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Sample records for honeys marche region

  1. Characterization of Italian honeys (Marche Region on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

    Cucina Domenico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of three types of Marche (Italy honeys (Acacia, Multifloral, Honeydew was carried out on the basis of the their quality parameters (pH, sugar content, humidity and mineral content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Pattern recognition methods such as principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were performed in order to classify honey samples whose botanical origins were different, and identify the most discriminant parameters. Lastly, using ANOVA and correlations for all parameters, significant differences between diverse types of honey were examined. Results Most of the samples' water content showed good maturity (98% whilst pH values were in the range 3.50 – 4.21 confirming the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most relevant mineral (mean = 643 ppm, accounting for 79% of the total mineral content. The Ca, Na and Mg contents account for 14, 3 and 3% of the total mineral content respectively, while other minerals (Cu, Mn, Fe were present at very low levels. PCA explained 75% or more of the variance with the first two PC variables. The variables with higher discrimination power according to the multivariate statistical procedure were Mg and pH. On the other hand, all samples of acacia and honeydew, and more than 90% of samples of multifloral type have been correctly classified using the LDA. ANOVA shows significant differences between diverse floral origins for all variables except sugar, moisture and Fe. Conclusion In general, the analytical results obtained for the Marche honeys indicate the products' high quality. The determination of physicochemical parameters and mineral content in combination with modern statistical techniques can be a useful tool for honey classification.

  2. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  3. Rheology of irradiated honey from Parana region

    Sabato, S.F. E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2004-10-01

    Viscosity characteristics can be governed by the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey. Honey is essentially a mixture of sugar and water. When a physical treatment, as gamma radiation, is applied to food, some changes on its viscosity may occur. Viscosity is one of the important properties of honey and depends on water and sugar quantities. The objective of this work was to verify the rheological behavior of irradiated honey from Parana region in comparison to the unirradiated one. Each rheogram was measured at different shear rates that was increased to a certain value then immediately decreased to the starting point ('up and down curves'). These measurements were made for control and irradiated samples (5 and 10 kGy) in different temperatures (30 deg. C, 35 deg. C and 40 deg. C). The curves constructed with shear stress against shear rate presented linearity. Honey, irradiated and control, showed a Newtonian behavior and gamma radiation did not affect it.

  4. Characterization of Multifloral Honeys of Pervari Region with Different Properties

    Mehmet Emre EREZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of honey from Pervari region was almost known by all over the country in Turkey. This study was undertaken to determine (i physico-chemical parameters, (ii antimicrobial analysis and (iii pollen estimation method with expert computer system obtained from three different sites of Pervari region (Siirt/Turkey. For physico-chemical parameters; moisture, free acidity, diastase activity, hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF, invert sugar, ash, commercial glucose and proline analysis were examined. For anti-microbial analysis disc dilution method were studied on six different bacteria species. For pollen analysis; different and new expert computer system was used for comparison of pollen of plants and honey samples. The aim of the study was to evaluate the properties of multi floral honey determined from three different locations in the same region and the way to understand to which plants were visited by the bees with comparing of pollen grains of flowers and honey by using the expert computer system. Honey samples of Pervari region were of acceptable quality based on recommended criteria of Turkish Food Codex and International Honey Commission.

  5. Honey

    ... from plants that have not been treated with pesticides. Honey is used for cough, diabetes, high levels ... Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)Some medications are changed and broken down ...

  6. Erythromycin residue in honey from the Southern Marmara region of Turkey.

    Gunes, Nazmiye; Cibik, Recep; Gunes, Mesut Ertan; Aydin, Levent

    2008-11-01

    Honey samples, collected from the Southern Marmara region of Turkey, were analysed for erythromycin residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode (LC-ESI-MS). Fifty samples, comprising chestnut, pine, linden and multi-flower honeys, were collected directly from hives and analyzed. The limit of detection and quantification were 6 and 20 ng g(-1), respectively, and recovery ranged from 85 to 89%. Four of the honey samples (8%) were found to be contaminated with erythromycin residues at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1776 ng g(-1). An erythromycin-fortified cake feeding assay was also performed in a defined hive to test the transfer of erythromycin residue to the honey matrix. In this test hive, the residue level in the honey, 3 months after dosing, was approximately 28 ng g(-1).

  7. Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in soil, plant and honey of a mountain region

    Djuric, G.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Honey bee and the products (honey, pollen, wax, propolis) are generally considered as efficient bioindicators of the environmental pollution. Honey bee activity upon a territory is well defined both in space and time and honey bee itself is easier to control than other animal bioindicators (birds, fish, wild animals). Networks of bee hives near nuclear and industrial installations are therefore often used for, environment pollution research and control. The investigations started in 1983/84. Gamma exposure and Cs-137 activity measurements provided information on ''zero status'' of the radioecological situation in the region. During the nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 and afterworks through the year, over two hundred samples of honey, grass and meadow flora have been examined. Investigations of the radioactivity in soils, meadow flora and honey in the region continued up to 1991 and afterwards. The vertical distribution of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different soils provided data on the migration rate through soil and on concentration factors for different phases of the ''soil-plant-honey'' ecosystem

  8. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  9. Spectroscopic study of honey from Apis mellifera from different regions in Mexico

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Casillas-Peñuelas, R.; Quintanar-Stephano, JL; Macías-López, E.; Bujdud-Pérez, JM; Medina-Ramírez, I.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze by Raman and UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopic techniques, Mexican honey from Apis Mellífera, using representative samples with different botanic origins (unifloral and multifloral) and diverse climates. Using Raman spectroscopy together with principal components analysis, the results obtained represent the possibility to use them for determination of floral origin of honey, independently of the region of sampling. For this, the effect of heat up the honey was analyzed in relation that it was possible to greatly reduce the fluorescence background in Raman spectra, which allowed the visualization of fructose and glucose peaks. Using UV-Vis-NIR, spectroscopy, a characteristic spectrum profile of transmittance was obtained for each honey type. In addition, to have an objective characterization of color, a CIE Yxy and CIE L*a*b* colorimetric register was realized for each honey type. Applying the principal component analysis and their correlation with chromaticity coordinates allowed classifying the honey samples in one plot as: cutoff wavelength, maximum transmittance, tones and lightness. The results show that it is possible to obtain a spectroscopic record of honeys with specific characteristics by reducing the effects of fluorescence.

  10. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  11. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    Mohammed Moniruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, while sodium (Na and potassium (K were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES. Trace elements such as arsenic (As, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and cobalt (Co were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.. The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.

  12. Determination of mineral, trace element, and pesticide levels in honey samples originating from different regions of Malaysia compared to manuka honey.

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.

  13. Quality parameters and pattern recognition methods as a tool in tracing regional origin of multifloral honey

    Lazarević Kristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of multifloral honey regarding the mineral composition, sugar content and basic physicochemical properties has been done. The total of 164 honey samples was collected from six regions of Serbia during 2009 harvesting season. Univariate data analysis (descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, geographic information system and pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been performed in order to identify geographical origin of honey. The content of Mg, K, and Cu, electrical conductivity, and optical rotation were established as useful indicators in tracing regional differences between honey samples. Samples originated from Zlatibor region were clearly distinguished from those from the rest of Serbia showing higher K and Mg content, as well as higher values of optical rotation, electrical conductivity, and free acidity. The influence of the soil composition, and climate conditions, as well as the presence of particular flora on the honey composition is stressed out. The modeling of geographic origin of honey has been attempted by the means of linear discriminant analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172017 and 451-03-2372-IP i FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk elements in honey from the South Moravian region (Czech Republic

    Petra Batelková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the actual content of some exogenous contaminants in the honey from the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and risk elements (Mercury - Hg, Cadmium - Cd, Lead - Pb, and Arsenic - As in multifloral blossom and honey dew samples of honey were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. The samples were collected form beekeepers and from retail stores located in South Moravia in the Czech Republic. Concentrations of individual PAHs in honey samples ranged between 0.02 μg·kg-1–1.93 μg·kg-1. The limit of benzo[a]pyrene for infant formula (1.0 μg·kg-1 was not exceeded and fluoranthene was not quantified in any of the samples. Concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the range of 3.24 μg·kg-1–11.31 μg·kg-1, 0.95 μg·kg-1–32.35 μg·kg-1, and 22.80 μg·kg-1–177.85 μg·kg-1, respectively. Concentration of As exceeded the detection limit only in three samples, ranging from 3.51 μg·kg-1 to 4.35 μg·kg-1. Acceptable limits for trace elements in infant formula were met. Results of this study complete present knowledge of the contaminant content in Czech honey and confirmed high quality and safety of honey from the South Moravian region.

  15. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  16. Monitoring of elemental composition of honey from selected regions of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Boateng, R.

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a sweet, thick and viscid fluid collected from beehives and usually found in cells of the honey comb. It is produced from nectar collected from various flowers by honeybees and processed. Among the important uses, pure and undiluted honey serves as natural sweetener and contains a broad variety of vitamins for human consumption. Due to its global demand, monitoring of the quality of honey is of great significance. In this study, honey samples were collected systematically from farmers and retailers in the Brong Ahafo, Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. The sampling was done along the farmer-to-trader channels, to assess the quality of honey produced from various regions and to trace the sources of elemental contamination. Physicochemical studies; pH, electrical conductivity and specific gravity were done. The levels of selected toxic heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, V, Cr, As) and essential metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co) in the honey samples were analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) was also employed to determine elements such as Pb, Co, Cr and Fe. All the honey samples were found to be acidic, with pH ranging from 3.60 to 6.10. The acidity of honey is significant as it inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The values agrees favourably with the permitted pH limits of 3.40 to 3.60 for good quality honey, set by the National Honey Board of United States. The electrical conductivities measured ranged from 11.9 μS/cm to 44.4 μS/cm. The values were within the acceptable limits set by Ghana Standards Authority and other organizations (<800 μS/cm). The specific gravity of the honey samples analysed ranged from 1.297 to 2.031. These values were higher than the values (1.2081 to 1.2270) reported in Libyan Honey. However, these values were closer to the average specific gravity (1.425) value reported in other studies. These variations in the specific gravity may be related to

  17. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  18. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  19. GIS technology in regional recognition of the distribution pattern of multifloral honey: The chemical traits in Serbia

    Radović D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS is a computer-based system to input, store, manipulate, analyze and output spatially referenced data. There is a huge range application of GIS that generally sets out to fulfill: mapping, measurement, monitoring, modeling and management. In this study, GIS technology was used for the regional recognition of origin and distribution patterns of multifloral honey chemical traits in Serbia. This included organizing and analyzing the spatial and attributive data of 164 honey samples collected from different regions of Serbia during the harvesting season of 2009. Multifloral honey was characterized in regards to mineral composition, sugar content and basic physicochemical properties. The kriging method of Geostatistical Analyst was used for interpolation to predict values of a sampled variable over the whole territory of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002, OI 172017 and 451-03-2372-IP Type 1/107

  20. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations.

    Mortensen, Ashley N; Ellis, James D

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African-matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas.

  1. Managed European-Derived Honey Bee, Apis mellifera sspp, Colonies Reduce African-Matriline Honey Bee, A. m. scutellata, Drones at Regional Mating Congregations

    Mortensen, Ashley N.; Ellis, James D.

    2016-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) dramatically changed the South American beekeeping industry as they rapidly spread through the Americas following their introduction into Brazil. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the management of European-derived honey bees (A. mellifera sspp.) could reduce the relative abundance of African-matriline drones at regional mating sites known as drone congregation areas (DCAs). We collected 2,400 drones at six DCAs either 0.25 km or >2.8 km from managed European-derived honey bee apiaries. The maternal ancestry of each drone was determined by Bgl II enzyme digestion of an amplified portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, sibship reconstruction via nuclear microsatellites was conducted for a subset of 1,200 drones to estimate the number of colonies contributing drones to each DCA. Results indicate that DCAs distant to managed European apiaries (>2.8 km) had significantly more African−matriline drones (34.33% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA) than did DCAs close (0.25 km) to managed European apiaries (1.83% of the collected drones had African mitochondrial DNA). Furthermore, nuclear sibship reconstruction demonstrated that the reduction in the proportion of African matriline drones at DCAs near apiaries was not simply an increase in the number of European matriline drones at the DCAs but also the result of fewer African matriline colonies contributing drones to the DCAs. Our data demonstrate that the management of European honey bee colonies can dramatically influence the proportion of drones with African matrilines at nearby drone congregation areas, and would likely decreasing the probability that virgin European queens will mate with African drones at those drone congregation areas. PMID:27518068

  2. STUDY ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND MINERAL CONTENT OF FIVE HONEYS PRODUCED IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    MOUNIR HABATI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the physicochemical, antioxidant properties and mineral content of five Honeys from the Central Region of Algeria (Laghouat. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the official methods of analysis of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists; antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results compared to those recommended by Codex Alimentarius indicated that the quality of the tested honey was very good. The samples exhibited good antioxidant activity. A linear positive relationship existed between antioxidant activity and total phenolics (R2 = 0.95/flavonoids (R2 = 0.99. The analyzed honey samples possess valuable antioxidants for culinary and medicinal uses. The analysis revealed the presence of (K 220.88 ± 1.72 ppm, (Na 85.84 ± 1.72 ppm, (Fe 0.1922 ± 0.47 ppm, (Co 0.9144 ± 1.63 ppm, (Cu 0.1252 ± 1.76 ppm and nickel (Ni 0.0463 ± 0.10 ppm in the collected samples. Toxic elements identified in the studied honeys are safe because they are below the maximum residual limit. Therefore, these results indicate that the areas of production of these honeys are unpolluted by the toxic elements.

  3. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  4. Land use in the Northern Great Plains region of the U.S. influences the survival and productivity of honey bee colonies

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff S.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Spivak, Marla S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains region of the US annually hosts a large portion of commercially managed U.S. honey bee colonies each summer. Changing land use patterns over the last several decades have contributed to declines in the availability of bee forage across the region, and the future sustainability of the region to support honey bee colonies is unclear. We examined the influence of varying land use on the survivorship and productivity of honey bee colonies located in six apiaries within the Northern Great Plains state of North Dakota, an area of intensive agriculture and high density of beekeeping operations. Land use surrounding the apiaries was quantified over three years, 2010–2012, and survival and productivity of honey bee colonies were determined in response to the amount of bee forage land within a 3.2-km radius of each apiary. The area of uncultivated forage land (including pasture, USDA conservation program fields, fallow land, flowering woody plants, grassland, hay land, and roadside ditches) exerted a positive impact on annual apiary survival and honey production. Taxonomic diversity of bee-collected pollen and pesticide residues contained therein varied seasonally among apiaries, but overall were not correlated to large-scale land use patterns or survival and honey production. The predominant flowering plants utilized by honey bee colonies for pollen were volunteer species present in unmanaged (for honey bees), and often ephemeral, lands; thus placing honey bee colonies in a precarious situation for acquiring forage and nutrients over the entire growing season. We discuss the implications for land management, conservation, and beekeeper site selection in the Northern Great Plains to adequately support honey bee colonies and insure long term security for pollinator-dependent crops across the entire country.

  5. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    state line were dominantly cow and horse with one ribotype from bird. Escherichia coli was detected in only one well sample. Bacterial ribotypes in water from that upgradient well indicated human and dog feces as sources for bacteria, and that on site wastewater treatment may not always be adequate in these highly permeable soils. Greater concentrations of nitrate in Cave Springs Branch and O'Brien Spring relative to the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall may be due, in part, to conversion of ammonia from poultry processing plant wastewater. The poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall sample collected in March 2000 contained greater concentrations of ammonia and total organic nitrogen plus ammonia than the spring, stream, and well samples collected during August 1999. Cave Springs Branch and Honey Creek contributed approximately equal loads of nitrogen to Honey Creek below the confluence and the greatest loads of nitrogen were introduced to Cave Springs Branch by the poultry processing plant wastewater outfall and O'Brien Spring. Nitrate concentrations in upgradient well samples ranged from 0.38 to 4.60 milligrams per liter, indicating that there are sources of ground-water nitrogen other than Cave Springs Branch, such as animal waste, fertilizer, or human waste. Nitrogen compounds in water from wells downgradient of Cave Springs Branch may be from Cave Springs Branch, fertilizers, animal waste, or human waste.

  6. Analysis of Romania’s Honey Market

    Ion Pîrvuţoiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of Romania’s honey market in the period 1990-1997, by means of the specific indicators: number of beekeepers, number of bee families, honey yield and production, ecological honey production, honey trade and price. The analysis has pointed out that beekeeping has been continuously developing mainly after the year 2000. In 2007, 34,971 beekeepers were keeping 1,085,905 bee families, producing 18.56 kg honey per family in average, meaning 20,159 honey tons. The major producing regions are the Central, South West, West, North East, South East and North West areas. Romania produces 50 % mixed honey, 30 % Robinia honey and 25 % lime honey and honey price is related to honey quality. Ecological honey is produced in 584 apiaries and accounted for 2,300 tones in 2008. Honey consumption per capita is 0.19 kg, still at a low level compared to other EU countries. In 2007, Romania exported 6,236 tons of honey and imported 1,8 tones. Romania is a net honey exporter having a positive trade balance.Romania produces 6.26 % of the EU honey production and 1.87 % of world production. It also contributes by 5.67 % to the EU honey exports and by 1.53 % to the world exports.

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of central nervous system regions in three species of honey bee during dance communication behavior.

    Moushumi Sen Sarma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a large-scale transcriptomic profiling of selected regions of the central nervous system (CNS across three species of honey bees, in foragers that were performing dance behavior to communicate to their nestmates the location, direction and profitability of an attractive floral resource. We used microarrays to measure gene expression in bees from Apis mellifera, dorsata and florea, species that share major traits unique to the genus and also show striking differences in biology and dance communication. The goals of this study were to determine the extent of regional specialization in gene expression and to explore the molecular basis of dance communication.This "snapshot" of the honey bee CNS during dance behavior provides strong evidence for both species-consistent and species-specific differences in gene expression. Gene expression profiles in the mushroom bodies consistently showed the biggest differences relative to the other CNS regions. There were strong similarities in gene expression between the central brain and the second thoracic ganglion across all three species; many of the genes were related to metabolism and energy production. We also obtained gene expression differences between CNS regions that varied by species: A. mellifera differed the most, while dorsata and florea tended to be more similar.Species differences in gene expression perhaps mirror known differences in nesting habit, ecology and dance behavior between mellifera, florea and dorsata. Species-specific differences in gene expression in selected CNS regions that relate to synaptic activity and motor control provide particularly attractive candidate genes to explain the differences in dance behavior exhibited by these three honey bee species. Similarities between central brain and thoracic ganglion provide a unique perspective on the potential coupling of these two motor-related regions during dance behavior and perhaps provide a snapshot of the energy

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN HONEY IN JAR AND HONEY IN COMB FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

    G. Formato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, during August-July 2007 analyzed, for the microbial aspects, 37 samples of jar honey and 53 samples of honey in comb obtained from 37 farms of Latium Region. In the jar honey there weren’t values up to 1*103 colony-forming unit (CFU/g of bacteria mesophiles, while in the honey in comb it was not up to 2*103 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 22 samples (41,5% of honey in comb and in 18 samples (48,6% of jar honey; Clostridium perfringens was found in 6 (11,3% samples of honey in comb and in 6 samples (16,2% of jar honey; Clostridium baratii was found in 1 (1,9% sample of honey in comb and in 1 sample (2,7% of jar honey; coagulase-positive staphylococci were found in 4 (11,3% samples of honey in comb and in 4 samples (10,8% of jar honey; Clostridium sordelli was found in 2 samples (3,8% of honey in comb and in 1 sample (2,7% of jar honey. Only 2 samples of honey in comb and 1 sample of jar honey had yeasts up to 1000 CFU/g. Finally, 9 samples (24,3% of jar honey and 16 samples (30,2% of honey in jar were positives for moulds.

  9. Studies of the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbial load and physicochemical properties of Ghanaian honey from the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo and Greater Accra regions

    Ansah Larbi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a universal product with a wide usage throughout the life spectrum. It is a substitute for sugar for many people, an energy booster, helps maintain the blood sugar level and research has shown that it has the potential for cancer prevention. The high sugar concentration of honey and its low pH gives honey antimicrobial properties and makes it difficult for microorganisms to grow. However, research has provided evidence of the presence of microbes in honey. The microbes are introduced into honey through primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are due to honeybee foraging activities resulting in the transfer of pollen and other microbial species in the air, soil and plants into the product before it matures. The secondary sources of contamination are due to the harvesting process, materials used for harvesting and storage of the honey; as well as the method used in extracting and treating honey before it is sold to the consumer. Accordingly, it is imperative that the quality of honey on the Ghanaian market is monitored regularly to provide data on the microbial load. This study endeavours to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in Ghanaian honey, the sources of microbial contamination and the effect of gamma radiation on the microbial load as well as the physico-chemical properties of honey. Ninety (90) honey samples were collected from three regions; Brong Ahafo, Ashanti, and Greater Accra [Thirty (30) from each region]. Sampling was conducted using the farmer-to-retailer route, that is, honey was sampled directly from the beehive with the comb before the farmer harvested, samples were taken after the farmer had harvested and treated and finally honey was sampled from retailers who buy directly from the farmer. The effect of gamma radiation on the microbial load was studied using a 60 Co source gamma irradiation facility at doses of 20 kGy, 30 kGy and 40 kGy on the presence of microbes and the physicochemical properties (pH, Reducing Sugar

  10. Viral prevalence increases with regional colony abundance in honey bee drones (Apis mellifera L).

    Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; Paxton, Robert J; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-10-01

    Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  12. Sensory and volatile profiles of monofloral honeys produced by native stingless bees of the brazilian semiarid region.

    Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira da; Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2018-03-01

    Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey. These results demonstrate that the knowledge of the sensory and aroma profile of these honeys can contribute to characterization of its floral and geographical identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of honeys from the bee Melipona fasciculata produced in two regions of Brazil

    Rachel Torquato Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The honey from Tiúba bees (Melipona fasciculata is commercially important in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. However, the absence of any specific legislation for this kind of honey is an obstacle to its increased production and commercialization. Determining the microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of different Tiúba honey can inform the elaboration of specific legislation. Thus, honey samples from two Water Catchment Areas in Maranhão (Munim and Pericumã, sample size 20 for each were collected and submitted for microbiological analysis (total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, molds and yeasts, Clostridium sulfite reducers and Salmonella sp. and physical-chemical analysis (moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, insoluble and soluble solids, ash content, acidity and pH. Most of honeys sampled were suitable for human consumption, except for one sample from Pericumã. Honeys from the two water catchment areas presented differences in some physicochemical characteristics, which can be attributed to the botanic, soil and climatic diversity of the two areas. Still, these Tiúba honey samples did not fall within the Brazilian legislation for Apis mellifera honey for some of the physical-chemical characteristics, and so is not properly regulated, thus reinforcing the need for specific legislation for this type of honey.

  14. The XX century architectural heritage in the Marche region. The Masters’ drawings and designs.

    Ramona Quattrini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the history of architecture, Marche is often considered as a region that did not take part in the big developments of national architecture. Hence it’s meaningful to examine the architectonic events of the Region in the XX century and how much the Marche region has been the object of work by the great masters of the past century. A list of architects - called ‘masters’ – has been selected: Franco Albini, Gae Aulenti, Carlo Aymonino, Ernesto Basile, BBPRGuido Canella, Giancarlo De Carlo, Luigi Figini, Massimiliano Fuksas, Roberto Gabetti, Ignazio Gardella, Giorgio Grassi, Vittorio Gregotti, Adalberto Libera, Giovanni Michelucci, Gaetano Minnucci, Carlo Mollino, Luigi Moretti, Pier Luigi Nervi, Giuseppe Pagano, Edoardo Persico, Marcello Piacentini, Renzo Piano, Gio Ponti, Paolo Portoghesi, Franco Purini, Ludovico Quaroni, Mario Ridolfi, Aldo Rossi, Giuseppe Samonà, Antonio Sant’Elia; Alberto Sartoris, Carlo Scarpa, Giuseppe Terragni, Gino Valle, Vittoriano Viganò, Marco Zanuso, The research is a meaningful census of the works of the 20th century, whether they have been realized or not (projects, competitions, studies etc. and assigned to the masters listed above.

  15. Not Quite Under the Tuscan Sun… the Potential of Film Tourism in Marche Region

    Sue Beeton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between film and tourism is complex and at times often subtle – not all movies directly encourage tourism, but they can influence tourist images as well as provide additional aspects to the tourist experience. This conceptual paper considers the role that film can play to encourage and enhance tourism in the Marche Region of Italy. Based on theoretical knowledge developed to date, a process to develop film tourism product is proposed. Such a practical application of academic knowledge will also provide data with which to further develop theoretical models in the field.

  16. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of natural honeys and propolis collected from different geographical regions of Ethiopia

    D. Sime

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ten honey and five propolis samples from different geographical origins were tested. Both honey and propolis samples showed high content of total phenolic compounds (330-610 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g honey; 365-1022 mg GAE/g ethanol extract of propolis (EEP. The total flavonoids ranged from (15.1-42.6 mg catechin equivalent (CE/100 g for honey; to 123-74 mg CE/g for EEP. These honeybee products of Ethiopia had high total radical scavenging properties with respect to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH; 18.1-59.8% and 48.6-87.8% for honey and EEP respectively. Furthermore, the hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF of the honey samples was found to be low with a mean value of 4.8 mg/kg suggesting that the samples were of good quality. The antioxidant properties of the products showed a good correlation (r2 = 0.50-0.82 with their polyphenolic contents.

  17. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  18. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  19. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  20. Determination of proline in honey: comparison between official methods, optimization and validation of the analytical methodology.

    Truzzi, Cristina; Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Finale, Carolina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The study compares official spectrophotometric methods for the determination of proline content in honey - those of the International Honey Commission (IHC) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) - with the original Ough method. Results show that the extra time-consuming treatment stages added by the IHC method with respect to the Ough method are pointless. We demonstrate that the AOACs method proves to be the best in terms of accuracy and time saving. The optimized waiting time for the absorbance recording is set at 35min from the removal of reaction tubes from the boiling bath used in the sample treatment. The optimized method was validated in the matrix: linearity up to 1800mgL(-1), limit of detection 20mgL(-1), limit of quantification 61mgL(-1). The method was applied to 43 unifloral honey samples from the Marche region, Italy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlations between land covers and honey bee colony losses in a country with industrialized and rural regions.

    Clermont, Antoine; Eickermann, Michael; Kraus, François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2015-11-01

    High levels of honey bee colony losses were recently reported from Canada, China, Europe, Israel, Turkey and the United States, raising concerns of a global pollinator decline and questioning current land use practices, in particular intense agricultural cropping systems. Sixty-seven crops (data from the years 2010-2012) and 66 mid-term stable land cover classes (data from 2007) were analysed for statistical relationships with the honey bee colony losses experienced over the winters 2010/11-2012/13 in Luxembourg (Western Europe). The area covered by each land cover class, the shortest distance between each land cover class and the respective apiary, the number of plots covered by each land use class and the size of the biggest plot of each land cover class within radii of 2 km and 5 km around 166 apiaries (2010), 184 apiaries (2011) and 188 apiaries (2012) were tested for correlations with honey bee colony losses (% per apiary) experienced in the winter following the season when the crops were grown. Artificial water bodies, open urban areas, large industrial facilities including heavy industry, railways and associated installations, buildings and installations with socio-cultural purpose, camping-, sports-, playgrounds, golf courts, oilseed crops other than oilseed rape like sunflower or linseed, some spring cereals and former forest clearcuts or windthrows were the land cover classes most frequently associated with high honey bee colony losses. Grain maize, mixed forest and mixed coniferous forest were the land cover classes most frequently associated with low honey bee colony losses. The present data suggest that land covers related to transport, industry and leisure may have made a more substantial contribution to winter honey bee colony losses in developed countries than anticipated so far. Recommendations for the positioning of apiaries are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been

  3. Institutional innovation and public extension services' provision: the case of Marche Regional Administration Reform in central Italy

    Pascucci, S.; Magistris, de T.

    2011-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of

  4. Oceanography of the Grand Banks Region of Newfoundland, March 1974 - October 1974.

    1978-07-01

    Sea in 1964. U.S. Coast Guard, Oceano - March 1971-December 1972. U.S. Coast Guard Ocean- graphic Report No. 10, CG 373-10. ographic Report No. 70, CG...60s00 08.30 34.S* a7?0 a000 £4. t0.. Gas Sol " a"’::0 34.:06 .0 44. SIR 00130 08.08 34.00 :1.0 0.00 £43. £.8 COO 00a 03.16 3.66 a70 9440.31 8 0 (0800

  5. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  6. Segmentation of Honey Buyers’ Behaviour by Conjoint Analysis

    Šánová P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A marketing analysis of Czech consumers’ behaviour when buying honey is discussed from the viewpoint of price, origin, honey type, crystallized sugar, and organic quality aspect. The surveyed target groups of honey consumers, who are examined also with respect to their education level, are from Prague and the Central Bohemian Region. The original premise of this research was the hypothesis that, when buying honey, customers focus primarily on its price and type. This hypothesis was verified by conjoint analysis. The results have shown that consumers are interested primarily in the price and origin of honey. An important parameter for buying honey is its (noncrystallization. Although it does not affect objective quality parameters of honey, it affects the consumers’ subjective perception of honey quality during purchase. Two clusters of honey consumers emerged through cluster analysis: the first cluster focussing on the origin, type, and price/sugar crystallization of honey, and the second interested in the origin, price, and quality of organic honey.

  7. Multi-elemental composition and antioxidant properties of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey from the coastal region of Croatia: Risk-benefit analysis.

    Tariba Lovaković, Blanka; Lazarus, Maja; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Jurica, Karlo; Živković Semren, Tanja; Lušić, Dražen; Brajenović, Nataša; Pelaić, Zdenka; Pizent, Alica

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of 23 major and trace elements, total phenolic content (TPC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were determined in nine samples of strawberry tree honey and compared to other types of unifloral honeys. The most abundant elements in strawberry tree honey were potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, ranging between 1276 and 2367, 95.2-154, 14.4-74.4 and 13.4-64.3mg/kg, respectively. Strawberry tree honey had generally higher TPC (range: 0.314-0.522g GA/kg) and DPPH (1.94-4.45mM TE/kg) compared to other analysed unifloral honeys. A strong positive relationship was found between TPC and DPPH, TPC and concentration of homogentisic acid (HGA), chemical marker of strawberry tree honey, and between DPPH and HGA. Regarding daily intake of essential elements, strawberry tree honey can be considered nutritionally richer than the majority of unifloral honeys available in Croatia, while contribution to tolerable intake set for potentially toxic elements was very low, corresponding to pristine areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. [Experience of Handicap International in providing humanitarian relief in region near Aceh, Indonesia from March 1 to 27, 2005].

    Gillet, Y

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the experience of the author in March 2005 during the relief efforts deployed in the region near Aceh, Indonesia (North Sumatra) by Handicap International, one of the 400 NGO that provided humanitarian aid following the tsunami disaster that struck Southeast Asia on December 26, 2004. Working in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh, the author was confronted with the extent of the devastation both in terms of property damage and human suffering. Clinical cases were often severe and rarely encountered in industrialized countries. The tsunami worsened the already poor sanitary conditions: rundown care facilities, poorly trained health care personnel, tropical disease, poor hygiene, and AVP.

  9. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  10. Antibacterial components of honey

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey has been known since the 19th century. Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey, but incomplete knowledge of the antibacterial activity is a major obstacle for clinical

  11. How honey kills bacteria

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria

  12. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the recovery period and indicate much

  14. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the

  15. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  16. Regional distribution of Paenibacillus larvae subspecies larvae, the causative organism of American foulbrood, in honey bee colonies of the Western United States.

    Eischen, Frank A; Graham, R Henry; Cox, Robert

    2005-08-01

    We examined honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies pollinating almonds in California during February 2003 for Paenibacillus larvae subsp. Larvae, the causative organism of the virulent brood disease American foulbrood. Colonies originating from the Rocky Mountain area and California had significantly higher numbers (P bees, respectively) than colonies from the upper Midwest (1.28). Colonies from the northwestern, central, and southwestern United States had intermediate CFU or bacterial colony levels. Operations positive for P. larvae larvae were relatively uniform at approximately 70-80%, and no regional significant differences were found. Percentages of colonies with high CFUs (> or = 400 per 30 bees) differed significantly, with those from the Rocky Mountain region having 8.73% compared with those of the upper Midwest with 0%. The significance of CFU levels was evaluated by inoculating healthy colonies with diseased immatures and sampling adult bees. The number of CFUs detected per diseased immature was conservatively estimated to be approximately 399 CFUs per 30 adult bees. We defined this spore level as 1 disease equivalent. Based on this, 3.86% colonies in our survey had 1 or more disease equivalent number of P. larvae larvae CFUs. Operations with high P. larvae larvae spore levels in their colonies will likely observe American foulbrood if prophylaxis is not practiced diligently.

  17. Northeast regional biomass program. Second & third quarterly reports, October 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market.

  18. Tropilaelaps mite: an emerging threat to European honey bee.

    Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ramsey, Samuel; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Phokasem, Patcharin

    2018-04-01

    The risk of transmission of honey bee parasites has increased substantially as a result of trade globalization and technical developments in transportation efficacy. Great concern over honey bee decline has accelerated research on newly emerging bee pests and parasites. These organisms are likely to emerge from Asia as it is the only region where all 10 honey bee species co-occur. Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite, is a classic example of a pest that has shifted from A. cerana, a cavity nesting Asian honey bee to A. mellifera, the European honey bee. In this review, we will describe the potential risks to global apiculture of the global expansion of Tropilaelaps mercedesae, originally a parasite of the open-air nesting Asian giant honey bee, compared to the impact of V. destructor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Honey bee surveillance: a tool for understanding and improving honey bee health.

    Lee, Kathleen; Steinhauer, Nathalie; Travis, Dominic A; Meixner, Marina D; Deen, John; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Honey bee surveillance systems are increasingly used to characterize honey bee health and disease burdens of bees in different regions and/or over time. In addition to quantifying disease prevalence, surveillance systems can identify risk factors associated with colony morbidity and mortality. Surveillance systems are often observational, and prove particularly useful when searching for risk factors in real world complex systems. We review recent examples of surveillance systems with particular emphasis on how these efforts have helped increase our understanding of honey bee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antonio Mollari e l’architettura nelle Marche dal Neoclassico al Purismo / Antonio Mollari and architecture in Marche region from Neoclassicism to Purism

    Fabio Mariano

    2015-02-01

    The early architectural "functionalist" Neoclassicism introduced in the Papal State by the genius of Vanvitelli, with his early works in the Marches, had defined a new design language and a particular simplified taste in architectural decorum, played on the widespread use of clay enriched with essential emphases stone, which will affect the architectural production in the Marches to beyond the eighteenth century. The Napoleonic invasion (1797 will shake the backwardness of the state papal introducing new modern principles of land management and planning, mapping and cadastral new tools, new types of architecture-related services, new roles assigned to public engineers and architects. Linearity, proportion and good taste became theoretical assumptions; constructive correctness and rational correspondence between functions and plans became the yardstick; a serene simplification of forms constantly connected to the economic program was married with recovery of the classical models and Vitruvian read back through the mediation treatises of Vignola and especially of Palladio. All news largely implemented after the Restoration of the Papal rule, where the professional figure of Antonio Mollari, after his exploits in the new Stock Exchange Building in Trieste, is inserted in the vein of architectural Purism. It was "more than a passing circumvention the neoclassical experience", it was a final declination of the broader cultural movement of the European neoclassical, by now exhausted, placed in a few decades, until the papacy of Pius IX, and before the next eclectic anthology of historical revivals.

  1. Honey Market in Romania

    Nica Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, beekeeping is an important traditional occupation. Honey and other bee products produced in our country are appreciated both in Europe and around the world. Honey is a complex food, one of the healthiest: it contains vitamins, organic acids, minerals and enzymes from bees, thanks to which honey is considered a superfood. The main objectives of the research are to analyze: the evolution of the number of bee families; the evolution of honey production and consumption in Romania; the value of exports and imports of honey from Romania. Estimates will also be made on honey production and consumption. The data used in the research will be taken from national and international databases.

  2. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and ... Infections levels were higher in the coastal region than in the interior. ... of the impact of this pathogen to the Kenyan honey bee colonies with a view of ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  3. Honey beekeeping and livelihoods prospects related to fair trade in ...

    Oku's White Honey has been produced for generations in the Kilum-Ijim forest, North-West region of Cameroon. Its white colour and creamy texture are bestowed by special mountainous plants, especially Schefflera abyssinica and Nuxia congesta. This honey is produced in a remote rural area where beekeeping is an ...

  4. Pharmaco-epidemiological description of the population of the Marche Region (central Italy treated with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine

    Fiorenzo Mignini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Italy, even though olanzapine has been discouraged for treatment of behaviour disorders in older patients affected by dementia, some physicians chose to prescribe for them. In response to this situation, the Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA promulgated a cautionary note. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study examined epidemiological indices for olanzapine prescriptions between 2004 and 2007 in the Marche Region of central Italy and in its provinces, to assess physician compliance with the AIFA note, and to determine whether there were differences in drug prescription between populations of the same territory, or differences based on gender or age group. RESULTS. Our analyses revealed high olanzapine use among young men and mature women, suggesting that these groups are most prone to psychotic symptoms. Analysis revealed that olanzapine prescription in elderly patients was reduced in some provinces, in line with the AIFA note. CONCLUSIONS. Prudent use of olanzapine prescription, in compliance with the AIFA note, was noted throughout the Region. Furthermore, this work offers details that may be useful in future studies of adverse drug reactions.

  5. The antibacterial activity of honey derived from Australian flora.

    Julie Irish

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57% of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla, jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium. In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8% samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4 °C than at 25 °C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25 °C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted.

  6. A modeling study of ionospheric F2-region storm effects at low geomagnetic latitudes during 17-22 March 1990

    A. V. Pavlov

    2006-05-01

    meridional neutral winds and variations in the zonal electric field to the equatorial anomaly changes is larger than that from geomagnetic storm disturbances in the neutral temperature and densities. Vibrationally excited N2 and O2 promote the equatorial anomaly enhancement during the predominant part of the studied time period, however, the role of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 in the development of the equatorial anomaly is not significant. The asymmetries in the neutral wind and densities relative to the geomagnetic equator are responsible for the north-south asymmetry in NmF2 and hmF2, and for the asymmetry between the values of the crest-to-trough ratios of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The model simulations provide evidence in favor of an asymmetry in longitude of the energy input into the auroral region of the Northern Hemisphere on 21 March 1990.

  7. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  8. Physicochemical properties of honey from Serbia in the period 2014-2016

    Vranić, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đinović Stojanović, J.; Korićanac, V.; Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.

    2017-09-01

    Honey is a viscous, aromatic, sweet food that is consumed and enjoyed by people around the world due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The physicochemical parameters of natural honeys, such as moisture, reducing sugars, sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), free acidity, diastase activity, water-insoluble content and electrical conductivity are strictly defined and constitute the quality indicators which characterize individual honey varieties. The present study shows results of honey quality investigation from various regions of Serbia, which were evaluated according to the Serbian Regulation. A total of 372 honey samples (132 acacia honey, 221 blossom honey and 19 honeydew honey) were obtained from the Serbian market. All applied methods were performed according to the Harmonized Methods of the International Honey Commission. Summarizing the results presented, the most important parameters for detecting honey that was non-compliant with the regulation were HMF content along with diastase activity and sugar content. Results show that in 2014 and 2015, a great number of honey samples were of insufficient quality to satisfy regulatory requirements. In 2016, the situation on the Serbian honey market improved and became more under control.

  9. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

    Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

  10. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  11. Physicochemical characteristics, total phenols and pigments of national and international honeys in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulaziz S. Alqarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 23 types of honey from Saudi Arabia and six other countries, the levels of some minor components and floral pigments as well as physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Most tested Saudi honeys, e.g. Acacia and Seder showed high values of density and total soluble solids and low water content compared to exotic ones. Some Acacia and Manuka samples had higher HMF contents than permitted levels. All the tested honeys were acidic; however Acacia honey had total acidity values over those of permitted levels, while most of the remainding types were comparable or acceptable. Also, Saudi Acacia and Egyptian honeys contained more content of total nitrogen, free amino acids and proline than those of the other tested types. Dark-colored honeys e.g. Acacia contained more phenolic content than those of the light-colored ones. Carotenoids were the predominant floral pigments in all the tested honeys, while xanthophylls and anthocyanins were the least predominant ones. Seder honeys showed moderate values of the tested characteristics compared to other types. The tested parameters are useful to determine the botanical origin of Saudi or exotic honeys and their quality. Further research on specific physicochemical properties of Saudi Acacia honey especially acidity is very much recommended. New criteria based on the regional characteristics of Saudi honeys including antioxidants, micro-constituents are suggested.

  12. Zooplankton associated with the oxygen minimum zone system in the northern upwelling region of Chile during March 2000

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; Krautz, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling region off northern Chile may play a significant biogeochemical role by promoting carbon flux into the subsurface OMZ (oxygen minimum zone). This work identifies the dominant zooplankton species inhabiting the area influenced by the OMZ in March 2000 off Iquique (20°S, northern Chile). Abundance and vertical distribution studies revealed 17 copepod and 9 euphausiid species distributed between the surface and 600 m at four stations sampled both by day and by night. Some abundant species remained in the well-oxygenated upper layer (30 m), with no evidence of diel vertical migration, apparently restricted by a shallow (40-60 m) oxycline. Other species, however, were found closely associated with the OMZ. The large-sized copepod Eucalanus inermis was found below the oxycline and performed diel vertical migrations into the OMZ, whereas the very abundant Euphausia mucronata performed extensive diel vertical migrations between the surface waters and the core of the OMZ (200 m), even crossing it. A complete assessment of copepods and euphausiids revealed that the whole sampled water column (0-600 m) is occupied by distinct species having well-defined habitats, some of them within the OMZ. Ontogenetic migrations were evident in Eucalanidae and E. mucronata. Estimates of species biomass showed a substantial (>75% of total zooplankton biomass) daily exchange of C between the photic layer and the OMZ. Both E. inermis and E. mucronata can actively exchange about 37.8 g C m -2 d -1 between the upper well-oxygenated (0-60 m) layer and the deeper (60-600 m) OMZ layer. This migrant biomass may contribute about 7.2 g C m -2 d -1 to the OMZ system through respiration, mortality, and production of fecal pellets within the OMZ. This movement of zooplankton in and out of the OMZ, mainly as a result of the migratory behavior of E. mucronata, suggests a very efficient mechanism for introducing large amounts of freshly produced carbon into the OMZ

  13. Market bulletin - March 1989

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in March 1989, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  14. Market bulletin - March 1991

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in March 1991, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  15. Market bulletin - March 1990

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in March 1990, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs, and the monthly evolution in each brazilian region. (C.G.C.)

  16. Antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of honey and effect of radiation hygienization

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    As mutation is the well known mechanism of neoplastic induction, therefore foods having bioactive compounds with potential to combat mutagenesis are of immense significance. Although honey is a well known natural functional food with associated health supporting quality attributes, there are limited reports with respect to its antimutagenic potential and the effect of floral type on the same. Antimutagenicity or the ability to prevent neoplastic inductions is being considered as an effective strategy to combat mutagen associated diseases. Therefore different regional Indian honeys varying in natural floral types procured were evaluated for their comparative antimutagenicity using a novel E. coli based forward mutation detection assay where mutation(s) in rpoB gene abolishes its interaction with rifampicin and thus confers rifampicin resistant mutator phenotype (RifR) to E. coli cells. Honey displayed wide variation in their ability to prevent induced mutagenesis and among 24 honey samples collected, 'Karanj' honey (Pongammia pinnata) displayed prominent (∼ 80%) antimutagenicity. Besides, honeys were also evaluated for their comparative antibacterial activity against various bacteria such as S. typhimurium, S. aureus, P. syringae etc. Surprisingly, honey of same floral type differed in their antibacterial potentials. Although honey is acidic in nature, the acidity of honey was not found to be the contributing factor of antibacterial activity. Instead, in almost all the cases the antibacterial activity was attributed to the peroxide component of honey. Besides, gamma radiation treatment was also standardized to ensure microbial safety of honey as it may contain burden of pathogenic microbial spores. Radiation (15 kGy) treatment of honey did not affect its antimutagenicity and antibacterial activity. Thus, the current findings provide credible evidence supporting health protective effects of honey and its retention in radiation hygienized honey. (author)

  17. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , NH 4 + , Cl − , Br − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , PO 4 3− ) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  18. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates consequences and future impacts of climate change on the social and natural systems of the Marche Region (one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy). This Region, is located in central part of the peninsula and borders the Adriatic Sea on the East and the Apennine mountains on the West. The Region extends for about 60 km E-W, and has a NW-SE coastline of about 170 km, covering a total area of 9366 km2. Multimodel projections over the Marche Regions, on daily, monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation parameters, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km covering a time period from 1951 to 2050. Results detail a significant increase of daily, monthly and seasonal mean temperatures, especially in summer, with anomaly values reaching +3°C after the year 2025, referring to the model CliNo 1981-2010. Mountain areas show higher values of temperature anomalies than coastal ones of approximately 0.5 °C. Concurrently, a widespread decrease of seasonal precipitation appears to affect all seasons, except for autumn. Rainfall decrease and temperature increase could reduce the Region's aquifer recharge and overall availability of hydro resources. These alterations could affect human health, agricultural productivity, forest fires, coastal erosion, algal blooms and water quality. Ongoing analysis of extreme climatological indices (e.g. frequency of maximum daily temperature exceeding comfort thresholds) are expected to quantify such impacts. A first analysis, linking climate change to the hydrologic cycle, studied through the computation of the hydro-climatic intensity index (as defined by Giorgi et al., 2012), suggests for the Marche Region an increase of the intensity of

  19. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region. PMID:22923947

  20. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region.

  1. [Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) ].

    Alessandroni, Morena; Balzani, Barbara; Cancellieri, Francesca; Colao, Annamaria; Comai, M; Elezi, Lindita; Mengucci, Rosella; Montesi, Simona; Olivi, Cinzia; Perticaroli, Patrizia; Pettinari, A; Ruschioni, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The aim of this operational guide document is to protect the health of working mothers and their babies during pregnancy, puerperium and breastfeeding. The project was developed by a technical working group which included professionals in the pertinent fields from the Workplace Prevention and Safety Services of the local Vasta-2 Area of the Marche Regional Health Service:physicians, health assistants, and nurses. It is considered to be a useful tool for risk assessment at the workplace aimed at professionals who are involved, with various duties and responsibilities, in the health care of the working mother. This paper consists of two functionally related sections, "Table of risks" and "Technical specifications". In the "Table of Risks" section, the occupational hazards for women during pregnancy or postpartum were analyzed with the highest possible degree of care. To this end the technical group provided, for each occupational hazard, its own operational suggestions, in relation to legislation, current scientific knowledge and Guidelines of other Italian Regions. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) participated in the final draft of the entire document. The second section, "Technical Specifications", illustrates the main tasks and any risks involved in the 34 manufacturing sectors most prevalent in this area. This operational guide document is intended to be the beginning of a common strategy in public health to achieve a wider field of action in promotion and information aimed at protecting the reproductive health of working mothers.

  2. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  3. A Europe-wide experiment for assessing the impact of genotype-environment interactions on the vitality and performance of honey bee colonies

    Costa, Cecilia; Büchler, Ralph; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    An international experiment to estimate the importance of genotype-environment interactions on vitality and performance of honey bees and on colony losses was run between July 2009 and March 2012. Altogether 621 bee colonies, involving 16 different genetic origins of European honey bees, were...

  4. Mad Honey Disease

    Laurentiu Broscaru

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A 46-years old woman presented with acute onset of nausea, vomiting and prostration in the ER. She appeared ill and was poorly responsive to verbal stimuli. The physical examination showed a systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg and a pulse of 40 bpm. ECG was notable for slight ST-elevations in the inferior leads. Right ventricular myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock and bradycardia was suspected. Supportive therapy with catecholamines was initiated and a emergency coronary angiography was arranged. However, lab results showed normal troponin levels and a subsequent echocardiogram showed the absence of abnormal wall motions. By thorough history taking with the spouse it turned out that the patient had consumed a Turkish honey approximately an hour before the beginning of the symptoms. The patient made a full recovery within 24 hours with only supportive therapy. In retrospect the clinical presentation was highly indicative of poisoning with Grayanotoxins from a plant, Rhododendron, which is found as contaminant in some sorts of honey in the Black Sea area. A pollen analysis confirmed the presence of Rhododendron in a honey sample.  Historically this poisoning is mentioned over the millennia as mad honey disease. The ST-elevations in the ECG were a sign of early repolarization, a non-pathological finding.

  5. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  7. Acceptance of renewable energies on the grid. RTE is being mobilised. Regional schemes, status on the 31 March 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document first presents the regulatory framework of the French regional schemes on climate, air and energy (SRCAE) and of the regional schemes of connection to the grid of renewable energies (S3REnR), and briefly indicates their content, their elaboration and implementation process. A map indicates the current situation or status of these SRCAEs and S3REnRs in the different regions (elaboration in progress, approved and published, or registered). It presents the situation before the introduction of these regional schemes, proposes a brief overview of SRCAE objectives by 2020 for photovoltaic and wind energy, indicates some aspects of RTE commitment for the specific case of renewable energies (projected installed power, funding), briefly presents the status of the S3REnR in Auvergne and in Picardie

  8. Honey As A Bioindicator Of Environmental Radioactive Contamination In Croatia

    Franic, Z.; Petrinec, B.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).

  9. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (Phoney (1%) significantly reduced (PHoney (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (Phoney produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  10. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  11. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  12. Carbonyl Compounds in Manuka Honey:

    Rückriemen, Jana

    2018-01-01

    New Zealand is the world’s third-largest honey exporter by value behind China and Argentina and honey accounts for up to 80 % of New Zealand’s exports. However, it is only the 16th biggest global supplier by volume. Manuka honey from New Zealand is sold for premium prices and merchandised for its health benefits. Because of its exceptional antibacterial effect, there is a strong market demand and the price for a kilogram of manuka honey has tripled in recent years (Ministry for Primary Indust...

  13. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  14. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  15. Inspecting the transformation of Roman settlements in the Upper Potenza Valley (Marche region across Late Antiquity and into the Early Medieval era

    Francesca Carboni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis shows the changes occurred in the settlement patterns in the upper Potenza river valley (MC, Marche region during the transition period between Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. This analysis is mainly based on the results of a geoarchaeological project, which has been carried out by a team from Ghent University since 2000. The review of the pottery collected during the fi eld survey has allowed for a better defined chronology of the last phase of occupation of the rural sites identifi ed in the sample zone, located within an intermediate basin between the Umbria-Marche Apennines and a lateral dorsal ridge, in areas dominated by the hilltops of Monte Primo and Monte Castel Santa Maria. For some of these sites, it is now possible to ascertain a continuity of life up to the end of the seventh century and further into the Middle Ages. La presente analisi illustra le trasformazioni delle modalità insediative avvenute nel periodo di transizione fra la tarda antichità e il medioevo nell’alta valle del fi ume Potenza (MC, Marche. Essa si basa sui risultati del progetto condotto con metodo geo-archeologico da un gruppo di ricerca dell’Università di Ghent, dal 2000. La revisione del materiale ceramico raccolto nel corso delle ricognizioni ha consentito di defi nire meglio le ultime fasi di occupazione dei siti rurali identifi cati nella zona campione in questione, posizionata all’interno del bacino intramontano posto fra l’Appennino umbro-marchigiano e una dorsale montuosa laterale, dominata dalle cime del Monte Primo e del Monte Santa Maria. Per alcuni di questi siti è stato, infatti, possibile accertare una continuità di occupazione estesa fi no al VII secolo e oltre, in età medievale.

  16. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  18. Does the phenotypic selection affect the genetic structure and diversity? A study case on Walnut in eastern central Italy (the region of Marche

    Fulvio Ducci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is widely planted in western Europe, either for fruit either for high quality timber production. This tree is generally considered non authoctonous, probably introduced from East some 7000 years ago and spread by several ancient civilisations. The possible artificial origin seems confirmed by the low intra-specific variation and the higher individual variability recorded by several Authors as well as by the lack of natural populations. Indeed, only wider fruit cultivation areas or small groups, lines or isolated walnut trees can be recorded in Italy. The occurrence of walnuts in forest, escaped from cultivation areas, is very rare. Due to the increased interest of planters, walnut plantations have been extended several ten thousands hectares throughout all western Europe. As a consequence of that it was evident the necessity of selected suitable basic populations in order to supply high quality reproductive materials. The conventional method based on the organisation of a wide and exhaustive seed procurement from the native range to establish provenance tests is at the present impossible. Thus it is necessary to study methods of selection which consider basic materials growing within the western European range. This study is aimed to test the efficiency of the multi-trait Selection Index method, in preserving levels of genetic diversity and structures compatible with the standards observed within a reference system of extended Italian populations. As a consequence of the relatively recent introduction, the genetic structure of the species shows individual variation higher than inter-population diversity. Those genetic structure characteristics were revealed also during a survey of walnut resources in the region of Marche, central Italy. The survey was the starting point for selecting and preserving basic materials for high quality woody production, possibly interesting for forest nurseries in the region. The

  19. Presentations from the Workshop On SABER: South Arc Beam Experimental Region, March 15-16, 2006, Menlo Park, California

    Noble, R.

    2006-01-01

    SABER (the South Arc Beam Experimental Region) is a proposed facility for experiments with 30 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac. The combination of a short bunch length (s z ∼ 30 microns), high beam charge (3 nC), and small focal spot size (s r = 10 microns) will offer unique scientific opportunities. For more detailed information about the SABER facility and an overview of some of the science possible take a look at the SABER proposal. Initial experiments with electrons could start as early as 2007. A central goal of SABER is to provide a facility responsive to the research needs of its users. The workshop's purposes are to introduce SABER to the potential user community and to explore the range of experiments that are possible. This is an opportunity for the research community to provide input about science at SABER and on the required beam parameters and infrastructure

  20. Spirochete della malattia di Lyme nelle zecche raccolte in uno studio di campo nell’Italia centrale (Regione Marche

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La malattia di Lyme è la più diffusa malattia trasmessa da zecche in Italia. La provincia di Pesaro ed Urbino per le sue caratteristiche ecologiche può essere considerata area rischio per la patologia. Ciò nonostante, non sono ancora disponibili dati di campo per questa area, sebbene la malattia sia presente nei territori limitrofi. Al fine di indagare la presenza del ciclo della borreliosi di Lyme, è stato condotto, nell’area di interesse, uno studio di un anno durante il quale sono state raccolte zecche da cervidi selvatici, uomo e dall’ambiente, successivamente identificate e analizzate mediante PCR. Le zecche appartenenti alla specie Ixodes ricinus (la specie più frequente in tutte le raccolte sono state testate mediante tre diverse PCR per la ricerca di Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Inoltre, per identificare le genospecie di Borrelia burgdorferi s.lcoinvolte, è stato amplificato e sequenziato un frammento della regione intergenica spaziatrice 5S-23S dell’ RNA ribosomiale. Il sequenziamento ha permesso di identificare due differenti genospecie: B. burgdorferi s.s. e B. lusitaniae, precedentemente coinvolte in casi umani di malattia di Lyme. Le informazioni riguardo le relazioni tra ospite, zecca e genospecie di B. burgdorferi s.l., confermando le notizie già presenti in letteratura per il bacino del Mediterraneo, mostrano come nell’area di interesse siano presenti le condizioni favorevoli allo sviluppo del ciclo della borreliosi di Lyme.

  1. The role of Italian FDI in Southeast Europe's international integration. A focus on investors from the Marche region

    Eleonora Cutrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast European countries have experienced significant economic integration into the world economy since 2000, through international capital flows and especially foreign direct investment (FDI. The work sheds light on recent trends in Italy-Western Balkans economic integration through FDI and other non-equity modes (NEMs. The methodology applied is based on country-level analysis, enriched by a case study approach. Main trends, characteristics and motivation of investments in the area are investigated. Based on this evidence, we suggest that the phenomenon of Italian integration in the Western Balkans is broader than official statistics would indicate, since Italian firms often set up subsidiaries through various non-equity arrangements. The surge in FDI in the area is recent, therefore it is not surprising that the main determinants are cost reductions and new market opportunities. What is interesting in this context is that local entrepreneurs regard efficiency-seeking investments as profitable only if they are connected to market-seeking goals. We find evidence also of localized industrial development stimulated by the entry of Italian firms, which is activating subcontracting relationships with existing companies in the host region. Further and in depth studies are needed to investigate the phenomenon

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and commercially available honey

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Honey, antibacterial activity, raw honey, commercially available honey, minimum inhibitory ... against pathogenic bacteria, oral bacteria as well as food .... explore the possible benefits of the use of honey among.

  3. Caracterização físico-química de méis de Apis mellifera L. da região noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Physicochemical characterization of Apis mellifera L. honeys from the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Juliane Elisa Welke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição físico-química de méis de Apis mellifera L. produzidos em dois anos consecutivos na região noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As características físico-químicas de 36 amostras de mel foram comparadas utilizando o teste T de Student e a adequação aos padrões da legislação brasileira da qualidade do mel foi verificada. Os resultados das análises dos méis variaram para as características analisadas conforme segue: pH (3,3-4,4, umidade (14,7-19,8%, acidez total (16,9-49,2meq kg-1, hidroximetilfurfural (0,15-48,3mg kg-1, açúcares redutores (60,1-75,9%, açúcares não-redutores (1,35-5,99%, cinzas (0,05-0,47% e sólidos insolúveis (0,016-0,27g kg-1. A análise estatística das amostras de mel produzidas em dois anos consecutivos mostrou que houve diferença significativa na umidade, na acidez e na hidroximetilfurfural. Os méis produzidos nesta região apresentam boa qualidade e características físico-químicas compatíveis aos padrões da legislação brasileira.The objective of this research was to determine the physicochemical composition of Apis mellifera L. honeys produced in two consecutive years in the northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The physicochemical characteristics of 36 honey samples were compared using Student’s T-test and their adequacy to standards established by the Brazilian legislation for honey quality was checked. The results varied as follows: pH (3.3-4.4, moisture (14.7-19.8%, acidity (16.9-49.2meq kg-1, hydroxymethylfurfural content (0.15-48.3mg kg-1, reducing sugar (60.1-75.9%, non-reducing sugar (1.35-5.99%, ashes (0.05-0.47% and solids non-soluble in water (0.016-0.27g kg-1. The statistical analyses of honey samples produced in two consecutive years showed that the moisture, acidity and hydroxymethylfurfural content varied significantly. The honey samples produced in this region were in accordance with the

  4. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in floral honeys of tropical Ghana: a health risk assessment.

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Dübecke, Arne; von der Ohe, Werner; von der Ohe, Katharina; Beuerle, Till

    2017-12-01

    There is a vast amount of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey as a result of its numerous benefits. However, honeys have been found to be contaminated with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) on account of bees foraging on PA-containing plants. This study deals with the analysis of PAs in tropical honeys emanating from different agro-ecological zones of Ghana in order to assess its potential health risk. PAs of 48 honey samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The results show that a total of 85% of the honeys from various agro-ecological zones were PA positive including all honeys from supermarkets. The highest concentration of PAs was 2639 μg kg -1 , while the average PA concentration of the samples was 283 μg kg -1 . The study also found Chromolaena odorata pollens in majority of the honeys, thus indicating the plant as major source of PA contamination of honeys in the tropical regions.

  6. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  7. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  8. Biochemical properties and microbial analysis of honey from North ...

    In the present study, physicochemical properties (pH, ash, commercial glucose, starch, reducing sugars and moisture) and microbial (yeast and enterobacterial) contaminations of 263 honey samples from North-western regions of Iran were evaluated in a 2 year period in different seasons of 2010 and 2011. Levels of ...

  9. Characterization of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) nectar-to-honey transformation pathway using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    Svečnjak, Lidija; Prđun, Saša; Rogina, Josip; Bubalo, Dragan; Jerković, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Samples of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) nectar, honey sac content and honey were analyzed by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and reference methods. The spectral analysis allowed detection of the major chemical constituents in C. unshiu nectar-to-honey transformation pathway thus providing information on the intensity and location of the compositional changes occurring during this process. The preliminary results showed that in average more than one-third of sugar-related nectar-to-honey conversion takes place directly in the honey sac; the average sugar content (w/w) was 17.93% (nectar), 47.03% (honey sac) and 79.63% (honey). FTIR-ATR results showed great spectral similarity of analyzed honey samples and small degree variations in both sugar and water content in nectar samples. The spectral data revealed distinctive differences in the chemical composition of individual honey sac contents with the most intensive and complex absorption envelope in the spectral region between 1175 and 950cm -1 (glucose, fructose and sucrose absorption bands). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc. Information Sheet

    Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc., a/k/a The Honey Do Service, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristol, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Bristol, Virginia.

  11. Bee Alert: Africanized Honey Bee Facts

    Lazaneo, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Information on how to “bee prepared” for the movement of the Africanized honey bee into California. Includes tips on how to identify Africanized honey bees, bee-proofing your home, and what to do if stung.

  12. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    Samira Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49% standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin.

  13. Role of honey in modern medicine

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of honey has a very long history. Honey has been used since ancient time due to its nutritional and therapeutic values. There had been varied ways of consumption honey including its use as a sweetener and flavoring agent. Honey is produced all over the world. The most important nutriment of honey is carbohydrates present in the form of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. Honey plays an important role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial agent and augments the adherence of skin grafts and wound healing process. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature and there is convincing evidence in support of its antioxidant and antibacterial nature, cough prevention, fertility and wound healing properties. However, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in the modern medicine. The aim of this review was explore and highlight the role of honey in modern medicine.

  14. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets

    Morais, Michelle Manfrini [UNIFESP; Turcatto, Aline Patricia; Pereira, Rogerio Aparecido; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Goncalves, Lionel Segui; Almeida, Joyce Mayra Volpini de; Ellis, J. D.; De Jong, David

    2013-01-01

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in s...

  15. Honey bees and their products as indicators of environmental radioactive pollution

    Tonelli, D.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Porrini, C.; Celli, G.; Mercuri, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of honey, pollen and honey bees were collected in some regions of Italy after the Chernobyl accident, and subjected to gamma spectrometry in order to assess their possible use as markers of the radioactive environmental contamination. Pollen proved to be the best indicator, since it reflects exactly the air contamination and therefore it is suitable for obtaining a map of fallout. Also bees can be used for this purpose, even if their collection is more difficult, whereas honey gives only an indication. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Honey bees and their products as indicators of environmental radioactive pollution

    Tonelli, D; Gattavecchia, E; Ghini, S [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Chimiche; Porrini, C; Celli, G [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia ' Guido Grandi' ; Mercuri, A M [Modena Univ. (Italy). Ist. Botanico

    1990-08-01

    Samples of honey, pollen and honey bees were collected in some regions of Italy after the Chernobyl accident, and subjected to gamma spectrometry in order to assess their possible use as markers of the radioactive environmental contamination. Pollen proved to be the best indicator, since it reflects exactly the air contamination and therefore it is suitable for obtaining a map of fallout. Also bees can be used for this purpose, even if their collection is more difficult, whereas honey gives only an indication. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs.

  17. Microbiological assessment of honey in México.

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Carlos Ramón; Moreno-Terrazas, Rúben; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos

    Honey is a product used as a natural sweetener and in several regions of Mexico and other countries it is also used as a therapeutic agent. Microbiological contamination of honey can occur during its extraction and handling. Due to the use and consumption of honey we highlighted here the importance of the assessment of its microbiological quality. One thousand nine hundred twenty samples obtained from 8 honey-producing states from Mexico were analyzed. From these samples, 40.5% (777/1920) did not comply with the NMX-036-NORMEX-2006 specification. Forty five percent (777/1920) of the samples did not comply with the mesophilic aerobic microorganism specification, neither did 17% (327/1920) of the samples with the specification for molds and 18.1% (348/1920) with the specification for yeasts. With regard to coliform bacteria, the samples contained less than 3 NMP/g. Two percent of the samples contained lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Clostridium perfringens was observed in amounts of more than 100CFU/g. None of the samples from the different states contained more than 100CFU/g of Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella spp. was absent in all samples. It is important to avoid contamination sources and implement good hygienic practices in order to maintain and improve the quality of Mexican honeys since a large percentage of them are intended for export. If these honeys are intended for therapeutic use, it is necessary to ensure that they comply with all quality parameters and to apply specific treatments that guarantee the removal of any pathogen that may represent a risk to the patients's health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The authenticity of honey in relation to quality parameters

    Dugalić-Vrndić, N.; Kečkeš, J.; Mladenović, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Serbian market can be found significant quantity of honey which authenticity can be doubt. Honey is changed sensory, as well as in certain chemical quality parameters. Sometimes it happens that honey is in accordance to quality requirements but that doesn’t mean that it’s natural and authentic honey. Many analysts who are engage in testing the quality of honey have experience to recognize the honey that isn't from honey bees but the work of ...

  19. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination.

    Glenny, William; Cavigli, Ian; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Radford, Rosemarie; Kegley, Susan E; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively. In this sample cohort, pathogen prevalence and abundance did not correlate with colony health, but did correlate with the date of sampling. In general, pathogen prevalence (i.e., the number of specific pathogens harbored within a colony) was lower early in the year (January-March) and was greater in the summer, with peak prevalence occurring in June. Pathogen abundance in individual honey bee colonies varied throughout the year and was strongly associated with the sampling date, and was influenced by beekeeping operation, colony health, and mite infestation level. Together, data from this and other observational cohort studies that monitor individual honey bee colonies and precisely account for sampling date (i.e., day of year) will lead to a better understanding of the influence of pathogens on colony mortality and the effects of other factors on these associations.

  20. Honey bee (Apis mellifera colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination.

    William Glenny

    Full Text Available Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively. In this sample cohort, pathogen prevalence and abundance did not correlate with colony health, but did correlate with the date of sampling. In general, pathogen prevalence (i.e., the number of specific pathogens harbored within a colony was lower early in the year (January-March and was greater in the summer, with peak prevalence occurring in June. Pathogen abundance in individual honey bee colonies varied throughout the year and was strongly associated with the sampling date, and was influenced by beekeeping operation, colony health, and mite infestation level. Together, data from this and other observational cohort studies that monitor individual honey bee colonies and precisely account for sampling date (i.e., day of year will lead to a better understanding of the influence of pathogens on colony mortality and the effects of other factors on these associations.

  1. Physiochemical characteristics of honey obtained from traditional ...

    Bheema

    2002-09-14

    Sep 14, 2002 ... There are about 201,000 bee colonies and 2,300 tones of honey production in a year (BoANRD, 2008). ..... to honey. 74/409/EEC, Official Journal of the European communities, NOL 221/14. ... Composition of American honey.

  2. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  3. Multi-Element Composition of Honey as a Suitable Tool for Its Authenticity Analysis

    Oroian Mircea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of 36 honey samples of 4 different botanical origins (acacia, sun flower, tilia and honeydew from the North East region of Romania. An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS method was used to determine 27 elements in honey (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn. We would like to achieve the following goal: to demonstrate that the qualitative and quantitative multi-element composition determination of honey can be used as a suitable tool to classify honey according to its botanical origin. The principal component analysis allowed the reduction of the 27 variables to 2 principal components which explained 74% of the total variance. The dominant elements which were strongly associated with the principal component were K, Mg and Ca. Discriminant models obtained for each kind of botanical honey confirmed that the differentiation of honeys according to their botanical origin was mainly based on multi-element composition. A correct classification of all samples was achieved with the exception of 11.1% of honeydew honeys.

  4. Essential and toxic element concentrations in monofloral honeys from southern Croatia.

    Bilandžić, Nina; Tlak Gajger, Ivana; Kosanović, Marina; Čalopek, Bruno; Sedak, Marija; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Varga, Ines; Đokić, Maja

    2017-11-01

    The concentrations of 24 elements in seven honey types (multifloral, heather, common heather, bearberry, sage, mandarin orange-blossom and honeydew) collected in southern Mediterranean regions of Croatia were determined using ICP-MS. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cu, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Se, Sb, U and Th (p<0.05, all) among honeys. The highest element concentrations were determined in honeydew honeys, with the exception of multifloral (Ca, Cr, Mo, Se), common heather (Mg, Na), bearberry (Ba, Fe, Pb) and sage (Ag) honeys. Among the floral honeys, the highest concentrations were found in multifloral honey (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Th and U), common heather (Co, K, Mg, Na, V), sage (Ag, Cd, Cu), and bearberry (Ba, Fe, Pb, Sb, Zn). The results contribute to the evidence supporting the role of botanical origin on the elemental composition of honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Honey as a bioindicator of arsenic contamination due to volcanic and mining activities in Chile

    José M Bastías

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of heavy metals in honey is indicative of natural or anthropogenic pollution and has therefore been proposed as a feasible bioindicator for arsenic contamination in different regions of Chile. Total arsenic (t-As and inorganic As (i-As concentrations were determined in 227 samples of honey harvested during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 in the areas of San Pedro de Atacama, Atacama, Chiloé, and Futaleufú, with the last town located 156 km from the Chaitén Volcano (latest eruption in 2008. These analyses were conducted using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled with a hydride generator. In the honey samples, the concentrations of t-As ranged from 2.2 to 171.9 μg kg-1, and the i-As concentrations ranged from none detected (ND to 24.6 μg kg-1, with the area of San Pedro de Atacama having the highest As concentrations. The samples of honey from Futaleufú showed higher As concentrations after the eruption of the Chaitén Volcano in 2008. This study demonstrates that As pollution in honey may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that it is appropriate to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. In addition, the consumption of the honey studied herein does not pose any health hazards to the consumer due to its As content.

  6. Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs

    Shahid Ullah Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

  7. Un’avanguardia in provincia. La “Mostra degli Archivi” all’Esposizione regionale marchigiana di Macerata del 1905 / A provincial avant-garde. The “Archives exhibition” to the Marche Regional Exhibition in Macerata in 1905

    Francesco Pirani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga, sotto il profilo storiografico, i tratti culturali della “Mostra degli Archivi”, organizzata a Macerata nel 1905 nell’ambito della “Esposizione regionale marchigiana”. La mostra fu un evento innovativo, teso a comunicare il ricco patrimonio documentario custodito nei numerosi e dispersi archivi storici comunali. L’obiettivo della mostra fu di valorizzare un patrimonio ancora in gran parte sconosciuto e negletto, dando un impulso al riordinamento delle carte e all’accessibilità degli archivi. Al tempo stesso, si volle ridefinire l’identità culturale delle Marche: non più terra di municipalismi, non più area defilata nella geografia dell’Italia unita, ma una regione orgogliosa della sua storia e del proprio patrimonio. Animatore della mostra fu uno studioso boemo, Lodovico Zdekauer, il cui profilo culturale è indagato per comprendere appieno le ragioni e gli obiettivi del progetto. La mostra fu apprezzata fuori delle Marche e fu proposta a modello per l’intera nazione.   This essay inquires, from an historiographical point of view, into the cultural features of  the “Archives Exibition”, held in Macerata in 1905, as part of  the “ Marche Regional exhibition”. The exhibition - a truly innovative event – was designed to make known the wealth of records heritage kept in the many but dispersed municipal historical archives. The exhibition aimed at valuing a still largely unknown and neglected heritage, boosting documents reorganization and assuring accessibility to archives. At the same time, the exhibition redefined the cultural identity of Marche: no longer a land of parochialism, no longer a low-profile land in a unified Italy, but a region proud of its past and its heritage. The exhibition was fostered by a Bohemian scholar, Lodovico Zdekauer, whose cultural profile is searched to fully understand the exhibition aims. The cultural event was highly appreciated outside the Marche region and

  8. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  9. Enantioselective analysis of chloramphenicol residues in honey samples by chiral LC-MS/MS and results of a honey survey.

    Rimkus, Gerhard G; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medication. Since 1994, CAP has not been authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) of 0.3 µg kg - 1 was established in 2003. The CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres, thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive, having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC-MS/MS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples. The method was validated at two concentration levels. The decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCß) were well below 0.3 µg kg - 1 , with limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.08 and 0.12 µg kg - 1 for all four enantiomers. The method provides a sensitive and reliable analysis of CAP enantiomers in honey, and proved its robustness during the daily routine analyses of numerous honey samples. In an internal honey survey, in total 40 honey samples from different geographical regions with identified CAP residues at or above the MRPL were reanalysed by chiral LC-MS/MS. In nine honey samples only the bioactive RR-CAP was detected as anticipated. However, in all other 31 honey samples the non-bioactive SS-CAP was also identified and quantified unambiguously. In 10 of these samples, mixtures of RR- and SS-CAP were analysed, and in 21 samples only the SS-CAP enantiomer, with concentrations up to 2.2 µg kg - 1 . Most of these samples are honeys from Ukraine and Eastern Europe. This is the first report of SS-CAP residues in food samples. The potential sources for these findings are discussed and the need of further systematic studies emphasised. It is recommended to examine in more depth the toxicological profile of the individual CAP stereoisomers.

  10. Economic analysis of honey production in Edo State, Nigeria ...

    This research work was carried out to analyze the economics of honey production in Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the demographic characteristics of honey production, assess the profitability of honey bee and the problems facing honey production .The list of honey farmers in the state was ...

  11. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil (R) source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey

  12. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV), as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  13. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Adam G Dolezal

    Full Text Available As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV, as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  14. Swimming of the Honey Bees

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  15. Resource Potential Analysis Of Honey Bee Feed Apis Dorsata In Mountain Tinanggo Kolaka

    Rosmarlinasiah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey Bees feed in the form of nectar pollen and water the bees used to build nests and establish colonies. A hexagonal honeycomb as a store of honey pollen and seedlings. If feed honey bees flower plants are abundantly available continuously then the always active bees build nests and fill each cell nest of honey pollen eggs and other products. The purpose of research is to determine the types of flowering plants as a potential feed honey bees nectar and pollen. The experiment was conducted at Mount Tinanggo Kolaka Southeast Sulawesi Province which lasted from March 2013 until March 2014. Determined by purposive sample observations based on the location of the nearest and farthest honey using the method of terraced paths. Samples were placed systematically with the withdrawal of the central point on the tree path beehive a radius of 700 meters from the center of the North East South and West. Data type of plant plant density and stem diameter were analyzed to determine the importance value index and diversity index type at the tree level trees saplings and seedlings. Based on the results of the enumeration on the collected research sites by 591 plant specimens were clustered on the tree level 152 level 102 poles 178 degree and 159 degree stake seedlings. Levels of tree species diversity and relatively abundant mast high and the level of saplings and seedlings are relatively abundant. The dominant species on the tree level Meranti Shorea sp and rambutan Nephelium lappaceum levels Holea pole Cleistantus laevis Hook f and Kuma Palaquium obovatum Engl the level of saplings and seedlings levels Holea Cleistantus laevis Hook f and rambutan Nephelium lappaceum. There are 237 types of flowering plants averaging 19.75 per month flowering plants and flowering peak was in September.

  16. Biological and therapeutic effects of honey produced by honey bees and stingless bees: a comparative review

    Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Honey is a natural product produced by both honey bees and stingless bees. Both types of honey contain unique and distinct types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of variable biological and clinical importance. Honey is one of the most effective natural products used for wound healing. In this review, the traditional uses and clinical applications of both honey bee and stingless bee honey – such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and cardioprotective properties; the treatment of eye disorders, gastrointestinal tract diseases, neurological disorders, and fertility disorders and wound healing activity are described.

  17. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing.

    Majtan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  19. How honey bees carry pollen

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  20. Comparative analyses of ber (zizyphus) honey with other types of honey

    Iftikhar, F.; Mehmood, R.

    2007-01-01

    Eight different honey samples were collected from different ecological areas of Pakistan and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The aim was to evaluate the quality, difference in the composition and comparison of Ber/Sidder (Zizyphus spp.) honey with other types of honey. The two samples of Ber honey and six other floral honey i.e., Citrus, mixed (citrus + Justicia), Acacia modesta, multi-flora and mixed (zizyphus + sesamum) were collected from Apis mellifera colonies. The colonies of Apis mellifera foraged on the above-mentioned flora in different ecological areas i.e. ber honey from Bannu and Karak, Citrus and mixed (citrus + Justicia) honey from Mandi Bahauddin, Acacia honey from Peshawar + Islamabad and multi-flora from Lahore. Nine legal parameters of honey quality control were followed. All honey samples were well within the limits of Codex Alimentarius Commission except ber and citrus. The ber honey showed high pH (6.85) and low reducing sugars (67.66%), sucrose (1.0%), free acidity (6.09 meq/kg) and total acidity (7.68 meq/kg). Mixed honey (zizyphus + sesamum) exhibited highest pH (6.88), lowest free acidity (2.80 meq/kg) and total acidity (5.50 meq/kg). Citrus honey was also found high in Hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF, 22.75 meql kg). (author)

  1. Research document no. 24. The integration of european electric markets: from the national markets juxtaposition to the establishment of a regional market; Cahier de recherche no. 24. L'integration des marches electriques europeens: de la juxtaposition de marches nationaux a l'etablissement d'un marche regional

    Finon, D

    2000-11-01

    After the transcription of the electricity directive in national legislations, the European electricity market appears to be a vast set of juxtaposed markets which are weakly connected at the level of their wholesale contracts compartment. Referring to the technological peculiarities of electricity as a commodity, the paper identifies the direct conditions of regional integration of the electricity markets, those which would favour cross-border trade and allow to be near the normal functioning of a regional commodity market. The infrastructure network dependence and the need of a stringent technical coordination necessitate to unify the operation of the different systems and the rules of access, or at the least to come near this unification by strong coordination. A second major condition, which is not fully debated, is the increasing connexion of short-term markets, via daily physical trade and emergence of a European financial market, which could trade various standardised contracts referring to a single hourly spot price, or to prices in various delivery points. To reach such an integration, two paths are possible: either concentration into one single organised power exchange as the Nordic pool, or rules harmonization of the various power exchanges which would be a minimal requirement to allow arbitrations between them. (author)

  2. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  3. CROATIAN HONEY MARKET IN EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT

    Dragana Dukić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This examination is based on comparison of honey production, in countries of European Union, transition countries and The Republic of Croatia. The situation in Croatia is shown with all information about honey production. All data are compared with already managed European countries. In comparison with registrated number of beekeepers and hives, Croatia belongs to transition countries with the smallest number of beekepers and hives. On the other hand, values, such as, number of hives per beekeper and average honey production by hive, classify Croatia ahead of transition countries. There are very few professional beekepers in Croatia, as well as in other transition countries, but not countries of The European Union. Honey production in Croatia has been increasing last seven years and in the last few it increased more than 50%. Export of honey in the last 2 years is half of the complete honey production, which accomplish conditions for export enlargement. At the same time, import of honey is considerable reduced. Conditions for export can be better with production of biological clean honey (eco-honey, since Croatia has great resources for it. Also, cost of Croatian honey on the foreign market, will be considerable higher.

  4. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  5. Examination using LC-MS/MS determination of grayanotoxin levels in blood, urine, and honey consumed by patients presenting to the emergency department with mad honey intoxication and relations with clinical data: a preliminary study.

    Aygun, Ali; Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Turkmen, Suha; Karaca, Yunus; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet; Ahn, Su Youn; Kim, Suncheun

    2015-01-01

    Intoxications related to "mad honey" are frequently encountered in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Intoxication is established on the basis of whether honey was consumed when history was taken at presentation. The search for a simple and reliable method for showing the grayanotoxins (GTXs) in mad honey in body fluids and in honey consumed by patients is still at the research stage. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate GTX levels in blood, urine, and honey consumed by patients with mad honey intoxication and to determine whether there is an association with clinical status. This descrptive study was conducted at the department of Emergency Medicine of Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty in Turkey. Mad honey, blood, and urine samples were obtained from patients between September 2013 and October 2014. Four cases presenting the Department of Emergency Medicine and diagnosed with mad honey intoxication were included in the study. GTX levels in blood, urine, and honey consumed by patients were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients' mean blood GTX I level was 30.62 ng/mL, GTX III level 4.917 ng/mL, urine GTX I level 0.447 mg/mL, and GTX III level 1.998 mg/mL. The mean GTX I level in the honey samples consumed was 4.683 mg/g and GTX III level 8.423 mg/g. The present study is unique in representing the first time that GTXs have been determined in human body fluids. There is now an urgent need for a large series of studies to provide statistical evidence whether there is a relationship between levels of toxins in human body fluids and clinical picture.

  6. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  7. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  8. The Benefits of Honey in Holy Quran

    Abbasali Purbafrani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Honey contains a wide variety of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants. The vitamins found in honey include niacin, riboflavin and pantothenic acid; minerals present include calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc. In addition honey contains a variety of flavonoids and phenolic acids which act as antioxidants, scavenging and eliminating free radicals. Honey has had a long history in human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavoring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism. Medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. More than 1,400 years ago, honey is described as a source of healing in the Quran and it is also mentioned as one of the foods of Paradise.

  9. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  10. Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey.

    Acevedo, Francisca; Torres, Paulina; Oomah, B Dave; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Martín-Venegas, Raquel; Albarral-Ávila, Vicenta; Burgos-Díaz, César; Ferrer, Ruth; Rubilar, Mónica

    2017-04-01

    Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations >0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of honey adulteration using HPLC method

    Olga Cwiková

    2015-10-01

    We have further assessed whether honey samples comply with legislative requirements relating to this product or consumer misleading practices take place. Our analysed samples often lacked indication whether it is a floral honey or honeydew honey; this information was missing in eight out of 21 samples. Samples 5 and 9 did not mention the name of manufacturer. Sample 10 did not mention the country of origin.

  12. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  13. Preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring

    Chen Bingru; Wang Chenlian; Wang Weihua

    1989-01-01

    The method of preparation of honey sample for tritium monitoring was described. The equipments consist of an air and honey supply system, a quartz combustor with CM-type monolithic combustion catalyst and a condensation system. In the equipments, honey sample was converted into cooling water by the distilling, cracking and carbonizing procedures for tritium counting. The recovery ratio is 99.0 ± 4.5 percent for tritiated water and 96.0 ± 2.0 for tritiated organic compounds. It is a feasible preparing method for the total tritium monitoring in honey sample

  14. Performance of a regional study related to biomass energetic valorisation within the frame of the elaboration of the regional renewable energy scheme of the Languedoc-Roussillon region - March 20, 2011 - Final version

    Moundy, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    After a recall of national objectives related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and of the defined content of a regional renewable energy scheme (determination of quantitative and qualitative objectives in terms of valorisation of the renewable and fatal energy potential within the region territory), and a recall of the different origins of biomass, the objective of this report was to compare potential energy usages with the available biomass resource (the present one and by 2020), in order to support the definition of regional objectives of development of biomass energy in the different geographical areas of the Languedoc-Roussillon region. Wood resource is first analysed. Assessments and perspectives are discussed for the different origins: (forests, sawmill by-products, wood scraps, green wastes), and regional consumptions of wood under various forms are also commented. The next part addresses agricultural biomass, its origins (crops, trimming residues, other agricultural activities, and agri-food industries), and the case of energy-oriented crops. The next part addresses biomass from domestic wastes (resource type and destruction, disposal or valorisation processes). The last part discusses objectives and development opportunities by 2020 for biomass and for heat, and in terms of the role of agricultural cooperatives and industries. Development levers and tools are briefly discussed

  15. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  16. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  17. Sensory evaluation of pralines containing different honey products.

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G; Georgijev, Aneta S; Popov, Vladimir S; Mladenović, Mića A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18-20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines.

  18. Sensory Evaluation of Pralines Containing Different Honey Products

    Mića A. Mladenović

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region. The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0, and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18–20 ºC. The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01 influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines.

  19. Valor nutricional do mel e pólen de abelhas sem ferrão da região Amazônica Nutricional value of honey and pollen of stingerless bees of the Amazonian region

    Rosa Cristina da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os constituintes nutricionais de amostras do mel e pólen das espécies Melipona seminigra merrillae (jandaíra, Melipona compressipes manaosensis (jupará, Melipona rufiventris paraensis (uruçu boca de ralo, provenientes do meliponário da Fazenda Poranga no município de Itacoatiara - AM e Meliponário Abelhudo em Manaus - AM. Os resultados demonstraram o potencial do mel como fonte de energia, particularmente a M. rufiventris com 305,3±2,4 kcal em 100g. O pólen da espécie M. compressipes apresentou a maior concentração de proteína 15,7±0,0% e energia 309,8±0,8 kcal. Tais constatações sugerem a implementação de novos estudos visando à incorporação destes produtos na dieta dos amazônidas, possibilitando uma nova fonte alternativa de alimento potencialmente nutritivo e saudável.We evaluated the nutricional constituent of honey and pollen samples of the Melipona species seminigra merrillae (jandaíra Melipona compressipes manaosensis (jupará, Melipona rufiventris paraensis (uruçu boca de ralo, proceeding from the Poranga Honey Farm in Itacoatiara - AM, and Meliponário Abelhudo in Manaus, AM. The results demonstrated the potencial of honey as a source of energy, particularly the kcal M. rufiventris with 305.3±2.4 kcal in 100g. The compressis pollen of species presented the highest concentration of protein 15.7±0.0 % and energy 309.8±0.8 kcal. Thus we suggest the implementation of new studies aiming at the incorporation of these products in the diet of the Amazon population, making possible a new potentially nutritional and alternative healthful food source.

  20. Tritium concentrations in bees and honey at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has maintained a network of honey bee colonies at LANL, perimeter (Los Alamos townsite and White Rock/Pajarito Acres) and regional (background) areas for over 15 years; the main objective of this honey bee network was to help determine the bioavailability of certain radionuclides in the environment. Of all the radionuclides studied ( 3 H, 57 Co, 7 Be, 22 Na, 54 Mn, 83 Rb, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 90 Sr and total U), tritium was consistently detected in bees and was most readily transferred to the honey. In fact, honey collected from hives located at TA-21, TA-33, TA-50, TA-53, and TA-54 and from White Rock/Pajarito Acres contained significantly higher concentrations of 3 H than regional background hives. Based on the average concentration of all radionuclides measured over the years, the effective dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 5 kg (11 lb) of honey collected from Los Alamos (townsite) and White Rock/Pajarito Acres, after regional background has been subtracted, was 0.0186 (±0.0507) and 0.0016 (±0.0010) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest EDE, based on the mean + 2SD (95% confidence level), was 0.1200 mrem/y; this was <0.2% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit of 100 mrem/yr from all pathways

  1. Comparing the quality of honey from beekeepers and honey from the market chain

    Milena Bušová

    Full Text Available Honey is a valuable food for its beneficial nutritional and dietetic effects. The quality of honey fluctuates considerably according to various criteria, the adulteration of honey with cheaper substitutes is not negligible. The quality of honey in the market chain with honey taken from beekeepers was compared in this study. A total of 10 samples from each group were tested for basic qualitative markers and compared with legislative criteria. The samples were analysed for fructose and glucose content, water content, titratable acidity and two tests for illegal sugar additions. The results revealed the addition of 25% of the technical syrup in one sample of honey from the market chain, one sample had the sum of fructose and glucose 56,3%, it is below the required limit 60% (differed by 6,3%. In other parameters the samples complied with the valid legislation. All tested parameters in honey from beekeepers met the criteria of the legislation, only 1 sample of blossom honey had the sum of fructose and glucose just below the required limit. The sum of fructose and glucose in this sample was 58.3 %, it differed by 2.9% from the required content of 60%. Sensory analysis was used to assess four samples of honey from beekeepers collected by different techniques. Results have not shown significant difference in sensory properties between manually pressed honey and honey obtained after whirling. The responses characterizing the favourable sensory properties of the examined honey samples were prevailing. The difference between the perception of honey after whirling and honey harvested by press manually was not demonstrated in sensory properties.

  2. IMPACT OF HONEY DRESSING IN CHRONIC ULCER

    Santhosh Kumar S. S

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This was an open label study. Although, honey has been used for centuries in wound care, now only it is being integrated into modern medical practice. The resurgence of interest in honey as a medicine for modern wound dressing offers opportunities for both patients and clinicians. The aim of this study is to show the advantage of honey dressing over conventional saline dressing in the management of chronic non-healing ulcer. This property of honey is mentioned in papyruses traced to 3500 years ago among ancient Egyptians and the Hebrews 3000 years ago. Honey naturally contains small amounts of enzymes. The predominant enzymes in honey are diastase (amylase, invertase (alpha-glucosidase and glucose oxidase. Honey has been proven to have significant antibacterial properties and is a useful constituent in wound and burn care. The stimulation of cell growth seen with honey is probably also responsible for ‘kick-starting’ the healing process in chronic wounds that have remained non-healing for long periods. Honey has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria and fungi. Many randomised and non-randomised study has shown the efficacy of honey as a healing agent and excellent dressing material. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study was conducted in medical college, Trivandrum, which is a tertiary care centre. Patients are selected from orthopaedic and general surgical wards. The study period was one year extending from July 2014 to June 2015. Saline dressing was given for the patients admitted in the first 6 months of study. Honey dressing was given for the next 6 months of study. Outcome was assessed on duration of hospital stay, difference of outcome in different distribution of grades of ulcer, difference of outcome in patients with vascular compromise, which is found out by Doppler ultrasound and difference of outcome in patients with diabetes mellitus. RESULTS Most significant observations made were in regard to duration of hospital stay

  3. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  4. Carbon Stable-Isotope and Physicochemical Data as a Possible Tool to Differentiate between Honey-Production Environments in Uruguay

    Verónica Berriel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of honey origin is an increasingly important issue worldwide as it is closely related to product quality and consumer preference. In South America, honeys produced in grasslands and eucalyptus or native forests are preferred at the regional level, so their differentiation is essential to assure consumers of their authenticity according to their productive system. The objective of this study was to differentiate honeys produced in three environments: one, a monoculture system based on the eucalyptus forest, and two others based in natural environments of grasslands and native forests. To do this, honey’s physicochemical and isotopic variables (pH, free acidity, lactic acid content, moisture, total sugar content, and honey and extracted protein 13C isotopic composition were analysed. Discriminant analysis applied to the data revealed that, based on the selected variables, it was impossible to differentiate the three groups of honeys due to the superposition of those produced in grasslands and native forests. For this reason, a group of honeys derived from native and polyfloral environments (grasslands and native forests was formed and subjected to discriminant analysis (DA, together with the group of honeys derived from a commercial plantation of eucalyptus forest. The model obtained in this case achieved 100% correct allocation both at the training stage and the cross-validation stage.

  5. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    2012-12-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-893 (Second Review)] Honey From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a...

  6. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  7. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  8. Fluctuations in groundwater levels related to regional and local withdrawals in the fractured-bedrock groundwater system in northern Wake County, North Carolina, March 2008-February 2009

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Almanaseer, Naser; McClenney, Bryce; Hinton, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    A study of dewatering of the fractured-bedrock aquifer in a localized area of east-central North Carolina was conducted from March 2008 through February 2009 to gain an understanding of why some privately owned wells and monitoring wells were intermittently dry. Although the study itself was localized in nature, the resulting water-resources data and information produced from the study will help enable resource managers to make sound water-supply and water-use decisions in similar crystalline-rock aquifer setting in parts of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces. In June 2005, homeowners in a subdivision of approximately 11 homes on lots approximately 1 to 2 acres in size in an unincorporated area of Wake County, North Carolina, reported extremely low water pressure and temporarily dry wells during a brief period. This area of the State, which is in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, is undergoing rapid growth and development. Similar well conditions were reported again in July 2007. In an effort to evaluate aquifer conditions in the area of intermittent water loss, a study was begun in March 2008 to measure and monitor water levels and groundwater use. During the study period from March 2008 through February 2009, regular dewatering of the fractured-bedrock aquifer was documented with water levels in many wells ranging between 100 and 200 feet below land surface. Prior to this period, water levels from the 1980s through the late 1990s were reported to range from 15 to 50 feet below land surface. The study area includes three community wells and more than 30 private wells within a 2,000-foot radius of the dewatered private wells. Although groundwater levels were low, recovery was observed during periods of heavy rainfall, most likely a result of decreased withdrawals owing to less demand for irrigation purposes. Similar areal patterns of low groundwater levels were delineated during nine water-level measurement periods from March 2008 through

  9. Comparative Study of Honey Consumption in Slovakia and Russia

    Snezhanna Guziy; Peter Šedík; Elena Horská

    2017-01-01

    The current situation on the food market is influenced by various diet trends including eating healthy products. The honey consumption has an increasing tendency because more and more consumers consider honey as a healthy alternative to a refined sugar. The aim of this research paper was to identify consumption patterns regarding honey in terms of annual consumption, its frequency, volume of honey per purchase, consumption structure by family members and factors affecting consumers at honey p...

  10. Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid Reduces the Microglomerular Density of Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies

    Peng, Yi-Chan; Yang, En-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic loss of honey bees is a major concern worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that neonicotinoid insecticides cause behavioural abnormalities and have proven that exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid during the larval stage decreases the olfactory learning ability of adults. The present study shows the effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the neural development of the honey bee brain by immunolabelling synaptic units in the calyces of mushroom bodies. We found that the density of the synaptic units in the region of the calyces, which are responsible for olfactory and visual functions, decreased after being exposed to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid. This not only links a decrease in olfactory learning ability to abnormal neural connectivity but also provides evidence that imidacloprid damages the development of the nervous system in regions responsible for both olfaction and vision during the larval stage of the honey bee. PMID:26757950

  11. Honey yield of different commercial apiaries treated with Lactobacillus salivarius A3iob, a new bee-probiotic strain.

    Fanciotti, M Novicov; Tejerina, M; Benítez-Ahrendts, M R; Audisio, M C

    2018-02-27

    The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius A3iob, a honey bee gut-associated strain (GenBank code access KX198010), on honey yield. Independent assays were conducted from May to September 2014 and 2015, in three commercial apiaries: Tilquiza, El Carmen and Yala, all located in north-western Argentina. Local Apis mellifera L. bees were kept in standard Langstroth hives; treated hives were fed once a month with 1×10 5 cfu/ml viable Lactobacillus cells, administered to the bees through a Doolittle-type feeder in 125 g/l sucrose syrup. Control hives were only given the syrup mixed with MRS sterile broth. The main honey harvest was done in December in all groups and we found that there was an overall increase in honey yield from the treated hives. In 2014, all treated hives produced between 2.3 to 6.5 times more honey than the controls. However, in 2015, higher honey average yields in the treated hives at El Carmen and Yala were obtained, yet not at Tilquiza, because of a slight mishap. They experienced the swarming of several bee colonies due to a higher number of bees without appropriate management, which caused the control group to yield more honey compared to the hives fed with Lactobacillus. Interestingly, at El Carmen, two honey harvests were recorded: one in winter and another in summer (July and December 2015, respectively). This unexpected result arose from the particular flora of the region, mainly Tithonia tubaeformis, which blooms in winter. L. salivarius A3iob cells prove to be a natural alternative that will positively impact the beekeepers' economy by providing a higher honey yield.

  12. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  13. Honey bee success predicted by landscape composition in Ohio, USA.

    Sponsler, D B; Johnson, R M

    2015-01-01

    Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that landscape composition is a critical determinant of honey bee colony success. Nevertheless, very few studies present quantitative data relating colony success metrics to local landscape composition. We employed a beekeeper survey in conjunction with GIS-based landscape analysis to model colony success as a function of landscape composition in the State of Ohio, USA, a region characterized by intensive cropland, urban development, deciduous forest, and grassland. We found that colony food accumulation and wax production were positively related to cropland and negatively related to forest and grassland, a pattern that may be driven by the abundance of dandelion and clovers in agricultural areas compared to forest or mature grassland. Colony food accumulation was also negatively correlated with urban land cover in sites dominated by urban and agricultural land use, which does not support the popular opinion that the urban environment is more favorable to honey bees than cropland.

  14. Honey bee success predicted by landscape composition in Ohio, USA

    DB Sponsler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L. can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that landscape composition is a critical determinant of honey bee colony success. Nevertheless, very few studies present quantitative data relating colony success metrics to local landscape composition. We employed a beekeeper survey in conjunction with GIS-based landscape analysis to model colony success as a function of landscape composition in the State of Ohio, USA, a region characterized by intensive cropland, urban development, deciduous forest, and grassland. We found that colony food accumulation and wax production were positively related to cropland and negatively related to forest and grassland, a pattern that may be driven by the abundance of dandelion and clovers in agricultural areas compared to forest or mature grassland. Colony food accumulation was also negatively correlated with urban land cover in sites dominated by urban and agricultural land use, which does not support the popular opinion that the urban environment is more favorable to honey bees than cropland.

  15. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Supplemental Forage on the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Microbiota and Inter- and Intra-Colony Variability.

    Rothman, Jason A; Carroll, Mark J; Meikle, William G; Anderson, Kirk E; McFrederick, Quinn S

    2018-02-03

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide vital pollination services for a variety of agricultural crops around the world and are known to host a consistent core bacterial microbiome. This symbiotic microbial community is essential to many facets of bee health, including likely nutrient acquisition, disease prevention and optimal physiological function. Being that the bee microbiome is likely involved in the digestion of nutrients, we either provided or excluded honey bee colonies from supplemental floral forage before being used for almond pollination. We then used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the effects of forage treatment on the bees' microbial gut communities over four months. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the honey bee gut microbiota is quite stable over time. Similarly, we compared the gut communities of bees from separate colonies and sisters sampled from within the same hive over four months. Surprisingly, we found that the gut microbial communities of individual sisters from the same colony can exhibit as much variation as bees from different colonies. Supplemental floral forage had a subtle effect on the composition of the microbiome during the month of March only, with strains of Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus, and Bartonella being less proportionally abundant in bees exposed to forage in the winter. Collectively, our findings show that there is unexpected longitudinal variation within the gut microbial communities of sister honey bees and that supplemental floral forage can subtly alter the microbiome of managed honey bees.

  17. Fungicidal efficacy of various honeys against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV+ patients with candidiasis.

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Honey is well known to possess a broad spectrum of activity against medically important organisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of different honeys against 40 fluconazole (FLU) resistant Candida species, including Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Three honey samples were collected from northern (Mazandaran, A), southern (Hormozgan, B) and central (Lorestan, C) regions of Iran. A microdilution technique based on the CLSI, M27-A2 protocol was employed to compare the susceptibility of honeys "A", "B" and "C" against different pathogenic Candida isolates. The results showed that different Candida isolates were resistant to FLU, ranging from 64μg/mL to 512μg/mL. All of the honeys tested had antifungal activities against FLU-resistant Candida species, ranging from 20% to 56.25% (v/v) and 25% to 56.25% (v/v) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), respectively. Honey "A" (MIC: 31.59%, v/v) showed higher anti-Candida activity than honey "B" (MIC: 35.99%, v/v) and honey "C" (MIC: 39.2%, v/v). No statistically significant differences were observed among the mean MIC values of the honey samples (P>0.05). The order of overall susceptibility of Candida species to honey samples were; C. krusei>C. glabrata>C. tropicalis>C. albicans (P>0.05). In addition, the mean MICs of Candida strains isolated from the nail, vagina and oral cavity were 33.68%, 36.44% and 39.89%, respectively, and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Overall, varying susceptibilities to the anti-Candida properties of different honeys were observed with four FLU-resistant species of Candida. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of honey as an inhibitor of candidal growth in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  19. Phenology of Honey Bee Swarm Departure in New Jersey, United States.

    Gilley, D C; Courtright, T J; Thom, C

    2018-03-31

    Departure of swarms from honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) nests is an important reproductive event for wild honey bee colonies and economically costly in managed bee colonies. The seasonal timing of swarm departure varies regionally and annually, creating challenges for honey bee management and emphasizing the potential for swarming behavior to be affected by plant-pollinator phenological mismatch. In this study, we first document variability in the timing of swarm departure across the large and heterogeneous geographical area of New Jersey over 4 years using 689 swarm-cluster observations. Second, hypothesizing that honey bee colonies adaptively tune the timing of swarm departure to match floral food-resource availability, we predicted that growing degree-days could be used to account for regional and annual variability. To test this idea, we used local weather records to determine the growing degree-day on which each swarm cluster was observed and tested for differences among climate regions and years. The state-wide mean swarm cluster date was May 15 (± 0.6 d), with moderate but significant differences among the state's five climate regions and between years. Use of degree-day information suggests that local heat accumulation can account for some climate-region differences in swarm-departure timing. Annual variation existed on a scale of only several days and was not accounted for by growing degree-days, suggesting little adaptive tuning of swarm-departure timing with respect to local heat accumulation.

  20. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  1. Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies.

    Bacandritsos, N; Granato, A; Budge, G; Papanastasiou, I; Roinioti, E; Caldon, M; Falcaro, C; Gallina, A; Mutinelli, F

    2010-11-01

    During June and July of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of Peloponnesus (Mt. Mainalo), Greece. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. In total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. The samples were tested for a range of pests, pathogens and pesticides. Symptomatic adult honey bees tested positive for Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae, Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Acute paralysis virus (ABPV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), but negative for Acarapis woodi. American Foulbrood was absent from the brood samples. Chemical analysis revealed that amitraz, thiametoxan, clothianidin and acetamiprid were all absent from symptomatic adult bees, sugar and sugar patty samples. However, some bee samples, were contaminated with imidacloprid in concentrations between 14 ng/g and 39 ng/g tissue. We present: the infection of Greek honey bees by multiple viruses; the presence of N. ceranae in Greek honey bees and the first record of imidacloprid (neonicotonoid) residues in Greek honey bee tissues. The presence of multiple pathogens and pesticides made it difficult to associate a single specific cause to the depopulation phenomena observed in Greece, although we believe that viruses and N. ceranae synergistically played the most important role. A follow-up in-depth survey across all Greek regions is required to provide context to these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  3. Nuovi documenti su Emanuele di Bonaiuto da Camerino, banchiere e uomo di cultura ebreo tra le Marche e la Toscana del XV secolo / New documents about the Jew Emanuele di Bonaiuto da Camerino, banker and intellectual between Marche and Toscana regions in the 15th Century

    Mafalda Toniazzi

    2014-06-01

    Between the Middle and Modern Ages, Marche and Tuscany, and especially Camerino and Florence, were involved in a constant dialogue (supported by commercial and political reasons and by the movement of people and goods that has not been confined to the economics, but has also interested the cultural sphere as well. This paper intends to focus particularly on the figure of the Jew Emanuel of Bonaiuto da Camerino, a famous banker and a talented businessman, one of the protagonists of this trend, who was also a keen scholar, able to gather around him great personalities of the coeval culture (like Jehuda Messer Leon, Yochanan Alemanno and Ovadiah of Jehuda from Bertinoro, to collate an important library and acting, therefore, as an intermediary between the two regions.

  4. From Flower to Honey Bouquet: Possible Markers for the Botanical Origin of Robinia Honey

    Giovanna Aronne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust, selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey.

  5. From flower to honey bouquet: possible markers for the botanical origin of Robinia honey.

    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; Sacchi, Raffaele; De Micco, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar) and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust), selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey.

  6. Antifungal activity of selected Malaysian honeys: a comparison with Manuka honey

    Siti Aisyah Sayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate four selected Malaysian honey samples from different floral sources (Gelam, Tualang, Nenas and Acacia for their ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Methods: The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honey against yeasts at different concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 70% (v/v. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the honeys were determined by visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay. Minimum fungicidal concentration test was performed by further sub-culturing from the plates which showed no visible growth in the MIC assay onto Sabroud dextrose agar. Results: All tested Malaysian honeys except Gelam showed antifungal activity against all species analysed, with the MIC ranging from 25% (v/v to 50% (v/v while MIC of Manuka honey ranged between 21% to 53% (v/v. Candida albicans was more susceptible to honey than other species tested. Conclusions: Locally produced honeys exhibited antifungal activity which is less than or equal to that of Manuka honey. Our data showed evidence in support of the therapeutic uses of Malaysian honeys.

  7. Botanical discrimination of Greek unifloral honeys with physico-chemical and chemometric analyses.

    Karabagias, Ioannis K; Badeka, Anastasia V; Kontakos, Stavros; Karabournioti, Sofia; Kontominas, Michael G

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of characterisation and classification of Greek unifloral honeys (pine, thyme, fir and orange blossom) according to botanical origin using volatile compounds, conventional physico-chemical parameters and chemometric analyses (MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis). For this purpose, 119 honey samples were collected during the harvesting period 2011 from 14 different regions in Greece known to produce unifloral honey of good quality. Physico-chemical analysis included the identification and semi quantification of fifty five volatile compounds performed by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and the determination of conventional quality parameters such as pH, free, lactonic, total acidity, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, lactonic/free acidity ratio and colour parameters L, a, b. Results showed that using 40 diverse variables (30 volatile compounds of different classes and 10 physico-chemical parameters) the honey samples were satisfactorily classified according to botanical origin using volatile compounds (84.0% correct prediction), physicochemical parameters (97.5% correct prediction), and the combination of both (95.8% correct prediction) indicating that multi element analysis comprises a powerful tool for honey discrimination purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status

    Mogren, Christina L.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide pollinator declines are attributed to a number of factors, including pesticide exposures. Neonicotinoid insecticides specifically have been detected in surface waters, non-target vegetation, and bee products, but the risks posed by environmental exposures are still not well understood. Pollinator strips were tested for clothianidin contamination in plant tissues, and the risks to honey bees assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantified clothianidin in leaf, nectar, honey, and bee bread at organic and seed-treated farms. Total glycogen, lipids, and protein from honey bee workers were quantified. The proportion of plants testing positive for clothianidin were the same between treatments. Leaf tissue and honey had similar concentrations of clothianidin between organic and seed-treated farms. Honey (mean±SE: 6.61 ± 0.88 ppb clothianidin per hive) had seven times greater concentrations than nectar collected by bees (0.94 ± 0.09 ppb). Bee bread collected from organic sites (25.8 ± 3.0 ppb) had significantly less clothianidin than those at seed treated locations (41.6 ± 2.9 ppb). Increasing concentrations of clothianidin in bee bread were correlated with decreased glycogen, lipid, and protein in workers. This study shows that small, isolated areas set aside for conservation do not provide spatial or temporal relief from neonicotinoid exposures in agricultural regions where their use is largely prophylactic.

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  10. Physicochemical aspects and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys from Seridó region, State of Rio Grande do Norte, BrazilAspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão da região do Seridó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Janaína Maria Batista Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee honey is a highly valued product of the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte due to its specific sensory and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys produced in the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Twenty-nine honey samples from the following stingless bees were analyzed: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. and Partamona helleri F. The composition considering moisture, total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, protein, vitamin C, and ash, and the total acidity, pH, and color were evaluated. A sensory profile, considering the aroma, color, viscosity, flavor, acidity attributes and general acceptability, and the acceptability, regarding aroma, color and flavor, were also analyzed. The honeys were different (p O mel de abelhas sem ferrão é um produto bastante valorizado na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte, em função de suas características nutritivas e sensoriais específicas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os aspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão produzidos na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram analisadas 29 amostras de mel das seguintes abelhas sem ferrão: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. e Partamona helleri F. Os aspectos físico-químicos analisados foram: umidade, açúcares totais, açucares redutores, sacarose aparente, cinzas, acidez total, pH, proteína, vitamina C e cor

  11. Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (7th, Los Angeles, California, March 14, 1958). Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent.

    Educational Testing Service, Los Angeles, CA.

    At the seventh Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems, the following speeches were given: (1) "A Guidance Person's Approach to Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Frances D. McGill; (2) "The Instructional Uses of Measurement in the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Roy P. Wahle; (3) "New Frontiers of…

  12. Honey as a bioindicator of arsenic contamination due to volcanic and mining activities in Chile

    Bastías, José M; Jambon, Philippe; Muñoz, Ociel; Manquián, Nimia; Bahamonde, Patricia; Neira, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The content of heavy metals in honey is indicative of natural or anthropogenic pollution and has therefore been proposed as a feasible bioindicator for arsenic contamination in different regions of Chile. Total arsenic (t-As) and inorganic As (i-As) concentrations were determined in 227 samples of honey harvested during the years 2007, 2008, and 2009 in the areas of San Pedro de Atacama, Atacama, Chiloé, and Futaleufú, with the last town located 156 km from the Chaitén Volcano (latest eruptio...

  13. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  14. Proceedings "… Towards Resilient Honey Bees …"

    Dooremalen, van C.A.; Zweep, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Roadmap is a co-creation by Bees@wur and the Dutch government, and the (inter)national researchers participating in the workshop Resilient Honey bees 23-24 November 2015, Castle Hoekelum, Bennekom, The Netherlands

  15. Research on an antioxidant capacity of honeys

    Elżbieta Hołderna-Kędzia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human organism is exposed to harmful action of free radicals which are produced as well endogenically as egzogenically. The oxidation activity of free radicals can lead to the conversion of systemic biomolecules. As a consequence, there is a threat of, many severe diseases. Antioxidative agents which occur in natural products (also in honey raise a possibility of protection against the harmful action of above mentioned radicals. Polyphenolic compounds - flavonoids, phenolic acids and ascorbic acid - are the most important antioxidative agents. The research of many authors proves that honey, given orally, shows an antioxidative activity. The level of antioxidative agents in serum after the consumption of honey is high and surpasses the antioxidative activity of tea. Dark honeys (honeydew and heather have considerably higher antioxidative activity in comparison to light ones (acacia, lime, polyfloral.

  16. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  17. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  18. Viper's bugloss (Echium spp. honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey.

    Tomás Martín Arroyo

    Full Text Available Honey samples (n = 126 from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper's bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015. By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper's bugloss honey lies at 70%.

  19. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for honey yield, gentleness, calmness and swarming behaviour in Austrian honey bees

    Brascamp, Evert; Willam, Alfons; Boigenzahn, Christian; Bijma, Piter; Veerkamp, Roel F.

    2016-01-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for honey yield and behavioural traits in Austrian honey bees using data on nearly 15,000 colonies of the bee breeders association Biene Österreich collected between 1995 and 2014. The statistical models used distinguished between the genetic

  20. The allergic march

    allergic rhinitis (Fig. 1). Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic ... Boys appear to be at greater risk of developing the typical progression of allergic .... childhood asthma: lessons from the German. Multicentre Study ...

  1. A Molecular Method for the Identification of Honey Bee Subspecies Used by Beekeepers in Russia

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y.; Borodachev, Anatoly V.; Kokina, Anastasia V.; Popov, Vasily N.

    2018-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. mellifera mellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine–cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine–adenine substitution. The nucleotide sequence of the second haplogroup coincided with sequences from other subspecies, except the unique C/A SNP at position 421 of the 658-bp Folmer region. A. mellifera carnica and A. mellifera carpatica could be distinguished from A. mellifera mellifera and A. mellifera caucasica by the presence of the A/G SNP at position 99 of the 658-bp Folmer region. The G/A SNP at position 448 was typical for A. mellifera carnica. A. mellifera caucasica COX1 sequence lacked all the above-mentioned sites. We developed a procedure for rapid identification of honey bee subspecies by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using mutagenic primers. The developed molecular method for honey bee subspecies identification is fast and inexpensive. PMID:29382048

  2. Wound healing with honey - a randomised controlled trial

    and calculate the cost-effectiveness of the honey used. Design and ... Natural honey is extremely cost- effective. ... surrounding wound infection, genital or malignant ulcers, wounds ... body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and.

  3. chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A ... quality honeys retail for premium prices, but these honeys are increasingly being counterfeited ... distinguish between two floral sources in Malaysia.

  4. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    chemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the ketchup. Also, honey concentration treatment improved the quality of ketchup. Addition of honey at 500 ml level resulted in higher reducing sugar, total sugar, titratable acidity and total soluble ...

  5. Utilisatiion of topical honey In Burns wounds contaminated with ...

    personal

    suitable for bacterial infection as a result of low tissue perfusion and high protein content. ... Conclusion:The topical use of honey in deep burn wounds contaminated with pseudomonas ... voiced to Honey bee to lodge in mountains and.

  6. Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu ...

    Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Pollen analyses of seven honey samples from Opi-Nsukka Mini market were evaluated for their pollen composition. The results ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Honey improves lipid profile of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats

    Titis Nurmasitoh

    2016-04-01

    Honey supplementation was able to reduce the blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Honey supplementation accompanied by non-cholesterol feeds could more effectively lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL serum levels in Wistar rats.

  8. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward [fr

  9. Performance Comparison of Four SolarWorld Module Technologies at the US DOE Regional Test Center in New Mexico: November 2016 - March 2017.

    Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary (three month) analysis for the SolarWorld system installed at the New Mexico Regional Test Center (RTC.) The 8.7kW, four-string system consists of four module types): bifacial, mono-crystalline, mono-crystalline glass-glass and polycrystalline. Overall, the SolarWorld system has performed well to date: most strings closely match their specification-sheet module temperature coefficients and Sandia 's f lash tests show that Pmax values are well within expectations. Although the polycrystalline modules underperformed, the results may be a function of light exposure, as well as mismatch within the string, and not a production flaw. The instantaneous bifacial gains for SolarWorld 's Bisun modules were modest but it should be noted that the RTC racking is not optimized for bifacial modules, nor is albedo optimized at the site. Additional analysis, not only of the SolarWorld installation in New Mexico but of the SolarWorld installations at the Vermont and Florida RTCs will be provide much more information regarding the comparative performance of the four module types.

  10. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement. A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Radioactive Waste Management Committee', adopted March 2011

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Siting waste repositories brings up a range of issues that touch on scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being, and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decades task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and a significant regional and local involvement. This Collective Statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognizes the advances made toward greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse relevant stakeholders and identifies the fundamental ingredients needed to support national commitment and foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  11. Season and landscape composition affect pollen foraging distances and habitat use of honey bees.

    Danner, Nadja; Molitor, Anna Maria; Schiele, Susanne; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-09-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) show a large variation in foraging distances and use a broad range of plant species as pollen resources, even in regions with intensive agriculture. However, it is unknown how increasing areas of mass-flowering crops like oilseed rape (Brassica napus; OSR) or a decrease of seminatural habitats (SNH) change the temporal and spatial availability of pollen resources for honey bee colonies, and thus foraging distances and frequency in different habitat types. We studied pollen foraging of honey bee colonies in 16 agricultural landscapes with independent gradients of OSR and SNH area within 2 km and used waggle dances and digital geographic maps with major land cover types to reveal the distance and visited habitat type on a landscape level. Mean pollen foraging distance of 1347 decoded bee dances was 1015 m (± 26 m; SEM). In spring, increasing area of flowering OSR within 2 km reduced mean pollen foraging distances from 1324 m to only 435 m. In summer, increasing cover of SNH areas close to the colonies (within 200 m radius) reduced mean pollen foraging distances from 846 to 469 m. Frequency of pollen foragers per habitat type, measured as the number of dances per hour and hectare, was equally high for SNH, grassland, and OSR fields, but lower for other crops and forests. In landscapes with a small proportion of SNH a significantly higher density of pollen foragers on SNH was observed, indicating that pollen resources in such simple agricultural landscapes are more limited. Overall, we conclude that SNH and mass-flowering crops can reduce foraging distances of honey bee colonies at different scales and seasons with possible benefits for the performance of honey bee colonies. Further, mixed agricultural landscapes with a high proportion of SNH reduce foraging densities of honey bees in SNH and thus possible competition for pollen resources. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Antigiardial activity of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from Ziziphus honey.

    Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Kabashi, Ahmed S; Koko, Waleed S; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents.

  13. Honey as a bioindicator of environment contamination with caesium

    Barisic, D.; Lovrencic, I.; Orescanin, V.; Kezic, N.; Bubalo, D.; Popijac, M.; Volner, M.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting nectar and pollen, bees cover area of approximately 20 km 2 . Honey from a beehive represents a composite sample collected from several hundreds of millions of points and is probably one of the most representative random samples possible to collect in the environment. Therefore, information contained in honey gives good reflection of an average environment condition considering bioavailable elements and/or chemical compounds. Results of measured 1 37C s activities in different types of honey collected on the area of Republic of Croatia in period from 2000 to 2003 are given in this paper. The activity of 1 37C s is measured with gamma spectrometric method and the types of honey are defined on the basis of pollen analysis and from measuring electro conductivity. More than 15 years after the accident in Chernobyl, it is still possible to monitor 1 37C s activity in several types of honey. The greatest 1 37C s activities are detected in pure fir-tree and spruce honey-dew honey (15.7 ± 5.6 Bq/kg), mixed honey containing honey-dew (7.4 ± 3.9 Bq/kg) and in pure chestnut honey (4.5 ± 2.4 Bq/kg). On the other side, 1 37C s has not been found in any of the samples of pure lime- and locust-tree honeys, while in the meadow honey it has been detected only twice. Considering that measured activities of 1 37C s in honey correspond with the levels of contamination of particular areas, coniferous honey-dew honeys, as well as pure chestnut honey, can be used as bioindicators in monitoring the environment contaminated with 1 37C s.(author)

  14. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  15. Comparative Study of Honey Collected from Different Flora of Algeria

    ... 0.324± 0.116 mS/cm and 0.141± 0.065%, respectively. The mean color was 81 ± 72 mm Pfund. The majority of honey samples test results (moisture content, electric conductivity and acidity) levels were within the acceptable range of world honey standards. Keywords: Apis mellifera, biochemical characters, unifloral honey ...

  16. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of apiary honey ...

    Honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera) which is used in herbal medicine was examined for its chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis of honey showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, reducing sugar and glycosides. Antimicrobial activity of honey on fresh ...

  17. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, van Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-01-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in

  18. The honey industry in COMESA: Opportunities and challenges ...

    In terms of trade, only about 31.2 % of global honey production entered international trade in the same year. Whereas, the total natural honey production in Africa in 2013 was only 10.2% (169,306.00 tones) of which, 1.55 % entered international trade. The total honey production from COMESA Member States in 2013 was ...

  19. Evaluation of four apicultural products for hive colonization by honey ...

    Four apicultural products (honey, bee wax, slum gum and propolis) were evaluated for their potentials to attract the African honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) colony into artificial hives and their effect on infestation by apicultural insect pests. Ten grammes each of propolis, bee wax and slum gum and 10 ml of honey were ...

  20. Studies on the antioxidant properties of Tualang honey of Malaysia ...

    Honey has been used since ancient times for its nutritional as well as curative properties. Tualang honey is collected from wild honey bees' hives on Tualang trees found in the Malaysian rain forest. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, where its therapeutic value has partly been related to its ...

  1. Honey, an unexplored topical wound dressing agent in Nigerian ...

    This paper presents an overview of honey as a wound dressing agent, its mechanism of action, selected cases of wounds managed with honey and a survey of veterinarians' perception and usage of honey for wound management in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to veterinary practitioners ...

  2. Antiacanthamoebic properties of natural and marketed honey in Pakistan

    Farzana Abubakar Yousuf

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that natural honey has antiacanthamoebic properties and possesses higher flavonoid, phenolic and antioxidant properties compared with the marketed honey. These findings are of concern to the public, health officials, and to the manufacturers regarding production of honey for medical applications.

  3. Honey irradiation: effect on hydroxymethylfurfural content

    Cova, M. C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiations can be used to inactivate thermo resistant microorganisms in honey, improving its hygienic and sanitary quality. 'American foulbrood' is a disease caused by the sporulated bacteria Paenibacillus larvae larvae which affects bees, diminishes honey production and impairs trade. Clostridium botulinum spores can also be present in honey and cause the disease in very young children. Considering that ionizing radiation can modify molecules, this work was undertaken to evaluate its effect on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content along storage time. HMF is an aldehyde produced as sugars degrade due to excessive heating and/or time, so it is regulated as a freshness indicator in honey. Two varieties of honey, one fluid and the other creamy, of a commercial high quality brand were packaged in polypropylene recipes and stored at room temperature for 14 months. Irradiation was carried out at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, at doses of 0, 10, 20 and 40 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity:1.1. HMF values, measured according to White ´s spectrophotometric method, increased along storage time in every sample. Irradiation initially diminished HMF content irrespective of dose, trend which was maintained throughout the storage period in creamy honey. Instead, in fluid honey since the fourth month the slopes corresponding to the irradiated samples curves were greater than that of the control one, as a function of dose, rendering higher HMF values in the 40 kGy sample as compared with control since the 10 th storage month. Possibly the prevailing first irradiation effect during storage time is HMF breakdown, followed by enhanced synthesis. (author) [es

  4. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  5. The first comprehensive molecular detection of six honey bee viruses in Iran in 2015-2016.

    Ghorani, Mohammadreza; Madadgar, Omid; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza; Nabian, Sedigheh; Akbarein, Hesameddin; Farahani, Reza Kh; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Abdollahi, Hamed; Forsi, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    At least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). However, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. These viruses include: deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), sacbrood virus (SBV), kashmir bee virus (KBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV). In this study, we evaluated 89 Iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring, by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Samples were collected from four regions (Mazandaran, Hormozgan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan Razavi) of Iran. Of the 89 apiaries examined, 16 (17.97%), three (3.37%), and three (3.37%) were infected by DWV, ABPV, and CBPV, respectively. The study results for the other viruses (SBV, KBV, and BQCV) were negative. The present study evaluated the presence of the six most important honey bee viruses in bee colonies with suspected infections, and identified remarkable differences in the distribution patterns of the viruses in different geographic regions of Iran.

  6. Infra-Population and -Community Dynamics of the Parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and Consequences for Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hosts

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L.; Rogers, Richard E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species. PMID:24987989

  7. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera) hosts.

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Rogers, Richard E L

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  8. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE BOTANIC ORIGIN OF HONEY PLANTS ON THE QUALITY OF HONEY

    Z. Tucak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous parameters affect the quality of honey from different beehive types (Albert – Žindaršić AŽ, Langstroth – Roott LR i Dadant – Blatt DB, i.e. the material of beehives are made of, the origin of queen bees (natural and selected, etc. Our research focuses on the influence of the botanic origin of honey plants (Tilia sp. L. (lime, Amorpha fructirosa L. (desert false indigo, Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower, Brassica napus subsp. olifera DC. (oil beet and Robina pseudoacacia L. (acacia on the quality of honey. The physical and chemical analyses of honey (N=133 (water %, water insoluble compounds %, acidity level, mmol of acid per kg, electrical conductivity, mS/cm, reducing sugar %, sucrose %, HMF, mg/kg, and diastasic number were conducted by Harmonised methods of the European Honey. The pollen analysis was conducted by Harmonised methods of melissopalynology. The pollen analysis indicates that the botanic origin has had a statistically significant influence (P<0.001 on the quality of all investigated characteristics of honey, except on the share of the non–dissolving substances (P=0.088. The research was conducted in the Vukovar-Srijem County, the Republic of Croatia. All bees used in this research belong to the Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica, the European bee species.

  10. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  11. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  12. Determination of streptomycin residues in honey

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey was the first sweet substance used in human food as a precursor sugar cane or beet. Honey production by bees is a complex process of transformation, from harvesting and ending with a striking honeycomb cells. Immediately after extraction, honey is always clear and liquid. This is due to the high content of fructose, which makes some items, such as locust always remain liquid. If the glucose is higher than that of fructose, honey will crystallize at temperatures below 18°C. Honey is easily susceptible to heat, so they should be stored at room temperature. Bees, like all living organisms, can become ill with various diseases. These, by mortality that occur among individuals of the colony, thereby reducing the number of bees and beefamilies are emptied and become unproductive. In many cases, it appears significant damage resulting in large losses for beekeepers. Prevention, detection and treatment of diseases with antibiotics is an extremely important factor in ensuring the health of bee.

  13. Carbon trends. March 2006

    2006-03-01

    This newsletter makes a monthly synthesis of the European CO 2 market: traded volumes, spot prices, conformability of facilities, supply and demand, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations from March 2005 to February 2006), economic activity indicators (industrial production from December 2004 to December 2005), confidence index of business leaders (from February 2005 to February 2006), changes in energy prices (from March 2005 to February 2006), CO 2 quotas allocated to European Union countries and detailed indicators of CO 2 market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  14. American foulbrood of the honey bee: occurrence and distribution of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae in the administrative district of Arnsberg (North Rhine-Westphalia).

    Peters, M; Kilwinski, J; Beringhoff, A; Reckling, D; Genersch, E

    2006-03-01

    Between March 2003 and October 2004, Paenibacillus larvae, the aetiological agent of American foulbrood disease of the honey bee, was isolated from broodcombs and honey samples of 54 apiaries in the administrative district of Arnsberg (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). Genotyping of 176 P. larvae isolates with repetitive element polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting (rep-PCR) using BOX A1R and MBO REP1 primers revealed five different genotypes (AB, Ab, ab, ass, Acapital BE, Cyrillic). In samples of three apiaries, more than one genotype was detected. A combination of two genotypes was isolated from honey samples of the same hive two times (ab/ass and Ab/ab). The five genotypes were not randomly distributed in the district, but revealed a certain geographical clustering. Possible factors with impact on the genotype diversity and the distribution pattern are discussed.

  15. 76 FR 2655 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    2011-01-14

    ...., Alimentos Naturales-Natural Foods, Alma Pura, Bomare S.A., CAA, El Mana S.A., Interrupcion S.A., Mielar.... The products covered are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of natural honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, and...

  16. Video Tracking Protocol to Screen Deterrent Chemistries for Honey Bees.

    Larson, Nicholas R; Anderson, Troy D

    2017-06-12

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is an economically and agriculturally important pollinator that generates billions of dollars annually. Honey bee colony numbers have been declining in the United States and many European countries since 1947. A number of factors play a role in this decline, including the unintentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides. The development of new methods and regulations are warranted to reduce pesticide exposures to these pollinators. One approach is the use of repellent chemistries that deter honey bees from a recently pesticide-treated crop. Here, we describe a protocol to discern the deterrence of honey bees exposed to select repellent chemistries. Honey bee foragers are collected and starved overnight in an incubator 15 h prior to testing. Individual honey bees are placed into Petri dishes that have either a sugar-agarose cube (control treatment) or sugar-agarose-compound cube (repellent treatment) placed into the middle of the dish. The Petri dish serves as the arena that is placed under a camera in a light box to record the honey bee locomotor activities using video tracking software. A total of 8 control and 8 repellent treatments were analyzed for a 10 min period with each treatment was duplicated with new honey bees. Here, we demonstrate that honey bees are deterred from the sugar-agarose cubes with a compound treatment whereas honey bees are attracted to the sugar-agarose cubes without an added compound.

  17. Floral Preference of Melipona eburnea Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a Colombian Andean Region.

    Obregon, D; Nates-Parra, G

    2014-02-01

    Melipona eburnea Friese is a stingless bee kept in some regions of Colombia, where it is reported to be vulnerable to extinction due to habitat disturbance. To contribute to raising conservation strategies, the aim of this study was to identify the floral preferences of this species using melissopalynological analysis. A total of 31 pollen pot samples and 37 honey samples were taken from March 2009 through March 2010 from four colonies in Fusagasuga, Colombia. We found 92 pollen types: 17 from pollen pot samples, 39 from honey samples (indicating the sources of nectar), and 36 in both types of samples. The most frequent pollen types in the pollen pot samples were Myrcia type (100%), Eucalyptus globulus (96.9%), and Fraxinus uhdei (96.9%). The most frequent pollen types in honey samples were E. globulus (97.4%) and Myrcia type (94.9%). The pollen types corresponded mainly to native plants (68%), trees (44.5%), plants whose sexual system is hermaphroditic (56.5%), and plants with inflorescences (76.2%). The most frequent shapes of the flowers were brush-like (type Myrtaceae) and dish-like (type Asteraceae), and the preferred flower colors were white or cream (52.2%). In general, we found that M. eburnea showed a strong preference for trees of the family Myrtaceae to obtain nectar and pollen, including native and introduced species. Some other families are contributing significantly, such as Melastomataceae for pollen collection and Asteraceae for nectar. These results highlight the key plant species for the diet of M. eburnea.

  18. Energy situation. March 2003

    2003-04-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2001 and up to March 2003. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  19. The Schrodinger Eigenvalue March

    Tannous, C.; Langlois, J.

    2011-01-01

    A simple numerical method for the determination of Schrodinger equation eigenvalues is introduced. It is based on a marching process that starts from an arbitrary point, proceeds in two opposite directions simultaneously and stops after a tolerance criterion is met. The method is applied to solving several 1D potential problems including symmetric…

  20. Energy situation - March 2013

    Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Louati, Sami

    2013-05-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export during the recent years and up to March 2013. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral, fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  1. March market review

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU

  2. Development of honey hydrogel dressing for enhanced wound healing

    Yusof, Norimah; Ainul Hafiza, A.H.; Zohdi, Rozaini M.; Bakar, Md Zuki A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation at 25 and 50 kGy showed no effect on the acidic pH of the local honey, Gelam, and its antimicrobial property against Staphylococcus aureus but significantly reduced the viscosity. Honey stored up to 2 years at room temperature retained all the properties studied. Radiation sterilized Gelam honey significantly stimulated the rate of burn wound healing in Sprague-Dawley rats as demonstrated by the increased rate of wound contraction and gross appearance. Gelam honey attenuates wound inflammation; and re-epithelialization was well advanced compared to the treatment using silver sulphadiazine (SSD) cream. To enhance further the use of honey in wound treatment and for easy handling, Gelam honey was incorporated into our hydrogel dressing formulation, which was then cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam at 25 kGy. Hydrogel with 6% of honey was selected based on the physical appearance

  3. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  4. QUALITY OF IMPORTED HONEYS MARKETED IN ALGERIA

    L. Haderbache

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is mostly used for therapeutic purposes, that’s why its quality must be closely monitored. This study focuses on the controle of 40 imported honeys coming from 13 countries (2004 – 2011. We revealed that they do not always have the required quality to be consumed as such. In addition to the labeling and organoleptic problems, often they contains too much moisture (≥18%; 70 % of these samples had an average HMF of 78 mg/kg and a pH less than 3.5, indicating an advanced aging and inapropriate thermal past. Pollen analysis and electrical conductivity was used to confirm presumed origins, and proline rate reveals some inverted sugar fraud. We aim by this work to catch consumers and local authorities attention in order to strengthen honey control. It is about everyone's health, and it concerns the prosperity of the national beekeeping which faces unfair competition.

  5. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-year storage

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the fresh honey after extracting and after half-year storage at room temperature. Overall, we analyzed 10 samples of rape (Brassica napus honey coming from district Vranov nad Toplou located in the eastern Slovakia. The analysis consisted of the evaluation of the physico-chemical parameters (water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity and microbiological evaluation (total plate count (TPC, counts of coliform bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, sporulating microorganisms and microscopic fungi. Water content, free acidity and electrical conductivity were measured according to IHC (2009, namely these parameters were detected by refractometer, titration and conductometer, respectively. We used dilution plating method for microbiological analysis. Fresh rape honey contained 18.3 ±1.0% of water. Free acidity of fresh rape honey was 12.7 ±2.0 meq.kg-1 and electrical conductivity was 0.14 mS.cm-1. After half a year of storage, water content and electrical conductivity decreased nonsignificantly and free acidity increased nonsignificantly. Stored honey samples meet the requirements of Decree 41/2012 and 106/2012. From microbiological point of view, fresh rape honey showed relatively high microbial counts. Mean values of TPC, sporulating microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts exceeded 2.00 log cfu/g. All spotted microbial groups decreased in the stored honey comparing with the fresh honey. We found significant (p ˂0.01 differences of TPC, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts comparing the fresh and stored honey samples. Evaluating microbiological parameters, one sample of stored honey did not meet the requirements of Codex Alimentarius SR (2014. TPC exceeded the limit value. Based on the results we can conclude that all samples meet the requirements for good quality honey. Microbial counts in the honey decreased gradually. Probably, various microorganisms have important role in creation of the honey from

  6. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stingless bee honey and its potential value: a systematic review

    Yaacob, M.,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern science has found that most traditional practice of using stingless bee honey has great potential as an added value in modern medicine and considered to have a higher medicinal value than other bee species. However, due to the relatively low output of honey compared to other honey so, focus on this honey is limited. Hence, this systematic review provides the updated result on the potential value of stingless bee honey as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial. The search strategy was developed in four databases (Scopus, Medline and Ovid, EMBASE and PubMed with the search terms "("honey" and "Kelulut", "honey" and "stingless bee", "honey" and "Trigona", "honey" and "pot honey", and "honey" and "Melipon"". The merged data was assessed using PRISMA guidelines and after the duplicates were removed, 1271 articles were segregated. Afterwards, 1232 articles were eliminated because they do not meet the inclusion criteria and 39 articles were reevaluated again for eligibility. Finally, after the evaluation process, only 26 of the articles were chosen for this review. The data of 26 articles of stingless bee honey were deliberated based on antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and analysis of antimicrobial activity. Three articles reported on antioxidant properties, one article on anti-inflammatory analysis, two articles on cytotoxicity analysis, and twenty articles on analysis of antimicrobial activity. Based on the feasible affirmation from the literature, stingless bee honey has an antioxidant capacity that able to decrease the ROS. ROS able to lead a variety of health problems thus stingless bee honey can be a dietary supplement to overcome this problem.

  8. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  9. Novel diagnostic tools for Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey authentication.

    Soares, Sónia; Grazina, Liliana; Mafra, Isabel; Costa, Joana; Pinto, M Alice; Duc, Hanh Pham; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Amaral, Joana S

    2018-03-01

    Honey can be produced by different species of honeybees, with two being of economic importance due to their use in apiculture, namely Apis mellifera (known as European honeybee) and Apis cerana (known as Asian honeybee). Due to the decline of the wild populations of the Asian honeybee, this honey generally attains much higher market value, being prone to adulteration. This work aims at proposing new tools, based on the use of molecular markers, for the entomological authentication of honey. To this end, new species-specific primers were designed targeting the tRNA leu -cox2 intergenic region and allowing the detection of A. cerana DNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, a novel real-time PCR method with high resolution melting analysis was developed to target the 16S rRNA gene of both bee species, allowing their discrimination in different clusters. The proposed methodologies were further applied with success in the authentication of Asian and European honey samples by the identification of honeybee DNA, demonstrating the usefulness of these simple and cost-effective new approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.

    Jull, Andrew B; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Jo C; Westby, Maggie J; Deshpande, Sohan; Walker, Natalie

    2015-03-06

    Honey is a viscous, supersaturated sugar solution derived from nectar gathered and modified by the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound care. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with alternative wound dressings and topical treatments on the of healing of acute (e.g. burns, lacerations) and/or chronic (e.g. venous ulcers) wounds. For this update of the review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 October 2014); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to October Week 1 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 13 October 2014); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 13 October 2014); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 15 October 2014). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated honey as a treatment for any sort of acute or chronic wound were sought. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. Wound healing was the primary endpoint. Data from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one review author, using a data extraction sheet, and independently verified by a second review author. All data have been subsequently checked by two more authors. We identified 26 eligible trials (total of 3011 participants). Three trials evaluated the effects of honey in minor acute wounds, 11 trials evaluated honey in burns, 10 trials recruited people with different chronic wounds including two in people with venous leg ulcers, two trials in people with diabetic foot ulcers and single trials in infected post-operative wounds, pressure injuries, cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Fournier's gangrene. Two trials recruited a mixed population of people with acute and chronic wounds. The quality of the evidence varied between different comparisons and

  11. Antimicrobial activity of honey of stingless bees, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida) compared to the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; de Jesus, Natália Rocha; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Teles, Amanda Mara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honeys of stingless bees produced in Maranhão, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida), opposite the strains of pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The honey samples were collected from different regions of Maranhão. Of the 17 samples collected, twelve samples were honey M. fasciculata and five were honey M. subnitida. We used the Kirby-Bauer method, and the technique of agar disk diffusion through the extent of inhibition in milimetros. Results were negative for all samples from M. fasciculata. However, the tests for M. subnitida demonstrated bacteriostatic halos ranging from 12 to 32,6mm.

  12. No apparent correlation between honey bee forager gut microbiota and honey production.

    Horton, Melissa A; Oliver, Randy; Newton, Irene L

    2015-01-01

    One of the best indicators of colony health for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is its performance in the production of honey. Recent research into the microbial communities naturally populating the bee gut raise the question as to whether there is a correlation between microbial community structure and colony productivity. In this work, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to explore the microbial composition associated with forager bees from honey bee colonies producing large amounts of surplus honey (productive) and compared them to colonies producing less (unproductive). As supported by previous work, the honey bee microbiome was found to be dominated by three major phyla: the Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria, within which we found a total of 23 different bacterial genera, including known "core" honey bee microbiome members. Using discriminant function analysis and correlation-based network analysis, we identified highly abundant members (such as Frischella and Gilliamella) as important in shaping the bacterial community; libraries from colonies with high quantities of these Orbaceae members were also likely to contain fewer Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species (such as Firm-4). However, co-culture assays, using isolates from these major clades, were unable to confirm any antagonistic interaction between Gilliamella and honey bee gut bacteria. Our results suggest that honey bee colony productivity is associated with increased bacterial diversity, although this mechanism behind this correlation has yet to be determined. Our results also suggest researchers should not base inferences of bacterial interactions solely on correlations found using sequencing. Instead, we suggest that depth of sequencing and library size can dramatically influence statistically significant results from sequence analysis of amplicons and should be cautiously interpreted.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  14. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.

  15. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Michael Eyer

    Full Text Available Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.

  16. "More than Honey": Investigation on Volatiles from Monovarietal Honeys Using New Analytical and Sensory Approaches.

    Siegmund, Barbara; Urdl, Katharina; Jurek, Andrea; Leitner, Erich

    2018-03-14

    Eight monovarietal honeys from dandelion, fir tree, linden tree, chestnut tree, robinia, orange, lavender, and rape were investigated with respect to their volatile compounds and sensory properties. Analysis of the volatile compounds was performed by gas chromatographic techniques (one-dimensional GC-MS as well as comprehensive GC×GC-MS). For sensory evaluation Napping in combination with ultraflash profiling was applied using sensory experts. For dandelion honey, 34 volatile compounds are described for the first time to be present in dandelion honey. PCA and cluster analysis of the volatile compounds, respectively, show high correlation with the PCA obtained from sensory evaluation. Lavender and linden honey showed sensory characteristics that were not expected from these honey types. Analysis of the volatile compounds resulted in the identification of odor-active compounds that are very likely derived from sources other than the respective honeyflow. Contamination with essential oils used in apiculture is very likely to be the reason for the occurrence of these compounds in the investigated honeys.

  17. A genome-wide signature of positive selection in ancient and recent invasive expansions of the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Zayed, Amro; Whitfield, Charles W

    2008-03-04

    Apis mellifera originated in Africa and extended its range into Eurasia in two or more ancient expansions. In 1956, honey bees of African origin were introduced into South America, their descendents admixing with previously introduced European bees, giving rise to the highly invasive and economically devastating "Africanized" honey bee. Here we ask whether the honey bee's out-of-Africa expansions, both ancient and recent (invasive), were associated with a genome-wide signature of positive selection, detected by contrasting genetic differentiation estimates (F(ST)) between coding and noncoding SNPs. In native populations, SNPs in protein-coding regions had significantly higher F(ST) estimates than those in noncoding regions, indicating adaptive evolution in the genome driven by positive selection. This signal of selection was associated with the expansion of honey bees from Africa into Western and Northern Europe, perhaps reflecting adaptation to temperate environments. We estimate that positive selection acted on a minimum of 852-1,371 genes or approximately 10% of the bee's coding genome. We also detected positive selection associated with the invasion of African-derived honey bees in the New World. We found that introgression of European-derived alleles into Africanized bees was significantly greater for coding than noncoding regions. Our findings demonstrate that Africanized bees exploited the genetic diversity present from preexisting introductions in an adaptive way. Finally, we found a significant negative correlation between F(ST) estimates and the local GC content surrounding coding SNPs, suggesting that AT-rich genes play an important role in adaptive evolution in the honey bee.

  18. ANOTHER CIVILIZATION OF HONEY. THE USE OF HONEY BY GUAYCURUS INDIAN GROUPS ACCORDING TO THE EVIDENCES FROM JESUIT SOURCES (XVIII C.

    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge and identify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.

  19. Rheology of Indian Honey: Effect of Temperature and Gamma Radiation

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5–40°C and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5–15 kGy on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures (Tg of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from −44.1 to −54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties.

  20. Honey bee: a consumer’s point of view

    Zavodna Lucie Sara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the way bee products are perceived by customers. It is mainly focused on honey, which is considered the main output product of beekeeping. Beekeeping is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Based on current data there are over 48 thousand people engaged in beekeeping in the Czech Republic. Hand in hand with the increasing number of beekeepers the popularity of bee products - especially honey - among Czech consumers is also growing. Recently, the consumption of honey in the Czech Republic has been slightly increasing. A big problem today is that honey sold in Czech supermarkets is frequently falsified. At the same time, it is increasingly popular to buy honey directly from beekeepers. The aim of this research was to describe the situation about the honey market in the Czech Republic, and also to examine the relationship between consumers on the one hand, and honey/beekeepers on the other. We have also considered customer's trust in organic honey and honey sold in supermarket chains. Results show that consumers view bee products as generally healthy and prefer to buy bee products from a beekeeper because of greater convenience as locally sourced honey is perceived to be of higher quality. The majority of consumers agree with paying a higher price for a product of higher quality. The article confirmed the hypothesis that most people think that bee products sold by a beekeeper are healthier than those bought at ordinary shops.

  1. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.

  3. Market bulletin and own load - March 1992

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the brazilian electric power consumption in March 1992, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market and the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  4. Market and own load bulletin - March 1993

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin shows the Brazilian electric power consumption in March 1993, containing data about the total consumption, the growth rates, the special tariffs and monthly evolution in each Brazilian region. The economic indexes of industrial production, the market, the prices of electric power and petroleum products are also presented. (M.V.M.)

  5. Honey bee hemocyte profiling by flow cytometry.

    Marringa, William J; Krueger, Michael J; Burritt, Nancy L; Burritt, James B

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure.

  6. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  7. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  8. Chemical quality of different argentine honey varieties, irradiated to control american foulbrood

    Zunich, C.D.; Markowski, I.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    'American foulbrood' is a disease that seriously affects bees. Honey may be contaminated with spores of the related bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, which is a great drawback for trade. The scientific literature reports that these spores, resistant to heat and chemicals, are inactivated in honey when it is irradiated al 10 kGy, being this treatment mandatory in the Republic of Southafrica. Irradiated food wholesomeness is endorsed by the World Health Organization. Considering that Argentina is an important honey producer and exporter, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on some of its commercial chemical parameters along storage time. Honeys with different characteristics, coming from five different regions of the country: Middle, Patagonia, North, Litoral, Humid Pampa, were provided by producers from a commission called 'Packaged honey' of the National Food, Fishery and Agriculture Ministry. Fifteen kg of each honey variety were packaged in 500 g polypropylene recipes with polyethylene lids, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, 500,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 10 and 20 kilo Grays. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature for 10 months. Some standardized chemical analysis required by the Argentine Food Code (AFC) were performed on the first, fourth and tenth storage months: water content, acidity, diastase content, reducing sugars, and hydroxymethylfurfural. Reducing sugars and diastase activity slightly diminished, and acidity slightly increased, along storage which is typical in this product; no significant differences were found between control and irradiated samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural values, related to aging or thermal abuse, diminished slightly though significantly due to irradiation, which would not affect the product quality as regulations require not to surpass a maximum value, 40 mg/kg in the AFC. So ionizing

  9. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Claudio Porrini

    Full Text Available In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  10. Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos l. (Fabaceae)) invasion effect on temperature, light and metabolism of a Pampean Stream

    Giorgi, Adonis David; Vilches, Carolina; Rodriguez Castro, Maria Carolina; Zunino, Eduardo; Debandi, Juan; Kravetz, Sebastian; Torremorell, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of invader species in a region generally modifies the ecosystems where they are introduced. In this study we analyze the effect produced by a gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust) invasion on a Pampean Stream. This organism modifies the temperature and the light reaching the stream. Thermal range shows significant differences between reaches but mean tem between 85 and 95 % down the trees. These modifications reduce the primary gross production of 2.7 to 1.7 g 02. M"2 at spring and of 25 to 20 g 02. M"2 at summer. Respiration in spring and summer is halved at invaded reaches, but net ecosystem metabolism is similar in both reach and seasons. Moreover, the reach invaded by honey locust show scarce macrophytes. We argue that the honey locust reduces the diversity by reduction of macrophytes and their associated organisms but also reduce the primary production causing changes in the food web

  11. NUTRITIOUS – HEALING STRUCTURE OF SOME KINDS OF HONEY IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Zvonimir Tucak

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey as food and honey as medicine are for a long time in peoples use. The nutritious and healing substances are different, also of the honey-herbs which the bees visit. The analised kind of honey (Acacia, Flower honey, linden-honey showw a real richnes in healing and nutritious structure. The organoleptic and chemical features of the analised honey- types fit into the standards of Republic Croatia and the Europian Unit. The said exhibitors justificate the hitherto way of bee-keeping and the technology of honey-production.

  12. A morphometry map and a new method for honey bee morphometric analysis by using the ArcGIS

    Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphometric analysis of honey bees has a substantial importance for honey bee subspecies characterization and discrimination while the ArcGIS is a geographical program for data analysis. In the present research, the combination between the morphometric data and the spatial analysis options of the ArcGIS was done and subsequently tested in creating a morphometry map for honey bees from some regions in Egypt as well as for the discrimination between two honey bee subspecies. Therefore, I present a model for creating the morphometry maps and a new method for the morphometric analysis by the transformation of the morphometric data to raster data layers. The obtained results showed that the created morphometry map classified the regions successfully according to the morphological character means. The morphometric analysis was successfully performed by using trend analysis and raster difference range. The analysis of the morphometric data as raster layers showed high sensitivity for the differences between subspecies and regions. The presented model and the method are effective and can be applied for the discrimination between subspecies, regions and colonies as well as can be used with other insects.

  13. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  14. Physico-chemical studies on adulteration of honey in Nigeria.

    Lawal, R A; Lawal, A K; Adekalu, J B

    2009-08-01

    The extent of adulteration of honey samples from various geographical locations in Nigeria was evaluated. In order to ascertain the quality and extent of adulteration of the honey samples, the total titrable acidity, brix content, pH, colour, viscosity, moisture content, total solids, ash content, hydroxymethyl furfural and microbiological analysis were carried out. Honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun had a high hydroxymethyl furfural with coliforms and total bacteria counts being absent, while honey samples from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan had a low hydroxymethyl furfural and some total viable counts were present in them. These results indicate that honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun were completely free of adulteration. However, honey samples obtained from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan were discovered to have undergone some form of adulteration.

  15. Development of sample preparation method for honey analysis using PIXE

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Chiba, Keiko; Sera, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    We developed an original preparation method for honey samples (samples in paste-like state) specifically designed for PIXE analysis. The results of PIXE analysis of thin targets prepared by adding a standard containing nine elements to honey samples demonstrated that the preparation method bestowed sufficient accuracy on quantitative values. PIXE analysis of 13 kinds of honey was performed, and eight mineral components (Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn) were detected in all honey samples. The principal mineral components were K and Ca, and the quantitative value for K accounted for the majority of the total value for mineral components. K content in honey varies greatly depending on the plant source. Chestnuts had the highest K content. In fact, it was 2-3 times that of Manuka, which is known as a high quality honey. K content of false-acacia, which is produced in the greatest abundance, was 1/20 that of chestnuts. (author)

  16. Functional properties of honey supplemented with bee bread and propolis.

    Kowalski, S; Makarewicz, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was characterisation of functional properties of honey enriched with propolis and beebread. In first step of experiment, soft propolis extract (SPEx) was obtained by extraction of propolis with ethanol. SPEx (0.25 to 1.0% w/w) as well as beebread (5 to 15% w/w) were implemented into natural honey. Fortified honeys were investigated in terms of total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, also their effects on the micro-organisms growth was examined. It was found that beebread had the most significant influence on antioxidant properties. On the other hand, all tested honeys showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli but not against Micrococcus luteus. Honeys with 1% of propolis addition were the most effective in this case. Research has indicated that for antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of honey, it is beneficial to enrich it in both beebread and propolis.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of honey cannot be distinguished from endotoxin

    Timm, Michael; Bartelt, Stine; Hansen, Erik Wind

    2008-01-01

    in vitro effects of honey. Our results show that natural honeys induce interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells as well as release of reactive oxygen species from all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated HL-60 cells. The natural honeys contained substantial amounts of endotoxin, and the responses...... observed in the cell based assays were similar to the responses induced by endotoxin alone. In addition, we determined that the immunomodulatory component present in the natural honeys was retained in the ultra filtrated fraction with a molecular weight greater than 20 kDa. The component was resistant...... to boiling and its immunomodulatory activity could be abrogated by the addition of polymyxin B. We speculate that the observed in vitro immunomodulatory effects of honey might solely be explained by the endotoxin content in the natural honeys....

  18. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    Lage, Lorena G.A.; Coelho, Lívia L.; Resende, Helder C.; Tavares, Mara G.; Campos, Lucio A.O.; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M.

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis ...

  19. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Overview of electrical energy in march 2003

    2003-01-01

    (these exchanges include all contracts managed by RTE, including historical contracts), contracts for access to international connections; and the evolution of the transmission network - the following facilities were commissioned on the RTE network in March 2003: the Kerbach 63 kV substation, connected to the Marienau-Sarreguemines 63 kV line in Lorraine, so as to meet the load growth and restructure the medium voltage network in the area; the 613 transformer at the 225 kV substation of Villeneuve-St Georges, so as to meet the load increase in this part of the Paris region. (A.L.B.)

  1. Gram-Positive Bacteria with Probiotic Potential for the Apis mellifera L. Honey Bee: The Experience in the Northwest of Argentina.

    Audisio, Marcela Carina

    2017-03-01

    Apis mellifera L. is one of the most important natural pollinators of significant crops and flowers around the world. It can be affected by different types of illnesses: american foulbrood, nosemosis, varroasis, viruses, among others. Such infections mainly cause a reduction in honey production and in extreme situations, the death of the colony. Argentina is the world's second largest honey exporter and the third largest honey producer, after China and Turkey. Given both the prominence of the honey bee in nature and the economic importance of apiculture in Argentina and the world, it is crucial to develop efficient and sustainable strategies to control honey bee diseases and to improve bee colony health. Gram-positive bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and Bacillus spp. are promising options. In the Northwest of Argentina, several Lactobacillus and Bacillus strains from the honey bee gut and honey were isolated by our research group and characterized by using in vitro tests. Two strains were selected because of their potential probiotic properties: Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Mori2. Under independent trials with both experimental and commercial hives, it was determined that each strain was able to elicit probiotic effects on bee colonies reared in the northwestern region of Argentina. One result was the increase in egg-laying by the queen which therefore produced an increase in bee number and, consequently, a higher honey yield. Moreover, the beneficial bacteria reduced the incidence of two important bee diseases: nosemosis and varroosis. These results are promising and extend the horizon of probiotic bacteria to the insect world, serving beekeepers worldwide as a natural tool that they can administer as is, or combine with other disease-controlling methods.

  2. Irradiation of honey for food and medicinal purposes

    Norimah Yusof; Zainon Othman; Salabiah Abd Majid

    2002-01-01

    Honey has been used as food and for its medicinal value for centuries. Even though its microbial content is usually low as its acidity and high viscosity can inhibit any microbial growth, some incidents of contamination with Clostridium spores were reported. Therefore, ionising radiation can be considered to decontaminate the pathogens or even sterilise (Pucuk daun, durian, gelam, bunga gelam and Asli) and three imported honeys (manuka Clement, Waitemata and Capilani Sweet Meadow). Results showed that the microbial count was 2.1 rather low in all honey hence membrane filtration method is more suitable than spread plate method to determine the microbial count in honey samples. The lowest microbial count was 2.1 counts/g for bunga gelam and the highest was 33.4 counts/g for capilano sweet in the sensory tests for taste, viscosity, colour and overall acceptance (P<0.05). Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy and 50 kGy (in gelam, pucuk daun, durian, manuka clement and waitemata) did not give any effect on the antibacterial property when the irradiated honey was added into the bacterial suspension of staphylococcus aureus. Heat at 50 degree C did not reduce the antibacterial property of irradiated honey. All local honeys showed antimicrobial indicated for its high medicinal value. The results show that gamma irradiation is useful to decontaminate honey from pathogenic contaminants or even to sterilise honey for safe use without any changes in its organoleptic and antibacterial property. (Author)

  3. Temperature Effect on Rheological Behavior of Portuguese Honeys

    Afonso Maria João

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the temperature effect on rheological properties of Portuguese honeys was studied for the first time. Two unifloral honeys – heather and rosemary – and a polyflower honey were analyzed. All honeys showed flow independence over time and behaved as Newtonian fluids at the studied temperature and shear rate ranges. For all honeys it was found that the viscosity decreased with temperature and the rosemary honey was the one that always presented the lowest viscosity at 30°C (6120 mPa·s, 50°C (603 mPa·s and 70°C (145 mPa·s. The temperature dependence of viscosity was well described by the K0×eAT-B$K_0 \\times e^{{A \\over {T - B}}} $ equation. Nevertheless, good regression coefficients were also obtained when fitting the experimental data to the Arrhenius model, showing the rosemary honey to be less temperature sensitive. The results obtained in this study are of great interest to beekeepers and industrials that handle and prepare eatable honey-based products because they will be better informed about the best type of honey to use.

  4. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion

    Fatma Sari Dogan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto.In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. Keywords: Mad honey poisoning, Mad honey intoxication, Bradycardia, Hypotension, Acute hepatitis

  5. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    Noori Al-Waili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

  6. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  7. Volatile fraction composition and physicochemical parameters as tools for the differentiation of lemon blossom honey and orange blossom honey.

    Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Carot, Jose M; Domenech, Eva; Escriche, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    Volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters were studied with the aim of evaluating their effectiveness for the differentiation between lemon blossom honey (Citrus limon L.) and orange blossom honey (Citrus spp.). They would be useful complementary tools to the traditional analysis based on the percentage of pollen. A stepwise discriminant analysis constructed using 37 volatile compounds (extracted by purge and trap and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and physicochemical and colour parameters (diastase, conductivity, Pfund colour and CIE L a b) together provided a model that permitted the correct classification of 98.3% of the original and 96.6% of the cross-validated cases, indicating its efficiency and robustness. This model proved its effectiveness in the differentiation of both types of honey with another set of batches from the following year. This model, developed from the volatile compounds, physicochemical and colour parameters, has been useful for the differentiation of lemon and orange blossom honeys. Furthermore, it may be of particular interest for the attainment of a suitable classification of orange honey in which the pollen count is very low. These capabilities imply an evident marketing advantage for the beekeeping sector, since lemon blossom honey could be commercialized as unifloral honey and not as generic citrus honey and orange blossom honey could be correctly characterized. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan.

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Husemann, Martin; Japoshvili, George; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Zhusupbaeva, Aigul; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives. We screened members of pollinator communities (honey bees, bumble bees and other wild bees belonging to four families) collected from apple orchards in Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan for six common honey bee-associated RNA virus complexes encompassing nine virus targets. The Deformed wing virus complex (DWV genotypes A and B) had the highest prevalence across all localities and host species and was the only virus complex found in wild bee species belonging to all four studied families. Based on amplification of negative-strand viral RNA, we found evidence for viral replication in wild bee species of DWV-A/DWV-B (hosts: Andrena haemorrhoa and several Bombus spp.) and Black queen cell virus (hosts: Anthophora plumipes, several Bombus spp., Osmia bicornis and Xylocopa spp.). Viral amplicon sequences revealed that DWV-A and DWV-B are regionally distinct but identical in two or more bee species at any one site, suggesting virus is shared amongst sympatric bee taxa. This study demonstrates that honey bee associated RNA viruses are geographically and taxonomically widespread, likely infective in wild bee species, and shared across bee taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. What are the proteolytic enzymes of honey and what they do tell us? A fingerprint analysis by 2-D zymography of unifloral honeys.

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification.

  10. What are the proteolytic enzymes of honey and what they do tell us? A fingerprint analysis by 2-D zymography of unifloral honeys.

    Rocco Rossano

    Full Text Available Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L. from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  12. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  13. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  14. 76 FR 77480 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry

    2011-12-13

    ... percent honey content have identical fructose/glucose contents of approximately 70 percent and water... syrup blends in its discussion of artificial honey, while it did list refined sugar and high-fructose... high fructose corn syrup were known to be mixed with honey, making them ``honey adulterants,'' and that...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  16. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria.

    Nweze, Justus Amuche; Okafor, J I; Nweze, Emeka I; Nweze, Julius Eyiuche

    2017-11-06

    Several physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of two Nigerian stingless bee honey varieties (Melipona sp. and Hypotrigona sp.) were compared with Apis mellifera honey using standard analytical procedures. The mean pH of Apis mellifera, Hypotrigona sp. and Melipona sp. honeys were 4.24 ± 0.28, 3.75 ± 0.11 and 4.21 ± 0.37 respectively. The mean moisture contents of the honeys were 11.74 ± 0.47, 17.50 ± 0.80, and 13.86 ± 1.06%. Honey samples from Hypotrigona sp. when compared with other honey samples had the highest mean total dissolved solids (370.01 ± 22.51 ppm), hydroxymethylfurfural (16.58 ± 0.37 mg/kg), total acidity (35.57 ± 0.42 meq/kg), protein content (16.58 ± 0.37 g/kg), phenol content (527.41 ± 3.60 mg/kg), and ascorbic acid (161.69 ± 6.70 mg/kg), antioxidant equivalent-ascorbic acid assay value (342.33 ± 0.78 mg/kg) as well as ferric reducing power (666.88 ± 1.73 μM Fe(II)/100 g) (p honeys. This is the first study to compare the properties of Nigerian honey bees. Our results suggested that these honeys (specifically Hypotrigona sp. honey) is a good source of antioxidants comparable to A. mellifera honey.

  17. A new dewatering technique for stingless bees honey

    Ramli Ahmad Syazwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems faced in stingless bee honey storage is spoilage by the fermentation process occurs in honey due to its high water content. There are a few techniques available currently, but they are time consuming and there is excessive heat involved in the process. The temperature of the process must be kept low because excessive heat can deteriorate nutrition value and biochemical content in honey. Hence, a new method of honey dewatering was developed using a Low Temperature Vacuum Drying (LTVD with induced nucleation technique.The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of a LTVD with induced nucleation to reduce the water content in honey. First, the honey was placed in a pressure vessel, and then air was removed. Then, the honey was slightly heated at 30°C and the water content before and after the experiment was measured by a refractometer. The steps were repeated until the water content reached below 20%. It was found that the LTVD method improved the water removal rate significantly with an average of 0.15% of water content per minute. That is 3 times much faster than the conventional method of low temperature heating by Tabouret. Higher temperature during dewatering process improved the dewatering rate significantly. It can be concluded that LTVD is a promising option in tackling the high water content in stingless bee honey issue.

  18. Irradiation Effects on the Decontamination of Microorganisms in Honey

    Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Jae Kyung; Kang, Ho Jin; Lee Eun Young; Byun, Myung Woo

    2005-09-01

    Honey is usually contaminated with numerous microorganisms. Especially, the presence of the spore of Clostridium in honey is dangerous to infants and small children. To determine the effect of a gamma irradiation on the microorganisms in honey, our kinds of honeys (acacia flower, poly floral flower, native A, and native B) were irradiated (0, 5, and 10 kGy) and the total aerobic bacterial count, yeasts and molds, coliform, and Clostridium spp. were detected. In all the honeys, the coliform bacterial, yeast and molds counts were below. The limit of detection (< 101 cfu/g). Total aerobic bacterial and Clostridium spp counts ranged from 85 to 450 cfu/g and 0 to 450 cfu/g in the samples respectively. Acacia and poly floral flower honey were completely sterilized by a 5 kGy irradiation, and both the native honey A and B showed decreased populations of the total aerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp. with a 5 kGy irradiation. Therefore it is concluded that an irradiation treatment could be an effective tool to disinfect honey

  19. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

    Zahiruddin Othman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and acetylcholine (ACh concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.

  20. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial potential of honey on ...

    Background: Honey produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) is one of the ancient traditional medicines used for treatment and prevention of various illnesses. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial potential of honey on some common bacterial pathogen. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Jimma University ...

  1. Improving honey production in worker bees (Apis mellifera adansoni ...

    Modification of feeding activity, nursing care and undertaker behaviour were carried out among some colonies of honey bees Apis mellifera adansoni L to know the effect on honey production. Apiaries Numbers 1, 2 and 3 contain three replicates of experimental hives while apiary Number 4 contains control hives. All the ...

  2. Neurological Effects of Honey: Current and Future Prospects

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey is the only insect-derived natural product with therapeutic, traditional, spiritual, nutritional, cosmetic, and industrial value. In addition to having excellent nutritional value, honey is a good source of physiologically active natural compounds, such as polyphenols. Unfortunately, there are very few current research projects investigating the nootropic and neuropharmacological effects of honey, and these are still in their early stages. Raw honey possesses nootropic effects, such as memory-enhancing effects, as well as neuropharmacological activities, such as anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant activities. Research suggests that the polyphenol constituents of honey can quench biological reactive oxygen species and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system. Honey polyphenols are also directly involved in apoptotic activities while attenuating microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Honey polyphenols are useful in improving memory deficits and can act at the molecular level. Therefore, the ultimate biochemical impact of honey on specific neurodegenerative diseases, apoptosis, necrosis, neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity, and behavior-modulating neural circuitry should be evaluated with appropriate mechanistic approaches using biochemical and molecular tools.

  3. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  4. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the Brazilian Melipona.

    Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of honeys produced by two stingless ...

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) contents were 25.43%, 0.76%, and 12.67% for Trigona carbonaria honey and 26.51%, 1.03% and 11.96% for Melipona beecheii .The fructose, glucose, reducing sugar, higher sugar, sucrose and calorific value contents of Trigona carbonaria honey were 37.25%, 31.64%, ...

  6. Effect of Honey as Partial Sugar Substitute on Pasting Properties ...

    The effect of partial substitution of sugar with liquid honey on the pasting properties of cooked dough made from cassava-wheat composite (10:90) flour as well as the sensory preference and shelf stability of its bread was investigated. Sucrose (S) in the bread recipe formulation was substituted with honey (H) at levels 0, 10, ...

  7. perceptions and adaptations of beekeepers and honey hunters

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    honey sector (i.e. honey hunters) to climate change are, however, not adequately explored. The objective of .... The statistical software SPSS Version 16 was used for this purpose. ... content analysis is an effort of interpretation, that balances ... FORM. Discontinue. N o = 0 ; Yes = 1. ±. Creditavability. CRED. Discontinue. N.

  8. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  9. Honey: an effective regenerative medicine product in wound management.

    Martinotti, Simona; Bucekova, Marcela; Majtan, Juraj; Ranzato, Elia

    2018-05-10

    Honey has successfully been used in treatment of a broad spectrum of injuries including burns and non-healing wounds. It acts as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent with anti/pro-inflammatory properties. However, besides these traditional properties, recent evidence suggests that honey is also an immunomodulator in wound healing and contains several bee and plant-derived components that may speed up the wound healing and tissue regeneration process. Identifying their exact mechanism of action allows better understanding of honey healing properties and promotes its wider translation into clinical practice. This review will discuss the physiological basis for the use of honey in wound management, its current clinical uses, as well as the potential role of honey bioactive compounds in dermal regenerative medicine and tissue re-modelling. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Honey Fortified with Oleaginous Seeds

    Ariana Bianca Velciov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research followed to achieve some natural-fortified food, based on honey and oleaginous fruits. Honey and oleaginous fruits are extremely valuable for human diet. With their rich nutrient content, new products obtained by mixing honey with seeds may be considered both traditional food with high nutritional value as well as fortified food. The samples were constituted from acacia flowers honey bought directly from the producer, to which were added various quantities of oleaginous fruits (seeds. Thus, we obtained 3 different types of fortified honey, using pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds and hemp seeds. Samples obtained were stored in appropriate conditions. From these samples, were made analytical tests: ascorbic acid and humidity.

  11. Physicochemical study of some types of Algerian honeys

    Djahida. Nabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern bee-keeping proposes various types of honeys of floral and geographical origin, of very varied savor and aspect. It is often the only source of sugar of the most withdrawn indigenous populations of the tropical forests. Good for health, honey is also for the environment. The present manuscript is to determine its physicochemical characteristics, six types of samples were collected in various areas of the East of Algeria. These honeys are analyzed for the determination of the pH, the water content, electric conductivity, the ashes content, acidity, and the content of hydroxyl methylfurfural (HMF, the index of diastase (I.D. The results showed that there were differences of a honeys samples to the other and they which they all answer almost the international norms. The physicochemical analyzes studied is to control quality of Algerian honey who is considered an indicator of the environmental pollution.

  12. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruses. Since the mites were first observed in Java, Indonesia in 1904, they have been reported in most regions of the world except Australia and the equatorial regions of Africa. V. destructor severely...

  13. Microwave processing of honey negatively affects honey antibacterial activity by inactivation of bee-derived glucose oxidase and defensin-1.

    Bucekova, Marcela; Juricova, Valeria; Monton, Enrique; Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Majtan, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    Microwave (MW) thermal heating has been proposed as an efficient method for honey liquefaction, while maintaining honey quality criteria. However, little is known about the effects of MW thermal heating on honey antibacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of MW heating on the antibacterial activity of raw rapeseed honeys against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, with a particular focus on two major bee-derived antibacterial components, defensin-1 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Our results demonstrated that MW thermal heating completely abolished honey antibacterial activity whereas conventional thermal treatment at 45 and 55°C did not affect the antibacterial activity of honey samples. A significant decrease in both glucose oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production as well as defensin-1 amount was observed in MW-treated samples. Given that defensin-1 and H 2 O 2 are regular antibacterial components of all honeys, MW heating may have similar negative effects on every type of crystallized/liquid honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pollen spectrum of the honey of uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in the North Coast of Bahia State

    Larissa Silva Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional-level studies of floral resources used by social bees for honey production can contribute to the improvement of management strategies for bee pastures and colonies, by identifying the most visited flowers and thus characterizing the various geographical origins of honey. The objective of this study was to investigate, through pollen analysis, the types of pollen and nectar sources used by the uruçu bee (Melipona scutellaris L. in the North Coast of Bahia. Honey samples were taken monthly from five colonies in an apiary from August 2010 to July 2011. Pollen analysis of honey was performed by using the acetolysis method, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen grains. Fifty pollen types belonging to 40 genera and 17 families were identified. The results indicate predominance of pollen types belonging to the families Fabaceae and Myrtaceae, which suggests that the bees preferred foraging from trees and shrubs. These plants should be included in regional reforestation projects in order to improve management of this bee species and honey production.

  15. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  16. 75 FR 55741 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results and Partial...

    2010-09-14

    ... Naturales-Natural Foods, Alma Pura, Bomare S.A., Compania Apicola Argentina S.A., El Mana S.A., Interrupcion... products covered are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of natural honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, and...

  17. Chasing your honey: Worldwide diaspora of the small hive beetle, a parasite of honey bee colonies

    Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) are now an invasive pest of honey bee colonies in Australia and North America. Knowledge on the introduction(s) from Africa into and between the current ranges will shed light on pest populations, invasion pathways and contribute to ...

  18. Biochemical Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Honey in Oral Mucosal Ulcers

    Nergiz Yılmaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of honey in oral mucosal ulcers healing in comparison with Glyceroloxytriester (TGO. We also aimed to biochemically evaluate the healing effects of honey which had been collected from the Blacksea region flora on mucosal ulcers resulting in material loss.Thirty wistar rats (240±30 g were enrolled in this study. Excisional wounds were performed in all rats for animal oral mucosal ulcer model. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group 1 was treated with Apitherapeutic agent or honey (0,1 ml, 2x1, group 2 was treated with TGO (0,1ml, 2x1 locally, Group 3 served as the control group.Following the surgical procedure on day 7, biopsy specimens were taken from right buccal mucosa and on day 14 biopsy specimens were taken from left bucal mucosa in all rats. Afterwards, hydroxy pyroline levels were measured. Data were analyzed statisticallyThere was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 2, and also between Group 2 and 3, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 3 on day 7. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 on day 14.

  19. Nutritional composition of honey bee food stores vary with floral composition.

    Donkersley, Philip; Rhodes, Glenn; Pickup, Roger W; Jones, Kevin C; Power, Eileen F; Wright, Geraldine A; Wilson, Kenneth

    2017-12-01

    Sufficiently diverse and abundant resources are essential for generalist consumers, and form an important part of a suite of conservation strategies for pollinators. Honey bees are generalist foragers and are dependent on diverse forage to adequately meet their nutritional needs. Through analysis of stored pollen (bee bread) samples obtained from 26 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives across NW-England, we quantified bee bread nutritional content and the plant species that produced these stores from pollen. Protein was the most abundant nutrient by mass (63%), followed by carbohydrates (26%). Protein and lipid content (but not carbohydrate) contributed significantly to ordinations of floral diversity, linking dietary quality with forage composition. DNA sequencing of the ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA gene identified pollen from 89 distinct plant genera, with each bee bread sample containing between 6 and 35 pollen types. Dominant genera included dandelion (Taraxacum), which was positively correlated with bee bread protein content, and cherry (Prunus), which was negatively correlated with the amount of protein. In addition, proportions of amino acids (e.g. histidine and valine) varied as a function of floral species composition. These results also quantify the effects of individual plant genera on the nutrition of honey bees. We conclude that pollens of different plants act synergistically to influence host nutrition; the pollen diversity of bee bread is linked to its nutrient content. Diverse environments compensate for the loss of individual forage plants, and diversity loss may, therefore, destabilize consumer communities due to restricted access to alternative resources.

  20. Nectar profitability, not empty honey stores, stimulate recruitment and foraging in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; de Sá Filho, Geovan Figueirêdo; Maia-Silva, Camila; Schorkopf, Martina; Hrncir, Michael; Barth, Friedrich G

    2016-10-01

    In stingless bees (Meliponini) like in many other eusocial insect colonies food hoarding plays an important role in colony survival. However, very little is known on how Meliponini, a taxon restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, respond to different store conditions. We studied the impact of honey removal on nectar foraging activity and recruitment behaviour in Melipona scutellaris and compared our results with studies of the honey bee Apis mellifera. As expected, foraging activity increased significantly during abundance of artificial nectar and when increasing its profitability. Foraging activity on colony level could thereby frequently increase by an order of magnitude. Intriguingly, however, poor honey store conditions did not induce increased nectar foraging or recruitment activity. We discuss possible reasons explaining why increasing recruitment and foraging activity are not used by meliponines to compensate for poor food conditions in the nest. Among these are meliponine specific adaptations to climatic and environmental conditions, as well as physiology and brood rearing, such as mass provisioning of the brood.

  1. Firm Efficiency and Returns-to-Scale in the Honey Bee Pollination Services Industry.

    Jones Ritten, Chian; Peck, Dannele; Ehmke, Mariah; Patalee, M A Buddhika

    2018-04-03

    While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market. We find that, although over 25% of apiaries are technically efficient, many experience either increasing or decreasing returns to scale. Smaller apiaries (under 80 colonies) experience increasing returns to scale, but a lack of available financing may hinder them from achieving economically sustainable colony levels. Larger apiaries (over 1,000 colonies) experience decreasing returns to scale. Those beekeepers may have economic incentivizes to decrease colony numbers. Using a double bootstrap method, we find that apiary location and off-farm employment influence apiary technical efficiency. Apiaries in Wyoming are found to be more efficient than those in Utah or Montana. Further, engagement in off-farm employment increases an apiary's technical efficiency. The combined effects of efficiency gains through off-farm employment and diseconomies of scale may explain, in part, the historical decline in honey bee numbers.

  2. Provenance Establishment of Stingless Bee Honey Using Multi-element Analysis in Combination with Chemometrics Techniques.

    Shadan, Aidil Fahmi; Mahat, Naji A; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Ariffin, Zaiton; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    As consumption of stingless bee honey has been gaining popularity in many countries including Malaysia, ability to identify accurately its geographical origin proves pertinent for investigating fraudulent activities for consumer protection. Because a chemical signature can be location-specific, multi-element distribution patterns may prove useful for provenancing such product. Using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer as well as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the distributions of multi-elements in stingless bee honey collected at four different geographical locations (North, West, East, and South) in Johor, Malaysia, were investigated. While cross-validation using PCA demonstrated 87.0% correct classification rate, the same was improved (96.2%) with the use of LDA, indicating that discrimination was possible for the different geographical regions. Therefore, utilization of multi-element analysis coupled with chemometrics techniques for assigning the provenance of stingless bee honeys for forensic applications is supported. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7  cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  4. Noise exposure in marching bands

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  5. Finding the missing honey bee genes: Lessons learned from a genome upgrade

    Elsik, Christine G; Worley, Kim C; Bennett, Anna K; Beye, Martin; Camara, Francisco; Childers, Christopher P; de Graaf, Dirk C; Debyser, Griet; Deng, Jixin; Devreese, Bart; Elhaik, Eran; Evans, Jay D; Foster, Leonard J; Graur, Dan; Guigo, Roderic; Hoff, Katharina Jasmin; Holder, Michael E; Hudson, Matthew E; Hunt, Greg J; Jiang, Huaiyang; Joshi, Vandita; Khetani, Radhika S; Kosarev, Peter; Kovar, Christie L; Ma, Jian; Maleszka, Ryszard; Moritz, Robin F A; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Terence D; Muzny, Donna M; Newsham, Irene F; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Robinson, Gene E; Rueppell, Olav; Solovyev, Victor; Stanke, Mario; Stolle, Eckart; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Vaerenbergh, Matthias Van; Waterhouse, Robert M; Weaver, Daniel B; Whitfield, Charles W; Wu, Yuanqing; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Dianhui; Gibbs, Richard A; Patil, S.; Gubbala, S.; Aqrawi, P.; Arias, F.; Bess, C.; Blankenburg, K. B.; Brocchini, M.; Buhay, C.; Challis, D.; Chang, K.; Chen, D.; Coleman, P.; Drummond, J.; English, A.; Evani, U.; Francisco, L.; Fu, Q.; Goodspeed, R.; Haessly, T. H.; Hale, W.; Han, H.; Hu, Y.; Jackson, L.; Jakkamsetti, A.; Jayaseelan, J. C.; Kakkar, N.; Kalra, D.; Kandadi, H.; Lee, S.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.; Macmil, S.; Mandapat, C. M.; Mata, R.; Mathew, T.; Matskevitch, T.; Munidasa, M.; Nagaswamy, U.; Najjar, R.; Nguyen, N.; Niu, J.; Opheim, D.; Palculict, T.; Paul, S.; Pellon, M.; Perales, L.; Pham, C.; Pham, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The first generation of genome sequence assemblies and annotations have had a significant impact upon our understanding of the biology of the sequenced species, the phylogenetic relationships among species, the study of populations within and across species, and have informed the biology of humans. As only a few Metazoan genomes are approaching finished quality (human, mouse, fly and worm), there is room for improvement of most genome assemblies. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome, published in 2006, was noted for its bimodal GC content distribution that affected the quality of the assembly in some regions and for fewer genes in the initial gene set (OGSv1.0) compared to what would be expected based on other sequenced insect genomes. Results: Here, we report an improved honey bee genome assembly (Amel_4.5) with a new gene annotation set (OGSv3.2), and show that the honey bee genome contains a number of genes similar to that of other insect genomes, contrary to what was suggested in OGSv1.0. The new genome assembly is more contiguous and complete and the new gene set includes ~5000 more protein-coding genes, 50% more than previously reported. About 1/6 of the additional genes were due to improvements to the assembly, and the remaining were inferred based on new RNAseq and protein data. Conclusions: Lessons learned from this genome upgrade have important implications for future genome sequencing projects. Furthermore, the improvements significantly enhance genomic resources for the honey bee, a key model for social behavior and essential to global ecology through pollination. 2014 Elsik et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Finding the missing honey bee genes: lessons learned from a genome upgrade.

    Elsik, Christine G; Worley, Kim C; Bennett, Anna K; Beye, Martin; Camara, Francisco; Childers, Christopher P; de Graaf, Dirk C; Debyser, Griet; Deng, Jixin; Devreese, Bart; Elhaik, Eran; Evans, Jay D; Foster, Leonard J; Graur, Dan; Guigo, Roderic; Hoff, Katharina Jasmin; Holder, Michael E; Hudson, Matthew E; Hunt, Greg J; Jiang, Huaiyang; Joshi, Vandita; Khetani, Radhika S; Kosarev, Peter; Kovar, Christie L; Ma, Jian; Maleszka, Ryszard; Moritz, Robin F A; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Terence D; Muzny, Donna M; Newsham, Irene F; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Robinson, Gene E; Rueppell, Olav; Solovyev, Victor; Stanke, Mario; Stolle, Eckart; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Vaerenbergh, Matthias Van; Waterhouse, Robert M; Weaver, Daniel B; Whitfield, Charles W; Wu, Yuanqing; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Dianhui; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-01-30

    The first generation of genome sequence assemblies and annotations have had a significant impact upon our understanding of the biology of the sequenced species, the phylogenetic relationships among species, the study of populations within and across species, and have informed the biology of humans. As only a few Metazoan genomes are approaching finished quality (human, mouse, fly and worm), there is room for improvement of most genome assemblies. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome, published in 2006, was noted for its bimodal GC content distribution that affected the quality of the assembly in some regions and for fewer genes in the initial gene set (OGSv1.0) compared to what would be expected based on other sequenced insect genomes. Here, we report an improved honey bee genome assembly (Amel_4.5) with a new gene annotation set (OGSv3.2), and show that the honey bee genome contains a number of genes similar to that of other insect genomes, contrary to what was suggested in OGSv1.0. The new genome assembly is more contiguous and complete and the new gene set includes ~5000 more protein-coding genes, 50% more than previously reported. About 1/6 of the additional genes were due to improvements to the assembly, and the remaining were inferred based on new RNAseq and protein data. Lessons learned from this genome upgrade have important implications for future genome sequencing projects. Furthermore, the improvements significantly enhance genomic resources for the honey bee, a key model for social behavior and essential to global ecology through pollination.

  7. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health.

    Yan Ping Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV-host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide.

  8. The Complex Demographic History and Evolutionary Origin of the Western Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera.

    Cridland, Julie M; Tsutsui, Neil D; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2017-02-01

    The western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides critical pollination services to agricultural crops worldwide. However, despite substantial interest and prior investigation, the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this important pollinator remain uncertain. The primary hypotheses place the origin of A. mellifera in either Asia or Africa, with subsequent radiations proceeding from one of these regions. Here, we use two publicly available whole-genome data sets plus newly sequenced genomes and apply multiple population genetic analysis methods to investigate the patterns of ancestry and admixture in native honey bee populations from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The combination of these data sets is critical to the analyses, as each contributes samples from geographic locations lacking in the other, thereby producing the most complete set of honey bee populations available to date. We find evidence supporting an origin of A. mellifera in the Middle East or North Eastern Africa, with the A and Y lineages representing the earliest branching lineages. This finding has similarities with multiple contradictory hypotheses and represents a disentangling of genetic relationships, geographic proximity, and secondary contact to produce a more accurate picture of the origins of A. mellifera. We also investigate how previous studies came to their various conclusions based on incomplete sampling of populations, and illustrate the importance of complete sampling in understanding evolutionary processes. These results provide fundamental knowledge about genetic diversity within Old World honey bee populations and offer insight into the complex history of an important pollinator. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Finding the missing honey bee genes: Lessons learned from a genome upgrade

    Elsik, Christine G

    2014-01-30

    Background: The first generation of genome sequence assemblies and annotations have had a significant impact upon our understanding of the biology of the sequenced species, the phylogenetic relationships among species, the study of populations within and across species, and have informed the biology of humans. As only a few Metazoan genomes are approaching finished quality (human, mouse, fly and worm), there is room for improvement of most genome assemblies. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome, published in 2006, was noted for its bimodal GC content distribution that affected the quality of the assembly in some regions and for fewer genes in the initial gene set (OGSv1.0) compared to what would be expected based on other sequenced insect genomes. Results: Here, we report an improved honey bee genome assembly (Amel_4.5) with a new gene annotation set (OGSv3.2), and show that the honey bee genome contains a number of genes similar to that of other insect genomes, contrary to what was suggested in OGSv1.0. The new genome assembly is more contiguous and complete and the new gene set includes ~5000 more protein-coding genes, 50% more than previously reported. About 1/6 of the additional genes were due to improvements to the assembly, and the remaining were inferred based on new RNAseq and protein data. Conclusions: Lessons learned from this genome upgrade have important implications for future genome sequencing projects. Furthermore, the improvements significantly enhance genomic resources for the honey bee, a key model for social behavior and essential to global ecology through pollination. 2014 Elsik et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) from unmanaged colonies and swarms in the United States.

    Magnus, Roxane M; Tripodi, Amber D; Szalanski, Allen L

    2014-06-01

    To study the genetic diversity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from unmanaged colonies in the United States, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA COI-COII region. From the 530 to 1,230 bp amplicon, we observed 23 haplotypes from 247 samples collected from 12 states, representing three of the four A. mellifera lineages known to have been imported into the United States (C, M, and O). Six of the 13 C lineage haplotypes were not found in previous queen breeder studies in the United States. The O lineage accounted for 9% of unmanaged colonies which have not yet been reported in queen breeder studies. The M lineage accounted for a larger portion of unmanaged samples (7%) than queen breeder samples (3%). Based on our mitochondrial DNA data, the genetic diversity of unmanaged honey bees in the United States differs significantly from that of queen breeder populations (p < 0.00001). The detection of genetically distinct maternal lineages of unmanaged honey bees suggests that these haplotypes may have existed outside the managed honey bee population for a long period.

  11. Tolerância ao cobre em ecótipos de Schinus lentiscifolius March (Anacardiaceae de áreas de mineração no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Copper tolerance in ecotypes of Schinus lentiscifolius March (Anacardiaceae in mining regions of Rio Grande do Sul

    Maria Luiza Porto

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Schinus lentiscifolius March, provenientes de duas áreas de mineração do Rio Grande do Sul, foram submetidas a testes de exposição ao CuSO4, visando comprovar a tolerância ao cobre na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plántulas. Os testes demonstraram que os dois clones reagem diferentemente ao cobre, porém ambos apresentaram mecanismos de tolerância. Plántulas provenientes de sementes da área de maior concentração de cobre no solo (minas do Seival apresentam sintomas de toxidez mais tardios do que plántulas provenientes de sementes da área de menor concentração deste íon (mina Sanga Negra.Seeds from Schinus lentiscifolius March collected in two mining areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were submitted to CuSO4 exposure tests to confirm copper tolerance during germination .and plantule development. The results showed that the two distinct clones respond differently to copper, but both presented tolerance mechanisms. Plantules originated from seeds collected in the area with higher soil copper concentration (minas do Seival presented toxicity symptoms later as compared to those plantules originated from seeds collected in the area with lower CU² + concentration (mina Sanga Negra.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of natural honey: a review of literature

    Aurongzeb, M.; Azim, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Health benefits of honey have been reported in a variety of conditions including microbial infections, wound healing, inflammation, glucose tolerance and analgesia. Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution mainly comprised of D-fructose, D-glucose, sucrose, maltose and higher sugars (80% of solid mass). While other natural products i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids/isoflavones, glycosides, phenolics, peptides/proteins are present in minor quantities. A number of enzymes such as invertase, amylase and glucose oxidase have been found in honey. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of honey are well documented and characterized. These antimicrobial properties have been related to oligosaccharides, glycopeptides and peptides present in honey. Honey glucose oxidase provides a continuous and slow release of hydrogen peroxide at a level which is antibacterial but not tissue-damaging. Hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays important roles in inflammation, wound healing etc. The antimicrobial properties of honey have great potential for application in medicine as well as in food industry. (author)

  13. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  15. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Laura M. Brutscher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD- affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.

  16. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  17. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  18. Climate change: impact on honey bee populations and diseases.

    Le Conte, Y; Navajas, M

    2008-08-01

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the most economically valuable pollinator of agricultural crops worldwide. Bees are also crucial in maintaining biodiversity by pollinating numerous plant species whose fertilisation requires an obligatory pollinator. Apis mellifera is a species that has shown great adaptive potential, as it is found almost everywhere in the world and in highly diverse climates. In a context of climate change, the variability of the honey bee's life-history traits as regards temperature and the environment shows that the species possesses such plasticity and genetic variability that this could give rise to the selection of development cycles suited to new environmental conditions. Although we do not know the precise impact of potential environmental changes on honey bees as a result of climate change, there is a large body of data at our disposal indicating that environmental changes have a direct influence on honey bee development. In this article, the authors examine the potential impact of climate change on honey bee behaviour, physiology and distribution, as well as on the evolution of the honey bee's interaction with diseases. Conservation measures will be needed to prevent the loss of this rich genetic diversity of honey bees and to preserve ecotypes that are so valuable for world biodiversity.

  19. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Saccharide breakdown and fermentation by the honey bee gut microbiome.

    Lee, Fredrick J; Rusch, Douglas B; Stewart, Frank J; Mattila, Heather R; Newton, Irene L G

    2015-03-01

    The honey bee, the world's most important agricultural pollinator, relies exclusively on plant-derived foods for nutrition. Nectar and pollen collected by honey bees are processed and matured within the nest through the activities of honey bee-derived microbes and enzymes. In order to better understand the contribution of the microbial community to food processing in the honey bee, we generated a metatranscriptome of the honey bee gut microbiome. The function of the microbial community in the honey bee, as revealed by metatranscriptome sequencing, resembles that of other animal guts and food-processing environments. We identified three major bacterial classes that are active in the gut (γ-Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria), all of which are predicted to participate in the breakdown of complex macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides and polypeptides), the fermentation of component parts of these macromolecules, and the generation of various fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and alcohol. The ability of the microbial community to metabolize these carbon-rich food sources was confirmed through the use of community-level physiological profiling. Collectively, these findings suggest that the gut microflora of the honey bee harbours bacterial members with unique roles, which ultimately can contribute to the processing of plant-derived food for colonies. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Honey bee nest thermoregulation: diversity promotes stability.

    Jones, Julia C; Myerscough, Mary R; Graham, Sonia; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2004-07-16

    A honey bee colony is characterized by high genetic diversity among its workers, generated by high levels of multiple mating by its queen. Few clear benefits of this genetic diversity are known. Here we show that brood nest temperatures in genetically diverse colonies (i.e., those sired by several males) tend to be more stable than in genetically uniform ones (i.e., those sired by one male). One reason this increased stability arises is because genetically determined diversity in workers' temperature response thresholds modulates the hive-ventilating behavior of individual workers, preventing excessive colony-level responses to temperature fluctuations.

  2. Floral markers of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey.

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cottiglia, Filippo; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2010-01-13

    Strawberry tree honey, due to its characteristic bitter taste, is one of the most typical Mediterranean honeys, with Sardinia being one of the largest producers. According to specific chemical studies, homogentisic acid was identified as a possible marker of this honey. This work, based on HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honeys, previously selected by sensory evaluation and melissopalynological analysis, showed that, in addition to the above-mentioned acid, there were other high levels of substances useful for the botanical classification of this unifloral honey. Two of these compounds were isolated and identified as (+/-)-2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (c,t-ABA) and (+/-)-2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid (t,t-ABA). A third compound, a new natural product named unedone, was characterized as an epoxidic derivative of the above-mentioned acids. Structures of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as HPLC-MS/MS and Q-TOF analysis. In selected honeys the average amounts of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were 176.2+/-25.4, 162.3+/-21.1, and 32.9+/-7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the A. unedo nectar confirmed the floral origin of these compounds found in the honey. Abscisic acids were found in other unifloral honeys but not in such high amount and with a constant ratio of about 1:1. For this reason, besides homogentisic acid, these compounds could be used as complementary markers of strawberry tree honey.

  3. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  4. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  5. Genetic detection and quantification of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in the honey bee.

    Bourgeois, A Lelania; Rinderer, Thomas E; Beaman, Lorraine D; Danka, Robert G

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of nosemosis has increased in recent years due to an emerging infestation of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee populations in much of the world. A real-time PCR assay was developed to facilitate detection and quantification of both Nosema apis and N. ceranae in both single bee and pooled samples. The assay is a multiplexed reaction in which both species are detected and quantified in a single reaction. The assay is highly sensitive and can detect single copies of the target sequence. Real-time PCR results were calibrated to spore counts generated by standard microscopy procedures. The assay was used to assess bees from commercial apiaries sampled in November 2008 and March 2009. Bees from each colony were pooled. A large amount of variation among colonies was evident, signifying the need to examine large numbers of colonies. Due to sampling constraints, a subset of colonies (from five apiaries) was sampled in both seasons. In November, N. apis levels were 1212+/-148 spores/bee and N. ceranae levels were 51,073+/-31,155 spores/bee. In March, no N. apis was detected, N. ceranae levels were 11,824+/-6304 spores/bee. Changes in N. ceranae levels were evident among apiaries, some increasing and other decreasing. This demonstrates the need for thorough sampling of apiaries and the need for a rapid test for both detection and quantification of both Nosema spp. This assay provides the opportunity for detailed study of disease resistance, infection kinetics, and improvement of disease management practices for honey bees.

  6. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Activities of Four Honeys From Three Countries (New Zealand, Cuba, and Kenya

    Gianluca Morroni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin and chronic wound infections are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide. Their management is difficult and the development of antibiotic resistance by both planktonic and biofilm-associated bacteria necessitates the use of alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of four honeys from different floral and geographical origins: Melipona beecheii honey (Cuba and three Apis mellifera honeys [Manuka honey (New Zealand, A. mellifera honey (Cuba, and African honey (Kenya]. The physicochemical parameters were within the ranges reported for these honeys and M. beecheii honey stood out due to its acidic character. An agar incorporation technique was used to determine the minimum active dilution of each honey against 52 clinical isolates (34 Gram-positive, 17 Gram-negative, and 1 Candida albicans. The antibiofilm activity of honeys was tested by assessing their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and to disrupt preformed biofilms. Overall, M. beecheii honey had the highest antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, although a marked disruption in preformed biofilms was shared by all tested honeys. Structural changes induced by M. beecheii honey on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy suggesting that this honey has a potent antimicrobial action and may be an excellent candidate for the development of topical preparations for the treatment of infected wounds.

  7. Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 e gli studi di storia dell'arte in Romagna e nelle Marche tra XIX e XX secolo / Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 and the studies of art history in Romagna and Marche regions between the 19th and the 20th centuries

    Francesco De Carolis

    2016-06-01

    The paper aims to discover the career and the critical profile of Egidio Calzini, an art historian who actively contributed to the study of the artistic heritage in Romagna and Marches between 19th and 20th century. Following a diachronic order of his studies, the research underlines both his relationship with the rest of scholars of that time, examining unpublished sources, and his best discoveries, analyzing his publications. From the monography on Marco Palmezzano (1894 to direction of the specialized journal titled «Rassegna bibliografica dell’arte italiana» (1898-1916, the article defines his personality, who contributes to the period of the art history in which started the current features of the discipline, both about conservation and  research studies.

  8. Wild Honey Inhibits Growth od Some Phytopathogenic Fungi in vitro

    K.I. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey was diluted to 1000 ppm with sterile distilled water and tested in vitro for inhibition of the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Colletotrichum sp., and Phytophthora infestans. Wild honey was effective against all these fungi, particularly A. solani and P. infestans, the causal agents of early and late blight diseases respectively; also against R. solani and F. oxysporum, and to a less extent against S. solani and Colletotrichum sp. This is the first report on the inhibiting effect of wild honey against plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  10. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two Novel Strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii Isolated from the Honey Bee Microbiome and Their Use in Honey Fermentation

    Joseph P. Barry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are ubiquitous microbes found in virtually all environments. Many yeast species can ferment sugar into ethanol and CO2, and humans have taken advantage of these characteristics to produce fermented beverages for thousands of years. As a naturally abundant source of fermentable sugar, honey has had a central role in such fermentations since Neolithic times. However, as beverage fermentation has become industrialized, the processes have been streamlined, including the narrow and almost exclusive usage of yeasts in the genus Saccharomyces for fermentation. We set out to identify wild honey- or honey-bee-related yeasts that can be used in honey fermentation. Here, we isolated two strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii from the gut of a locally collected honey bee. Both strains were able to ferment honey sugar into mead but failed to metabolize more than a modest amount of wort sugar in trial beer fermentations. Further, the meads fermented by the T. delbrueckii strains displayed better sensory characteristics than mead fermented by a champagne yeast. The combination of T. delbrueckii and champagne yeast strains was also able to rapidly ferment honey at an industrial scale. Thus, wild yeasts represent a largely untapped reservoir for the introduction of desirable sensory characteristics in fermented beverages such as mead.

  12. March 2011 Tohoku, Japan Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The March 11 earthquake generated a devastating tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific and caused tremendous devastation locally, including an accident at...

  13. CERN's new arrivals, March 2004.

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    On Tuesday 9 March 2004, representatives of the CERN Management welcomed recently-recruited staff members and fellows at the trimester session of the Induction Programme (photographed here with Werner Zapf, Head of the Human Resources Department).

  14. Integration of lncRNA–miRNA–mRNA reveals novel insights into oviposition regulation in honey bees

    Xiao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The honey bee (Apis mellifera is a highly diverse species commonly used for honey production and pollination services. The oviposition of the honey bee queen affects the development and overall performance of the colony. To investigate the ovary activation and oviposition processes on a molecular level, a genome-wide analysis of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNA expression in the ovaries of the queens was performed to screen for differentially expressed coding and noncoding RNAs. Further analysis identified relevant candidate genes or RNAs. Results The analysis of the RNA profiles in different oviposition phase of the queens revealed that 740 lncRNAs, 81 miRNAs and 5,481 mRNAs were differently expressed during the ovary activation; 88 lncRNAs, 13 miRNAs and 338 mRNAs were differently expressed during the oviposition inhibition process; and finally, 100 lncRNAs, four miRNAs and 497 mRNAs were differently expressed during the oviposition recovery process. In addition, functional annotation of differentially expressed RNAs revealed several pathways that are closely related to oviposition, including hippo, MAPK, notch, Wnt, mTOR, TGF-beta and FoxO signaling pathways. Furthermore, in the QTL region for ovary size, 73 differentially expressed genes and 14 differentially expressed lncRNAs were located, which are considered as candidate genes affecting ovary size and oviposition. Moreover, a core set of genes served as bridges among different miRNAs were identified through the integrated analysis of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. Conclusion The observed dramatic expression changes of coding and noncoding RNAs suggest that they may play a critical role in honey bee queens’ oviposition. The identified candidate genes for oviposition activation and regulation could serve as a resource for further studies of genetic markers of oviposition in honey bees.

  15. Radonuclide concentrations in bees and honey in the vicinity of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Honeybees are effective monitors of environmental pollution; they forage for P len and nectar over a large area (congruent 7 km 2 ), accumulate contaminants from air, water, plants, and soil, and return to a fixed location (the hive) for sampling. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in fact, has maintained a network of honeybee colonies within and around LANL for 16 years (1979 to 1994); the objectives for maintaining this honeybee network were to (1) determine the bioavailability of radionuclides in the environment, and (2) the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to people who may consume honey from these beehives (Los Alamos and White Rock/Pajarito Acres lownsites). Of all the radionuclides studied over the years, tritium (314) was consistently picked up by the bees and was most readily transferred to the honey. Tritium in honey collected from hives located within LANL, for example, ranged in concentration from 0.07 Bq mL -1 (1.9 pCi mL -1 ) to 27.75 Bq mL -1 (749.9 pCi mL -1 ) (LANL Neutron Science Center); the average concentration of 3 H in honey Collected from hives located around the LANL area (perimeter) ranged in concentration from 0.34 Bq mL -1 (9.3 pCi mL -1 ) (White Rock/Pajarito Acres townsite) to 3.67 Bq mL -1 (99.3 pCi mL -1 ) (Los Alamos townsite). Overall, the CEDE-based on the average concentration of all radionuclides measured over the years-from consuming 5 kg (11 lbs) of honey collected from hives located within the townsites of Los Alamos and White Rock/Pajarito Acres, after regional (background) as been subtracted, was 0.074 μSv y -1 (0.0074 mrem y -1 ) and 0.024 pSv y -1 (0.0024 mrem y -1 ), respectively. The highest CEDE, based on the mean + 2 standard deviations (95% confidence level), was 0.334 fiSv y -1 (0.0334 mrem y -1 ) (Los Alamos townsitc)

  16. Neonicotinoid insecticides in pollen, honey and adult bees in colonies of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Egypt.

    Codling, Garry; Naggar, Yahya Al; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2018-03-01

    Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions. Metabolites of NIs were also monitored but given the low detection frequency, no link between matrices was possible in the study. Using a simple hazard assessment based upon published LD 50 values for individual neonicotinoids upon the foraging and brood workers it was found that there was a potential risk to brood workers if the lowest reported LD 50 was compared to the sum of the maximum NI concentrations. For non-lethal exposure there was significant risk at the worst case to brood bees but actual exposure effects are dependant upon the genetics and conditions of the Egyptian honeybee subspecies that remain to be determined.

  17. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Weather. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops...

  18. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, MOSE

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, MOSE. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops near...

  19. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Telemetry

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Telemetry. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops...

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods

    Kempf, M.; Wittig, M.; Reinhard, A.; Ohe, von der K.; Blacquière, T.; Raezke, K.P.; Michel, R.; Schreier, P.; Beuerle, T.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One

  1. Challenges associated with the honey bee ( Apis Mellifera Adansonii )

    Challenges associated with the honey bee ( Apis Mellifera Adansonii ) colonies ... Diseases like American and European foulbrood were absent while ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Volume 13 No. 2 April ...

  2. Study of gamma radiation in honey from the Zacatecas State

    Saucedo A, S. A.; Zapata V, M. C.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Davila R, J. I.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: ssaucedo@uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    Radioactivity of honey samples from 10 municipalities of the Zacatecas State in Mexico was investigated by gamma spectrometry. The honey corresponds to the prosopis laevigata flowering. The purpose of the study was to estimate the background levels of natural radioactivity and to discard a possible contamination with the artificial {sup 137}Cs in honey. Any naturally occurring radionuclide could be determined except for {sup 40}K, which was quantified in 8 of the 10 samples, with an average in specific activity of 9.75 ± 1.8 Bq/kg. No signal for the energy of the anthropogenic radionuclide {sup 137}Cs was observed, corroborating that the radiation levels are in good agreement with those reported for another honeys in the world. (Author)

  3. chemical characteristic of selected imported and local honey sold

    USER

    . Standard for Honey, Rev.2, 24th Session of the Codex Alimentarius, CODEX ROME. CAA, Codigo Alimentario Argentino,(2004). Secretariat de Agricultura, Ganaderia y pesca, Buenos. Aires, Argentina.Fennema, O.R. (2003). Food. Chemistry ...

  4. Economics Of Honey Production In Nigeria: Implications For Poverty ...

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... indicates that honey production is very profitable with a gross income of 890 naira per ... Econometric analysis shows that number of hives, labour and fixed assets ...

  5. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, AIS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, AIS. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops near...

  6. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, CTD

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, CTD. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that develops near...

  7. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Phytoflash

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, Phytoflash. The MAGI mission is to use the Wave Glider to sample the late summer chlorophyll bloom that...

  8. Quality parameters of Bulgarian’s kinds of bee honey

    Dinko Hristov Dinkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria were found more than 3600 kinds of higher plants, which predispose to production of different kinds of bee honey. In the country were registered 11 natural and 3 national parks, in which could found all kinds of plants, some of them unique in the world. Up to now there were harvested and investigated more than 11 kinds of bee honey. The aim of the present work was on the basis of available literature data to sum up the scientific information related to the main kinds of Bulgarian’s bee honeys from 2000 to present. In the study were presented quality parameters from organically produced and commercially processed bee honeys: pollen analysis, proline content, invertase activity, specific optical rotation, electrical conductivity, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  9. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    Hamza, Malek

    2013-01-01

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  10. Effects of honey, glutamine and their combination on canine small ...

    olayemitoyin

    and adaptation, evidenced by increased in residual bowel Villi height (27.71µm), ... advantage over glutamine or honey and may be a preferred treatment for short bowel syndrome patients. .... good general health based on complete clinical.

  11. Study of gamma radiation in honey from the Zacatecas State

    Saucedo A, S. A.; Zapata V, M. C.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Davila R, J. I.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.

    2017-09-01

    Radioactivity of honey samples from 10 municipalities of the Zacatecas State in Mexico was investigated by gamma spectrometry. The honey corresponds to the prosopis laevigata flowering. The purpose of the study was to estimate the background levels of natural radioactivity and to discard a possible contamination with the artificial 137 Cs in honey. Any naturally occurring radionuclide could be determined except for 40 K, which was quantified in 8 of the 10 samples, with an average in specific activity of 9.75 ± 1.8 Bq/kg. No signal for the energy of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs was observed, corroborating that the radiation levels are in good agreement with those reported for another honeys in the world. (Author)

  12. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp..

    Catherine E Thompson

    Full Text Available Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.

  13. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R. Holden; L?pez-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens....

  14. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp.).

    Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.

  15. Pollution monitoring of puget sound with honey bees.

    Bromenshenk, J J; Carlson, S R; Simpson, J C; Thomas, J M

    1985-02-08

    To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were generated. Results, based on actual concentrations of contaminants in bee tissues, show that the greatest concentrations of contaminants occur close to Commencement Bay and that honey bees are effective as large-scale monitors.

  16. Honey ointment': a natural remedy of skin wound infections

    Tasleem, S.; Naqvi, S.B.S.; Hashimi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Honey is a gift of nature, principally identified and valued to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity and has been used as a natural remedy of wounds since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey against micro-organisms, to formulate a honey ointment and to evaluate the efficacy of such ointment by conducting clinical trials on skin wound infection. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi and Out-patient Department of Dermatology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2009 to October 2010. The antimicrobial activity of Pakistani floral sources (Trachysperm copticum, Acacia nilotica species indica, Zizyphus) honey samples was investigated by disc diffusion method against freshly isolated wound infecting bacteria (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans), and Staphylococci aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9022, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albican ATCC 15146. An ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey was formulated. The efficacy of such ointment was evaluated by passing thought clinical trials. A total number of 27 patients (23 skin wound infection, and 4 diabetic foot ulcer) were involved in the study. Thin layer of newly formulated honey ointment on gauze were applied two to three times per day till complete healing. Results: In microbiological assay the honey samples were found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the micro-organisms tested. In clinical trial very significant results (99.15%) healing was observed in skin wound infections cases with mean healing time of 5.86 (2-20) days, and 95% diabetic foot ulcers healed with the mean healing time of 20 (8-40) days. Conclusion: Newly formulated

  17. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  18. Pollen analysis of honey and beebread derived from Brazilian mangroves

    Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da; Barth, Ortrud Monika

    2012-01-01

    Pollen analyses were performed on honey and beebread from hives in apiaries located in two distinct mangrove areas dominated by Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaernt. One apiary was located at the edge of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, and the other near Maranguá Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. We investigated the contribution of nectar and pollen from mangrove vegetation to Apis mellifera L. honey and beebread stocks. Intensive visitation to this plant species by honeybees and the presence ...

  19. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of th...

  20. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  1. A highly divergent gene cluster in honey bees encodes a novel silk family

    Sutherland, Tara D.; Campbell, Peter M.; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E.; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Wanjura, Wolfgang J.; Haritos, Victoria S.

    2006-01-01

    The pupal cocoon of the domesticated silk moth Bombyx mori is the best known and most extensively studied insect silk. It is not widely known that Apis mellifera larvae also produce silk. We have used a combination of genomic and proteomic techniques to identify four honey bee fiber genes (AmelFibroin1–4) and two silk-associated genes (AmelSA1 and 2). The four fiber genes are small, comprise a single exon each, and are clustered on a short genomic region where the open reading frames are GC-r...

  2. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.

  3. Honey in modern wound care: a systematic review.

    Vandamme, L; Heyneman, A; Hoeksema, H; Verbelen, J; Monstrey, S

    2013-12-01

    Honey, known for centuries as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds, has recently known a revival in modern wound care. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence and the role of honey in contemporary wound care. The search strategy was developed in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Fifty-five studies of any design, evaluating the use of honey in human burns, ulcers and other wounds, written in English, French, German or Dutch were eligible for inclusion. In all three wound categories honey seems to be a dressing with wound healing stimulating properties. In burns there is also evidence for its antibacterial capacity. In general, honey is also been mentioned to have deodorizing, debridement, anti-inflammatory and wound pain reducing properties, although the evidence for these properties is rather limited. Many of the included studies have methodological problems, and the quality of certain studies is low, making it difficult to formulate conclusive guidelines. This review reveals several gaps in the research of honey in modern wound care, and recommendations are suggested for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  5. Antibacterial activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria.

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Karapanou, A; Mantzourani, I; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    To study the antimicrobial activity of honey, 60 samples of various botanical origin were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against 16 clinical pathogens and their respective reference strains. The microbiological quality of honeys and the antibiotic susceptibility of the various isolates were also examined. The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effect employs the well-agar diffusion method and the estimation of minimum active dilution which produces a 1mm diameter inhibition zone. All honey samples, despite their origin (coniferous, citrus, thyme or polyfloral), showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic and their respective reference strains at variable levels. Coniferous and thyme honeys showed the highest activity with an average minimum dilution of 17.4 and 19.2% (w/v) followed by citrus and polyfloral honeys with 20.8 and 23.8% respectively. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were proven to be up to 60% more resistant than their equal reference strains thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey and the need for further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil.

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57).

  7. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil

    Hamada Imtara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57.

  8. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    Jennifer Hawkins

    Full Text Available Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that

  9. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  10. Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of different types of bee honeys produced at in-house area, egypt

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of bee honey varies with the surrounding environment (major floral and soil contamination), which reflects the nutritional value of honey. 23SU, 232Th, 40K, >37Cs, major elements Na, K, Mg and Cl and trace elements Mn, Fe, Zn, F, I, Cu, Co, Ni and Sr as well as toxic elements Cd and Pb -were all determined in different types of bee honey, which include non-floral honey with artificial feeding (syrup-feed honey) and mono-floral honeys (clover honey or sesame honey or orange honey). These elements were also determined in the bee feeds, which include flowers (clover, sesame and orange) and syrup. The results revealed that of all types of honeys and syrup-feed honey exhibited higher natural radioactivity and higher concentrations ofNa, K, Mg, Cl, oMn, Fe, Co, Cd and Pb than in the other honeys. Orange honey contained the lowest natural radioactivity and element concentrations. Clover honey had the lowest toxic element Cd and Pb concentrations (0.02 and 4.2/xg/g, respectively) while sesame honey contained the highest levels of Cd and F (0.7 and 12.9 /ig/g, respectively). Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between honey and the feed (R= 0.745 to 0.921). Environmental radioactivity and element concentrations in the honey under study were in the safety baseline levels for human consumption

  11. HONEYDEW HONEY: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT

    OTILIA BOBIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected physico-chemical parameters, total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of honeydew honey samples from Romanian were determined. Regarding the chemical composition, analysed honey samples framed in this type of honey, phenolic content, determined as gallic acid equivalents, presented a mean value of 116.45mg GAE/100 g honey. Total flavonoid content expressed as quercetin equivalents, was 1.53 mg in honeydew honey. Antioxidant activity expressed as % inhibition of a solution of DPPH, ranged between 47.84 and 62.99%. The concentration of honey that inhibit with 50% the DPPH solution was established to be 16.16%. 10 strains of Staphylococcus aureus presented different inhibition percentages when were treatred with a solution of honey. In conclusion, Honeydew honey could be recommended to complement other polyphenol source in human diet and also used in medical treatment.

  12. 77 FR 1458 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial...

    2012-01-10

    ... Cooperativas Argentinas Av. (ACA), HoneyMax S.A. (HoneyMax), Alma Pura S.A. (Alma Pura), Alimentos Naturales... withdrew their request for review of the following companies: (1) Alimentos Naturales-Natural Foods Lavalle...

  13. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  14. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of the octopamine receptor AmOA1 in the honey bee brain.

    Irina Sinakevitch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Octopamine plays an important role in many behaviors in invertebrates. It acts via binding to G protein coupled receptors located on the plasma membrane of responsive cells. Several distinct subtypes of octopamine receptors have been found in invertebrates, yet little is known about the expression pattern of these different receptor subtypes and how each subtype may contribute to different behaviors. One honey bee (Apis mellifera octopamine receptor, AmOA1, was recently cloned and characterized. Here we continue to characterize the AmOA1 receptor by investigating its distribution in the honey bee brain. We used two independent antibodies produced against two distinct peptides in the carboxyl-terminus to study the distribution of the AmOA1 receptor in the honey bee brain. We found that both anti-AmOA1 antibodies revealed labeling of cell body clusters throughout the brain and within the following brain neuropils: the antennal lobes; the calyces, pedunculus, vertical (alpha, gamma and medial (beta lobes of the mushroom body; the optic lobes; the subesophageal ganglion; and the central complex. Double immunofluorescence staining using anti-GABA and anti-AmOA1 receptor antibodies revealed that a population of inhibitory GABAergic local interneurons in the antennal lobes express the AmOA1 receptor in the cell bodies, axons and their endings in the glomeruli. In the mushroom bodies, AmOA1 receptors are expressed in a subpopulation of inhibitory GABAergic feedback neurons that ends in the visual (outer half of basal ring and collar regions and olfactory (lip and inner basal ring region calyx neuropils, as well as in the collar and lip zones of the vertical and medial lobes. The data suggest that one effect of octopamine via AmOA1 in the antennal lobe and mushroom body is to modulate inhibitory neurons.

  16. Classification of adulterated honeys by multivariate analysis.

    Amiry, Saber; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this research, honey samples were adulterated with date syrup (DS) and invert sugar syrup (IS) at three concentrations (7%, 15% and 30%). 102 adulterated samples were prepared in six batches with 17 replications for each batch. For each sample, 32 parameters including color indices, rheological, physical, and chemical parameters were determined. To classify the samples, based on type and concentrations of adulterant, a multivariate analysis was applied using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Then, 21 principal components (PCs) were selected in five sets. Approximately two-thirds were identified correctly using color indices (62.75%) or rheological properties (67.65%). A power discrimination was obtained using physical properties (97.06%), and the best separations were achieved using two sets of chemical properties (set 1: lactone, diastase activity, sucrose - 100%) (set 2: free acidity, HMF, ash - 95%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of floral sources and processing on the antimicrobial activities of different unifloral honeys

    Elbanna, Khaled; Attalla, Khaled; Elbadry, Medhat; Abdeltawab, Awad; Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study in vitro antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties of three unifloral honeys (citrus, clover and cotton honeys), and to study the impacts of storage, dilution with water (33%, w/v) and autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min) on honeys characteristics. Methods Honey samples from monofloral sources including citrus (Citrus spp.), Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrium) and cotton (Gossypium vitifolium) were obtained during three successive seasons (2010-2012). Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of different honey samples were studies. Results In honey samples stored for 12 or 24 month, colour, hydroxymethyl furfural and acidity increased, while refractive index, water activity, total soluble solids, electrical conductivity and pH remained relatively unaffected, but H2O2 values decreased. Types of honey exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against different indicator bacteria, wherein the highest antibacterial activity was recorded for clover honey followed by citrus and cotton honeys, respectively. Different species of bacteria were differed in their sensitivity to honey, wherein Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, respectively. Storage up to 24 months at room temperature slightly reduced the antibacterial activity. The reduction levels were about 2.6% and 4.6% after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Diluting honeys with water increased the antibacterial activity by ca. 8.3%, while autoclaving decreased the antibacterial activity by ca. 13.5%. The relative contribution of the peroxide and non-peroxide components in the total antibacterial activity of fresh honeys was investigated. The antibacterial activity of honeys was mainly attributed to non-peroxide antibacterial agents, wherein their contribution was ca. 88%, while the contribution of H2O2 was only 12%. The contribution of the thermostable antibacterial components

  18. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  19. On the antibacterial effects of manuka honey: mechanistic insights

    Roberts AEL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aled Edward Lloyd Roberts,* Helen Louise Brown,* Rowena Eleri Jenkins Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an increasing clinical problem precipitated by the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the later parts of the 20th Century. This problem, coupled with the lack of novel therapeutics in the development pipeline, means AMR is reaching crisis point, with an expected annual death rate of ten million people worldwide by 2050. To reduce, and to potentially remedy this problem, many researchers are looking into natural compounds with antimicrobial and/or antivirulence activity. Manuka honey is an ancient antimicrobial remedy with a good track record against a wide range of nosocomial pathogens that have increased AMR. Its inhibitory effects are the result of its constituent components, which add varying degrees of antimicrobial efficacy to the overall activity of manuka honey. The antimicrobial efficacy of manuka honey and some of its constituent components (such as methylglyoxal and leptosperin are known to bestow some degree of antimicrobial efficacy to manuka honey. Despite growing in vitro evidence of its antimicrobial efficacy, the in vivo use of manuka honey (especially in a clinical environment has been unexpectedly slow, partly due to the lack of mechanistic data. The mechanism by which manuka honey achieves its inhibitory efficacy has recently been identified against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with both of these contrasting organisms being inhibited through different mechanisms. Manuka honey inhibits S. aureus by interfering with the cell division process, whereas P. aeruginosa cells lyse in its presence due to the reduction of a key structural protein. In addition to these inhibitory effects, manuka honey is known to reduce virulence, motility, and biofilm formation. With this

  20. A third-generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map.

    Solignac, Michel; Mougel, Florence; Vautrin, Dominique; Monnerot, Monique; Cornuet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The honey bee is a key model for social behavior and this feature led to the selection of the species for genome sequencing. A genetic map is a necessary companion to the sequence. In addition, because there was originally no physical map for the honey bee genome project, a meiotic map was the only resource for organizing the sequence assembly on the chromosomes. We present the genetic (meiotic) map here and describe the main features that emerged from comparison with the sequence-based physical map. The genetic map of the honey bee is saturated and the chromosomes are oriented from the centromeric to the telomeric regions. The map is based on 2,008 markers and is about 40 Morgans (M) long, resulting in a marker density of one every 2.05 centiMorgans (cM). For the 186 megabases (Mb) of the genome mapped and assembled, this corresponds to a very high average recombination rate of 22.04 cM/Mb. Honey bee meiosis shows a relatively homogeneous recombination rate along and across chromosomes, as well as within and between individuals. Interference is higher than inferred from the Kosambi function of distance. In addition, numerous recombination hotspots are dispersed over the genome. The very large genetic length of the honey bee genome, its small physical size and an almost complete genome sequence with a relatively low number of genes suggest a very promising future for association mapping in the honey bee, particularly as the existence of haploid males allows easy bulk segregant analysis.

  1. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) nurses do not consume pollens based on their nutritional quality

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Snyder, Lucy; Meador, Charlotte; Ayotte, Trace

    2018-01-01

    Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy a...

  2. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Oddie, Melissa AY; Dahle, Bjørn Steinar; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control....

  3. Detecting Adulteration in Lotus Honey Using a Machine Olfactory System

    M Hajinezhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Honey is a supersaturated sugar and viscose solution taken from the nectar of flowers, collected and modified by honeybees. Many producers of honey add some variety of sugars in honey that make difficulties with detection of adulterated and pure honey. Flavor is one of the most important parameters in the classification of honey samples and the smell emitted by the honey depending on the different flowers and constituents that could be different. This causes using an electronic nose system to detect honey adulteration. Materials and Methods Honey samples used in this study were lotus honey that was supplied from a market in Karaj city, Alborz province, Iran. Adulterated honey, along with percentages of fraud (by weight of zero, 20, 35 and 50 percent, was prepared by mixing sugar syrup. Each group of samples, nine times were tested by the electronic nose system. The proposed system, consists of six metal oxide semiconductor sensors, sensor chamber, sample chamber, data acquisition systems, power supply, electric valves, and pumps. Electronic nose is planned for three-phase system baseline correction, the smell of sample injection and cleaning of the sensor and sample chambers with clean air (Oxygen. Responses of the sensors were collected and stored in 420 seconds by a data acquisition system and LabView ver 2012 software. We used fractional method in this study, in order to improve the quality of the information available and to optimize the array output before passing it on to the pattern recognition system. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Artificial neural network (ANN were the methods used for analyzing and recognizing pattern of electronic nose signals. Data processing was carried out using Microsoft Excel, neuralsolution 5 and Unscrambler X 10.3 (CAMO AS, Norway. Results and Discussion PCA Results PCA reduces the complexity of the data-set and is performed with no information on the

  4. Characterization of Turkish honeys regarding of physicochemical properties, and their adulteration analysis

    Şeyda KIVRAK

    Full Text Available Abstract This work was conducted to evaluate the quality of 54 honey samples from eighteen different origins from Turkey. Physicochemical properties were examined according to AOAC methods, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by a spectrophotometric method and authenticity of honeys by Combustion Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS. The microscopic analysis of honey sediment (mellissopalynology was carried out to identify and count the pollen to provide qualitative indicators to confirm botanical origin. The moisture, electrical conductivity and free acidity of honeys ranged from 15.56 to 18.39%, 0.143 to 2.006 mS.cm-1, 16.05 meq.kg-1 and 34.10 meq.kg-1, respectively. Diastase activity of sideritis honey was found highest. Honeys showed HMF level below 40 mg.kg-1. The highest proline was determined in thyme honey. The results showed that honeys contained eminent amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. δ13C values of honeys were more negative than -23.5‰. The C4% sugar ratios were lower than 7% value. The lowest glucose-fructose content was observed in eucalyptus, cedar and pine honey samples. The results obtained for physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic and flavonoid contents an authenticity analysis of Turkish honeys indicate a good quality level, adequate processing, good maturity and freshness. The discrimination between honey types was achieved by PCA.

  5. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycling of honey bee colonies. To understand the physiological states of honey bees used for long-term pollination in greenhouses, we characterized their gene expression profiles by microarray. We found that the greenhouse environment changes the gene expression profiles and induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees. In fact, the increase of the number of Nosema microsporidia and protein carbonyl content was observed in honey bees during pollination in greenhouses. Thus, honey bee colonies are likely to collapse during pollination in greenhouses when heavily infested with pathogens. Degradation of honey bee habitat by changing the outside environment of the colony, during pollination services for example, imposes negative impacts on honey bees. Thus, worldwide use of honey bees for crop pollination in general could be one of reasons for the decline of managed honey bee colonies. PMID:22393496

  6. Use of Bee Honey as Alternative Medicine in Protein Energy Deficiency

    Prasetyo, R. Heru; Sandhika, Willy; Susanto, Djoni

    2013-01-01

    The protein energy deficiency cause intestinal villus atrophy and epithel mucous damage. The effect of bee honey on histostructure of intestine was studied in the experimental mice as model of proteinenergy deficiency. The use bee honey in protein-energy deficiency shown to improve intestinal villus atrophy and epithel damage. In conclusion that bee honey can use as alternative medicine in protein energydeficiency

  7. 77 FR 50464 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of...

    2012-08-21

    ... Determination \\1\\ of this anticircumvention inquiry, and determined that blends of honey and rice syrup are... Republic of China, 66 FR 63670 (December 10, 2001) (``Order''). DATES: Effective Date: August 21, 2012. FOR... are blends of honey and rice syrup, regardless of the percentage of honey they contain, from the PRC...

  8. 77 FR 37378 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention...

    2012-06-21

    ... ``refined sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and the like'' \\12\\ as being used to make artificial honey. They...-fructose corn syrup were readily available in the U.S. market, with corn syrup being the most common... percent honey qualify as artificial honey because they are composed of sucrose, glucose and water, and...

  9. 77 FR 25682 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... review of the antidumping duty order on Honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the... day period. See Letter to the Department from Petitioners, ``Honey from the People's Republic of China...

  10. 77 FR 34343 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    2012-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an... changes for the final rescission of this review. \\1\\ See Honey from the People's Republic of China...

  11. Effect of honey on oxidation, chlorination and nitration by purified equine myeloperoxidase

    Saad Aissat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant effect of honey using two classical methods generally used, and for the first time to test the effect of honey on the oxidation, chlorination and nitration by purified equine myeloperoxidase (MPO. Methods: The antioxidant activity of three Algerian honey samples (nectar honey, mixed honey and honeydew honey was evaluated by two classical methods, the ferric- reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity. Results: Honeydew honey had the highest reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, whereas nectar honey showed the lowest reducing power and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. All honey samples showed a significant inhibitory effect on the chlorination activity of equine MPO, but honeydew honey was the weakest inhibitor. The three samples were poorly inhibitor on the MPO oxidation and nitration activities, except for nectar honey that exerted an inhibitory effect at the highest tested concentration of 10%. These later results seem to contradict those obtained with DPPH and FRAP. Conclusions: The antioxidant capacity of honey is mainly due to the phenolic compounds and flavonoids it contained. It has been suggested that MPO might be involved in the antioxidant, not pro-oxidant, activity of phenolic compounds.

  12. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  13. Blue light enhances the antimicrobial activity of honey against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Barbieri, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be isolated from skin wounds of burn patients, bedsore and diabetic ulcers. The healing of wounds is often impaired by the intrinsic antibiotic resistance, the tolerance to many antimicrobials and the ability to form biofilm of this opportunistic pathogen. Finding new topical treatments to combine with antibiotics is thus essential. Among natural products, the antimicrobial properties of honeys have been known for millennia. In this study honey and visible light have been combined to control the growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The irradiation by a broad spectrum light source of bacteria inoculated onto 2 % w/v fir and forest honeydew (HD) honeys caused a killing effect that the honeys alone or the light alone did not show. This antimicrobial activity was light energy-dose and honey-concentration dependent. Among the tested honeys, the fir and forest HD honeys were the most efficient ones. In particular, the irradiation by blue LED (λmax = 466 nm) yielded good rates of killing, that were significantly higher in comparison to irradiation alone and honey alone. Interestingly, a similar effect was obtained by plating bacteria on blue LED pre-irradiated HD honeys. The combined use of honey and blue light was also successful in inhibiting the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. The blue LED irradiation of PAO1 administered with 10 % w/v forest HD honey significantly enhanced the inhibition of biofilm formation in comparison to dark incubated honey.

  14. Persistence of echimidine, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, from honey into mead

    Honey produced by bees foraging on Echium plantagineum is known to contain dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids characteristic of the plant. Following a prolific growth of E. plantagineum in the wake of Australian bushfires, two samples of mead, a fermented drink made from honey, and the honey used to pre...

  15. High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year.

    Khalil, M I; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2010-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content is an indicator of the purity of honey. High concentrations of HMF in honey indicate overheating, poor storage conditions and old honey. This study investigated the HMF content of nine Malaysian honey samples, as well as the correlation of HMF formation with physicochemical properties of honey. Based on the recommendation by the International Honey Commission, three methods for the determination of HMF were used: (1) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) White spectrophotometry and (3) Winkler spectrophotometry methods. HPLC and White spectrophotometric results yielded almost similar values, whereas the Winkler method showed higher readings. The physicochemical properties of honey (pH, free acids, lactones and total acids) showed significant correlation with HMF content and may provide parameters that could be used to make quick assessments of honey quality. The HMF content of fresh Malaysian honey samples stored for 3-6 months (at 2.80-24.87 mg/kg) was within the internationally recommended value (80 mg/kg for tropical honeys), while honey samples stored for longer periods (12-24 months) contained much higher HMF concentrations (128.19-1131.76 mg/kg). Therefore, it is recommended that honey should generally be consumed within one year, regardless of the type. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  18. IDRC Bulletin — March 2017

    IDRC Bulletin — March 2017. Featured this month. Nighat Dad. Protecting digital rights in Pakistan. Nighat Dad is winning global accolades for her quest to protect women's safety on the Internet, while urging governments to balance cyber security with citizen rights. Find out how. News. Research for a climate-smart world.

  19. RE-SONANCEI March 1996

    Maynard Smith says" fifteen years later, when I decided to leave engineering and train as a biologist, I entered. RESONANCE I March 1996. S Thangavelu is with Statistics and Mathematics Unit,. Indian Statistical Institute, R V College Post, Banga- lore 560 059. University College, London, where Haldane was at that time a ...

  20. Monthly energy review: March 1996

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is the March report by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an article on current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles, an energy overview, and data on energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 32 figs., 88 tabs.

  1. Electrical Energy Overview March 2012

    2012-03-01

    This publication presents the electricity characteristics and noteworthy developments in France every month: consumption, generation, renewable energies, cross-border trades and transmission system developments, along with feedback on the highlights affecting this data. This issue presents the key figures for March 2012

  2. Loglines. March-April 2015

    2015-04-01

    perform tasks that aren’t included in their missions when DLA already has the expertise. — David Kless 5Loglines March - April 2015 nline buyers...substandard. For example, several years ago some refrigerant on the market had contaminants that could explode under certain conditions, she said

  3. March 2010 Final for Publicat...

    User

    2,4,7. 4,12. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. March 2010 Vol. 13 (1):70-73. OPINIONS OF NIGERIAN ... Undergraduate students are hardly taught the art of referral writing. ... complaint and steps taken by the practitioner so far, should be included in a quality referral. The quality ... institutional review committee. The data ...

  4. March 2010 Final for Publicat...

    User

    March 2010 Vol. 13 (1):32-36. EPISTAXIS IN SAGAMU. *OA Sogebi,**EA Oyewole ,***OA Adebajo. ABSTRACT. Background: Materials and Methods: Results: Conclusion: Key Words ... Anterior rhinoscopy: Examination of the nasal cavities through the .... post-irradiation nasopharyngeal cancer patients with internal carotid ...

  5. Viruses of managed alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachille rotundata Fabricus) and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Western Canada: Incidence, impacts, and prospects of cross-species viral transmission.

    Melathopoulos, Andony; Ovinge, Lynae; Veiga, Patricia Wolf; Castillo, Carlos; Ostermann, David; Hoover, Shelley

    2017-06-01

    We examined whether alfalfa leafcutting bees (ALCB, Megachille rotundata) experienced a higher incidence of seven viruses commonly found honey bees (Apis mellifera) when placed alongside honey bees for hybrid canola seed pollination. Although two viruses - sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) - were detected in ALCB adults, their presence appeared independent of whether honey bees were present in the same field or not. A further survey of viruses among ALCB adults in three different alfalfa seed growing regions in Western Canada confirmed the ubiquity of sacbrood virus (SBV) as well as the infrequent presence of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), both of which had not been previously reported on ALCB. Moreover, SBV and ABPV were detected in the cocoon stage and only in one region. Co-infection among pools of ALCB adults with both of these viruses was more closely correlated with decreasing levels of cocoon viability than infection levels in cocoons themselves. This research suggests ongoing viral transmission between honey bees and ALCB in the same fields is likely low but that co-infection with these viruses may lower ALCB productivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 75 FR 18430 - Establishment of a U.S. Honey Producer Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order

    2010-04-12

    ... vastly greater than the total value of honey and wax produced by honey bees. Honey bees pollinate approximately one- third of the human diet each year in the United States, and more than 140 billion honey bees... grows 100% of the U.S. almond crop and supplies 80% of the world almonds. Each year, nearly one million...

  7. Is the Salivary Gland Associated with Honey Bee Recognition Compounds in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)?

    Martin, Stephen J; Correia-Oliveira, Maria E; Shemilt, Sue; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2018-06-07

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as recognition compounds with the best evidence coming from social insects such as ants and honey bees. The major exocrine gland involved in hydrocarbon storage in ants is the post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) in the head. It is still not clearly understood where CHCs are stored in the honey bee. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrocarbons and esters found in five major worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) exocrine glands, at three different developmental stages (newly emerged, nurse, and forager) using a high temperature GC analysis. We found the hypopharyngeal gland contained no hydrocarbons nor esters, and the thoracic salivary and mandibular glands only contained trace amounts of n-alkanes. However, the cephalic salivary gland (CSG) contained the greatest number and highest quantity of hydrocarbons relative to the five other glands with many of the hydrocarbons also found in the Dufour's gland, but at much lower levels. We discovered a series of oleic acid wax esters that lay beyond the detection of standard GC columns. As a bee's activities changed, as it ages, the types of compounds detected in the CSG also changed. For example, newly emerged bees have predominately C 19 -C 23 n-alkanes, alkenes and methyl-branched compounds, whereas the nurses' CSG had predominately C 31:1 and C 33:1 alkene isomers, which are replaced by a series of oleic acid wax esters in foragers. These changes in the CSG were mirrored by corresponding changes in the adults' CHCs profile. This indicates that the CSG may have a parallel function to the PPG found in ants acting as a major storage gland of CHCs. As the CSG duct opens into the buccal cavity the hydrocarbons can be worked into the comb wax and could help explain the role of comb wax in nestmate recognition experiments.

  8. A highly divergent gene cluster in honey bees encodes a novel silk family.

    Sutherland, Tara D; Campbell, Peter M; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E; Sriskantha, Alagacone; Wanjura, Wolfgang J; Haritos, Victoria S

    2006-11-01

    The pupal cocoon of the domesticated silk moth Bombyx mori is the best known and most extensively studied insect silk. It is not widely known that Apis mellifera larvae also produce silk. We have used a combination of genomic and proteomic techniques to identify four honey bee fiber genes (AmelFibroin1-4) and two silk-associated genes (AmelSA1 and 2). The four fiber genes are small, comprise a single exon each, and are clustered on a short genomic region where the open reading frames are GC-rich amid low GC intergenic regions. The genes encode similar proteins that are highly helical and predicted to form unusually tight coiled coils. Despite the similarity in size, structure, and composition of the encoded proteins, the genes have low primary sequence identity. We propose that the four fiber genes have arisen from gene duplication events but have subsequently diverged significantly. The silk-associated genes encode proteins likely to act as a glue (AmelSA1) and involved in silk processing (AmelSA2). Although the silks of honey bees and silkmoths both originate in larval labial glands, the silk proteins are completely different in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures as well as the genomic arrangement of the genes encoding them. This implies independent evolutionary origins for these functionally related proteins.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  10. Comparative Study of Honey Consumption in Slovakia and Russia

    Snezhanna Guziy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation on the food market is influenced by various diet trends including eating healthy products. The honey consumption has an increasing tendency because more and more consumers consider honey as a healthy alternative to a refined sugar. The aim of this research paper was to identify consumption patterns regarding honey in terms of annual consumption, its frequency, volume of honey per purchase, consumption structure by family members and factors affecting consumers at honey purchase. The primary data was obtained from a questionnaire survey, which was conducted in Slovakia on the sample of 316 respondents as well as in Russia on the sample of 309 respondents. For a deeper analyses several assumptions were formulated where dependencies between demographic factors (age, education and income, and annual consumption by using Chi-Square Test of Independence and Cramer´V coefficient, as well as, differences in factors affecting consumers at honey purchase by using Friedman test have been statistically tested. Based on the results it was found out that, the majority of Slovak consumers make honey reserves and prefer to buy 1 kg per purchase while the majority of Russian consumers purchase honey if necessary and prefer to buy 0.5 or 2 - 5 kg per purchase. Honey is generally consumed by all family members in both countries. The mostimportant factors for Slovak consumers was the country of origin (2.59 followed by taste (3.51, type (3.97 and price (4.18, while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.70 and the design of packaging (6.80. For Russian consumers the most important factors werethe type (2.97, design of packaging (3.13, price (3.28 and taste (3.61 while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.98, brand (6.50 and the country of origin (6.50. The majority of consumers in both countries consume from 2 to 5 kg annually and the only significant dependence was confirmed in case of respondents

  11. The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's production of honey

    Seeley , Thomas

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This study examined the impact on a colony's honey production of providing it with a natural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I measured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5 without it. Colonies with drone comb gained only 25.2 $\\pm$ 16.0 kg whereas those without drone comb gained 48.8 $\\pm$ 14.8 kg. Colonies with drone comb also had a higher mean rate of drone flights and a lower incidence of drone ...

  12. Probabilistic Assessment of Investment Options in Honey Value Chains in Lamu County, Kenya

    Joshua Wafula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing and implementing biodiversity-based value chains can be a complex undertaking, especially in places where outcomes are uncertain and risks of project failure and cost overruns are high. We used the Stochastic Impact Evaluation (SIE approach to guide the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD on viable investment options in honey value chains, which the agency considered implementing as an economic incentive for communities along the Kenya-Somalia border to conserve biodiversity. The SIE approach allows for holistic analysis of project cost, benefit, and risk variables, including those with uncertain and missing information. It also identifies areas that pose critical uncertainties in the project. We started by conducting a baseline survey in Witu and Awer in Lamu County, Kenya. The aim of the survey was to establish the current farm income from beekeeping as a baseline, against which the prospective impacts of intervention options could be measured. We then developed an intervention decision model that was populated with all cost, benefit and risk variables relevant to beekeeping. After receiving training in making quantitative estimates, four subject-matter experts expressed their uncertainty about the proposed variables in the model by specifying probability distributions for them. We then used Monte Carlo simulation to project decision outcomes. We also identified variables that projected decision outcomes were most sensitive to, and we determined the value of information for each variable. The variable with the highest information value to the decision-maker in Witu was the honey price. In Awer, no additional information on any of the variables would change the recommendation to invest in honey value chains in the region. The analysis demonstrates a novel and comprehensive approach to decision-making for different stakeholders in a project where decision outcomes are uncertain.

  13. PKG in honey bees: spatial expression, Amfor gene expression, sucrose responsiveness, and division of labor.

    Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2014-06-01

    Division of labor is a hallmark of social insects. In honey bees, division of labor involves transition of female workers from one task to the next. The most distinct tasks are nursing (providing food for the brood) and foraging (collecting pollen and nectar). The brain mechanisms regulating this form of behavioral plasticity have largely remained elusive. Recently, it was suggested that division of labor is based on nutrition-associated signaling pathways. One highly conserved gene associated with food-related behavior across species is the foraging gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our analysis of this gene reveals the presence of alternative splicing in the honey bee. One isoform is expressed in the brain. Expression of this isoform is most pronounced in the mushroom bodies, the subesophageal ganglion, and the corpora allata. Division of labor and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees correlate significantly with foraging gene expression in distinct brain regions. Activating PKG selectively increases sucrose responsiveness in nurse bees to the level of foragers, whereas the same treatment does not affect responsiveness to light. These findings demonstrate a direct link between PKG signaling in distinct brain areas and division of labor. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the difference in sensory responsiveness between nurse bees and foragers can be compensated for by activating PKG. Our findings on the function of PKG in regulating specific sensory responsiveness and social organization offer valuable indications for the function of the cGMP/PKG pathway in many other insects and vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

    Jorge Arturo Lobo Segura

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.Dois marcadores genéticos (a região intergénica mitocondrial COI-COII e o microsatélite A7, com altos níveis de variabilidade em populações de abelhas melíferas da África do Sul e Europa, foram analisados em uma amostra de enxames naturais da Costa Rica. As freqüências alélicas e haplotípicas na amostra africanizada mostraram altos níveis de diversidade nestes loci. A maioria dos alelos são de origem africana, embora alguns alelos de origem européia foram observados. As mudanças nas freqüências dos alelos de origem africana entre as abelhas da África do Sul e as abelhas da população africanizada são de baixa magnitude e podem ter sido causadas pelo efeito fundador que ocorreu na introdução da abelha africana na América do Sul.

  15. The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar

    2008-09-01

    Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not.

  16. STUDIES OF CHOSEN TOXIC ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MULTIFLOWER BEE HONEY

    Ewa Popiela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 21 false false false  The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation level of chosen toxic elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Cd in multiflower honey collected from Brzeg area. Biological material (honey was mineralized using the microwave technique at an elevated pressure in the microprocessor station of pressure in the type Mars 5. Quantitative analysis of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was performed by plasma spectrometry method using a Varian ICP-AES apparatus. The presence of toxic elements was determined in examined biological materials. The elements fallowed the fallowing decreasing order with respect to their content of honey: Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cd. The average concentrations of studied elements observed in multi-flower honey were as follows: 6.24 mg.kg-1 of zinc, 2.75 mg.kg-1 of copper, 0.53, 0.071, 0.042 mg.kg-1of lead, arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Lead was the most problematic in bee honey because its average content exceeded the maximum acceptable concentration. Additionally, this metal concentration was 60% higher in studied samples than allowable standard of lead content.doi:10.5219/134 

  17. Polyphenols as Possible Markers of Botanical Origin of Honey.

    Gašić, Uroš M; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the botanical and geographical origin of food has become an important topic in the context of food quality and safety, as well as consumer protection, in accordance with international standards. Finding chemical markers, especially phytochemicals, characteristic for some kind of food is the subject of interest of a significant number of researchers in the world. This paper is focused on the use of polyphenols as potential markers for the determination of botanical origin of honey. It includes a review of the polyphenols present in various honey samples and the methods for their separation and identification. Special emphasis in this paper is placed on the identification of honey polyphenols using advanced LC-MS techniques in order to find specific markers of botanical origin of honey. In this regard, this study gives an overview of the literature that describes the use of LC-MS techniques for the isolation and determination of honey polyphenols. This review focuses on the research performed in the past two decades.

  18. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  19. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  20. Leptospermum Honey for Wound Care in an Extremely Premature Infant.

    Esser, Media

    2017-02-01

    Neonatal wound care is challenging due to the fragility and vulnerable skin structure. Neonates are often left susceptible to the forces of their environment, leaving them open to infection when skin injury occurs. Leptospermum honey has been used successfully in adult patients, with evidence lacking in the neonatal population. This case demonstrates the management of a difficult-to-heal wound in a 23-week gestation infant. Selecting the proper treatment and products for wound healing is challenging, with little evidence-based research available for the treatment of neonatal wounds. Leptospermum honey and other adult-driven dressings have been used for neonatal wound care as well as other adult-driven dressings. This case demonstrates the benefits of Leptospermum honey as an option for neonatal wounds. This case presents the treatment and healing of an extensive wound of a 23-week gestation neonate using a hydrogel product initially and then transitioning to a Leptospermum honey dressing due to suboptimal healing. Results of this treatment included quick healing time, little to no scarring, and no loss of movement or function to the affected extremities. The incorporation of Leptospermum honey for wound care has the potential to promote faster wound healing, with less scarring in the neonatal population. Adult wound care principles have been applied in the face of a weak evidence base relating to neonatal-specific cases. There is a need for continued research related to moist wound healing in the neonatal population, with resulting product and practice recommendations.

  1. Nosema ceranae escapes fumagillin control in honey bees.

    Wei-Fone Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fumagillin is the only antibiotic approved for control of nosema disease in honey bees and has been extensively used in United States apiculture for more than 50 years for control of Nosema apis. It is toxic to mammals and must be applied seasonally and with caution to avoid residues in honey. Fumagillin degrades or is diluted in hives over the foraging season, exposing bees and the microsporidia to declining concentrations of the drug. We showed that spore production by Nosema ceranae, an emerging microsporidian pathogen in honey bees, increased in response to declining fumagillin concentrations, up to 100% higher than that of infected bees that have not been exposed to fumagillin. N. apis spore production was also higher, although not significantly so. Fumagillin inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase2 (MetAP2 in eukaryotic cells and interferes with protein modifications necessary for normal cell function. We sequenced the MetAP2 gene for apid Nosema species and determined that, although susceptibility to fumagillin differs among species, there are no apparent differences in fumagillin binding sites. Protein assays of uninfected bees showed that fumagillin altered structural and metabolic proteins in honey bee midgut tissues at concentrations that do not suppress microsporidia reproduction. The microsporidia, particularly N. ceranae, are apparently released from the suppressive effects of fumagillin at concentrations that continue to impact honey bee physiology. The current application protocol for fumagillin may exacerbate N. ceranae infection rather than suppress it.

  2. Ecological adaptation of diverse honey bee (Apis mellifera populations.

    Robert Parker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees are complex eusocial insects that provide a critical contribution to human agricultural food production. Their natural migration has selected for traits that increase fitness within geographical areas, but in parallel their domestication has selected for traits that enhance productivity and survival under local conditions. Elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of these local adaptive processes is a key goal of evolutionary biology. Proteomics provides tools unique among the major 'omics disciplines for identifying the mechanisms employed by an organism in adapting to environmental challenges. RESULTS: Through proteome profiling of adult honey bee midgut from geographically dispersed, domesticated populations combined with multiple parallel statistical treatments, the data presented here suggest some of the major cellular processes involved in adapting to different climates. These findings provide insight into the molecular underpinnings that may confer an advantage to honey bee populations. Significantly, the major energy-producing pathways of the mitochondria, the organelle most closely involved in heat production, were consistently higher in bees that had adapted to colder climates. In opposition, up-regulation of protein metabolism capacity, from biosynthesis to degradation, had been selected for in bees from warmer climates. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results present a proteomic interpretation of expression polymorphisms between honey bee ecotypes and provide insight into molecular aspects of local adaptation or selection with consequences for honey bee management and breeding. The implications of our findings extend beyond apiculture as they underscore the need to consider the interdependence of animal populations and their agro-ecological context.

  3. Ecological adaptation of diverse honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations.

    Parker, Robert; Melathopoulos, Andony P; White, Rick; Pernal, Stephen F; Guarna, M Marta; Foster, Leonard J

    2010-06-15

    Honey bees are complex eusocial insects that provide a critical contribution to human agricultural food production. Their natural migration has selected for traits that increase fitness within geographical areas, but in parallel their domestication has selected for traits that enhance productivity and survival under local conditions. Elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of these local adaptive processes is a key goal of evolutionary biology. Proteomics provides tools unique among the major 'omics disciplines for identifying the mechanisms employed by an organism in adapting to environmental challenges. Through proteome profiling of adult honey bee midgut from geographically dispersed, domesticated populations combined with multiple parallel statistical treatments, the data presented here suggest some of the major cellular processes involved in adapting to different climates. These findings provide insight into the molecular underpinnings that may confer an advantage to honey bee populations. Significantly, the major energy-producing pathways of the mitochondria, the organelle most closely involved in heat production, were consistently higher in bees that had adapted to colder climates. In opposition, up-regulation of protein metabolism capacity, from biosynthesis to degradation, had been selected for in bees from warmer climates. Overall, our results present a proteomic interpretation of expression polymorphisms between honey bee ecotypes and provide insight into molecular aspects of local adaptation or selection with consequences for honey bee management and breeding. The implications of our findings extend beyond apiculture as they underscore the need to consider the interdependence of animal populations and their agro-ecological context.

  4. Honey quality of Melipona sp. bees in Acre, Brazil

    Marcus Augusto Damaceno do Vale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey from stingless bees (Melipona sp. is a nutritious and medicinal product economically valued in the informal Brazilian market, driven by the growing demand for natural products; however, its physicochemical characteristics are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the physicochemical profile of the stingless bee honey produced in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre. Honey samples were analyzed following the methodology recommended by Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento; the following parameters were established: moisture, total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, ash, crude protein, diastase activity, Brix degrees, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, pH, hydroxymethylfurfural, electrical conductivity, color and Lugol, Lund and Fiehe reactions. Results show that these parameters are not suitable for all samples, being incompatible with established standards, indicating that the current legislation on Apis mellifera is not suitable for all characters analyzed, mainly moisture content, corroborating the need to standardize guidelines for honey from stingless bees. Moreover, there was no tampering in the honeys analyzed.

  5. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys.

    Anjos, Ofélia; Iglesias, Carla; Peres, Fátima; Martínez, Javier; García, Ángela; Taboada, Javier

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters. The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral (almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower) and multifloral. The moisture content, electrical conductivity, water activity, ashes content, pH, free acidity, colorimetric coordinates in CIELAB space (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)) and total phenols content of the honey samples were evaluated. Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables. The reduced error rates (5%) allow us to conclude that the botanical origin of honey can be reliably and quickly known from the colorimetric information and the electrical conductivity of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  7. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey.

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Tuberoso, C; Floris, I; Reniero, F; Guillou, C; Ghelli, S

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of organic acids in strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey showed the presence of an unknown acid as the main constituent. This compound was isolated and identified as homogentisic acid (2, 5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) by MS and NMR techniques. Its average content in honey was 378 +/- 92 mg/kg. Analysis of nectar confirmed the floral origin of the compound found in honey. Since this acid was not detected in any of the different monofloral honeys, it could be used as a marker of strawberry-tree (A. unedo) honey.

  8. Isolation of 62 kda protein with antioxidant properties from natural honey

    Mohammed, S.E.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen natural honey samples from Libya, Sudan and Pakistan were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by employing 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The scavenging activity of honey samples were in the range of 18-32% when compared to control. A 62 kDa protein was isolated from honey by gel filtration chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC showed significant radical scavenging activity. The research pointed out the antioxidative role of honey proteins and possibility of their contribution to the therapeutic value of the natural honey. (author)

  9. DETERMINING COSTS-RETURNS PROFITABILITY IN HONEY MARKETING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    Adinya, I.B; Ayuk, E.A; Akpet, S.O; Agiopu, B.F

    2017-01-01

    This study examined costs-returns profitability in honey marketing in Cross River State. Honey contains 29 percent of protein, 19 percent of amino acid, vitamins and minerals for bodybuilding. Honey mixed with aloe vera gel is use for cure of dandruff and rapid hair growth. This mixture could also help to prevent hair breakage. Honey pollen enhances vitality and brings about a longer life span. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 honey marketers in the study area by means of struct...

  10. Joint Study on Some Major Developments in Elementary School Curriculum in Asian and Pacific Countries: Research Design. Report of a Regional Workshop (Tokyo, Japan, February 28-March 15, 1984).

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A basic framework for undertaking a study of elementary curricula in Pacific and Asian countries is presented. The material, which emerged from a regional workshop, is divided into two sections. A chart in section 1 summarizes major features of elementary school curricula in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand,…

  11. The influence of the nature of soil and plant and pollution on the 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in various natural honey samples using nuclear track detectors: impact on the adult consumers

    Misdaq, M.A.; Mortassim, A.

    2009-01-01

    238 U and 232 Th concentrations as well as 222 Rn and 220 Rn α-activities per unit volume were measured in various natural honey samples collected from different regions in Morocco using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). These radionuclides were also measured in soils, plant flowers and nectar solutions corresponding to the honey samples studied. In addition, these radionuclides were measured in different imported honey samples. The measured 238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations ranged from (1.5 ± 0.1) mBq kg -1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) mBq kg -1 , (1.1 ± 0.1) mBq kg -1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) mBq kg -1 , (1.5 ± 0.1) Bq kg -1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) Bq kg -1 and (1.1 ± 0.1) Bq kg -1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) Bq kg -1 for the honey samples studied, respectively. Annual 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn intakes by Moroccan adults from the consumption of honey were assessed. The influence of the nature of soil and plant on the 238 U and 232 Th contents of the studied honey samples was investigated. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the 238 U and 232 Th transfer between soils and plant flowers and that between plant flowers and honey, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn in the honey samples studied. Committed equivalent doses due to the annual intake of 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn were evaluated in the organs of adult members of the Moroccan rural population from the ingestion of the honey samples. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn from the ingestion of natural honey by the Moroccan rural population was found to be equal to 0.64 μSνy -1 . (author)

  12. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  13. Analyses of avocado (Persea americana) nectar properties and their perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Afik, O; Dag, A; Kerem, Z; Shafir, S

    2006-09-01

    Honey bees are important avocado pollinators. However, due to the low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Previous work has revealed that avocado honey is relatively unattractive to honey bees when compared with honey from competing flowers. We characterized avocado honey and nectar with respect to their odor, color, and composition of sugars, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Furthermore, we tested how honey bees perceive these parameters, using the proboscis extension response bioassay and preference experiments with free-flying bees. Naïve bees were indifferent to odors of avocado and citrus flowers and honey. Experienced bees, which were collected in the field during the blooming season, responded preferentially to odor of citrus flowers. The unique sugar composition of avocado nectar, which contains almost exclusively sucrose and a low concentration of the rare carbohydrate perseitol, and the dark brown color of avocado honey, had no negative effects on its attractiveness to the bees. Phenolic compounds extracted from avocado honey were attractive to bees and adding them to a solution of sucrose increased its attractiveness. Compared with citrus nectar and nonavocado honey, avocado nectar and honey were rich in a wide range of minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iron, and copper. Potassium and phosphorus, the two major minerals, both had a repellent effect on the bees. Possible explanations for the presence of repellent components in avocado nectar are discussed.

  14. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  15. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compostos voláteis em méis florais Volatile compounds in floral honeys

    Carlos Alberto Bastos De Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A review about origin, composition and importance of volatile compounds in floral honeys is presented. Hydrocarbons, aromatic components, acids, diacids, terpenoids, ketones, aldehydes, esters and alcohols have been found in honey aroma of different botanical origin. Cis-rose oxide has been proposed as an indicator for Tilia cordata honey. Citrus honeys are known to contain methyl anthranilate, a compound which other honeys virtually lack. Linalool, phenylethylalcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde and benzaldehyde are important contributors for the aroma of different unifloral honeys. Both isovaleric acid, gama-decalactone and benzoic acid appears to be important odourants for Anarcadium occidentale and Croton sp. honeys from Brazil. The furfurylmercaptan, benzyl alcohol, delta-octalactone, eugenol, phenylethylalcohol and guaiacol appear to be only relevant compounds for Anarcadium occidentale. The vanillin was considered an important odourant only for Croton sp..

  17. Investigation of some factors related to antibacterial activity of Saudi honey

    Al-Brahim, Jehan Saud Rashid

    2006-01-01

    Honey was found to have a curing effect on bacterial species known to cause wound infections. The aim of this research was to study some of the factors related to the antibacterial activity of a Saudi Honey. Honey samples from different floral sources, geographic locations and production season were used. The tested organisms presented both gram positive and gram negative bacteria causing wound infection. A zone of complete inhibition of all bacterial species was observed with honey types Samra (S-W), Samra (W-S), Saha (W-S), Samra (S-S), Sidir (S-W) and a larger zone of partial inhibition of growth was observed in all tested honey types. It can be concluded that osmolarity is involved in the antibacterial activity of the honey. Acidity might be regarded as being of primary importance. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide was found to play a major role in the bacterial activity of honey. (author)

  18. Detection of Spiroplasma melliferum in honey bee colonies in the US.

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-06-01

    Spiroplasma infections in honey bees have been reported in Europe and Asia quite recently, due to intensive studies on the epidemiology of honey bee diseases. The situation in the US is less well analyzed. Here, we examined the honey bee colonies in Beltsville, MD, where Spiroplasmamelliferum was originally reported and found S. melliferum infection in honey bees. Our data showed high variation of S. melliferum infection in honey bees with a peak prevalence in May during the course of one-year study period. The colony prevalence increased from 5% in February to 68% in May and then decreased to 25% in June and 22% in July. Despite that pathogenicity of spiroplasmas in honey bee colonies remains to be determined, our results indicated that spiroplasma infections need to be included for the consideration of the impacts on honey bee health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Honeybee (Apis cerana) foraging responses to the toxic honey of Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Celastraceae): changing threshold of nectar acceptability.

    Tan, K; Guo, Y H; Nicolson, S W; Radloff, S E; Song, Q S; Hepburn, H R

    2007-12-01

    To investigate honeybee foraging responses to toxic nectar, honey was collected from Apis cerana colonies in the Yaoan county of Yunnan Province, China, during June, when flowers of Tripterygium hypoglaucum were the main nectar source available. Pollen analysis confirmed the origin of the honey, and high-performance liquid chromatography showed the prominent component triptolide to be present at a concentration of 0.61 mug/g +/- 0.11 SD. In cage tests that used young adult worker bees, significantly more of those provided with a diet of T. hypoglaucum honey mixed with sugar powder (1:1) died within 6 d (68.3%) compared to control groups provided with normal honey mixed with sugar powder (15.8%). Honeybees were trained to visit feeders that contained honey of T. hypoglaucum (toxic honey) as the test group and honey of Vicia sativa or Elsholtzia ciliata as control groups (all honeys diluted 1:3 with water). Bees preferred the feeders with normal honey to those with toxic honey, as shown by significantly higher visiting frequencies and longer imbibition times. However, when the feeder of normal honey was removed, leaving only honey of T. hypoglaucum, the foraging bees returned to the toxic honey after a few seconds of hesitation, and both visiting frequency and imbibition time increased to values previously recorded for normal honey. Toxic honey thus became acceptable to the bees in the absence of other nectar sources.

  20. Mineral content of the honey produced in Zulia state, Venezuela.

    Sulbarán de Ferrer, Betzabé; Ojeda de Rodríguez, Graciela; Peña, Jorge; Martínez, Janeth; Morán, María

    2004-09-01

    The mineral content of the honey produced in five zones of the Zulia state, Venezuela, during dry and rainy seasons was determined. The analyzed elements were: sodium, potassium (by emission spectroscopy), calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese (by atomic absorption spectroscopy), phosphorus (phosphate ions, by colorimetric method), and ash content of raw honey samples directly collected from different beekeepers. The mean values for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P were 353+84; 1774+138; 237+66; 52+24; 0.76+0.43; 13.5+10.23; 0.92+0.42 and 1642+323 mg/kg respectively. The mean ash content was 0.431+0.15%. Potassium was the most abundant of the elements determined. This results confirm that Zulian honey can be considered a good source of minerals.

  1. Genic control of honey bee dance language dialect.

    Rinderer, T E; Beaman, L D

    1995-10-01

    Behavioural genetic analysis of honey bee dance language shows simple Mendelian genic control over certain dance dialect differences. Worker honey bees of one parent colony (yellow) changed from round to transition dances for foraging distances of 20 m and from transition to waggle dances at 40 m. Worker bees of the other parent colony (black) made these shifts at 30 m and 90 m, respectively. F1 colonies behaved identically to their yellow parent, suggesting dominance. Progeny of backcrossing between the F1 generation and the putative recessive black parent assorted to four classes, indicating that the dialect differences studied are regulated by genes at two unlinked loci, each having two alleles. Honey bee dance communication is complex and highly integrated behaviour. Nonetheless, analysis of a small element of this behaviour, variation in response to distance, suggests that dance communication is regulated by subsets consisting of simple genic systems.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L.B.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    Bera, A. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, A. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: berale@usp.br; Almeida-Muradian, L.B. [Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580-Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, A. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  4. Raalin, a transcript enriched in the honey bee brain, is a remnant of genomic rearrangement in Hymenoptera.

    Tirosh, Y; Morpurgo, N; Cohen, M; Linial, M; Bloch, G

    2012-06-01

    We identified a predicted compact cysteine-rich sequence in the honey bee genome that we called 'Raalin'. Raalin transcripts are enriched in the brain of adult honey bee workers and drones, with only minimum expression in other tissues or in pre-adult stages. Open-reading frame (ORF) homologues of Raalin were identified in the transcriptomes of fruit flies, mosquitoes and moths. The Raalin-like gene from Drosophila melanogaster encodes for a short secreted protein that is maximally expressed in the adult brain with negligible expression in other tissues or pre-imaginal stages. Raalin-like sequences have also been found in the recently sequenced genomes of six ant species, but not in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. As in the honey bee, the Raalin-like sequences of ants do not have an ORF. A comparison of the genome region containing Raalin in the genomes of bees, ants and the wasp provides evolutionary support for an extensive genome rearrangement in this sequence. Our analyses identify a new family of ancient cysteine-rich short sequences in insects in which insertions and genome rearrangements may have disrupted this locus in the branch leading to the Hymenoptera. The regulated expression of this transcript suggests that it has a brain-specific function. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Detection of plant microRNAs in honey.

    Angelo Gismondi

    Full Text Available For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA. Surprisingly, nine plant microRNAs (miR482b, miR156a, miR396c, miR171a, miR858, miR162a, miR159c, miR395a and miR2118a were also detected and quantified by qPCR. In this context, a comparison between microRNA content in plant samples (i.e. flowers, nectars and their derivative honeys was carried out. In addition, peculiar microRNA profiles were also identified in six different monofloral honeys. Finally, the same plant microRNAs were investigated in other plant food products: tea, cocoa and coffee. Since plant microRNAs introduced by diet have been recently recognized as being able to modulate the consumer's gene expression, our research suggests that honey's benefits for human health may be strongly correlated to the bioactivity of plant microRNAs contained in this matrix.

  6. Potential protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Galal, Reem M; Zaki, Hala F; Seif El-Nasr, Mona M; Agha, Azza M

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure in both humans and experimental animals. The present study investigates the protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. We have used silymarin as a standard reference hepatoprotective drug. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as the liver function enzymes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Equally, comparative effects of honey on oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdyhyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also evaluated in the rat liver homogenates.  We estimated the effect of honey on serum levels and hepatic content of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) because the initial event in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown to be a toxic-metabolic injury that leads to hepatocyte death, activation of the innate immune response and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Paracetamol caused marked liver damage as noted by significant increased activities of serum AST and ALT as well as the level of Il-1β. Paracetamol also resulted in a significant decrease in liver GSH content and GPx activity which paralleled an increase in Il-1β and MDA levels. Pretreatment with honey and silymarin prior to the administration of paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and reduced both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that honey reduced the incidence of paracetamol-induced liver lesions. Honey can be used as an effective hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

  7. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  8. Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Seibersdorf: Discrimination of honey of different floral origins by a combination of various chemical parameters; Stable Isotopes Applied to Authenticating Honey; The use of analyte protectants in pesticide residue analytical work

    Zora Jandrić, Zora; Frew, Russell; Abrahim, Aiman; Maestroni, Britt; Ochoa, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In the previous newsletter, we reported on research into methodology for the classification of honey of various floral and geographical origins using UPLC-QToF MS and MVA.The research on honey authenticity was expanded using multivariate data analysis of data generated by a number of different analytical techniques to discriminate honeys of different floral origins. The feasibility of a multivariate approach, including various chemical parameters and multivariate data analysis, for the discrimination of various honeys originating from one region, was explored. One of the earliest applications of nuclear techniques for food authenticity was the use of carbon isotopes to detect the addition of cheap sugars in honey in the 1970s. The principle is that the cheap sugar (fructose) is derived from corn and has a higher 13 C/ 12 C that the fructose from honey. This difference is due to the different photosynthetic pathways; corn is a C4 plant and that mechanism does not discriminate against the 13 C as much as the C3 pathway used by most honey-producing plants. Consequently the two plant types have quite different carbon isotope ratios. Thus measurements of the carbon isotope ratios can distinguish between the two sources of fructose. However, within each plant population there is natural variability in isotope ratios. This makes detecting the addition of small amounts of corn syrup difficult. The test was further refined by its developers to use 13 C/ 12 C measurements on protein purified from the honey as an internal reference, based on the fact that if the sugar and protein are from the same plant then they should be closely related in isotopic ratio. This refined method was adopted by the Association of Analytical Chemists as an official method (AOAC 998.12) and is part of the Codex Alimentarius standard for testing authenticity of honey. This test is generally reliable. However, some honey, notably New Zealand manuka, has a frequent fail rate. Manuka is a premium

  9. 137Cs Behaviour in Chestnut Honey From Northwestern Croatia Two Decades After Chernobyl Accident

    Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Rogic, M.; Nodilo, M.; Barisic, D.; Svecnjak, L.; Bubalo, D.; Popijac, M.; Kezic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Covering the large area in nectar gathering process and searching for food, honey bees yield a unique random composite sample incorporated in honey. Thus, honey represents an excellent media for studying behaviour of bioavailable elements as well as environmental pollutants. Caesium, a product of nuclear weapon testing and Chernobyl nuclear accident, still present in soils, is transferred to plants by plant uptake. It has already been established that chestnut honey can be used as a bioindicator for monitoring 137Cs many years after the Chernobyl accident. The aim of this study was to determine whether the chestnut honey is suitable for monitoring environmental pollution with 137Cs two decades after the contamination event. Chestnut honey from northwest Croatia has been analysed during the period from 2004 to 2008, for activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K. Honey samples were collected mechanically by extracting honey from combs. Based on the pollen analysis (> 85 % of chestnut pollen grains) and measured electrical conductivity of honey (> 0.8 mS cm -1 ), honey has been identified as unifloral chestnut honey (Castanea sativa Mill.). 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations have been determined by gamma spectrometry. Decrease of 137Cs activity in chestnut honey was approximated by linear equation. The activity concentration of 137Cs in chestnut honey decreases very slowly over the time as opposed to the activity concentrations of 40K that are more or less equable. Thus, chestnut honey can be used as a good bioindicator for 137Cs even two decades after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  10. PRELIMINARY CONTRIBUTION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL UNIFLORAL HONEY SAMPLES BY MELISSOPALYNOLOGY ANALYSIS

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissopalynology (pollen analysis of honey is an indispensable method to authenticate honey origin and characteristics. It is very effective to determine and control the geographical origin of honeys and it also provides information about other important quality aspects. Melissopalynologists are challenged not only to identify the pollen found in honey but also decide what to do with the presence of pollen grains that are represented in the honey spectra. Pollen analyses of honey can also determine important information about honeybees such as foraging ecology, habitat and vegetation visited, changes in food sources and habitat composition. The advantages of a pollen analysis is that all, or most, nectar sources involved are recognised, and if quantitative data are available, their relationship to each component, or to the dominant source, can be determined. Pollen spectra gave consistent results for the same type of honey from different areas. The large variety of meliferous sources (223 enable in Romania to produce characteristic type of honeys. The interest in the production of unifloral honeys is a higher consumer preference for some honey varieties leading to a commercial interest of the beekeepers. In six sample of commercial unifloral honey, 16 pollen types were identified. These honeys are not especially rich in pollen types and compares with many honeys characteristic of Europe. Plantago pollen grains are irregularly found in these honeys, as elsewhere, although their numbers in any one sample are insignificant. The presence of this pollen type is considered accidental, especially as numbers are always low. Comparison of results from samples extracted by different methods is impossible, for absolute pollen content may vary greatly.

  11. Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

    N. Keranova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t and Spain (20253.43 t, while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t and Luxembourg (133,2 t. Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  12. Developmental stability, age at onset of foraging and longevity of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) under heat stress (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Medina, Rubén G; Paxton, Robert J; De Luna, Efraín; Fleites-Ayil, Fernando A; Medina Medina, Luis A; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G

    2018-05-01

    Beekeeping with the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important in tropical regions but scant information is available on the possible consequences of global warming for tropical beekeeping. We evaluated the effect of heat stress on developmental stability, the age at onset of foraging (AOF) and longevity in Africanized honey bees (AHBs) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, one of the main honey producing areas in the Neotropics, where high temperatures occur in spring and summer. To do so, we reared worker AHB pupae under a fluctuating temperature regime, simulating current tropical heatwaves, with a high temperature peak of 40.0 °C for 1 h daily across six days, and compared them to control pupae reared at stable temperatures of 34.0-35.5 °C. Heat stress did not markedly affect overall body size, though the forewing of heat-stressed bees was slightly shorter than controls. However, bees reared under heat stress showed significantly greater fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in forewing shape. Heat stress also decreased AOF and reduced longevity. Our results show that changes occur in the phenotype and behavior of honey bees under heat stress, with potential consequences for colony fitness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic study of an alcoholic fermentation, using honey like substrate

    Gomez, Jose Angel; Castano, Hader Ivan; Arias Mario

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a kinetic study of an alcoholic fermentation using honey like substrate; for this effect they were carried out nine fermentations in discontinuous process with a volume, of 10 L, following the behavior of the substrate concentrations, biomass and product in the time. It was evaluated the convenience of factors like the agitation and the addition of nutritious, also, it was observed the effect of the initial concentrations of substrate and inoculate and the type of honey looking for the best conditions of the process for the obtaining of an alcoholic drink

  14. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Levchenko, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m 2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  15. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the brazilian Melipona

    Lorena G.A. Lage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw, percentage of soluble solids (Brix %, pH, acidity (meq/Kg and moisture (% were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee, only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.Análises fisico-quimicas foram realizadas para avaliar vinte e sete amostras de mel de três espécies do gênero Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris e M. mondury coletadas nos Estados do Espírito Santo e de Minas Gerais. Os parâmetros atividade de água (aW, porcentagem de sólidos solúveis (Brix %, pH, acidez (meq.Kg-1 e umidade (% foram avaliados. As características do mel dessas amostras foram muito similares às do mel de outras espécies de Melipona. Entretanto, para o mel de Apis apenas os valores de pH foram similares. O baixo valor de pH e a elevada acidez detectados no mel de Melipona são fatores potenciais para uma maior vida útil do mesmo por não oferecerem condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento microbiano. Por outro lado, o alto teor de atividade de água favorece o crescimento de microrganismos, especialmente de leveduras o que requer maior cuidado no manuseio e armazenamento do mel. As diferenças observadas

  16. Selection on overdominant genes maintains heterozygosity along multiple chromosomes in a clonal lineage of honey bee.

    Goudie, Frances; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between fitness and genome-wide heterozygosity (heterozygosity-fitness correlations, HFCs) have been reported across a wide range of taxa. The genetic basis of these correlations is controversial: do they arise from genome-wide inbreeding ("general effects") or the "local effects" of overdominant loci acting in linkage disequilibrium with neutral loci? In an asexual thelytokous lineage of the Cape honey bee (Apis mellifera capensis), the effects of inbreeding have been homogenized across the population, making this an ideal system in which to detect overdominant loci, and to make inferences about the importance of overdominance on HFCs in general. Here we investigate the pattern of zygosity along two chromosomes in 42 workers from the clonal Cape honey bee population. On chromosome III (which contains the sex-locus, a gene that is homozygous-lethal) and chromosome IV we show that the pattern of zygosity is characterized by loss of heterozygosity in short regions followed by the telomeric restoration of heterozygosity. We infer that at least four selectively overdominant genes maintain heterozygosity on chromosome III and three on chromosome IV via local effects acting on neutral markers in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that heterozygote advantage and local effects may be more common and evolutionarily significant than is generally appreciated. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Mapping Sleeping Bees within Their Nest: Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Worker Honey Bee Sleep

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns. PMID:25029445

  18. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Barrett Anthony Klein

    Full Text Available Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.. Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns.

  19. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns.

  20. Germany after March 11th

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  1. The Protective Effect of Whole Honey and Phenolic Extract on Oxidative DNA Damage in Mice Lymphocytes Using Comet Assay.

    Cheng, Ni; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage were assessed for five honeys of different botanical origin. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the honey samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid detected in longan honey, jujube honey and buckwheat honey. Ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main phenolic acids detected in vitex honey. Of all honey samples tested, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in buckwheat honey, whereas the lowest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in locust honey. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide induced a 62% increase in tail DNA in mice lymphocytes, and all studied honeys significantly inhibited this effect (P Phenolic extracts of honey displayed greater protective effects than whole honey in comet assay. The hydrogen peroxide-generated increase in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was effectively inhibited by the honeys studied (P phenolic acids of honey can penetrate into lymphocytes and protect DNA from oxidative damage by scavenging hydrogen peroxide and/or chelating ferrous ions.

  2. Use of physicochemical parameters and neural networksin identification of bee honey (Apis mellifera L. produced in the summer and winter in the microregion of Campos do Jordão, São Paulo

    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to typify, through physicochemical parameters, honey from Campos do Jordão’s microrregion, and verify how samples are grouped in accordance with the climatic production seasonality (summer and winter. It were assessed 30 samples of honey from beekeepers located in the cities of Monteiro Lobato, Campos do Jordão, Santo Antonio do Pinhal e São Bento do Sapucaí-SP, regarding both periods of honey production (November to February; July to September, during 2007 and 2008; n = 30. Samples were submitted to physicochemical analysis of total acidity, pH, humidity, water activity, density, aminoacids, ashes, color and electrical conductivity, identifying physicochemical standards of honey samples from both periods of production. Next, we carried out a cluster analysis of data using k-means algorithm, which grouped the samples into two classes (summer and winter. Thus, there was a supervised training of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN using backpropagation algorithm. According to the analysis, the knowledge gained through the ANN classified the samples with 80% accuracy. It was observed that the ANNs have proved an effective tool to group samples of honey of the region of Campos do Jordao according to their physicochemical characteristics, depending on the different production periods.

  3. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  4. Effects of natural honey on polymicrobial culture of various human pathogens

    Al-Waili, Faiza S.; Akmal, Mohammed; Ali, Amjed; Salom, Khelod Y.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Honey has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. All previous studies have considered honey's effect on a single microbe. The present study investigated activity of honey towards a high dose of single or polymicrobial culture. Material and methods 10 µl specimens of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were cultured in 10 ml of 10-100% (wt/v) honey diluted in broth. Six types of polymicrobial microbial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other onto broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey (10-100% wt/v). Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation. Results Honey (30-70%) prevents growth of 10 µl specimens of all the isolates. Greater reduction in growth of E. coli was observed when cultured with S. aureus. Culturing of S. aureus with S. pyogenes, C. albicans, or E. coli increased its sensitivity to honey. S. aureus and S. pyogenes increased sensitivity of C. albicans to honey while E. coli and C. albicans decreased sensitivity of S. pyogenes. Conclusions It might be concluded that honey prevents and inhibits growth of single and polymicrobial pathogenic cultures. Polymicrobial culture affects growth of the isolates and increases their sensitivity to honey. PMID:24904656

  5. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  6. Research of produstion volume and market turnover of honey from 2004. to 2014.

    Ivanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the scope of production, export and import of honey in the Republic of Serbia from 2004. to 2014. The results are based on the report of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. The observed period is characterized primarily by the increase in the number of beehives as well as an incresed honey production, followed by honey price growth and minor changes honey yield per hive. In this period, honey production ranged from 2,561 tons (in 2008 to 8,554 tons (in 2013. The largest volume of honey exports was in 2013. (3,367.7 tons, worth 14,881.4 thousand USD, and the largest import of honey into Serbia was in the same year (60.6 tons, worth 240.3 thousand USD. In the monitored period, Germany imported the largest quantities of honey from Serbia, about 4,611.0 tons (worth about 19,546.9 thousand USD, and somewhat smaller amounts of honey were imported by Italy and Montenegro. On the other hand, in the same period, Serbia imported the largest quantities of honey from the Republic of Macedonia, about 40.6 tons, worth 119.5 thousand USD. Beekeeping in Serbia definitely has a great development potential, so accordingly, its production should be encouraged in the future.

  7. Reprint of "Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach".

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Viral Infection Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Homing Ability of Forager Honey Bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 107 copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive. PMID:24130876

  10. Antibacterial properties of tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study

    Nasir Nur-Azida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of honey as a natural product of Apis spp. for burn treatment has been widely applied for centuries. Tualang honey has been reported to have antibacterial properties against various microorganisms, including those from burn-related diagnoses, and is cheaper and easier to be absorbed by Aquacel dressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial properties of tualang honey dressing and to determine its effectiveness as a partial thickness burn wound dressing. Methods In order to quantitate the bioburden of the swabs, pour plates were performed to obtain the colony count (CFU/ml. Swabs obtained from burn wounds were streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar for bacterial isolation and identification. Later, antibacterial activity of Aquacel-tualang honey, Aquacel-Manuka honey, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel- plain dressings against bacteria isolated from patients were tested (in-vitro to see the effectiveness of those dressings by zone of inhibition assays. Results Seven organisms were isolated. Four types of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., and three Gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS and Streptococcus spp., were isolated. Total bacterial count decreased on day 6 and onwards. In the in-vitro antibacterial study, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel-Manuka honey dressings gave better zone of inhibition for Gram positive bacteria compared to Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. However, comparable results were obtained against Gram negative bacteria tested with Aquacel-Manuka honey and Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. Conclusions Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care

  11. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  12. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  13. Effect of honey supplementation on heamatological parameters of ...

    The effects of dietary supplementation with natural honey on haematological profile, blood sugar and final body weight of rats fed diets contaminated with hydrocarbon petroleum products (gasoline and kerosene) were evaluated in this study. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood ...

  14. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  15. A survey of the ethnozoological knowledge of honey bees Apis ...

    A survey of the ethnozoological knowledge of honey bee Apis mellifera in Ijebu division of South western Nigeria was carried out to examine the pattern of invasion, control methods of their invasion and their effects in life and economy of the people which also include the medicinal and traditional utilization. The Survey was ...

  16. Toxicity assessment of glyphosate on honey bee (Apis mellifera) spermatozoa

    During 2016-2017, 33.2% of managed honey bee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Commonly used pesticides are among the suspected reasons for bee mortality. N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) is a widely used herbicide in the U.S. and has previously been shown ...

  17. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular ...

    olayemitoyin

    reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were observed in nicotine group (p<0.05) compared to control. Serum FSH, LH and ... Honey is a natural product of bees formed from nectar collected from flowering ..... Regulatory Protein Expression in Adult Albino Rats: Possible Influence on Pituitary ...

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Cheese samples treated with Honey and ...

    The control treatment (A) was cheese kept in the whey, while Treatments B and C were cheese samples kept in Thyme and Honey solutions respectively. ... The crude protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Treatment B, then treatment A and least for treatment C. The ether extract followed the same trend as crude ...

  19. The role of honey bees as pollinators in natural areas

    Clare E. Aslan; Christina T. Liang; Ben Galindo; Hill Kimberly; Walter Topete

    2016-01-01

    The western or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the primary managed pollinator in US agricultural systems, and its importance for food production is widely recognized. However, the role of A. mellifera as an introduced species in natural areas is potentially more complicated. The impact of A. mellifera...

  20. Sensitivity analyses for simulating pesticide impacts on honey bee colonies

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis techniques to describe the population dynamics of pesticide exposure to a honey bee colony using the VarroaPop + Pesticide model. Simulations are performed of hive population trajectories with and without pesti...