlates of Song Prosody: A New Look at the Relationship between Linguistic and Musical Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L; Magne, Cyrille L; Large, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    Song composers incorporate linguistic prosody into their music when setting words to melody, a process called "textsetting." Composers tend to align the expected stress of the lyrics with strong metrical positions in the music. The present study was designed to explore the idea that temporal alignment helps listeners to better understand song lyrics by directing listeners' attention to instances where strong syllables occur on strong beats. Three types of textsettings were created by aligning metronome clicks with all, some or none of the strong syllables in sung sentences. Electroencephalographic recordings were taken while participants listened to the sung sentences (primes) and performed a lexical decision task on subsequent words and pseudowords (targets, presented visually). Comparison of misaligned and well-aligned sentences showed that temporal alignment between strong/weak syllables and strong/weak musical beats were associated with modulations of induced beta and evoked gamma power, which have been shown to fluctuate with rhythmic expectancies. Furthermore, targets that followed well-aligned primes elicited greater induced alpha and beta activity, and better lexical decision task performance, compared with targets that followed misaligned and varied sentences. Overall, these findings suggest that alignment of linguistic stress and musical meter in song enhances musical beat tracking and comprehension of lyrics by synchronizing neural activity with strong syllables. This approach may begin to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs, and how rhythmic attending facilitates learning and recall of song lyrics. Moreover, the observations reported here coincide with a growing number of studies reporting interactions between the linguistic and musical dimensions of song, which likely stem from shared neural resources for processing music and speech.

  15. Chinese wind divination in the period of Song Renzong Reign (1022-1063 CE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines Chinese wind divination in the period of Song Renzong Reign (1022-1063) from two different paths: one is by interpreting the Wind Orientation Divination method based on my text analysis of Wujing Zongyao武经总要; the other path is by elaborating Wind Sensing Divination method in Qiusheng Fu with its links to Meihua Yishu梅花易数 and I Ching. Through these two paths, I try to build an understanding of Chinese wind divination in Song Renzong Reign.

  16. The rise of author-performed song in Tuva (1921–1944)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Yu. Suzukey

    2016-01-01

    This is a study of author-performed song in Tuva, the history of which begins when the People’s Republic of Tuva was declared in 1921. This crucial moment in the history of the region, which bore a strong influence of the October Revolution in Russia and of the following years of social change, had a profound impact on songwriting in the 1920s. The songs expressed gratitude to the October Revolution, Lenin and the Russian people for helping Tuvans get rid of the socially oppressive system...

  17. Be My Guest: Nation branding and national representation in the Eurovision Song Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 1956, the EurovisionSong Contest has been a stage for national representation and an opportunityfor countries to brand themselves. The 2012 Eurovision Song Contest in Baku,Azerbaijan is a prime example of nation branding, both for the host country aswell as the participating countries. Hosting the event gives a country the opportunity to present a specific nation brand, but there are other opportunities for those countries which only have a three-minute time-frame for t...

  18. The Role of Songs in First-Graders’ Oral Communication Development in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivon Aleida Castro Huertas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on an action research project aimed at developing oral communication in first-graders, using songs as a strategy for young learners to use and enjoy English. It was developed at a Colombian public school over three months. The teacher-researchers attempted to encourage students using simple and amusing songs to help them learn new vocabulary in English and develop oral skills from the very moment they began their literacy process. In this article, we attempt to share our findings obtained from data collected through direct observation, field notes, video recordings, and interviews that show the process followed by very young learners to acquire vocabulary by singing.

  19. Rainforests as concert halls for birds: Are reverberations improving sound transmission of long song elements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2006-01-01

    enforce also birdsong in forests. Song elements have to be long enough to be superimposed by reflections and therefore longer signals should be louder than shorter ones. An analysis of the influence of signal length on pure tones and on song elements of two sympatric rainforest thrush species demonstrates...... that longer sounds are less attenuated. The results indicate that higher sound pressure level is caused by superimposing reflections. It is suggested that this beneficial effect of reverberations explains interspecific birdsong differences in element length. Transmission paths with stronger reverberations...

  20. From Vietnam to Iraq : A Content Analysis of Protest Song Lyrics of Two War Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Louise, Haynes

    2008-01-01

    This study offers a content analysis of the lyrics of 100 songs of protest during two periods of war, the Vietnam War during the 1960s and early 70s and the war in Iraq which began in March of 2003. It provides a brief overview of some of the social and technological conditions which have led to the changes that have taken place in recent protest songs. The article shows that more recent protest music has become more specific, with a greater focus on historical events than occurred in the lyr...