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Sample records for homostructure gan nanowires

  1. Synthetic Strategies and Applications of GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Suo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN is an important III-V semiconductor material with a direct band gap of 3.4 eV at 300 K. The wide direct band gap makes GaN an attractive material for various applications. GaN nanowires have demonstrated significant potential as fundamental building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and also offer substantial promise for integrated nanosystems. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on the general synthetic strategies, characterizations, and applications of GaN nanowires. We first summarize several growth techniques of GaN nanowires. Subsequently, we discuss mechanisms involved to generate GaN nanowires from different synthetic schemes and conditions. Then we review some characterization methods of GaN nanowires. Finally, several kinds of main applications of GaN nanowires are discussed.

  2. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  3. Synthesis of Single Crystal GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The straight and curved gallium nitride (GaN nanowires were successfully synthesized by controlling the gallium/ nitrogen reactant ratio via a chemical vapour deposition method. The structure and morphology of nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The straight and curved GaN nanowires are composed of wurtzite and a zinc blende structure, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL spectra of zinc blende GaN nanowires showed a strong UV emission band at 400 nm, indicating potential application in optoe‐ lectronic devices.

  4. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Adsorption of alkali-metal atoms on GaN nanowires photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhen; Li, Enling; Ke, Xizheng; Zhao, Taifei; Yang, Yufeng; Ding, Yingchun; Liu, Tong; Qu, Yao; Xu, Shan

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption of alkali-metal atoms on GaN nanowires photocathode was investigated by using first principles with density functional theory. The calculation of electronic and optical properties indicates that alkali metal adsorbed GaN nanowires are direct band gap semiconductor, and the band gap of GaN nanowires could be decreased by alkali metal adsorption. A new surface state near the Fermi level results from the Ga, N and alkali metal hybridization, which leads to form a metal electrical conductivity for GaN nanowires. More importantly, alkali metal adsorption can decrease the work function of GaN nanowires. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum of GaN nanowires is red shifted and moves to lower energy side because of alkali metal adsorption. Accordingly, this study will provide the theoretical basis for producing the alkali metal adsorbed GaN photoelectric devices.

  6. In situ nanomechanics of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian Yu; Zheng, He; Mao, S X; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T

    2011-04-13

    The deformation, fracture mechanisms, and the fracture strength of individual GaN nanowires were measured in real time using a transmission electron microscope-scanning probe microscope (TEM-SPM) platform. Surface mediated plasticity, such as dislocation nucleation from a free surface and plastic deformation between the SPM probe (the punch) and the nanowire contact surface were observed in situ. Although local plasticity was observed frequently, global plasticity was not observed, indicating the overall brittle nature of this material. Dislocation nucleation and propagation is a precursor before the fracture event, but the fracture surface shows brittle characteristic. The fracture surface is not straight but kinked at (10-10) or (10-11) planes. Dislocations are generated at a stress near the fracture strength of the nanowire, which ranges from 0.21 to 1.76 GPa. The results assess the mechanical properties of GaN nanowires and may provide important insight into the design of GaN nanowire devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  7. Ferromagnetism in undoped One-dimensional GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeganathan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report an intrinsic ferromagnetism in vertical aligned GaN nanowires (NW fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy without any external catalyst. The magnetization saturates at ∼0.75 × emu/gm with the applied field of 3000 Oe for the NWs grown under the low-Gallium flux of 2.4 × 10−8 mbar. Despite a drop in saturation magnetization, narrow hysteresis loop remains intact regardless of Gallium flux. Magnetization in vertical standing GaN NWs is consistent with the spectral analysis of low-temperature photoluminescence pertaining to Ga-vacancies associated structural defects at the nanoscale.

  8. GaN nanowire tips for nanoscale atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Nami, Mohsen; Rishinaramagalam, Ashwin K.; Feezell, Daniel F.; Busani, Tito

    2017-05-01

    Imaging of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures with sharp edges and straight walls in nanoscale metrology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been challenging due to the mechanical properties and conical geometry of the majority of available commercial tips. Here we report on the fabrication of GaN probes for nanoscale metrology of high-aspect-ratio structures to enhance the resolution of AFM imaging and improve the durability of AFM tips. GaN nanowires were fabricated using bottom-up and top-down techniques and bonded to Si cantilevers to scan vertical trenches on Si substrates. Over several scans, the GaN probes demonstrated excellent durability while scanning uneven structures and showed resolution enhancements in topography images, independent of scan direction, compared to commercial Si tips.

  9. Room Temperature Ultralow Threshold GaN Nanowire Polariton Laser

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2011-08-01

    We report ultralow threshold polariton lasing from a single GaN nanowire strongly coupled to a large-area dielectric microcavity. The threshold carrier density is 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of photon lasing observed in the same device, and 2 orders of magnitude lower than any existing room-temperature polariton devices. Spectral, polarization, and coherence properties of the emission were measured to confirm polariton lasing. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  10. Investigation on localized states in GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenta, L; Rossi, M; Cavallini, A; Calarco, R; Marso, M; Meijers, R; Richter, T; Stoica, T; Lüth, H

    2008-02-01

    GaN nanowires with diameters ranging between 50 and 500 nm were investigated by electrical and photoinduced current techniques to determine the influence of their size on the opto-electronic behavior of nanodevices. The conductivity, photoconductivity, and persistent photoconductivity behavior of GaN nanowires are observed to strongly depend on the wire diameter. In particular, by spectral photoconductivity measurements, three main sub-band-gap optoelectronic transitions were detected, ascribed to the localized states giving rise to the characteristic blue, green, and yellow bands of GaN. Photoconductivity with below-band-gap excitation varies orders of magnitude with the wire diameter, similarly to that observed for near-band-edge excitation. Moreover, yellow-band-related signal shows a superlinear behavior with respect to the band-edge signal, offering new information for the modeling of the carrier recombination mechanism along the nanowires. The photoconductivity results agree well with a model which takes into account a uniform distribution of the localized states inside the wire and their direct recombination with the electrons in the conduction band.

  11. Synthesis of p-type GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Park, Youn Ho; Kim, Ilsoo; Park, Tae-Eon; Kwon, Byoung Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-08-01

    GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo-junction structure (consisting of annealed Cu:GaN NW/n-type GaN thin film) exhibited p-n junction characteristics. A hybrid organic light emitting diode (OLED) employing the annealed Cu:GaN NWs as a hole injection layer (HIL) also demonstrated current injected luminescence. These results suggest that Cu can be used as a p-type dopant for GaN NWs.GaN has been utilized in optoelectronics for two decades. However, p-type doping still remains crucial for realization of high performance GaN optoelectronics. Though Mg has been used as a p-dopant, its efficiency is low due to the formation of Mg-H complexes and/or structural defects in the course of doping. As a potential alternative p-type dopant, Cu has been recognized as an acceptor impurity for GaN. Herein, we report the fabrication of Cu-doped GaN nanowires (Cu:GaN NWs) and their p-type characteristics. The NWs were grown vertically via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using a Au/Ni catalyst. Electrical characterization using a nanowire-field effect transistor (NW-FET) showed that the NWs exhibited n-type characteristics. However, with further annealing, the NWs showed p-type characteristics. A homo

  12. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101¯3), (101¯1) and (202¯1), as well as Type I stacking faults (…ABABCBCB…), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (…ABABACBA…) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.

  13. Dislocation-induced nanoparticle decoration on a GaN nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Qingyun; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jianhang; Staedler, Thorsten; Liu, Baodan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-02-04

    GaN nanowires with homoepitaxial decorated GaN nanoparticles on their surface along the radial direction have been synthesized by means of a chemical vapor deposition method. The growth of GaN nanowires is catalyzed by Au particles via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Screw dislocations are generated along the radial direction of the nanowires under slight Zn doping. In contrast to the metal-catalyst-assisted VLS growth, GaN nanoparticles are found to prefer to nucleate and grow at these dislocation sites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis demonstrates that the GaN nanoparticles possess two types of epitaxial orientation with respect to the corresponding GaN nanowire: (I) [1̅21̅0]np//[1̅21̅0]nw, (0001)np//(0001)nw; (II) [1̅21̅3]np//[12̅10]nw, (101̅0)np//(101̅0)nw. An increased Ga signal in the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) profile lines of the nanowires suggests GaN nanoparticle growth at the edge surface of the wires. All the crystallographic results confirm the importance of the dislocations with respect to the homoepitaxial growth of the GaN nanoparticles. Here, screw dislocations situated on the (0001) plane provide the self-step source to enable nucleation of the GaN nanoparticles.

  14. Franz-Keldysh effect in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calarco, Raffaella; Stoica, Toma; Meijers, Ralph; Richter, Thomas; Lueth, Hans [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN1), Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Research Center Juelich (Germany). cni - Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology; Cavallini, Anna; Polenta, Laura; Rossi, Marco [Phys. Department, CNISM, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNISM, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years III-nitride based nanowires have attracted a lot of interest because of their potential applications for nanoelectronic devices. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the wires, the optoelectronic properties as well as growth processes are essentially dependent on the wire diameter. We have studied GaN NWs obtained by catalyst-free radio frequency PAMBE on Si(111) in N-rich conditions. Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy and Spectral Photoconductivity (SPC) measurements have been carried out to analyze the near band-edge absorption in GaN nanowires. A strong diameter dependence of the band absorption tail was found by SPC measurements. The band-edge tailoring and its wire-diameter dependence can be explained by the Franz-Keldysh effect induced by the electric field at the wire surface. The experimental values of the absorption tail are well in agreement with the results obtained by simulating the electric field in a cylindrical model.

  15. Origin of yellow-band emission in epitaxially grown GaN nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baodan; Yuan, Fang; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Zhang, Song; Xu, Yongkuan; Jiang, Xin

    2014-08-27

    Here, we report the origin of the yellow-band emission in epitaxial GaN nanowire arrays grown under carbon-free conditions. GaN nanowires directly grown on [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate exhibit an obvious and broad yellow-band in the visible range 400-800 nm, whereas the insertion of Al/Au layers in GaN-sapphire interface significantly depresses the visible emission, and only a sharp peak in the UV range (369 nm) can be observed. The persuasive differences in cathodoluminescence provide direct evidence for demonstrating that the origin of the yellow-band emission in GaN nanowire arrays arises from dislocation threading. The idea using buffering/barrier layers to isolate the dislocation threading in epitaxially grown GaN nanowires can be extended to the rational synthesis and structural defect controlling of a wide range of semiconductor films and nanostructures with superior crystal quality and excellent luminescence property.

  16. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (...ABABAC&cmb.b.line;BA...) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN

  17. Influence of oxygen in architecting large scale nonpolar GaN nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Patsha, Avinash; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, S

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of surface architecture of semiconducting nanowires with a control in surface polarity is one of the important objectives for nanowire based electronic and optoelectronic devices for commercialization. We report the growth of exceptionally high structural and optical quality nonpolar GaN nanowires with controlled and uniform surface morphology and size distribution, for large scale production. The role of O contamination (~1-10^5 ppm) in the surface architecture of these nanowires is investigated with the possible mechanism involved. Nonpolar GaN nanowires grown in O rich condition show the inhomogeneous surface morphologies and sizes (50 - 150 nm) while nanowires are having precise sizes of 40(5) nm and uniform surface morphology, for the samples grown in O reduced condition. Relative O contents are estimated using electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. Size-selective growth of uniform nanowires is also demonstrated, in the O reduced condition, using different catalyst sizes. Photoluminescen...

  18. Ivestigation of an InGaN - GaN nanowire heterstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, Friederich; Gotschke, Tobias; Stoica, Toma; Calarco, Raffaella; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1), Research Center Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Juelich (Germany); Sutter, Eli; Ciston, Jim [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusco, Ramon; Artus, Luis [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Kremling, Stefan; Hoefling, Sven; Worschech, Lukas [University Wurzburg, Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Research Centre Complex Matter Systems, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    InGaN/GaN nanowire (NW) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied in comparison to their GaN and InGaN counterparts. The InGaN/GaN heterostructure NWs are composed of a GaN NW, a thin InGaN shell, and a multi-faceted InGaN cap wrapping the top part of the GaN NW. Transmission electron microscopy images taken from different parts of a InGaN/GaN nanowire show a wurtzite structure of the GaN core and the epitaxial InGaN shell around it. Photoluminescence spectra of these heterostructure NW ensembles show an emission peak at 2.1 eV. However, {mu}-PL spectra measured on single nanowires reveal much sharper luminescence peaks. A Raman analysis reveals a variation of the In content between 20 % and 30 %, in agreement with PL and TEM investigations.

  19. Study of residual gas adsorption on GaN nanowire arrays photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei, E-mail: liu1133_cn@sina.com.cn; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H{sub 2}O is more easily to absorb on the nanowire surface. • The work function increase after residual gas adsorption. • Bandgaps of the nanowire increase slightly. • Absorption coefficient is reduced and moves to higher energy side. - Abstract: In order to find out the influences of residual gas on GaN nanowire arrays photocathode, the optoelectronic properties of adsorption system are calculated on the basis of first principles. Results suggest that the residual gas adsorption will increase the work function and introduce a dipole moment with a direction from the nanowire to the adsorbates. The surface structures are changed and electrons transfer from nanowire to gas molecule. The bandgaps are enhanced after adsorption. Besides, the peak of absorption coefficients is reduced and moves to higher energy side. It is discovered that residual gas will drastically degrade the characteristics and lifetime of GaN nanowire arrays photocathode.

  20. The measurement of electrostatic potentials in core/shell GaN nanowires using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciechonski, R

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell GaN nanowires are expected to be building blocks of future light emitting devices. Here we apply off-axis electron holography to map the electrostatic potential distributions in such nanowires. To access the cross-section of selected individual nanowires, focused ion beam (FIB) milling...

  1. Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline GaN Nanowires on (0001) Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Th; Komninou, Ph; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Chèze, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; Karakostas, Th

    Well-aligned single crystalline GaN nanowires were epitaxially grown on Al2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy. Controlled growth of the nanowires is achieved by tuning the V/III ratio during growth. Oxidised single crystalline catalyst droplets of a cubic symmetry are observed on the top surface of the nanowires. Adaptation of the cubic lattice on the wurtzite tip is realized via the introduction of a dense network of misfit dislocations at the interface. The {100} lattice spacing of the oxide droplets is found to be very close to its strain-free value, indicating almost full relaxation by the misfit dislocation network.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of GaN nanowire doubly clamped resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliakkal, Carina B., E-mail: carina@tifr.res.in; Mathew, John P.; Hatui, Nirupam; Rahman, A. Azizur; Deshmukh, Mandar M.; Bhattacharya, Arnab [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2015-09-21

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) have been intensely researched as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and photonic device applications; however, the mechanical properties of GaN nanostructures have not been explored in detail. The rigidity, thermal stability, and piezoelectric properties of GaN make it an interesting candidate for nano-electromechanical systems. We have fabricated doubly clamped GaN NW electromechanical resonators on sapphire using electron beam lithography and estimated the Young's modulus of GaN from resonance frequency measurements. For wires of triangular cross section with side ∼90 nm, we obtained values for the Young's modulus to be about 218 and 691 GPa, which are of the same order of magnitude as the values reported for bulk GaN. We also discuss the role of residual strain in the nanowire on the resonant frequency and the orientation dependence of the Young's modulus in wurtzite crystals.

  3. Screw dislocation-driven epitaxial solution growth of ZnO nanowires seeded by dislocations in GaN substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Stephen A; Jin, Song

    2010-09-08

    In the current examples of dislocation-driven nanowire growth, the screw dislocations that propagate one-dimensional growth originate from spontaneously formed highly defective "seed" crystals. Here we intentionally utilize screw dislocations from defect-rich gallium nitride (GaN) thin films to propagate dislocation-driven growth, demonstrating epitaxial growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires directly from aqueous solution. Atomic force microscopy confirms screw dislocations are present on the native GaN surface and ZnO nanowires grow directly from dislocation etch pits of heavily etched GaN surfaces. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy confirms the existence of axial dislocations. Eshelby twist in the resulting ZnO nanowires was confirmed using bright-/dark-field imaging and twist contour analysis. These results further confirm the connection between dislocation source and nanowire growth. This may eventually lead to defect engineering strategies for rationally designed catalyst-free dislocation-driven nanowire growth for specific applications.

  4. Suspended GaN nanowires as NO2 sensor for high temperature applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jaesam; Kim, Kwanoh; Song, Soonho; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2013-04-21

    We propose a gas sensor operable over a wide temperature range and using suspended GaN nanowires functionalized with Pt-Pd. The sensor is batch-fabricated by directly integrating the GaN nanowires onto batch-processed silicon microelectrodes in parallel. The high thermal stability of the sensor originates from a large band gap of GaN nanowires that enables the detection of NO2 gas at an elevated temperature of up to 350 °C without a decrease in responsiveness. Exposed to NO2 at 100-1000 ppm at 350 °C, the sensor shows a linear increment in relative response with respect to the change in gas concentration. The sensor results in a two- to four-fold increase in responsiveness to NO2 at 100 ppm compared to NH3 at 100 ppm and CO2 at 1000 ppm. The nanowires suspended over a substrate provide increased surface area that could interact with gas molecules for enhanced responsiveness, and prevent any unnecessary interactions between the nanowires and the substrate.

  5. The influence of Mg doping on the nucleation of self-induced GaN nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Limbach

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available GaN nanowires were grown without any catalyst by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Under supply of Mg, nanowire nucleation is faster, the areal density of wires increases to a higher value, and nanowire coalescence is more pronounced than without Mg. During nanowire nucleation the Ga desorption was monitored in-situ by line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometry for various substrate temperatures. Nucleation energies of 4.0±0.3 eV and 3.2±0.3 eV without and with Mg supply were deduced, respectively. This effect has to be taken into account for the fabrication of nanowire devices and could be employed to tune the NW areal density.

  6. Design and analysis of vertical-channel gallium nitride (GaN) junctionless nanowire transistors (JNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Jo, Young-Woo; Son, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    Vertical-channel gallium nitride (GaN) junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT) has been designed and characterized by technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. Various characteristics such as wide bandgap, strong polariztion field, and high electron velocity make GaN one of the attractive materials in advanced electronics in recent times. Nanowire-structured GaN can be applicable to various transistors for enhanced electrical performances by its geometrical feature. In this paper, we analyze the direct-current (DC) characteristics depending on various channel doping concentrations (N(ch)) and nanowire radii (R(NW)). Furthermore, the radio-frequency (RF) characteristics under optimized conditions are extracted by small-signal equivalent circuit modeling. For the optimally designed vertical GaN JNT demonstrated on-state current (I(on)) of 345 μA/μm and off-state current (I(off)) of 3.7 x 10(-18) A/μm with a threshold voltage (V(t)) of 0.22 V, and subthreshold swing (S) of 68 mV/dec. Besides, f(T) and f(max) under different operating conditions (gate voltage, V(GS)) have been obtained.

  7. Current rectification in a single GaN nanowire with a well-defined p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guosheng; Kolmakov, Andrei; Zhang, Youxiang; Moskovits, Martin; Munden, Ryan; Reed, Mark A.; Wang, Guangming; Moses, Daniel; Zhang, Jinping

    2003-08-01

    This letter discusses Mg incorporation in GaN nanowires with diameters ˜35 nm, fabricated by vapor-liquid-solid synthesis in p-type nanowires. Turning on the Mg doping halfway through the synthesis produced nanowires with p-n junctions that showed excellent rectification properties down to 2.6 K. The nanowires are shown to possess good-quality, crystalline, hexagonal GaN inner cores surrounded by an amorphous GaN outer layer. Most wires grow such that the crystalline c axis is normal to the long axis of the nanowire. The temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics is consistent with electron tunneling through a voltage-dependent barrier.

  8. Improving optical performance of GaN nanowires grown by selective area growth homoepitaxy: Influence of substrate and nanowire dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseev, P., E-mail: pavel.aseev@isom.upm.es, E-mail: gacevic@isom.upm.es; Gačević, Ž., E-mail: pavel.aseev@isom.upm.es, E-mail: gacevic@isom.upm.es; Calleja, E. [ISOM-ETSIT, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Torres-Pardo, A.; González-Calbet, J. M. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense (UCM), CEI Moncloa, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-20

    Series of GaN nanowires (NW) with controlled diameters (160–500 nm) and heights (420–1100 nm) were homoepitaxially grown on three different templates: GaN/Si(111), GaN/AlN/Si(111), and GaN/sapphire(0001). Transmission electron microscopy reveals a strong influence of the NW diameter on dislocation filtering effect, whereas photoluminescence measurements further relate this effect to the GaN NWs near-bandgap emission efficiency. Although the templates' quality has some effects on the GaN NWs optical and structural properties, the NW diameter reduction drives the dislocation filtering effect to the point where a poor GaN template quality becomes negligible. Thus, by a proper optimization of the homoepitaxial GaN NWs growth, the propagation of dislocations into the NWs can be greatly prevented, leading to an exceptional crystal quality and a total dominance of the near-bandgap emission over sub-bandgap, defect-related lines, such as basal stacking faults and so called unknown exciton (UX) emission. In addition, a correlation between the presence of polarity inversion domain boundaries and the UX emission lines around 3.45 eV is established.

  9. Improving optical performance of GaN nanowires grown by selective area growth homoepitaxy: Influence of substrate and nanowire dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, P.; Gačević, Ž.; Torres-Pardo, A.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Calleja, E.

    2016-06-01

    Series of GaN nanowires (NW) with controlled diameters (160-500 nm) and heights (420-1100 nm) were homoepitaxially grown on three different templates: GaN/Si(111), GaN/AlN/Si(111), and GaN/sapphire(0001). Transmission electron microscopy reveals a strong influence of the NW diameter on dislocation filtering effect, whereas photoluminescence measurements further relate this effect to the GaN NWs near-bandgap emission efficiency. Although the templates' quality has some effects on the GaN NWs optical and structural properties, the NW diameter reduction drives the dislocation filtering effect to the point where a poor GaN template quality becomes negligible. Thus, by a proper optimization of the homoepitaxial GaN NWs growth, the propagation of dislocations into the NWs can be greatly prevented, leading to an exceptional crystal quality and a total dominance of the near-bandgap emission over sub-bandgap, defect-related lines, such as basal stacking faults and so called unknown exciton (UX) emission. In addition, a correlation between the presence of polarity inversion domain boundaries and the UX emission lines around 3.45 eV is established.

  10. GaN nanowire/thin film vertical structure p-n junction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Beom Park, Jun; Jin An, Sung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report vertical-type GaN nanowire-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by the metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. The nickel-catalyzed VLS process yielded both n-GaN nanowires and GaN nanoislands on substrates. The nanoislands markedly deteriorated the diode and electroluminescent characteristics in n-nanowire/p-film LED structures because of parasitic resistance and deep level emission caused by nanoislands. By burying the nanoislands with an insulating layer and adopting coaxial p-n junction nanowire structures, nanowire-based LEDs were shown to exhibit superior device performance, including highly rectifying and monochromatic electroluminescent characteristics. Thus, the undesirable effects associated with nanoislands were considerably suppressed. This work provides a rationale for designing high-performance vertical nanowire-based LEDs.

  11. Axial p–n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p–n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p–n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I–V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p–n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p–n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p–n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116–125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2–3 × 1017 at cm‑3 assuming a donor level N d of 2–3 × 1018 at cm‑3. The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  12. Shape dependent electronic properties of wurzite GaN nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Pankaj, E-mail: pankajs@iiitm.ac.in; Kumar, Avaneesh, E-mail: avaneeshk7@ymail.com; Sharma, Varun, E-mail: sunny2013@gmail.com [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior-474015 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K., E-mail: neerajkumar.phd@gmail.com [Discipline of Physics, PDPM-Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing (IIITDM), Jabalpur-482005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, energetic stability and electronic behavior of triangular and square shaped wurzite GaN NW oriented along [1100] and [11 2 0] direction has been investigated by employing ab-initio DFT calculation. Structural analysis suggests that triangular shaped NW undergoes strong surface reconstruction compared to square shaped NW. However, binding energy reveals that square shaped NW is energetically more feasible than triangular NW. Further, from electronic band structure we observe that both structures are metallic with higher metallicity for triangular shaped NW.

  13. Ti/Al Ohmic Contacts to n-Type GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium/aluminum ohmic contacts to tapered n-type GaN nanowires with triangular cross-sections were studied. To extract the specific contact resistance, the commonly used transmission line model was adapted to the particular nanowire geometry. The most Al-rich composition of the contact provided a low specific contact resistance (mid 10−8 Ωcm2 upon annealing at 600 °C for 15 s, but it exhibited poor thermal stability due to oxidation of excess elemental Al remaining after annealing, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, less Al-rich contacts required higher annealing temperatures (850 or 900 °C to reach a minimum specific contact resistance but exhibited better thermal stability. A spread in the specific contact resistance from contact to contact was tentatively attributed to the different facets that were contacted on the GaN nanowires with a triangular cross-section.

  14. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.santoruvo@epfl.ch; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Matioli, Elison, E-mail: elison.matioli@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-09-05

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuations and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.

  15. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  16. Defect-impurity complex induced long-range ferromagnetism in GaN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Assa Aravindh, S

    2015-12-14

    Present work investigates the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Gd doped wurtzite GaN nanowires (NWs) oriented along the [0001] direction in presence of intrinsic defects by employing the GGA + U approximation. We find that Ga vacancy (VGa) exhibits lower formation energy compared to N vacancy. Further stabilization of point defects occurs due to the presence of Gd. The strength of ferromagnetism (FM) increases by additional positive charge induced by the VGa. Electronic structure analysis shows that VGa introduces defect levels in the band gap leading to ferromagnetic coupling due to the hybridization of the p states of the Ga and N atoms with the Gd d and f states. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling energy of 76.4 meV is obtained in presence of Gd-VGa complex; hence, the FM is largely determined by the cation vacancy-rare earth complex defects in GaN NWs.

  17. Study of Cs adsorption on (100) surface of [001]-oriented GaN nanowires: A first principle research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Sihao [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Liu, Lei, E-mail: liu1133_cn@sina.com.cn [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Kong, Yike [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan [School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • B{sub N} is the most stable adsorption site. • Work function is reduced after Cs adsorption. • Surface atomic structures are reconstructed. • Surface states near fermi level is contributed to the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p and N 2p state. • NEA surface is demonstrated after Cs adsorption on GaN nanowire surface. - Abstract: Based on first-principle study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs on (100) crystal plane of GaN nanowire surface with coverage of 1/12 monolayer is explored. It is discovered that the most stable adsorption site is B{sub N} because of its lowest adsorption energy. The work function of GaN nanowire surface is reduced by 1.69 eV and will be further reduced with increasing Cs adsorption, which promotes the development of negative electron affinity (NEA) state of the materials. Furthermore, Cs adatom will make a great influence on the surface atomic structure, oppositely, little influence on the center atomic structure. There appears a dipole moment valued −6.93 Debye on the nanowire surface contributed to the formation the heterojunction on the surface, which is beneficial to the photoelectrons liberation. After Cs adsorption, the valence band and conduction band both move to lower energy side. The surface states mainly result from the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p state and N 2p state. This study can help us to further experiment on the Cs adsorption processing on GaN nanowire and improve the photoemission performance of GaN nanowire devices.

  18. Surface Passivation of GaN Nanowires for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Varadhan, Purushothaman

    2017-02-08

    Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultralarge surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. In this work, we address the issue of surface states in GaN nanowire photoelectrodes by employing a simple and low-cost surface treatment method, which utilizes an organic thiol compound (i.e., 1,2-ethanedithiol). The surface-treated photocathode showed an enhanced photocurrent density of −31 mA/cm at −0.2 V versus RHE with an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 18.3%, whereas untreated nanowires yielded only 8.1% efficiency. Furthermore, the surface passivation provides enhanced photoelectrochemical stability as surface-treated nanowires retained ∼80% of their initial photocurrent value and produced 8000 μmol of gas molecules over 55 h at acidic conditions (pH ∼ 0), whereas the untreated nanowires demonstrated only <4 h of photoelectrochemical stability. These findings shed new light on the importance of surface passivation of nanostructured photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  19. Characteristics of dielectrophoretically aligned UV-blue GaN nanowire LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hong; Lee, Seung-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Gu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Hong, Chang-Hee; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2008-01-01

    This is a report on the characteristics of UV-blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing homojunction gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs). These LEDs were prepared by the dielectrophoresis assisted assembly deposition (DAAD) method. The incorporation of an additional silicon dioxide (SiO2) and a Au capping metal layer was found to improve the electrical and optical properties of the DAAD-prepared GaN NW LEDs. These LEDs exhibited a parasitic series resistance of 120-180 komega with a sharp turn-on forward voltage of 3.4-4.0 V and had as low as approximately approximately 7 x 10(-7) A of leakage current for a reverse bias of -10 V. Typical electroluminescence (EL) spectra, observed from these LEDs under a forward bias, had a broad ultraviolet (UV)-blue emission with a wavelength of 388-422 nm. These LEDs could be seen with the naked eye. We concluded that the high-brightness EL spectra resulted from the enhancement of the carrier injection due to the size effect of the n-GaN nanowires on the p-GaN substrate.

  20. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in

  1. Steady-State and Transient Photoconductivity in c-Axis GaN Nanowires Grown by Nitrogen-Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Wide-bandgap III- nitride nanowires NWs are gaining increased attention for applications involving nanophotonics and nanoelectronics.1–3 GaN NW...results in a greater barrier to thermionic emission. This approximate model neglects other possible trap states, tunneling of carri- ers through the...Steady-state and transient photoconductivity in c-axis GaN nanowires grown by nitrogen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy N. A. Sanford,1,a P. T

  2. Spin relaxation in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Banerjee, Animesh

    2011-12-14

    The spin relaxation time of photoinduced conduction electrons has been measured in InGaN quantum disks in GaN nanowires as a function of temperature and In composition in the disks. The relaxation times are of the order of ∼100 ps at 300 K and are weakly dependent on temperature. Theoretical considerations show that the Elliott-Yafet scattering mechanism is essentially absent in these materials and the results are interpreted in terms of the D\\'yakonov-Perel\\' relaxation mechanism in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling of the wurtzite structure. The calculated spin relaxation times are in good agreement with the measured values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires; Elektrischer Transport in GaN- und InN-Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Thomas Fabian

    2008-12-19

    This thesis discusses the analysis of the electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires at room temperature and deep temperatures. From those measurements two different transport models for those two in matter of the band banding completely different materials have been found. In the investigation of the GaN nanowires the main focus was the electrical transport in dependence of the diameter and the n-doping. With the use of IV-measurements on those MBE grown nanowires with different diameters at dark and under UV illumination as well as the decay of the persistent photocurrent, it was possible to find an for GaN untypical behaviour. The electrical transport in those wires is extremely diameter dependent. The dark current shows space charged limited current. With the help of those cognitions a diameter dependent transport model could be found. The transport phenomena in those wires is based on the diameter depending band bending at the edge of the wires caused by the Fermi level pinning inside the forbidden band. This model can be fit to the data with the three parameter doping, fermi level pinning and wire diameter. On the base of those effects a method to determine the doping concentration inside those wires without field effect measurements and contact resistance has been developed. The defect structure inside those wires has been analysed with the help of spectral photoluminescence measurements. Here several defect bands have been found and it was possible with help of several contacts on one single wire to determine different defect regions along the wire and to explain them by the lattice mismatch between nanowire and substrate. Further temperature depending measurements and investigations on Schottky contacted wires as well as on GaN wires with AlN tunnel structures complete the work on GaN. The electrical characterisation on a large scale of undoped and doped InN nanowires shows linear growth of the dark current with the diameter up to wires of around 100 nm

  4. Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyeon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.

  5. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  6. Cs/NF3 adsorption on [001]-oriented GaN nanowire surface: A first principle calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Kong, Yike

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs/NF3 on the [001]-oriented GaN nanowire surface is investigated by using the density function theory based on first-principles. In the Cs/NF3 co-activation process, the system is inclined to form NF3-in structure. Through the calculation results of adsorption energy, NF3 molecule adsorption tends to take an orientation with F atoms on top and the most favorable adsorption site is BGa-N. The NF3 activation process can further cut down the work function of the Cs-covered nanowire surface only when Cs coverage is 0.75 ML and 1 ML, which can be explained by the double dipole moment theory. With increasing Cs coverage, the valence band and conduction band both shift to lower energy side, contributing to the appearance of a downward band bending region and promoting the escape of surface photoelectrons. After NF3 molecule adsorption, the peak of total density of states near Fermi level increase due to the orbital hybridization between NF3-2s, Cs-5s states and N-2p states, which strengthen the conductivity of the nanowire surface and leads to the metallic properties. All these calculations may direct the Cs/NF3 activation process of GaN nanowire optoelectronic devices.

  7. Steps towards a GaN nanowire based light emitting diode and its integration with Si-MOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, Friederich

    2012-06-22

    This work is concerned with the realization and investigation of a light emitting diode (LED) structure within single GaN nanowires (NWs) and its integration with Si technology. To this end first a general understanding of the GaN NW growth is given. This is followed by investigations of the influence which doping species, such as Mg and Si, have on the growth of the NWs. The experience gathered in these studies set the basis for the synthesis of nominal p-i-n and n-i-p junctions in GaN NWs. Investigations of these structures resulted in the technologically important insight, that p-type doping with Mg is achieved best if it is done in the later NW growth stage. This implies that it is beneficial for a NW LED to place the p-type segment on the NW top. Another important component of an LED is the active zone where electron-hole recombination takes place. In the case of planar GaN LEDs, this is usually achieved by alloying Ga and In to form InGaN. In order to be able to control the growth under a variety of conditions, we investigate the growth of InGaN in the form of extended segments on top of GaN NWs, as well as multi quantum wells (MQWs) in GaN NWs. All the knowledge gained during these preliminary studies is harnessed to reach the overall goal: The realization of a GaN NW LED. Such structures are fabricated, investigated and processed into working LEDs. Finally, a report on the efforts of integrating III-nitride NW LEDs and Si based metaloxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology is given. This demonstrates the feasibility of the monolithic integration of both devices on the same wafer at the same time.

  8. In situ analysis of strain relaxation during catalyst-free nucleation and growth of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelangen, M; Consonni, V; Trampert, A; Riechert, H

    2010-06-18

    Strain relaxation mechanisms occurring during self-induced growth of nitride nanowires are investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Epitaxial GaN nanowires nucleate on an AlN buffer layer under highly nitrogen-rich conditions via the initial formation of coherently strained three-dimensional islands according to the Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. The epitaxial strain relief in these islands occurs by two different processes. Initially, strain is elastically relieved via several shape transitions. Subsequently, plastic relaxation takes place through the formation of a misfit dislocation at the GaN/AlN interface. At the same time, a final shape transition to fully relaxed nanowires occurs.

  9. Heteroepitaxial Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned and Periodically Distributed ZnO Nanowires on GaN Using Laser Interference Ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Dajun

    2010-08-23

    A simple two-step method of fabricating vertically aligned and periodically distributed ZnO nanowires on gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is described. The method combines laser interference ablation (LIA) and low temperature hydrothermal decomposition. The ZnO nanowires grow heteroepitaxially on unablated regions of GaN over areas spanning 1 cm2, with a high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to study the structural characteristics of the LIA-patterned GaN substrate in detail. These studies reveal the possible mechanism for the preferential, site-selective growth of the ZnO nanowires. The method demonstrates high application potential for wafer-scale integration into sensor arrays, piezoelectric devices, and optoelectronic devices. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  11. Nanostructure and strain in InGaN/GaN superlattices grown in GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Th; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Becker, P.; Kioseoglou, J.; Furtmayr, F.; Koukoula, T.; Häusler, I.; Chernikov, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Karakostas, Th; Solowan, H.-M.; Schwarz, U. T.; Eickhoff, M.; Komninou, Ph

    2013-11-01

    The structural properties and the strain state of InGaN/GaN superlattices embedded in GaN nanowires were analyzed as a function of superlattice growth temperature, using complementary transmission electron microscopy techniques supplemented by optical analysis using photoluminescence and spatially resolved microphotoluminescence spectroscopy. A truncated pyramidal shape was observed for the 4 nm thick InGaN inclusions, where their (0 0 0\\bar {1}) central facet was delimited by six-fold {1 0\\bar {1}\\ell } facets towards the m-plane sidewalls of the nanowires. The defect content of the nanowires comprised multiple basal stacking faults localized at the GaN base/superlattice interface, causing the formation of zinc-blende cubic regions, and often single stacking faults at the GaN/InGaN bilayer interfaces. No misfit dislocations or cracks were detected in the heterostructure, implying a fully strained configuration. Geometrical phase analysis showed a rather uniform radial distribution of elastic strain in the (0 0 0\\bar {1}) facet of the InGaN inclusions. Depending on the superlattice growth temperature, the elastic strain energy is partitioned among the successive InGaN/GaN layers in the case of low-temperature growth, while at higher superlattice growth temperature the in-plane tensile misfit strain of the GaN barriers is accommodated through restrained diffusion of indium from the preceding InGaN layers. The corresponding In contents of the central facet were estimated at 0.42 and 0.25, respectively. However, in the latter case, successful reproduction of the experimental electron microscopy images by image simulations was only feasible, allowing for a much higher occupancy of indium adatoms at lattice sites of the semipolar facets, compared to the invariable 25% assigned to the polar facet. Thus, a high complexity in indium incorporation and strain allocation between the different crystallographic facets of the InGaN inclusions is anticipated and supported by

  12. Self-Supporting GaN Nanowires/Graphite Paper: Novel High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest as energy storage devices because of their promise in applications such as wearable and smart electronic devices. Herein, a novel flexible supercapacitor electrode based on gallium nitride nanowire (GaN NW)/graphite paper (GP) nanocomposites is reported. The outstanding electrical conductivities of the GaN NW (6.36 × 102 S m-1 ) and GP (7.5 × 104 S m-1 ) deliver a synergistically enhanced electrochemical performance that cannot be achieved by either of the components alone. The composite electrode exhibits excellent specific capacitance (237 mF cm-2 at 0.1 mA cm-2 ) and outstanding cycling performance (98% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles). The flexible symmetric supercapacitor also manifests high energy and power densities (0.30 mW h cm-3 and 1000 mW cm-3 ). These findings demonstrate that the GaN/GP composite electrode has significant potential as a candidate for the flexible energy storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of lateral growth on the optical properties of GaN nanowires grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoteng; Wang, Liancheng; Yi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Tongbo; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2017-11-01

    GaN nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on Si (111) using vapor-liquid-solid hydride vapor phase epitaxy at low temperature (740-780 °C). We find that the flow rate of the GaCl (HCl) gas has a large impact on the NW lateral growth rate, which affects the NW morphology, axial growth rate, and optical property. Upon increasing the flow rate of GaCl, the uncatalyzed vapor solid lateral growth increases rapidly, leading to variations in NW morphology from wire-like to tower-like and rod-like. The photoluminescence spectrum shows a broad red luminescence (RL) at around 660 nm and a weak near-band-edge luminescence at around 400 nm when lateral growth is at a significant level. Furthermore, spatially resolved cathodoluminescence and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that this RL originates from the defective lateral growth. Finally, by inhibiting the lateral growth, GaN NWs with a high aspect ratio and excellent crystal quality (no RL observed at around 660 nm) were successfully synthesized with a rapid growth rate of 170 μm/h.

  14. Quenching of the luminescence intensity of GaN nanowires under electron beam exposure: impact of C adsorption on the exciton lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähnemann, Jonas; Flissikowski, Timur; Wölz, Martin; Geelhaar, Lutz; Grahn, Holger T.; Brandt, Oliver; Jahn, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Electron irradiation of GaN nanowires in a scanning electron microscope strongly reduces their luminous efficiency as shown by cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy. We demonstrate that this luminescence quenching originates from a combination of charge trapping at already existing surface states and the formation of new surface states induced by the adsorption of C on the nanowire sidewalls. The interplay of these effects leads to a complex temporal evolution of the quenching, which strongly depends on the incident electron dose per area. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on electron-irradiated samples reveal that the carbonaceous adlayer affects both the nonradiative and the radiative recombination dynamics.

  15. Study of using aqueous NH{sub 3} to synthesize GaN nanowires on Si(1 1 1) by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saron, K.M.A., E-mail: kamalmohammedabdalla@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Hashim, M.R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)

    2013-03-20

    Highlights: ► This study presents a facile, low cost and safe method to synthesize high quality GaN NWs, by using NH{sub 3} solution as N source. ► Moderating the N{sub 2} flow rate improved the crystalline quality of the NWs and also produced zigzag shaped NWs. ► Raman spectra showed that the synthesized GaN NWs had hexagonal wurtzite structures as a result of increased tensile stress. ► By moderating N{sub 2} flow, strong NBE emission peaks at about 364 nm and YB is subsided. -- Abstract: High-quality GaN nanowires (NWs) and zigzag-shaped NWs were grown on catalyst-free Si(1 1 1) substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). Gallium (Ga) metal and aqueous NH{sub 3} solution are used as a source of materials. Ga vapor was directly reacts with gaseous NH{sub 3} under controlled nitrogen flow at 1050 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the morphology of GaN displayed various densities of NWs and zigzag NWs depending on the gas flow rate, and increased nitrogen flow rate caused density reduction. The GaN NWs exhibited clear X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) peaks that corresponded to GaN with hexagonal wurtzite structures. The photoluminescence spectra showed that the ultraviolet band emission of GaN NWs had a strong near band-edge emission (NBE) at 361–367 nm. Yellow band emissions were observed at low and high flow rates due to nitrogen and Ga vacancies, respectively. Moderate N{sub 2} flow resulted in a strong NBE emission and a high optical quality of the NWs. This study shows the possibility of low-cost synthesis of GaN nanostructures on Si wafers using aqueous NH{sub 3} solution.

  16. Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Liao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Peng-Wei; Zhou, Yang-Bo; Han, Xiao-Bing; Ye, Yu; Zhao, Qing; Wu, Xiao-Song; Dai, Lun; Xu, Jun; Sang, Li-Wen; Deng, Jun-Jing; Laurent, K.; Yu, Da-Peng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Leprince-Wang, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Divises et Interfaces (LPMDI), CNRS-UMR 8108, Universite Paris-Est., Marne la Vallee Cedex 2, 77454, (France)

    2010-10-08

    We fabricate heterojunctions consisting of a single n-type ZnO nanowire and a p-type GaN film. The photovoltaic effect of heterojunctions exhibits open-circuit voltages ranging from 2 to 2.7 V, and a maximum output power reaching 80 nW. Light-emitting diodes with UV electroluminescence based on the heterojunctions are demonstrated. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Significant enhancement in photocatalytic activity of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x nanowires via solubility and crystal facet tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bofan; Zhang, Xueliang; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Xin; Ye, Jinhua; Wang, Defa

    2018-01-01

    We report on the solubility and crystal facet tailoring of the wurtzite structured (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid solution nanowires via a chemical vapor deposition method. With increasing the growth temperature from 900 °C to 1000 °C, the nanowire morphology is changed from zigzag to straight, and the band gap is increased from 2.70 eV to 3.26 eV, due to decreased solubility of ZnO. Photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances of the zigzag nanowires are significantly improved because of the narrower band gap for absorbing more solar light and the special lateral surface atomic structure favorable for the separation of photoinduced electrons and holes.

  18. Optical properties of photodetectors based on single GaN nanowires with a transparent graphene contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, A. V., E-mail: A.Babichev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Zhang, H.; Guan, N. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France); Egorov, A. Yu. [ITMO University (Russian Federation); Julien, F. H.; Messanvi, A. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France); Durand, C.; Eymery, J. [University Grenoble Alpes (France); Tchernycheva, M. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France)

    2016-08-15

    We report the fabrication and optical and electrical characterization of photodetectors for the UV spectral range based on single p–n junction nanowires with a transparent contact of a new type. The contact is based on CVD-grown (chemical-vapor deposition) graphene. The active region of the nitride nanowires contains a set of 30 radial In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N/GaN quantum wells. The structure is grown by metal-organic vaporphase epitaxy. The photodetectors are fabricated using electron-beam lithography. The current–voltage characteristics exhibit a rectifying behavior. The spectral sensitivity of the photodetector is recorded starting from 3 eV and extending far in the UV range. The maximal photoresponse is observed at a wavelength of 367 nm (sensitivity 1.9 mA/W). The response switching time of the photodetector is less than 0.1 s.

  19. Growth and Characterization of High-Quality GaN Nanowires on PZnO and PGaN by Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, an easy and inexpensive method is used to synthesize highly crystalline gallium nitride (GaN nanowires (NWs on two different substrates [i.e., porous zinc oxide (PZnO and porous gallium nitride (PGaN] on Si (111 wafer by thermal evaporation without any catalyst. Microstructural studies by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope measurements reveal the role of the substrates in the nucleation and alignment of the GaN NWs. Further structural and optical characterizations were performed using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Results indicate that the NWs have a single-crystal hexagonal GaN structure and growth direction in the (0001 plane. The quality and density of GaN NWs grown on different substrates are highly dependent on the lattice mismatch between the NWs and their substrates. Results indicate that NWs grown on PGaN have better quality and higher density compared to NWs on PZnO.

  20. Photoelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using Ge doped GaN nanowire photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the direct conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 in a photoelectrochemical cell consisting of germanium doped gallium nitride nanowire anode and copper (Cu cathode. Various products including methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, and formic acid (HCOOH were observed under light illumination. A Faradaic efficiency of ∼10% was measured for HCOOH. Furthermore, this photoelectrochemical system showed enhanced stability for 6 h CO2 reduction reaction on low cost, large area Si substrates.

  1. Enhanced radiative recombination and suppressed Auger process in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wang, Li; El-Masry, N A; Hosalli, A M; Bedair, Salah M; Xu, Jian

    2014-03-15

    The mechanism behind the improved light emission properties of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) conformally grown over n-GaN nanowires (NWs) was studied using variable-temperature photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL). A reduced internal polarization electric field was found to account for the observed enhancement in the radiative recombination rate and internal quantum efficiency of the MQWs on NWs. Additionally, the excitation-dependent TRPL results indicate a significantly depressed Auger recombination in MQWs grown on NWs that can be attributed to the feature of ultralow dislocation density of the MQWs grown over GaN nanostructures.

  2. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO{sub 2}-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, J. E.; Doundoulakis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Lymperakis, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Eftychis, S.; Georgakilas, A., E-mail: alexandr@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Konstantinidis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos 27, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-06-14

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO{sub 2} mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  3. Investigation and comparison of GaN nanowire nucleation and growth by the catalyst-assisted and self-induced approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheze, Caroline

    2010-03-04

    This work focuses on the nucleation and growth mechanisms of GaN nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The two main novelties of this study are the intensive employment of in-situ techniques and the direct comparison of selfinduced and catalyst-induced NWs. On silicon substrates, GaN NWs form in MBE without the use of any external catalyst seed. On sapphire, in contrast, NWs grow under identical conditions only in the presence of Ni seeds. NW nucleation was studied in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) in correlation with line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The latter technique allows to monitor the incorporated amount of Ga. For the catalyst-assisted approach, three nucleation stages were identified: first incorporation of Ga into the Ni seeds, second transformation of the seed crystal structure due to Ga accumulation, and last GaN growth under the seeds. The crystalline structure of the seeds during the first two stages is in accord with the Ni-Ga binary phase diagram and evidenced that only Ga incorporates into the Ni particles. GaN forms only after the Ga concentration is larger than the one of Ni. The observation of diffraction patterns generated by the Ni-Ga seed particles during the whole nucleation evidences the solid state of the seeds. Moreover, the QMS study showed that it is not Ga incorporation into Ni but GaN nucleation itself that limits the growth processes. For the self-induced NWs, QMS and RHEED investigations indicate very similar nucleation processes on Si(001) and Si(111) and two nucleation stages were identified. Transmission electron microscopy on samples grown on Si(001) revealed that the first stage is characterized by the competition between the nucleation of crystalline Si{sub x}N{sub y} and GaN. During this stage, the Si surface strongly roughens by the formation of pits and Si mounds. At the same time, very few GaN islands nucleate. During the second stage, the amorphization of the Si

  4. Ga-Polar (In ,Ga )N /GaN Quantum Wells Versus N-Polar (In,Ga)N Quantum Disks in GaN Nanowires: A Comparative Analysis of Carrier Recombination, Diffusion, and Radiative Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, F.; Flissikowski, T.; Sabelfeld, K. K.; Kaganer, V. M.; Wölz, M.; Geelhaar, L.; Grahn, H. T.; Brandt, O.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in planar (In ,Ga )N /GaN (0001 ) quantum wells and (In,Ga)N quantum disks embedded in GaN (000 1 ¯ ) nanowires using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy under both continuous-wave and pulsed excitation. The PL intensities of these two samples quench only slightly between 10 and 300 K, which is commonly taken as evidence for high internal quantum efficiencies. However, a side-by-side comparison shows that the absolute intensity of the Ga-polar quantum wells is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the N-polar quantum disks. A similar difference is observed for the initial decay time of PL transients obtained by time-resolved measurements, indicating the presence of a highly efficient nonradiative decay channel for the quantum disks. In apparent contradiction to this conjecture, the decay of both samples is observed to slow down dramatically after the initial rapid decay. Independent of temperature, the transients approach a power law for longer decay times, reflecting the fact that recombination occurs between individual electrons and holes with varying spatial separation. Employing a coupled system of stochastic integro-differential equations taking into account both radiative and nonradiative Shockley-Read-Hall recombination of spatially separate electrons and holes as well as their diffusion, we obtain simulated transients matching the experimentally obtained ones. The results reveal that even dominant nonradiative recombination conserves the power-law decay for (In ,Ga )N /GaN {0001 } quantum wells and disks.

  5. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of GaN nanowires with embedded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioseoglou, J., E-mail: sifisl@auth.gr; Pavloudis, Th.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Karakostas, Th. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Latham, C. D.; Rayson, M. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Briddon, P. R. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Eickhoff, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics I, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-07-21

    In the present study, the effects of various types of strain and indium concentration on the total energy and optoelectronic properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) with embedded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N nanodisks (NDs) are examined. In particular, the bi-axial, hydrostatic, and uniaxial strain states of the embedded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N NDs are investigated for multiple In concentrations. Density functional theory is employed to calculate the band structure of the NWs. The theoretical analysis finds that the supercell-size-dependent characteristics calculated for our 972-atom NW models are very close to the infinite supercell-size limit. It is established that the embedded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N NDs do not induce deep states in the band gap of the NWs. A bowing parameter of 1.82 eV is derived from our analysis in the quadratic Vegard's formula for the band gaps at the various In concentrations of the investigated In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N NDs in GaN NW structures. It is concluded that up to ∼10% of In, the hydrostatic strain state is competitive with the bi-axial due to the radial absorption of the strain on the surfaces. Above this value, the dominant strain state is the bi-axial one. Thus, hydrostatic and bi-axial strain components coexist in the embedded NDs, and they are of different physical origin. The bi-axial strain comes from growth on lattice mismatched substrates, while the hydrostatic strain originates from the lateral relaxation of the surfaces.

  7. Impact of screw and edge dislocations on the thermal conductivity of individual nanowires and bulk GaN: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Isaiev, Mykola; Salnikova, Anastasiia; Belabbas, Imad; Lacroix, David; Kioseoglou, Joseph

    2018-02-02

    We report the thermal transport properties of wurtzite GaN in the presence of dislocations using molecular dynamics simulations. A variety of isolated dislocations in a nanowire configuration are analyzed and found to considerably reduce the thermal conductivity while impacting its temperature dependence in a different manner. Isolated screw dislocations reduce the thermal conductivity by a factor of two, while the influence of edge dislocations is less pronounced. The relative reduction of thermal conductivity is correlated with the strain energy of each of the five studied types of dislocations and the nature of the bonds around the dislocation core. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity follows a physical law described by a T-1 variation in combination with an exponent factor that depends on the material's nature, type and the structural characteristics of the dislocation core. Furthermore, the impact of the dislocation density on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN is examined. The variation and absolute values of the total thermal conductivity as a function of the dislocation density are similar for defected systems with both screw and edge dislocations. Nevertheless, we reveal that the thermal conductivity tensors along the parallel and perpendicular directions to the dislocation lines are different. The discrepancy of the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity grows with increasing density of dislocations and it is more pronounced for the systems with edge dislocations. Besides the fundamental insights of the presented results, these could also be used for the identification of the type of dislocations when one experimentally obtains the evolution of thermal conductivity with temperature since each type of dislocation has a different signature, or one could extract the density of dislocations with a simple measurement of thermal anisotropy.

  8. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7 %Al/nm to 4.95 %Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2x10^18 cm^-3 to 1.6x10^19 cm^-3. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30 %Al/...

  9. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Myers, Roberto C., E-mail: myers.1079@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization-induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7%Al/nm to 4.95%Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30%Al/nm, the deep donor concentration is negligible and free hole concentrations roughly equal to the bound polarization charge density are achieved up to 1.6 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at a gradient of 4.95%Al/nm. Accurate grading lengths in the p- and n-side of the pn-junction are extracted from scanning transmission electron microscopy images and are used to support energy band calculation and capacitance modeling. These results demonstrate the robust nature of p-type polarization doping in nanowires and put an upper bound on the magnitude of deep donor compensation.

  10. Tuning the polarization-induced free hole density in nanowires graded from GaN to AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Yang, Fan; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    We report a systematic study of p-type polarization-induced doping in graded AlGaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on silicon wafers by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The composition gradient in the p-type base is varied in a set of samples from 0.7%Al/nm to 4.95%Al/nm corresponding to negative bound polarization charge densities of 2.2 × 1018 cm-3 to 1.6 × 1019 cm-3. Capacitance measurements and energy band modeling reveal that for gradients greater than or equal to 1.30%Al/nm, the deep donor concentration is negligible and free hole concentrations roughly equal to the bound polarization charge density are achieved up to 1.6 × 1019 cm-3 at a gradient of 4.95%Al/nm. Accurate grading lengths in the p- and n-side of the pn-junction are extracted from scanning transmission electron microscopy images and are used to support energy band calculation and capacitance modeling. These results demonstrate the robust nature of p-type polarization doping in nanowires and put an upper bound on the magnitude of deep donor compensation.

  11. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar,; Arun, [Orinda, CA; Shakouri, Ali [Santa Cruz, CA; Sands, Timothy D [Moraga, CA; Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; Mao, Samuel S [Berkeley, CA; Russo, Richard E [Walnut Creek, CA; Feick, Henning [Kensington, CA; Weber, Eicke R [Oakland, CA; Kind, Hannes [Schaffhausen, CH; Huang, Michael [Los Angeles, CA; Yan, Haoquan [Albany, CA; Wu, Yiying [Albany, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  12. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-30

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  13. Improved Tunnel-FET inverter performance with SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire TFETs by reduction of ambipolarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S.; Trellenkamp, S.; Schäfer, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.

    2015-06-01

    Complementary MOSFET and Tunnel-FET inverters based on tri-gated strained Si nanowire arrays are demonstrated. The voltage transfer characteristics as well as the inverter supply currents of both inverter types are analyzed and compared. A degradation of the inverter output voltage is observed due to the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the symmetric homostructure TFET devices. Emulated TFET inverters based on the measured transfer characteristics of SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire array n-channel TFETs with reduced ambipolarity demonstrate improved inverter switching for supply voltages down to VDD = 0.2 V.

  14. Gallium nitride nanowire based nanogenerators and light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhu, Guang; Hu, Youfan; Yu, Jeng-Wei; Song, Jinghui; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Peng, Lung-Han; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-06-26

    Single-crystal n-type GaN nanowires have been grown epitaxially on a Mg-doped p-type GaN substrate. Piezoelectric nanognerators based on GaN nanowires are investigated by conductive AFM, and the results showed an output power density of nearly 12.5 mW/m(2). Luminous LED modules based on n-GaN nanowires/p-GaN substrate have been fabricated. CCD images of the lighted LED and the corresponding electroluminescence spectra are recorded at a forward bias. Moreover, the GaN nanowire LED can be lighted up by the power provided by a ZnO nanowire based nanogenerator, demonstrating a self-powered LED using wurtzite-structured nanomaterials.

  15. Wide band gap semiconductor nanowires for optical devices 1 low-dimensionality related effects and growth

    CERN Document Server

    Consonni , Vincent

    2014-01-01

    GaN and ZnO nanowires can by grown using a wide variety of methods from physical vapor deposition to wet chemistry for optical devices. This book starts by presenting the similarities and differences between GaN and ZnO materials, as well as the assets and current limitations of nanowires for their use in optical devices, including feasibility and perspectives. It then focuses on the nucleation and growth mechanismsof ZnO and GaN nanowires, grown by various chemical and physical methods. Finally, it describes the formation of nanowire heterostructures applied to optical devices.

  16. Electronic homogeneity of nanowire heterostructure Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcu, Camelia; May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    In addition to low defect densities and great tunability bandgap within a single heterostructure, the possibility of growing (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire heterostructure LEDs on different substrates while maintaining their high electronic and optical properties makes them very attractive. We investigated the electronic homogeneity of the (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire ensemble by acquiring current maps at certain applied biases using conductive AFM. By taken IVs on individual nanowires, we found that different wires have different turn on voltages and that some of the nanowires degrade due to the applied bias.

  17. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2017-01-18

    Lattice-symmetry-driven epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods is demonstrated. The nanotripods emerge on the top of hexagonal GaN nanowires, which are selectively grown on pillar-patterned GaN templates using molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that two kinds of lattice-symmetry, wurtzite (wz) and zinc-blende (zb), coexist in the GaN nanotripods. Periodical transformation between wz and zb drives the epitaxy of the hierarchical nanotripods with N-polarity. The zb-GaN is formed by the poor diffusion of adatoms, and it can be suppressed by improving the ability of the Ga adatoms to migrate as the growth temperature increased. This controllable epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods allows quantum dots to be located at the phase junctions of the nanotripods and nanowires, suggesting a new recipe for multichannel quantum devices.

  18. Fabrication of vertical GaN/InGaN heterostructure nanowires using Ni-Au bi-metal catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ryong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-06-26

    We have fabricated the vertically aligned coaxial or longitudinal heterostructure GaN/InGaN nanowires. The GaN nanowires are first vertically grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using Au/Ni bi-metal catalysts. The GaN nanowires are single crystal grown in the [0001] direction, with a length and diameter of 1 to 10 μm and 100 nm, respectively. The vertical GaN/InGaN coaxial heterostructure nanowires (COHN) are then fabricated by the subsequent deposition of 2 nm of InxGa1-xN shell on the surface of GaN nanowires. The vertical GaN/InGaN longitudinal heterostructure nanowires (LOHN) are also fabricated by subsequent growth of an InGaN layer on the vertically aligned GaN nanowires using the catalyst. The photoluminescence from the COHN and LOHN indicates that the optical properties of GaN nanowires can be tuned by the formation of a coaxial or longitudinal InGaN layer. Our study demonstrates that the bi-metal catalysts are useful for growing vertical as well as heterostructure GaN nanowires. These vertically aligned GaN/InGaN heterostructure nanowires may be useful for the development of high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  19. Failure mechanisms and electromechanical coupling in semiconducting nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanostructures, like nanowires and nanotubes, are increasingly being researched for the development of next generation devices like logic gates, transistors, and solar cells. In particular, semiconducting nanowires with a nonsymmetric wurtzitic crystal structure, such as zinc oxide (ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN, have drawn immense research interests due to their electromechanical coupling. The designing of the future nanowire-based devices requires component-level characterization of individual nanowires. In this paper, we present a unique experimental set-up to characterize the mechanical and electromechanical behaviour of individual nanowires. Using this set-up and complementary atomistic simulations, mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires and electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires were investigated. In ZnO nanowires, elastic modulus was found to depend on nanowire diameter decreasing from 190 GPa to 140 GPa as the wire diameter increased from 5 nm to 80 nm. Inconsistent failure mechanisms were observed in ZnO nanowires. Experiments revealed a brittle fracture, whereas simulations using a pairwise potential predicted a phase transformation prior to failure. This inconsistency is addressed in detail from an experimental as well as computational perspective. Lastly, in addition to mechanical properties, preliminary results on the electromechanical properties of gallium nitride nanowires are also reported. Initial investigations reveal that the piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviour of nanowires is different from bulk gallium nitride.

  20. Growth of gallium nitride and indium nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Ling, Yichuan; Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-03-07

    We report a general strategy for synthesis of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) nanowires on conductive and flexible carbon cloth substrates. GaN and InN nanowires were prepared via a nanocluster-mediated growth method using a home built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system with Ga and In metals as group III precursors and ammonia as a group V precursor. Electron microscopy studies reveal that the group III-nitride nanowires are single crystalline wurtzite structures. The morphology, density and growth mechanism of these nanowires are determined by the growth temperature. Importantly, a photoelectrode fabricated by contacting the GaN nanowires through a carbon cloth substrate shows pronounced photoactivity for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The ability to synthesize group III-nitride nanowires on conductive and flexible substrates should open up new opportunities for nanoscale photonic, electronic and electrochemical devices.

  1. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1998-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  2. Fabrication of gallium nitride nanowires by metal-assisted photochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Jiang, Qing-Mei; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Wang, Zu-Gang; Hou, Fei; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by metal-assisted photochemical etching (MaPEtch). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as metal catalyst were electrodeposited on the GaN substrate. SEM and HRTEM images show the surface of GaN NWs is smooth and clean without any impurity. SAED and FFT patterns demonstrate GaN NWs have single crystal structure, and the crystallographic orientation of GaN NWs is (0002) face. On the basis of the assumption of localized galvanic cells, combined with the energy levels and electrochemical potentials of reactants in this etching system, the generation, transfer and consumption of electron-hole pairs reveal the whole MaPEtch reaction process. Such easily fabricated GaN NWs have great potential for the assembly of GaN-based single-nanowire nanodevices.

  3. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Su, Jie

    2008-08-05

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  4. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  5. Improvement of efficiency in graphene/gallium nitride nanowire on Silicon photoelectrode for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyojung; Rho, Hokyun; Min, Jung-Wook; Lee, Yong-Tak; Lee, Sang Hyun; Fujii, Katsushi; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, Jun-Seok

    2017-11-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are one of the most promising photoelectrode materials due to their high stability in acidic and basic electrolytes, and tunable band edge potentials. In this study, GaN nanowire arrays (GaN NWs) were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE); their large surface area enhanced the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency. More significantly, graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which enhanced the electron transfer between NWs for water splitting and protected the GaN NW surface. Structural characterizations of the prepared composite were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocurrent density of Gr/GaN NWs exhibited a two-fold increase over pristine GaN NWs and sustained water splitting up to 70 min. These improvements may accelerate possible applications for hydrogen generation with high solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of helical and zigzagged nanowires using electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sung; Hwang, Seon Oh; Myung, Yoon; Park, Jeunghee; Bae, Seung Yong; Ahn, Jae Pyoung

    2008-02-01

    Electron tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the unique three-dimensional structures of helical or zigzagged GaN, ZnGa2O4, and Zn2SnO4 nanowires. The GaN nanowires adopt a helical structure that consists of six equivalent growth directions with the axial [0001] direction. We also confirmed that the ZnGa2O4 nanosprings have four equivalent growth directions with the [001] axial direction. The zigzagged Zn2SnO4 nanowires consisted of linked rhombohedrons having the side edges matched to the direction and the [111] axial direction.

  7. Optimization of GaN Nanorod Growth Conditions for Coalescence Overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    1554-1158. [10] F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C.J. Barrelet, C.M. Lieber, Gallium nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for...and optical properties of III-V nitride nanowire heterostructures with nanoscale resolution, Nano Lett. 9 (2009) 3940-3944. [12] L.W. Tu, C.L...Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 (2009) 135106. [9] Q. Li, G.T. Wang, Spatial distribution of defect luminescence in GaN nanowires , Nano Lett. 10 (2010

  8. Semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures: Nanoscience from the bottom up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaohui

    2005-07-01

    nanowires. In particular, p-type GaN NWs were synthesized via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method, using magnesium as p-type dopant. In addition, transport studies of crossed gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n diodes. In forward bias, the p-n crossed nanowire junctions also function as nanoscale UV-blue light emitting diodes.

  9. Semiconductor Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Metal: A Direction Toward Large-Scale Fabrication of Nanowire Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, A T M Golam; Carnevale, Santino D; Yang, Fan; Kent, Thomas F; Jamison, John J; McComb, David W; Myers, Roberto C

    2015-10-28

    Bottom-up nanowires are attractive for realizing semiconductor devices with extreme heterostructures because strain relaxation through the nanowire sidewalls allows the combination of highly lattice mismatched materials without creating dislocations. The resulting nanowires are used to fabricate light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, solar cells, and sensors. However, expensive single crystalline substrates are commonly used as substrates for nanowire heterostructures as well as for epitaxial devices, which limits the manufacturability of nanowire devices. Here, nanowire LEDs directly grown and electrically integrated on metal are demonstrated. Optical and structural measurements reveal high-quality, vertically aligned GaN nanowires on molybdenum and titanium films. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the composition variation in the polarization-graded AlGaN nanowire LEDs. Blue to green electroluminescence is observed from InGaN quantum well active regions, while GaN active regions exhibit ultraviolet emission. These results demonstrate a pathway for large-scale fabrication of solid state lighting and optoelectronics on metal foils or sheets. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of Ga seeding layer on formation of epitaxial Y-shaped GaN nanoparticles on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. V.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Mozharov, A. M.; Sapunov, G. A.; Shtrom, I. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon and aluminium nitrides, commonly used as buffer layers for GaN growth on Si are wide gap insulators, preventing barrier free charge-carrier transport across the heterojunction and limiting the functionality of GaN-on-silicon technology. In this work we explore possibility of direct growth of GaN on Si nano-heterostructures by PA-MBE with use of Ga-nanodroplets as seeds. It is demonstrated that use of seeding layer can result in formation of Y-shaped planar GaN nanoparticles (GaN tripods) along with commonly observed GaN nanowires. Growth mechanism, morphology and structural characterization of GaN/Si nano-heterostructures is discussed.

  11. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...

  12. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erdong; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian; Pan, Wei; Wang, George T; Martinez, Julio A

    2016-01-08

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN core of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. Selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power.

  13. From GaN to ZnGa(2)O(4) through a low-temperature process: nanotube and heterostructure arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Yen; Zhou, Xiang; Chiu, Cheng-Yao; Crawford, Samuel; Gradečak, Silvija

    2014-01-22

    We demonstrate a method to synthesize GaN-ZnGa2O4 core-shell nanowire and ZnGa2O4 nanotube arrays by a low-temperature hydrothermal process using GaN nanowires as templates. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that a ZnGa2O4 shell forms on the surface of GaN nanowires and that the shell thickness is controlled by the time of the hydrothermal process and thus the concentration of Zn ions in the solution. Furthermore, ZnGa2O4 nanotube arrays were obtained by depleting the GaN core from GaN-ZnGa2O4 core-shell nanowire arrays during the reaction and subsequent etching with HCl. The GaN-ZnGa2O4 core-shell nanowires exhibit photoluminescence peaks centered at 2.60 and 2.90 eV attributed to the ZnGa2O4 shell, as well as peaks centered at 3.35 and 3.50 eV corresponding to the GaN core. We also demonstrate the synthesis of GaN-ZnGa2O4 heterojunction nanowires by a selective formation process as a simple route toward development of heterojunction nanodevices for optoelectronic applications.

  14. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III

  15. Structure and magnetism of GaMnN nanowires synthesized with nonmagnetic catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zheng; Jamer, Michelle E.; Panaitescu, Eugen; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika, E-mail: l.menon@neu.edu

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Mn-doped GaN nanowires by the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism, wherein Mn-doping was initiated through a nonmagnetic Au catalyst and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Structural and morphological characterization studies using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy confirm the doping of Mn in wurzite GaN nanowires with a concentration of 0.2–3%. The magnetic measurements indicate a combination of room temperature ferromagnetism, plus a paramagnetic component due to antiferromagnetic superexchange. - Highlights: • Mn-doping in GaN nanowires has been shown by incorporation of Mn in Au catalyst. • Up to 3% doping concentration of Mn in GaMnN has been demonstrated. • Magnetic behavior reveals room temperature ferromagnetism combined with paramagnetism.

  16. A two-colour heterojunction unipolar nanowire light-emitting diode by tunnel injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmler, Mariano A.; Bao, Jiming; Shalish, Ilan; Yi, Wei; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Capasso, Federico

    2007-10-01

    We present a systematic study of the current-voltage characteristics and electroluminescence of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire on silicon (Si) substrate heterostructures where both semiconductors are n-type. A novel feature of this device is that by reversing the polarity of the applied voltage the luminescence can be selectively obtained from either the nanowire or the substrate. For one polarity of the applied voltage, ultraviolet (and visible) light is generated in the GaN nanowire, while for the opposite polarity infrared light is emitted from the Si substrate. We propose a model, which explains the key features of the data, based on electron tunnelling from the valence band of one semiconductor into the conduction band of the other semiconductor. For example, for one polarity of the applied voltage, given a sufficient potential energy difference between the two semiconductors, electrons can tunnel from the valence band of GaN into the Si conduction band. This process results in the creation of holes in GaN, which can recombine with conduction band electrons generating GaN band-to-band luminescence. A similar process applies under the opposite polarity for Si light emission. This device structure affords an additional experimental handle to the study of electroluminescence in single nanowires and, furthermore, could be used as a novel approach to two-colour light-emitting devices.

  17. Optical properties of single semiconductor nanowires and nanowire ensembles. Probing surface physics by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfueller, Carsten

    2011-06-27

    This thesis presents a detailed investigation of the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in general and single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles in particular by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. NWs are often considered as potential building blocks for future nanometer-scaled devices. This vision is based on several attractive features that are generally ascribed to NWs. For instance, they are expected to grow virtually free of strain and defects even on substrates with a large structural mismatch. In the first part of the thesis, some of these expectations are examined using semiconductor NWs of different materials. On the basis of the temperature-dependent PL of Au- and selfassisted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell NWs, the influence of foreign catalyst particles on the optical properties of NWs is investigated. For the Au-assisted NWs, we find a thermally activated, nonradiative recombination channel, possibly related to Auatoms incorporated from the catalyst. These results indicate the limited suitability of catalyst-assisted NWs for optoelectronic applications. The effect of the substrate choice is studied by comparing the PL of ZnO NWs grown on Si, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO substrates. Their virtually identical optical characteristics indicate that the synthesis of NWs may indeed overcome the constraints that limit the heteroepitaxial deposition of thin films. The major part of this thesis discusses the optical properties of GaN NWs grown on Si substrates. The investigation of the PL of single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles reveals the significance of their large surface-to-volume ratio. Differences in the recombination behavior of GaNNW ensembles and GaN layers are observed. First, the large surface-to-volume ratio is discussed to be responsible for the different recombination mechanisms apparent in NWs. Second, certain optical features are only found in the PL of GaN NWs, but not in that of GaN layers. An unexpected broadening of the donor

  18. Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Tania; Kim, Kyungkon; Ren, Zaiyuan; Yerino, Christopher; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X

    2007-11-01

    We report the growth of horizontally aligned arrays and networks of GaN nanowires (NWs) as resonant components in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A combination of top-down selective area growth (SAG) and bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis enables flexible fabrication of highly ordered nanowire arrays in situ with no postgrowth dispersion. Mechanical resonance of free-standing nanowires are measured, with quality factors (Q) ranging from 400 to 1000. We obtained a Young's modulus (E) of approximately 338 GPa from an array of NWs with varying diameters and lengths. The measurement allows detection of nanowire motion with a rotating frame and reveals dual fundamental resonant modes in two orthogonal planes. A universal ratio between the resonant frequencies of these two fundamental modes, irrespective of their dimensions, is observed and attributed to an isosceles cross section of GaN NWs.

  19. Near Field Imaging of Gallium Nitride Nanowires for Characterization of Minority Carrier Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    It was made out of germanium and was almost half a meter long [1]. Now, transistors are etched into silicon wafers at the size of a micron [2...and N.A. Sanford, Steady-state and time-resoved photoluminescence from relaxed and strained GaN nanowires grown by catalyst-free molecular-beam...optoelectronic, chemical, and mechanical properties [3]. Nanowires are defined as semiconductor wires with a diameter on the order of nanometers. At

  20. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  1. Atomic Resolution in Situ Imaging of a Double-Bilayer Multistep Growth Mode in Gallium Nitride Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamalski, A D; Tersoff, J; Stach, E A

    2016-04-13

    We study the growth of GaN nanowires from liquid Au-Ga catalysts using environmental transmission electron microscopy. GaN wires grow in either ⟨112̅0⟩ or ⟨11̅00⟩ directions, by the addition of {11̅00} double bilayers via step flow with multiple steps. Step-train growth is not typically seen with liquid catalysts, and we suggest that it results from low step mobility related to the unusual double-height step structure. The results here illustrate the surprising dynamics of catalytic GaN wire growth at the nanoscale and highlight striking differences between the growth of GaN and other III-V semiconductor nanowires.

  2. Observation of surface plasmon polariton pumping of optical eigenmodes of gold-decorated gallium nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Jency Pricilla; Bakharev, Pavel; Niraula, Ishwar; Kengne, Blaise Alexis Fouetio; MacPherson, Quinn; Sargent, Meredith; Hare, Brian; McIlroy, David N

    2012-10-10

    The photocurrent of individual gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles as function of the wavelength of light (405 nm (blue), 532 nm (green), and 632.8 nm (red)) and nanowire diameter (80 to 400 nm) is reported. The photocurrent scales with photon energy but oscillates with nanowire diameter. The oscillations are described in terms of the scattering of surface plasmon polaritons into allowed transverse magnetic electromagnetic modes of the nanowire that have maximum intensities in the undepleted region of the nanowire. These oscillations do not occur below a nanowire diameter of ~200 nm due to the depletion layer formed at the Au-GaN interface, which completely depletes the nanowire, that is, there is an insufficient density of carriers that can be excited into the conduction band. On the basis of estimations of the depletion depth and solutions of the Helmholtz equation, the maxima in the photocurrent for d > 200 nm are assigned to the two lowest azimuthally symmetric transverse magnetic eigenmodes: (m = 0, n = 1) and (m = 0, n = 2), which have maximum electric field intensities within the undepleted region of the GaN nanowire. The outcome of this work could have far reaching implications on the development of nanophotonics.

  3. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  4. Microstructure and micro-Raman studies of nitridation and structure transition of gallium oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, J.Q. [Department of Physics and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xu, S.J., E-mail: sjxu@hku.hk [Department of Physics and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Wang, P.W.; Song, Y.P.; Yu, D.P. [Electronic Microscopy Laboratory and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, Hong Kong (China); Shan, Y.Y.; Lee, S.T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-11-15

    Here we present a detailed study on nitridation and structure transition in monoclinic gallium oxide ({beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires grown on Si substrates with chemical vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires were systematically nitridated at different temperatures. Their morphologies and microstructures were precisely characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found that heat treatment of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires in the gas of ammonia results in rich substructures including the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, the crystalline GaN phase, and other meta structures. The identification of these structures helps to understand some interesting phenomena observed in nanostructures, such as the microstructural origin of the unknown Raman lines in GaN nanowires. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitridation and structure transition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly depend on temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-N bonds form at lower temperatures but the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice is still dominant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous GaN coexists with crystalline Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at higher temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline GaN with distinct morphology is obtained at much higher temperatures.

  5. Fabrication and optical property of silicon oxide layer coated semiconductor gallium nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lide; Jiang, Feihong; Yang, Yongdong; Li, Jianping

    2005-01-13

    Quasi one-dimensional GaN-SiO(2) nanostructures, with a silicon oxide layer coated on semiconductor GaN nanowires, were successfully synthesized through as-synthesized SiO(2) nanoparticles-assisted reaction. The experimental results indicate that the nanostructure consists of single-crystalline wurtzite GaN nanowire core, an amorphous SiO(2) outer shell separated in the radial direction. These quasi one-dimensional nanowires have the diameters of a few tens of nanometers and lengths up to several hundreds of micrometers. The photoluminescence spectrum of the GaN-SiO(2) nanostructures consists of one broad blue-light emission peak at 480 nm and another weak UV emission peak at 345 nm. The novel method, which may results in high yield and high reproducibility, is demonstrated to be a unique technique for producing nanostructures with controlled morphology.

  6. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenshan Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  7. Fabrication and electrical characterization of homo- and hetero-structure Si/SiGe nanowire Tunnel Field Effect Transistor grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzet, V.; Salem, B.; Periwal, P.; Alcotte, R.; Chouchane, F.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and electrical characterization of Ω -gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (TFET) based on p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure nanowires grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The electrical performances of the p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure TFET device are presented and compared to Si and Si0.7Ge0.3 homostructure nanowire TFETs. We observe an improvement of the electrical performances of TFET with p-Si/i-Si/n+Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructure nanowire (HT NW). The optimized devices present an Ion current of about 245 nA at VDS = -0.5 V and VGS = -3 V with a subthreshold swing around 135 mV/dec. Finally, we show that the electrical results are in good agreement with numerical simulation using Kane's Band-to-Band Tunneling model.

  8. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong

    2004-08-01

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  9. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R.J.

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  10. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhihuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in “volumetric modes,”which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry–Perot (FP, and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width, tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal, core–shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption and downward transitions (emission of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this “rate management” scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  11. Characteristics of AlN/GaN nanowire Bragg mirror grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Heo, Junseok

    2013-10-01

    GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A peak reflectance of 70% with normal incidence at 560 nm is derived from angle resolved reflectance measurements on the as-grown nanowire DBR array. The measured peak reflectance wavelength is significantly blue-shifted from the ideal calculated value. The discrepancy is explained by investigating the reflectance of the nanoscale DBRs with a finite difference time domain technique. Ensemble nanowire microcavities with In0.3Ga 0.7N nanowires clad by AlN/GaN DBRs have also been characterized. Room temperature emission from the microcavity exhibits considerable linewidth narrowing compared to that measured for unclad In0.3Ga0.7N nanowires. The resonant emission is characterized by a peak wavelength and linewidth of 575 nm and 39 nm, respectively. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Anelasticity of GaN Epitaxial Layer in GaN LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C. C.; Yang, C. T.; Liu, C. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the anelasticity of the GaN layer in the GaN light-emitting-diode device was studied. The present results show that the forward-voltage of GaN LED increases with time, as the GaN light-emitting-diode was maintained at a constant temperature of 100 °C. We found that the increase of the forward-voltage with time attributes to the delay-response of the piezoelectric fields (internal electrical fields in GaN LED device). And, the delay-response of the internal electrical fields with time is caused by the anelasticity (time-dependent strain) of the GaN layer. Therefore, using the correlation of strain-piezoelectric-forward voltage, a plot of thermal strain of the GaN layer against time can be obtained by measuring the forward-voltage of the studied GaN LED against time. With the curves of the thermal strain of GaN epi-layers versus time, the anelasticity of the GaN compound can be studied. The key anelasticity parameter, characteristic relaxation time, of the GaN is defined to be 2623.76 min in this work.

  13. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  14. Nanowire-based detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  15. First-principles studies on structural and electronic properties of GaN-AlN heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Yafei; Tang, Qing; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Zhen

    2012-02-21

    The structural and electronic properties of core-shell, eutectic, biaxial and superlattice GaN-AlN nanowires were studied through density functional theory computations. Due to more surface dangling bonds, nanowires with smaller diameters are energetically unfavorable. For the GaN-AlN heterostructure nanowires, their electronic properties highly depend on the GaN content, axial strain, configuration, and size. The valence bands are less affected by the GaN content, while the conduction bands depend on it. Hydrogen-passivated nanowires have much larger band gaps than their counterparts, since the surface states are removed by saturating the dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms. Moreover, due to multiple quantum-well structures, the confined electrons (holes) of superlattice nanowires become more localized and the difference of the mobility between the electron and hole becomes less apparent if the width of the barrier is larger. These findings are of value for better understanding heterostructure nanowires and their potential utilization. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Nanowires for Electronic, Photonic and Sensing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    vapor deposition ( CVD ) using gold thin films as catalyst on a Si wafer with an insulating SiO2 layer. The structural characterization of the as-grown...advantages in improved carrier confinement over their thin film counterparts. The bandgap of the ZnO may be increased by addition of Mg. Results: We...variety of wide bandgap nanowires using GaN and ZnO and made functional devices from them for sensing,electronics and photonics.These included a very

  17. Quantum transport in GaN/AlN double-barrier heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songmuang, R; Katsaros, G; Monroy, E; Spathis, P; Bougerol, C; Mongillo, M; De Franceschi, S

    2010-09-08

    We investigate electronic transport in n-i-n GaN nanowires with and without AlN double barriers. The nanowires are grown by catalyst-free, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy enabling abrupt GaN/AlN interfaces as well as longitudinal n-type doping modulation. At low temperature, transport in n-i-n GaN nanowires is dominated by the Coulomb blockade effect. Carriers are confined in the undoped middle region, forming single or multiple islands with a characteristic length of approximately 100 nm. The incorporation of two AlN tunnel barriers causes confinement to occur within the GaN dot in between. In the case of a 6 nm thick dot and 2 nm thick barriers, we observe characteristic signatures of Coulomb-blockaded transport in single quantum dots with discrete energy states. For thinner dots and barriers, Coulomb-blockade effects do not play a significant role while the onset of resonant tunneling via the confined quantum levels is accompanied by a negative differential resistance surviving up to approximately 150 K.

  18. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  19. Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. H.; Fini, P.; Tarsa, E. J.; Heying, B.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

    1998-06-01

    In this work, we study the microstructural evolution, with particular emphasis on threading dislocation (TD) generation, in the two-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of GaN on sapphire. The MOCVD growths were carried out at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal two-flow reactor. Nominally, 200 Å thick nucleation layers (NL) were deposited at temperatures in the range 525-600°C followed by high temperature (HT) growth at 1060-1080°C. Throughout the different stages of growth, the microstructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two growth conditions were closely studied: brief pre-growth ammonia exposure of the sapphire (`Material A') and extensive pre-growth ammonia exposure of the sapphire (`Material B'). The as-grown Material B NL has a ˜25 Å hexagonal GaN wetting layer followed by predominantly (1 1 1) oriented cubic GaN. After HT exposure, Material B NL predominantly transforms to hexagonal GaN and has TDs. These TDs propagate into the HT GaN and lead to a TD density of 2×10 10 after 1 μm of HT growth. Material A NLs, before and after HT exposure, have rough morphologies and a high-degree-of-stacking disorder (predominantly (1 1 1) oriented cubic GaN). On Material A NLs, The HT GaN grows by a coarse island mechanism in which the GaN laterally overgrows the NL without generating TDs. Stacking disorder and misorientation between the HT hexagonal GaN and the NL islands is accommodated either by Shockley or Frank partial dislocations or local strain. The majority of TDs are subsequently generated at the coalescence of the HT islands.

  20. Investigation of the electronic transport in polarization-induced nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcu, Camelia; Carnevale, Santino C.; Kent, Thomas F.; Akyol, Fatih; Phillips, Patrick J.; Mills, Michael J.; Rajan, Siddharth; Pelz, Jonathan P.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2013-03-01

    In the search to improve short wavelength light emitting diodes (LED's), where the dislocations limit their performance and hole doping (Mg) is a fundamental challenge, the III-Nitride polarization-induced nanowire LED provides a promising system to address these problems. The new type of pn diode, polarization-induced nanowire LED (PINLED), was developed by linearly grading AlGaN composition of the nanowires (from GaN to AlN and back to GaN) from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al (Carnevale et al, Nano Lett., 12, 915 (2012)). In III-Nitrides (Ga,Al/N), the effects of polarization are commonly observed at the surfaces and interfaces. Thus, in the case of the polarization-induced nanowire LEDs, taking advantage of the bound polarization charge, due to the grading of the AlGaN, the pn diodes are formed. The polarity of the nanowires determines the carrier type in each graded region, and therefore the diode orientation (n/p vs p/n). We used conductive AFM to investigate polarity of the PINLED's as well as hole conductivity in PINLED's made of AlGaN with and without acceptor doping. The results reveal that most of the wires are n-top/p-bottom (N-face), but some are p-top/n-bottom (Ga-face). Also, we found that the current density is 3 orders of magnitude larger in the case of the doped nanowires than the nanowires with no impurity doping.

  1. Synthesis and influence of annealing atmosphere on the luminescence properties of ZnGa2O4 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; An, Soyeon; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Chongmu

    2013-12-01

    ZnGa2O4 nanowires were synthesized on Si substrates by using the thermal evaporation of a mixture of Zn and GaN powders. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the diameters and the lengths of the nanowires ranged from a few tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and up to a few hundreds of micrometers, respectively. The ZnGa2O4 nanowires were found to have a face-centered cubic-structured monocrystalline phase. The photoluminescence properties of the ZnGa2O4 nanowires appeared to depend strongly on the annealing atmosphere. The ZnGa2O4 nanowires annealed in a hydrogen atmosphere showed a relatively weak broad visible emission band, ranging from 500 to 700 nm. In contrast, the ZnGa2O4 nanowires annealed in an oxygen atmosphere showed a relatively strong near-ultraviolet emission band centered at approximately 380 nm. On the other hand, the ZnGa2O4 nanowires annealed in an argon atmosphere showed a sharp, taller ultraviolet emission peak centered at approximately 380 nm, as well as a broad green emission band centered at approximately 510 nm. The origins of the enhanced luminescence in ZnGa2O4 nanowires due to annealing in different atmospheres are discussed.

  2. InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    High density (? 1011 cm-2) GaN nanowires and InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires exhibit excellent uniformity in length and diameter and a broad emission is obtained by incorporating InGaN disks of varying composition along the length of the nanowires. Monolithic lighting emitting diodes were fabricated with appropriate n- and p-doping of contact layers. White light emission with chromaticity coordinates of x=0.29 and y=0.37 and a correlated color temperature of 5500-6500 K at an injection current of 50 A/ cm2 is measured. The measured external quantum efficiency of the devices do not exhibit any rollover (droop) up to an injection current density of 400 A/ cm2. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Giant piezoelectric size effects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride nanowires. A first principles investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ravi; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2011-02-09

    Nanowires made of materials with noncentrosymmetric crystal structure are under investigation for their piezoelectric properties and suitability as building blocks for next-generation self-powered nanodevices. In this work, we investigate the size dependence of piezoelectric coefficients in nanowires of two such materials - zinc oxide and gallium nitride. Nanowires, oriented along their polar axis, ranging from 0.6 to 2.4 nm in diameter were modeled quantum mechanically. A giant piezoelectric size effect is identified for both GaN and ZnO nanowires. However, GaN exhibits a larger and more extended size dependence than ZnO. The observed size effect is discussed in the context of charge redistribution near the free surfaces leading to changes in local polarization. The study reveals that local changes in polarization and reduction of unit cell volume with respect to bulk values lead to the observed size effect. These results have strong implication in the field of energy harvesting, as piezoelectric voltage output scales with the piezoelectric coefficient.

  4. Advances in nanowire bioelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Lieber, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires represent powerful building blocks for next generation bioelectronics given their attractive properties, including nanometer-scale footprint comparable to subcellular structures and bio-molecules, configurable in nonstandard device geometries readily interfaced with biological systems, high surface-to-volume ratios, fast signal responses, and minimum consumption of energy. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the field of nanowire bioelectronics with a focus primarily on silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors. First, the synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires will be described, including the basics of nanowire FETs crucial to their configuration as biosensors. Second, we will introduce and review recent results in nanowire bioelectronics for biomedical applications ranging from label-free sensing of biomolecules, to extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording.

  5. First-principles calculations of GaN:Gd nanowires: Carbon-dopants-induced room-temperature ferromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruikuan Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available First-principle calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic interaction of C-Gd co-doped GaN nanowires have been performed. The room-temperature ferromagnetism in GaN:Gd nanowires is observed after the substitution of N atoms by C atoms. A p-d coupling is considered as the reason of the observed ferromagnetism. The striking feature is that such coupling is effected greatly by the position where the C atoms dope in. As the C-Gd distance increases this coupling decreases and the system won’t gain enough energy to stabilize the ferromagnetism.

  6. 1.55 µm emission from a single III-nitride top-down and site-controlled nanowire quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiming; Yan, Changling; Qu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    InN/InGaN single quantum well (SQW) was fabricated on 100 nm GaN buffer layer which was deposited on GaN template by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The In composition and the surface morphology were measured by x-ray diffusion (XRD) and atom force microscope (AFM), respectively. Afterwards, the sample was fabricated into site-controlled nanowires arrays by hot-embossing nano-imprint lithography (HE-NIL) and ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The nanowires were uniform along the c-axis and aligned periodically as presented by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The single nanowire showed disk-in-a-wire structure by high angle annular dark field (HAADF) and an In-rich or Ga deficient region was observed by energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDXS). The optical properties of the SQW film and single nanowire were measured using micro photoluminescence (µ-PL) spectroscopy. The stimulating light wavelength was 632.8 nm which was emitted from a He-Ne laser and the detector was a liquid nitrogen cooled InGaAs detector. A blue peak shift from the film material to the nanowire was observed. This was due to the quantum confinement Stark Effect. More importantly, the 1.55 µm emission was given from the single disk-in-a-wire structure at room temperature. We believe the arrays of such nanowires may be useful for quantum communication in the future.

  7. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  8. Metallic nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  9. Extreme Band Engineering of III-Nitride Nanowire Heterostructures for Electronic and Photonic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, ATM Golam

    Bottom-up nanowires are attractive for realizing semiconductor devices with extreme heterostructures because strain relaxation through the nanowire sidewalls allows the combination of highly lattice mismatched materials without creating dislocations. The resulting nanowires are used to fabricate light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, solar cells, and sensors. The aim of this work is to investigate extreme heterostructures, which are impossible or very hard to realize in conventional planar films, exploiting the strain accommodation property of nanowires and engineer their band structure for novel electronic and photonic applications. To this end, in this thesis, III-Nitride semiconductor nanowires are investigated. In the first part of this work, a complete growth phase diagram of InN nanowires on silicon using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy is developed, and structural and optical characteristics are mapped as a function of growth parameters. Next, a novel up-side down pendeoepitaxial growth of InN forming mushroom-like microstructures is demonstrated and detail structural and optical characterizations are performed. Based on this, a method to grow strain-free large area single crystalline InN or thin film is proposed and the growth of InN on patterned GaN is investigated. The optimized growth conditions developed for InN are further used to grow InGaN nanowires graded over the whole composition range. Numerical energy band simulation is performed to better understand the effect of polarization charge on photo-carrier transport in these extremely graded nanowires. A novel photodetector device with negative differential photocurrent is demonstrated using the graded InGaN nanowires. In the second part of this thesis, polarization-induced nanowire light emitting diodes (PINLEDs) are investigated. The electrical and optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure are engineered and optimized for ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet applications. The electrical

  10. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    the small footprint of grown nanowires relaxes the crystal matching constraint. 1.7eV is the ideal bandgap for a top junction in a dual junction solar cell, where silicon is the bottom junction. This can be obtained with GaAs0.8P0.2. We have demonstrated how to incorporate phosphorous(P) into Ga......-catalyzed nanowire growth, and grown GaAs1−xPx nanowires with different inclusions of P(x) directly on silicon. The incorporation of P was generally higher in nanowires than for planar growth at identical P flux percentage. More interestingly, the percentage of P in the nanowire was found to be a concave function...

  11. Catalyst-free III-nitride Nanowires by Plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D.

    In the past twenty years, III-nitride devices have had an enormous impact on semiconductor-based technologies. This impact is seen in both optoelectronic and electronic devices. The aim of this dissertation is to take advantage of III-nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to form heterostructures that are difficult or impossible to achieve in traditional, thin films. To do this, it is first necessary to establish the growth phase diagrams that correlate the characteristics of GaN nanowires to MBE growth conditions. By using the information in these growth maps we can control growth kinetics and the resulting nanowire structures by making strategic, timely changes to growth conditions. Using this control electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride nanowire devices are created. First, coaxially-oriented AlN/GaN nanowire resonant tunneling diodes are formed on Si substrates. Second, polarization-induced nanowire light emitting diodes (PINLEDs) are fabricated that exhibit electroluminescence at wavelengths from the deep UV into the visible. Because these PINLEDs utilize polarization doping, they can be formed with and without the use of dopants. Device and structural characterization are provided, including a detailed investigation of the mixed material polarity in these nanowires. Finally, the dissertation closes with a discussion of recent work and future ideas for optimizing the PINLED design.

  12. Theoretical study of gallium nitride molecules, GaN2 and GaN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D

    2008-09-18

    The electronic and geometric structures of gallium dinitride GaN 2, and gallium tetranitride molecules, GaN 4, were systematically studied by employing density functional theory and perturbation theory (MP2, MP4) in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. In addition, for the ground-state of GaN 4( (2)B 1) a density functional theory study was carried out combining different functionals with different basis sets. A total of 7 minima have been identified for GaN 2, while 37 structures were identified for GaN 4 corresponding to minima, transition states, and saddle points. We report geometries and dissociation energies for all the above structures as well as potential energy profiles, potential energy surfaces and bonding mechanisms for some low-lying electronic states of GaN 4. The dissociation energy of the ground-state GaN 2 ( X (2)Pi) is 1.1 kcal/mol with respect to Ga( (2)P) + N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)). The ground-state and the first two excited minima of GaN 4 are of (2)B 1( C 2 v ), (2)A 1( C 2 v , five member ring), and (4)Sigma g (-)( D infinityh ) symmetry, respectively. The dissociation energy ( D e) of the ground-state of GaN 4, X (2)B 1, with respect to Ga( (2)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)), is 2.4 kcal/mol, whereas the D e of (4)Sigma g (-) with respect to Ga( (4)P) + 2 N 2( X (1)Sigma g (+)) is 17.6 kcal/mol.

  13. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, B.; Vennegues, P.; Gibart, P. [CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne (France). CRHEA

    2001-09-01

    Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal available, the whole technological development of GaN based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Numerous defects are generated in the heteroepitaxy of GaN on sapphire or 6H-SiC, mainly threading dislocations (TDs). Three types of TDs are currently observed, a type (with Burgers vector 1/3 left angle 11 anti 20 right angle); c type (with left angle 0001 right angle) and mixed a + c (1/3 left angle 11 anti 23 right angle). The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technology produces high quality GaN with TD densities in the mid 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}, linewidth of the low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) near-bandgap recombination peaks <1 meV and deep electron traps reduced below 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} (compared to mid 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} in standard GaN). Numerous modifications of the ELO process have been proposed in order either to avoid technological steps (mask-less ELO) or to improve it (pendeo-epitaxy). Basically developed on either sapphire or 6H-SiC, the ELO technology is also achievable on (111)Si or (111)3C-SiC/Si provided that an appropriate buffer layer is grown to avoid cracks. More sophisticated technologies have been implemented to further increase the useable part of the ELO GaN surface (two technological steps, three-step ELO). Unfortunately, in-depth understanding of the basic ELO process is still missing, i.e. of the growth anisotropy and bending of dislocations. (orig.)

  14. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... of the percentage of P in the flux, while for planar growth it was a convex function. We have demonstrated GaAs0.8P0.2 nanowires and further grown a shell surrounding the core with the same composition. The lattice matched GaAsP core-shell nanowire were doped to produce radial p-i-n junctions in each...... of the nanowires, some of which were removed from their growth substrate and turned into single nanowire solar cells (SNWSC). The best device showed a conversion efficiency of 6.8% under 1.5AMG 1-sun illumination. In order to improve the efficiency a surface passivating shell consisting of highly doped, wide...

  15. Nanowire-based thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar; Chen, Yixi; Vasiraju, Venkata; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2017-07-01

    Research on thermoelectrics has seen a huge resurgence since the early 1990s. The ability of tuning a material’s electrical and thermal transport behavior upon nanostructuring has led to this revival. Nevertheless, thermoelectric performances of nanowires and related materials lag far behind those achieved with thin-film superlattices and quantum dot-based materials. This is despite the fact that nanowires offer many distinct advantages in enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials. The simplicity of the strategy is the first and foremost advantage. For example, control of the nanowire diameters and their surface roughnesses will aid in enhancing their thermoelectric performances. Another major advantage is the possibility of obtaining high thermoelectric performances using simpler nanowire chemistries (e.g., elemental and binary compound semiconductors), paving the way for the fabrication of thermoelectric modules inexpensively from non-toxic elements. In this context, the topical review provides an overview of the current state of nanowire-based thermoelectrics. It concludes with a discussion of the future vision of nanowire-based thermoelectrics, including the need for developing strategies aimed at the mass production of nanowires and their interface-engineered assembly into devices. This eliminates the need for trial-and-error strategies and complex chemistries for enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials.

  16. Stress distribution of GaN layer grown on micro-pillar patterned GaN templates

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, S; Svensk, O.; Ali, M.; G. Naresh-Kumar; Trager-Cowan, C.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution Raman mapping of the stress distribution in an etched GaN micro-pillar template and a 5 μm thick GaN layer grown on a micro-pillar patterned GaN template is investigated. Raman mapping of the E2 (high) phonon shows differences in stress between the coalescing boundary, the top surface of the pillar region and around the GaN micro-pillar. Increased compressive stress is observed at the coalescing boundary of two adjacent GaN micro-pillars, when compared to the laterally grown G...

  17. Excitonic effects in ZnO nanowires and hollow nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Lozovik, Y. E.; Zhao, Q. X.; Nur, O.; Hu, Q.-H.; Klason, P.

    2007-02-01

    Energy levels and wave functions of ground and excited states of an exciton are calculated by the method of imaginary time. Energy levels as functions of radius of single and double wall nanotube are studied. Asymptotic behavior of energy levels at large and small values of the radius using perturbation theory and adiabatic approximation is considered. Spatially indirect exciton in semiconductor nanowire is also investigated. Experimental result from high quality reproducible ZnO nanowires grown by low temperature chemical engineering is presented. State of the art high brightness white light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) are demonstrated from the grown ZnO nano-wires. The color temperature and color rendering index (CRI) of the HB-LEDs values was found to be (3250 K, 82), and (14000 K, 93), for the best LEDs, which means that the quality of light is superior to one obtained from GaN LEDs available on the market today. The role of V Zn and V ° on the emission responsible for the white light band as well as the peak position of this important wide band is thoroughly investigated in a systematic way.

  18. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Barrier height of Pt–In[sub x]Ga[sub 1−x]N (0≤x≤0.5) nanowire Schottky diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The barrier height of Schottky diodes made on Inx Ga 1-x N nanowires have been determined from capacitance-voltage measurements. The nanowires were grown undoped on n-type (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The length, diameter and density of the nanowires are ∼1 μm, 20 nm, and 1× 1011 cm-2. The Schottky contact was made on the top surface of the nanowires with Pt after planarizing with parylene. The measured barrier height B varies from 1.4 eV (GaN) to 0.44 eV (In0.5 Ga0.5 N) and agrees well with the ideal barrier heights in the Schottky limit. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Use of the Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition to Fabricate Light-Emitting Diodes Based on ZnO Nanowire/p-GaN Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and characteristics of grown ZnO nanowire/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes are reported. Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on a p-GaN substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition in quartz tube. The rectifying current-voltage characteristics indicate that a p-n junction was formed with a heterostructure of n-ZnO nanowire/p-GaN. The room temperature electroluminescent emission peak at 425 nm was attributed to the band offset at the interface between the n-ZnO nanowire and p-GaN and to defect-related emission from GaN; it was also found that the there exist the yellow band in the hetrojunction. It would be attributed to the deep defect level in the heterojunction.

  1. Comprehensive analyses of core–shell InGaN/GaN single nanowire photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Guan, N.; Piazza, V.; Kapoor, A.; Bougerol, C.; Julien, F. H.; Babichev, A. V.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.; Michelini, F.; Foldyna, M.; Gautier, E.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Tchernycheva, M.

    2017-12-01

    Single nitride nanowire core/shell n-p photodetectors are fabricated and analyzed. Nanowires consisting of an n-doped GaN stem, a radial InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well system and a p-doped GaN external shell were grown by catalyst-free metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Single nanowires were dispersed and the core and the shell regions were contacted with a metal and an ITO deposition, respectively, defined using electron beam lithography. The single wire photodiodes present a response in the visible to UV spectral range under zero external bias. The detector operation speed has been analyzed under different bias conditions. Under zero bias, the  ‑3 dB cut-off frequency is ~200 Hz for small light modulations. The current generation was modeled using non-equilibrium Green function formalism, which evidenced the importance of phonon scattering for carrier extraction from the quantum wells.

  2. Gallium Nitride Nanowires and Heterostructures: Toward Color-Tunable and White-Light Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye R; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Aloni, Shaul

    2015-10-14

    Gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes have enabled the commercialization of efficient solid-state lighting devices. Nonplanar nanomaterial architectures, such as nanowires and nanowire-based heterostructures, have the potential to significantly improve the performance of light-emitting devices through defect reduction, strain relaxation, and increased junction area. In addition, relaxation of internal strain caused by indium incorporation will facilitate pushing the emission wavelength into the red. This could eliminate inefficient phosphor conversion and enable color-tunable emission or white-light emission by combining blue, green, and red sources. Utilizing the waveguiding modes of the individual nanowires will further enhance light emission, and the properties of photonic structures formed by nanowire arrays can be implemented to improve light extraction. Recent advances in synthetic methods leading to better control over GaN and InGaN nanowire synthesis are described along with new concept devices leading to efficient white-light emission. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Growth and characterisation of GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes mainly the studies on growth mechanism of GaN in UHV-MOVPE process, and structural and optical properties of As-doped GaN films grown by PA-MBE. In a novel Thomas Swan growth chamber, we have grown GaN films on Si substrates using TEGa, plasma nitrogen and ammonia. Using a combination of in-situ optical reflectivity and mass spectrometry, we have investigated the parameters controlling the growth process of UHV-MOVPE. In particular we have used sup 1 sup 5 N in order to distinguish gas phase species containing N from those associated purely with metal-organics. We found the surface pyrolysis of TEGa is the rate limiting step, which is similar to GaAs grown by CBE. We also identify the parasitic reactions costing the active nitrogen from plasma, which in turn limits the growth rate. Using Philips X' pert MRD, we have investigated the structural properties of As-doped GaN epitaxial films on sapphire grown by PA-MBE including phase, lattice parameters and mosacity. We have also studied the ...

  4. European Frontiers in RF GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, F.E. van; Hek, P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this overview paper, a summary of the European academic and industrial status on RF GaN is given. The roles of EDA and ESA are highlighted, and examples of on-going research activities are presented. A set of HPAs over frequency, representative of today's European status, is discussed. © 2015

  5. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  6. Ballistic Majorana nanowire devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gül, Önder

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation reports a series of electron transport experiments on semiconductor nanowires towards realizing the hypothesized topological quantum computation. A topological quantum computer manipulates information that is stored nonlocally in the topology of a physical system. Such an operation

  7. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  8. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111 substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W/silicon dioxide (SiO2 forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33 for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF2 etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.

  9. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  10. Cleaved-Coupled Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    fabricated with micrometer -scale gaps (26, 27). This Fig. 1. Single-frequency lasing in 9-μm (4:3) cleaved-coupled nanowires. (A) SEM images showing the...modulation of modes observed in cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers can be predicted using transfer matrix methods. Although the Vernier effect provides an...Following the Vernier effect, coupled nanowires with integer ratios would produce the free spectral range of the shorter nanowire. The lasing spectra

  11. Mg doping affects dislocation core structures in GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, S K; Horton, M K; Kappers, M J; Zhang, S; Humphreys, C J; Dusane, R O; Sahonta, S -L; Moram, M A

    2013-07-12

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the core structures of threading dislocations in undoped GaN films with both high and low dislocation densities, and in a comparable high dislocation density Mg-doped GaN film. All a-type dislocations in all samples have a 5/7-atom core structure. In contrast, most (a+c)-type dislocations in undoped GaN dissociate due to local strain variations from nearby dislocations. In contrast, Mg doping prevents (a+c)-type dislocation dissociation. Our data indicate that Mg affects dislocation cores in GaN significantly.

  12. Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2016-05-24

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.

  13. The Mechanical Properties of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Shan, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Applications of nanowires into future generation nanodevices require a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the nanowires. A great research effort has been made in the past two decades to understand the deformation physics and mechanical behaviors of nanowires, and to interpret the discrepancies between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. This review focused on the characterization and understanding of the mechanical properties of nanowires, including elasticity, plasticity, anelasticity and strength. As the results from the previous literature in this area appear inconsistent, a critical evaluation of the characterization techniques and methodologies were presented. In particular, the size effects of nanowires on the mechanical properties and their deformation mechanisms were discussed. PMID:28435775

  14. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Rita, E; Soares, JC

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. We give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As$\\scriptstyle_{Ga}\\,$ " anti-sites ” are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called “ miscibility gap ” in ternary GaAs$\\scriptstyle_{1-x}$N$\\scriptstyle_{x}$ compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of $x$ in the range 0.1<${x}$< 0.99.

  15. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  16. Piezoresistive boron doped diamond nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Wang, Xinpeng

    2017-07-04

    A UNCD nanowire comprises a first end electrically coupled to a first contact pad which is disposed on a substrate. A second end is electrically coupled to a second contact pad also disposed on the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is doped with a dopant and disposed over the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is movable between a first configuration in which no force is exerted on the UNCD nanowire and a second configuration in which the UNCD nanowire bends about the first end and the second end in response to a force. The UNCD nanowire has a first resistance in the first configuration and a second resistance in the second configuration which is different from the first resistance. The UNCD nanowire is structured to have a gauge factor of at least about 70, for example, in the range of about 70 to about 1,800.

  17. Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Robert; Liang, Zhiwen; Wildeson, Isaac H; Ewoldt, David A; Sands, Timothy D; García, R Edwin; Stach, Eric A

    2010-05-12

    Dislocation filtering in GaN by selective area growth through a nanoporous template is examined both by transmission electron microscopy and numerical modeling. These nanorods grow epitaxially from the (0001)-oriented GaN underlayer through the approximately 100 nm thick template and naturally terminate with hexagonal pyramid-shaped caps. It is demonstrated that for a certain window of geometric parameters a threading dislocation growing within a GaN nanorod is likely to be excluded by the strong image forces of the nearby free surfaces. Approximately 3000 nanorods were examined in cross-section, including growth through 50 and 80 nm diameter pores. The very few threading dislocations not filtered by the template turn toward a free surface within the nanorod, exiting less than 50 nm past the base of the template. The potential active region for light-emitting diode devices based on these nanorods would have been entirely free of threading dislocations for all samples examined. A greater than 2 orders of magnitude reduction in threading dislocation density can be surmised from a data set of this size. A finite element-based implementation of the eigenstrain model was employed to corroborate the experimentally observed data and examine a larger range of potential nanorod geometries, providing a simple map of the different regimes of dislocation filtering for this class of GaN nanorods. These results indicate that nanostructured semiconductor materials are effective at eliminating deleterious extended defects, as necessary to enhance the optoelectronic performance and device lifetimes compared to conventional planar heterostructures.

  18. Growth and electronic properties of GaN/ZnO solid solution nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Nam, Chang-Yong; Black, C. T.; Mendez, E. E.

    2010-08-01

    We have grown single-crystal (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) solid-solution nanowires using nanostructured ZnGa2O4 precursor prepared by a sol-gel method. From electrical transport measurements in individual nanowire field-effect transistors, we have identified the conduction as n-type and obtained a background carrier density (˜1019 cm-3) and an electron mobility (˜1 cm2/V s) that are consistent with chemical disorder and a large number of charge traps, as confirmed by the devices' photocurrent response. From the dependence of the device photoresponse on incident light wavelength, we have determined the energy band gap of (Ga0.88Zn0.12)(N0.88O0.12) to be as much as ˜0.6 eV lower than that of GaN or ZnO.

  19. Quantum Dot-Like Behavior of Compositional Fluctuations in AlGaN Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloeil, M; Gayral, B; Daudin, B

    2016-02-10

    We report on the structural and optical properties of AlxGa(1-x)N nanowire sections grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN nanowire bases used as a template. Based on a combination of scanning electron microscopy, microphotoluminescence, time-resolved microphotoluminescence, and photon correlation experiments, it is shown that compositional fluctuations in AlxGa(1-x)N sections associated with carrier localization optically behave as quantum dots. Moreover, most of the micro-optical properties of such fluctuations are demonstrated to be very little dependent on kinetic growth parameters such as AlxGa(1-x)N growth temperature and AlN molar fraction in the alloy, which govern the macrostructural properties of AlxGa(1-x)N sections.

  20. Photoemission From Activated GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Machuca, Francisco; Pianetta, Piero; Spicer, William E.; Pease, R. F. W.

    2004-03-01

    The energy distribution curves (EDCs) of photoelectrons emitted from the GaN(0001) and GaAs (100) surfaces are investigated. This experiment is performed at room temperature under HeCd laser excitation for GaN and HeNe laser excitation for GaAs. All samples are p-type doped and activated to negative electron affinity (NEA) in ultra high vacuum. We find that the main contribution to the total emitted current is due to the electrons which are thermalized in the bulk Γ minima and have lost an average energy of 310meV and 140meV, respectively, in the band-bending region (BBR). We propose the origin of the energy loss as the electrons exit the solid is due to inter-valley phonon scattering in the band-bending region (scattering of Γ electrons into the L-M valleys for GaN and L valley for GaAs).

  1. Occurrence of cubic GaN and strain relaxation in GaN buffer layers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lisen; Zhou, Kuan; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Guoyi; Yang, Zhijian; Tong, Yuzhen

    1999-02-01

    Investigations on GaN buffer layers grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates indicated that the mechanisms by way of which GaN buffer layers relax stresses introduced by the lattice mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient difference between GaN epilayer and sapphire substrate are related to both the crystallographic structure of GaN and thickness of the buffer layers. Beside forming misfit dislocations, mismatch-induced stresses can also be relaxed by forming stacking faults and microtwin boundaries parallel to (11-1) of GaN near the interface between GaN and sapphire substrate in cubic GaN buffer layers. It was found that, in cubic GaN buffer layers, there exists a critical thickness within which the stacking faults and/or microtwin boundaries parallel to (11-1) of GaN can be formed. This critical value is determined to be 50 nm.

  2. P-type doping of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raechelle Kimberly [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C. The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover.

  3. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    conditions already expose substantial changes in sample morphology within hours. Clusters show Ostwald ripening, whereas nanowires reveal strong faceting and even fragmentation. All these aging effects are ascribed to the influence of water vapor. Decay curves (cluster number vs. time) for clusters...

  4. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the use of electrodeposition and of various nanoporous templates for the fabrication of metallic nanowires made from single metals (Ni, Co, Pb, Sn), alloys (NiFe, CoFe, CoPt), and multilayers (Co/Cu, NiFe/Cu). An overview is given of our recent studies performed on both...... discussed....

  5. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, B. S.; Singh, A.; Tanwar, S.; Tyagi, P. K.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  6. Endface reflectivities of optical nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Hu, Zhifang; Yu, Huakang; Fang, Wei; Qiu, Min; Tong, Limin

    2009-06-22

    Endface reflectivities (ERs) of optical nanowires are investigated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. Typical ERs of both free-standing and substrate-supported silica, tellurite, PMMA and semiconductor nanowires or nanofibers are obtained. Unlike in conventional waveguides such as optical fibers, ERs of nanowires are usually considerably lower when operated in single mode. Dependences of ER on the diameter and the refractive index of the nanowire, and the wavelength of the guided light are also investigated. These results are helpful for estimating and understanding ERs in optical nanowires with diameters close to or smaller than the wavelengths of the light, and may offer valuable references for practical applications such as nanowire or nanofiber-based resonators and lasers.

  7. Optical Spectroscopy of Single Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Trägårdh, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes optical spectroscopy on III-V semiconductor nanowires. The nanowires were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy are used as tools to investigate issues such as the size of the band gap, the effects of surface states, and the charge carrier transport in core-shell nanowires. The band gap of InAs1-xPx nanowires with wurtzite crystal structure is measured as a function of ...

  8. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  9. The formation of hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN-nanowire observed in plasma source molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2014-03-08

    We report on the properties and growth kinetics of defect-free, photoluminescence (PL) efficient mushroom-like nanowires (MNWs) in the form of ~30nm thick hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN nanowires, coexisting with the conventional rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) on (111)-silicon-substrate. When characterized using confocal microscopy (CFM) with 458nm laser excitation, while measuring spontaneous-emission at fixed detection wavelengths, the spatial intensity map evolved from having uniform pixelated emission, to having only an emission ring, and then a round emission spot. This corresponds to the PL emission with increasing indium composition; starting from emission mainly from the RNW, and then the 540 nm emission from one MNWs ensemble, followed by the 590 nm emission from a different MNW ensemble, respectively. These hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nano-disks ensembles were obtained during molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth. On the other hand, the regular rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) were emitting at a shorter peak wavelength of 490 nm. While the formation of InGaN rod-like nanowire is well-understood, the formation of the hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk-on-GaN-nanowire requires further investigation. It was postulated to arise from the highly sensitive growth kinetics during plasma-assisted MBE of InGaN at low temperature, i.e. when the substrate temperature was reduced from 800 °C (GaN growth) to <600 °C (InGaN growth), during which sparsely populated metal-droplet formation prevails and further accumulated more indium adatoms due to a higher cohesive bond between metallic molecules. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors : Sensing Simplicity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mescher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are structures made from silicon with at least one spatial dimension in the nanometer regime (1-100 nm). From these nanowires, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be constructed. Since their introduction in 2001 silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been studied

  11. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  12. Gallium nitride nanowires: Synthesis, resonant electromechanical properties, ion beam disorder effect on contact conduction, and heterojunction fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang-Yong

    In this study, we develop a systematic route toward gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) synthesis and device development covering; GaN NW growth, morphology control, resonant electromechanical property measurement, focused ion beam (FIB) direct electrical contact patterning, conduction mechanism analysis at the FIB contacts, and Si-GaN NW p-n heterojunction fabrication. A variation of GaN NW's morphology and crystallographic growth orientation occurs upon the change of nitrogen source (NH3) feeding rate during vapor-solid (VS) type thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A simplistic advection model estimates reaction condition, and the variation in Ga reactant diffusion length on GaN's polar surfaces explains the phenomena. The use of Au/Pd catalyst leads to vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) type growth with a higher yield. We briefly discuss the VLS growth mechanism distinct from the ordinary binary cases such as Si NW growth using Au catalyst. A self-branching growth is observed, and its mechanism is also addressed. Micro-Raman spectroscopy suggests growth temperature can influence crystallinity and doping concentration in the NWs. We perform an in situ electromechanical resonance study by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Young's modulus E of GaN NW decreases below the bulk value as diameter d decreases. The presence of stacking faults along the NWs' axis might be related. NWs' significantly high resonance quality factor Q suggests potential applications for nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS). We observe polarized resonant vibrations and attribute them to the asymmetric cross-sections of NWs. We direct-write electrical contacts to GaN NWs using FIB-Pt deposition. I-V evolves from low-resistant rectifying to ohmic as d decreases despite the fact that Pt is a typical Schottky metal to n-GaN. I-V-T is strongly non-metallic, and a back-to-back Schottky junction model and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) well describe contact conductions for the large and small

  13. GaN transistors for efficient power conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lidow, Alex; de Rooij, Michael; Reusch, David

    2014-01-01

    The first edition of GaN Transistors for Efficient Power Conversion was self-published by EPC in 2012, and is currently the only other book to discuss GaN transistor technology and specific applications for the technology. More than 1,200 copies of the first edition have been sold through Amazon or distributed to selected university professors, students and potential customers, and a simplified Chinese translation is also available. The second edition has expanded emphasis on applications for GaN transistors and design considerations. This textbook provides technical and application-focused i

  14. Dynamic control of the optical emission from GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots by surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lazić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical emission of InGaN quantum dots embedded in GaN nanowires is dynamically controlled by a surface acoustic wave (SAW. The emission energy of both the exciton and biexciton lines is modulated over a 1.5 meV range at ∼330 MHz. A small but systematic difference in the exciton and biexciton spectral modulation reveals a linear change of the biexciton binding energy with the SAW amplitude. The present results are relevant for the dynamic control of individual single photon emitters based on nitride semiconductors.

  15. Bias-Controlled Optical Transitions in GaN/AlN Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müßener, Jan; Hille, Pascal; Grieb, Tim; Schörmann, Jörg; Teubert, Jörg; Monroy, Eva; Rosenauer, Andreas; Eickhoff, Martin

    2017-09-26

    We report on the control and modification of optical transitions in 40× GaN/AlN heterostructure superlattices embedded in GaN nanowires by an externally applied bias. The complex band profile of these multi-nanodisc heterostructures gives rise to a manifold of optical transitions, whose emission characteristic is strongly influenced by polarization-induced internal electric fields. We demonstrate that the superposition of an external axial electric field along a single contacted nanowire leads to specific modifications of each photoluminescence emission, which allows to investigate and identify their origin and to control their characteristic properties in terms of transition energy, intensity and decay time. Using this approach, direct transitions within one nanodisc, indirect transitions between adjacent nanodiscs, transitions at the top/bottom edge of the heterostructure, and the GaN near-band-edge emission can be distinguished. While the transition energy of the direct transition can be shifted by external bias over a range of 450 meV and changed in intensity by a factor of 15, the indirect transition exhibits an inverse bias dependence and is only observable and spectrally separated when external bias is applied. In addition, by tuning the band profile close to flat band conditions, the direction and magnitude of the internal electric field can be estimated, which is of high interest for the polar group III-nitrides. The direct control of emission properties over a wide range bears possible application in tunable optoelectronic devices. For more fundamental studies, single-nanowire heterostructures provide a well-defined and isolated system to investigate and control interaction processes in coupled quantum structures.

  16. Sensing trace amounts of nitro-aromatic explosives using nanowire-nanocluster hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluri, Geetha S.; Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V.; Oleshko, Vladimir; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2012-06-01

    The threat of terrorism and the need for homeland security calls for advanced technologies to detect the concealed explosives safely and efficiently. We demonstrated highly sensitive and selective detection of traces of nitroaromatic explosive compounds by functionalizing gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoclusters to address this issue. The hybrid sensor devices were developed by fabricating two-terminal devices using individual GaN nanowires (NWs) followed by the deposition of TiO2 nanoclusters (NCs) using sputtering technique. The photo-modulated GaN/TiO2 NWNC hybrids showed remarkable selectivity to benzene and related aromatic compounds, with no measureable response for other analytes at room temperature. This paper presents the sensing characteristics of GaN/TiO2 nanowire-nanocluster hybrids towards the different aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds at room temperature. The GaN/TiO2 hybrids were able to detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentrations as low as 500 pmol/mol (ppt) in air and dinitrobenzene concentrations as low as 10 nmol/mol (ppb) in air in approximately 30 s. The noted sensitivity range of the devices for TNT was from 8 ppm down to as low as 500 ppt. The detection limit of Dinitrotoluene , nitrobenzene , nitrotoluene, toluene and benzene in air is 100 ppb with a response time of ~ 75 s. The devices show very sensitive and selective response to TNT when compared to interfering compounds like toluene. Integration of this nano-scale technology could lead to tiny, highly sensitive, selective, low-power and smart explosive detectors that could be manufactured cheaply in large numbers.

  17. Application of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to jet images

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.05927 We provide a bridge between generative modeling in the Machine Learning community and simulated physical processes in High Energy Particle Physics by applying a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture to the production of jet images -- 2D representations of energy depositions from particles interacting with a calorimeter. We propose a simple architecture, the Location-Aware Generative Adversarial Network, that learns to produce realistic radiation patterns from simulated high energy particle collisions. The pixel intensities of GAN-generated images faithfully span over many orders of magnitude and exhibit the desired low-dimensional physical properties (i.e., jet mass, n-subjettiness, etc.). We shed light on limitations, and provide a novel empirical validation of image quality and validity of GAN-produced simulations of the natural world. This work provides a base for further explorations of GANs for use in faster simulation in High Energy Particle Physics.

  18. Identifying individual n- and p-type ZnO nanowires by the output voltage sign of piezoelectric nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, S S

    2009-08-18

    Based on a comparative study between the piezoelectric outputs of n-type nanowires (NWs) and n-core/p-shell NWs along with the previous study (Lu et al 2009 Nano. Lett. 9 1223), we demonstrate a one-step technique for identifying the conductivity type of individual ZnO nanowires (NWs) based on the output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator without destroying the sample. A negative piezoelectric output voltage indicates an NW is n-type and it appears after the tip scans across the center of the NW, while a positive output voltage reveals p-type conductivity and it appears before the tip scans across the central line of the NW. This atomic force microscopy based technique is reliable for statistically mapping the majority carrier type in ZnO NWs arrays. The technique may also be applied to other wurtzite semiconductors, such as GaN, CdS and ZnS. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Identifying individual n- and p-type ZnO nanowires by the output voltage sign of piezoelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S S; Song, J H; Wang, Z L [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Lu, Y F, E-mail: zlwang@gatech.ed [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2009-09-09

    Based on a comparative study between the piezoelectric outputs of n-type nanowires (NWs) and n-core/p-shell NWs along with the previous study (Lu et al 2009 Nano. Lett. 9 1223), we demonstrate a one-step technique for identifying the conductivity type of individual ZnO nanowires (NWs) based on the output of a piezoelectric nanogenerator without destroying the sample. A negative piezoelectric output voltage indicates an NW is n-type and it appears after the tip scans across the center of the NW, while a positive output voltage reveals p-type conductivity and it appears before the tip scans across the central line of the NW. This atomic force microscopy based technique is reliable for statistically mapping the majority carrier type in ZnO NWs arrays. The technique may also be applied to other wurtzite semiconductors, such as GaN, CdS and ZnS.

  20. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  1. GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.

    2016-06-01

    Power semiconductor devices based on silicon (Si) are quickly approaching their limits, set by fundamental material properties. In order to address these limitations, new materials for use in devices must be investigated. Wide bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have suitable properties for power electronic applications; however, fabrication of practical devices from these materials may be challenging. SiC technology has matured to point of commercialized devices, whereas GaN requires further research to realize full material potential. This review covers fundamental material properties of GaN as they relate to Si and SiC. This is followed by a discussion of the contemporary issues involved with bulk GaN substrates and their fabrication and a brief overview of how devices are fabricated, both on native GaN substrate material and non-native substrate material. An overview of current device structures, which are being analyzed for use in power switching applications, is then provided; both vertical and lateral device structures are considered. Finally, a brief discussion of prototypes currently employing GaN devices is given.

  2. High nitrogen pressure solution growth of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockowski, Michal

    2014-10-01

    Results of GaN growth from gallium solution under high nitrogen pressure are presented. Basic of the high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) growth method is described. A new approach of seeded growth, multi-feed seed (MFS) configuration, is demonstrated. The use of two kinds of seeds: free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN (HVPE-GaN) obtained from metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing HVPE-GaN obtained from the ammonothermally grown GaN crystals, is shown. Depending on the seeds’ structural quality, the differences in the structural properties of pressure grown material are demonstrated and analyzed. The role and influence of impurities, like oxygen and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from gallium solution in the MFS configuration is presented. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are discussed. An application of the pressure grown GaN crystals as substrates for electronic and optoelectronic devices is reported.

  3. Cathodoluminescence of cubic GaN epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; As, D.J.; Schikora, D.; Schoettker, B.; Lischka, K. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 6 - Physik

    1998-08-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) of MBE grown cubic GaN epilayers has been studied as a function of the e-beam excitation intensity. The room temperature CL-spectrum is dominated by a near edge band with a FWHM as narrow as 55 meV at high excitation. It consists of an excitonic and a band-acceptor transition. A broad emission band peaked at 2.4 eV is observed at low excitation. Using a simple model based on bimolecular rate equations the concentration of defects involved in this transition is estimated to be about 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. CL-measurements with varying excitation intensity reveal that these recombination levels have only minor influence on the performance of high injection optoelectronic devices like laser diodes. Our CL-measurements show also that the deep centres are homogeneously distributed within the epilayer. (orig.) 11 refs.

  4. Enhanced Ferromagnetism in Nanoscale GaN:Mn Wires Grown on GaN Ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Jiang, Shengxiang; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Cunda; Yu, Tongjun; Zhang, Guoyi

    2017-05-02

    The problem of weak magnetism has hindered the application of magnetic semiconductors since their invention, and on the other hand, the magnetic mechanism of GaN-based magnetic semiconductors has been the focus of long-standing debate. In this work, nanoscale GaN:Mn wires were grown on the top of GaN ridges by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer shows that its ferromagnetism is greatly enhanced. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveal an obvious increase of Mn composition in the nanowire part, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS mapping results further indicate the correlation between the abundant stacking faults (SFs) and high Mn doping. When further combined with the micro-Raman results, the magnetism in GaN:Mn might be related not only to Mn concentration, but also to some kinds of built-in defects introduced together with the Mn doping or the SFs.

  5. Enhanced Ferromagnetism in Nanoscale GaN:Mn Wires Grown on GaN Ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of weak magnetism has hindered the application of magnetic semiconductors since their invention, and on the other hand, the magnetic mechanism of GaN-based magnetic semiconductors has been the focus of long-standing debate. In this work, nanoscale GaN:Mn wires were grown on the top of GaN ridges by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD, and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometer shows that its ferromagnetism is greatly enhanced. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS reveal an obvious increase of Mn composition in the nanowire part, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and EDS mapping results further indicate the correlation between the abundant stacking faults (SFs and high Mn doping. When further combined with the micro-Raman results, the magnetism in GaN:Mn might be related not only to Mn concentration, but also to some kinds of built-in defects introduced together with the Mn doping or the SFs.

  6. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  7. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  8. Radiation Stability of Metal Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, S. A.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Zagorskiy, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the radiation stability of pure nickel and iron- nickel Fe0.56Ni0.44 alloy nanowires fabricated by matrix synthesis using polymer track membranes and Ar+ and Xe+ (E = 20 keV, j = 300 μA/cm2) beam irradiation. The dependence of the stability of nanowires on their diameter, fluence, and type of implanted ions is investigated. The assumption that the thermalized regions of dense cascades of atomic displacements (thermal spikes) play an important role in the nanowire structure change is made. These regions are nanosized zones of explosive energy release and heated to several thousands of degrees.

  9. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  10. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  11. Luminescence emission from Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN multi quantum disc core/shell nanowire: Numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvari, E.; Shojaei, S.; Asgari, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a numerical approach to investigate the room temperature luminescence emission from core/shell nanowire is presented where GaN quantum discs (QDiscs), periodically distributed in AlxGa1-xN nanowire, is considered as core and AlxGa1-xN as shell. Thin disc shaped (Ring shaped) n-doped region has been placed at the GaN/ AlxGa1-xN (AlxGa1-xN /air) interface in AlxGa1-xN region in axial (radial) directions. To obtain energy levels and related wavefunctions, self-consistent procedure has been employed to solve Schrodinger-Poisson equations with considering the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Then luminescence spectrum is studied in details to recognize the parameters influent in luminescence. The results show that the amount of doping, size of QDiscs and theirs numbers have remarkable effects on the band to band luminescence emission. Our numerical calculations gives some insights into the luminescence emission of core/shell nanowire and exhibits a useful tool to analyze findings in experiments.

  12. Correlation of polarity and crystal structure with optoelectronic and transport properties of GaN/AlN/GaN nanowire sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hertog, M I; González-Posada, F; Songmuang, R; Rouviere, J L; Fournier, T; Fernandez, B; Monroy, E

    2012-11-14

    GaN nanowires (NWs) with an AlN insertion were studied by correlated optoelectronic and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterization on the same single NW. Using aberration-corrected annular bright field and high angle annular dark field STEM, we identify the NW growth axis to be the N-polar [000-1] direction. The electrical transport characteristics of the NWs are explained by the polarization-induced asymmetric potential profile and by the presence of an AlN/GaN shell around the GaN base of the wire. The AlN insertion blocks the electron flow through the GaN core, confining the current to the radial GaN outer shell, close to the NW sidewalls, which increases the sensitivity of the photocurrent to the environment and in particular to the presence of oxygen. The desorption of oxygen adatoms in vacuum leads to a reduction of the nonradiative surface trap density, increasing both dark current and photocurrent.

  13. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Zhao, Yuning; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Bader, Samuel; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-12-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  14. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  15. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Gül, Ö.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Nowak, M.P.; Wimmer, M.; Zuo, K.; Mourik, V.; Vries, F.K. de; Veen, J. van; Moor, M.W.A. de; Bommer, J.D.S.; Woerkom, D.J. van; Car, D.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Quintero Pérez, M.; Cassidy, M.C.; Koelling, S.; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of

  16. Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark A; Turner, Amy C; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2008-01-21

    We review recent research on nonlinear optical interactions in waveguides with sub-micron transverse dimensions, which are termed photonic nanowires. Such nanowaveguides, fabricated from glasses or semiconductors, provide the maximal confinement of light for index guiding structures enabling large enhancement of nonlinear interactions and group-velocity dispersion engineering. The combination of these two properties make photonic nanowires ideally suited for many nonlinear optical applications including the generation of single-cycle pulses and optical processing with sub-mW powers.

  17. UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensors using Gallium Nitride Nanowires Functionalized with Zinc Oxide and Tin Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Ritu

    The motivation behind this work has been to address two of the most challenging issues posed to semiconductor gas sensors--- tuning the device selectivity and sensitivity to a wide variety of gases. In a chemiresistor type nanowire sensor, the sensitivity and selectivity depend on the interaction of different chemical analytes with the nanowire surface. Constrained by the surface properties of the nanowire material, most nanowire sensors can detect only specific type of analytes. In order to make a nano-sensor array for a wide range of analytes, there is a need to tune the device sensitivity and selectivity towards different chemicals. Employing the inherent advantages of nanostructure based sensing such as large surface area, miniature size, low power consumption, and nmol/mol (ppb) sensitivity, an attempt has been made to propose a device with tunable selectivity and sensitivity. The idea proposed in this work is to functionalize GaN nanowires which have relatively inactive surface properties (i.e., with no chemiresistive sensitivity to different classes of organic vapors), with analyte dependent active metal oxides. The selectivity of the sensor devices is controlled independent of the surface properties of the nanowire itself. It is the surface properties of the functionalizing metal oxides which determine the selectivity of these sensors. Further facilitated by the proposed fabrication technique, these sensors can be easily tuned to detect different gases. The prototype developed in this work is that of a UV assisted alcohol sensor using GaN nanowires functionalized with ZnO and SnO2 nanoparticles. As opposed to the widely demonstrated metal oxide based sensors assisted by elevated temperature, the operation of photoconductive semiconductor sensor devices such as those fabricated in this work, can also be assisted by UV illumination at room temperature. Temperature assisted sensing requires an integrated on-chip heater, which could impose constraints on the

  18. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  19. Optical second harmonic generation from Pt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N.; Aratake, K.; Okushio, R.; Iwai, T. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Sugawara, A. [Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory, Akanuma 2520, Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Sano, H. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Mizutani, G. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: mizutani@jaist.ac.jp

    2007-09-15

    We have measured optical second harmonic intensity from arrays of Pt nanowires of 20 nm and 9 nm average widths, as a function of the incident and output light polarizations, the azimuthal angle, and the excitation photon energy. The nanowires were fabricated through shadow deposition on self-organized NaCl(1 1 0) faceted templates. The anisotropy of the SH intensity from the Pt nanowires was found to be stronger than that from the Au nanowires reported previously. The effective nonlinear susceptibility element {chi}{sub 222}{sup (2)}, with the suffix 2 indicating the direction [11-bar0], was observed for Pt nanowires, although it was not observed for Au nanowires. This difference is suggested to be due to the weaker suppression of the incident fundamental fields by the depolarization field in the Pt nanowires and the larger anisotropy in the nonlinearity of Pt nanowires due to the thinner widths.

  20. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  1. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  2. Anti-phase domains in cubic GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Kemper, Ricarda; Schupp, Thorsten; Haeberlen, Maik; Lindner, Joerg; Josef As, Donat [University of Paderborn, Department of Physics, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Niendorf, Thomas; Maier, Hans-Juergen [University of Paderborn, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde, Pohlweg 47-49, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Dempewolf, Anja; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen [University of Magdeburg, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, P.O. Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Axel [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The existence of anti-phase domains in cubic GaN grown on 3C-SiC/Si (001) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The influence of the 3C-SiC/Si (001) substrate morphology is studied with emphasis on the anti-phase domains (APDs). The GaN nucleation is governed by the APDs of the substrate, resulting in equal plane orientation and the same anti-phase boundaries. The presence of the APDs is independent of the GaN layer thickness. Atomic force microscopy surface analysis indicates lateral growth anisotropy of GaN facets in dependence of the APD orientation. This anisotropy can be linked to Ga and N face types of the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes, similar to observations of anisotropic growth in 3C-SiC. In contrast to 3C-SiC, however, a difference in GaN phase composition for the two types of APDs can be measured by electron backscatter diffraction, {mu}-Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy.

  3. The effect of nanowire length and diameter on the properties of transparent, conducting nanowire films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Rathmell, Aaron R.; Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wiley, Benjamin J.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For individual nanowires with diameters greater than 50 nm, increasing diameter increases the electrical conductance to optical extinction ratio, but the opposite is true for nanowires with diameters less than this size. Calculations and experimental data show that for a random network of nanowires, decreasing nanowire diameter increases the number density of nanowires at a given transmittance, leading to improved connectivity and conductivity at high transmittance (>90%). This information will facilitate the design of transparent, conducting nanowire films for flexible displays, organic light emitting diodes and thin-film solar cells.This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For

  4. Single-crystal vanadium pentoxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaokang; Chen, Yuzhen; Luo, Haiyan; Jiang, Lilong; Ye, Binghuo; Wei, Mingdeng; Wei, Kemei

    2008-07-01

    Single-crystal V2O5 nanowires were successfully synthesized from the starting materials V6O13 powder and water. The experimental results indicate that high purity nanowires can be obtained using this simple synthetic route in absence of templates or catalysts. The diameter of the nanowires was found to be ca. 20 approximately 60 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers, and the phases of nanowires were determined by XRD and TEM measurements.

  5. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  6. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  7. A New Phase of GaN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of the orthorhombic GaN (Pnma-GaN are investigated at ambient pressure by using first-principles calculations method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme. The elastic constants and phonon calculations reveal Pnma-GaN is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. The calculated Young modulus of Pnma-GaN is 170 GPa, which is the three-fifths of wurtzite-GaN. Electronic structure study shows that Pnma-GaN is a direct semiconductor with band gap of 1.847 eV. The anisotropic calculation shows that wurtzite-GaN has a smaller elastic anisotropy than that of Pnma-GaN in Young’s modulus. In addition, when the composition of aluminum increases from 0 to 0.063 in the alloy, the band gap decreases initially and increases afterward for Pnma-Ga1−xAlxN, while, for wurtzite-Ga1−xAlxN, the band gap increases with the increasing composition x. Due to the structural porous feature, Pnma-GaN can also be expected to be a good hydrogen storage material.

  8. Nanowire resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, M. T.; Ohlsson, B. J.; Thelander, C.; Persson, A. I.; Deppert, K.; Wallenberg, L. R.; Samuelson, L.

    2002-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures and their implementation into electronic and photonic devices have had tremendous impact on science and technology. In the development of quantum nanoelectronics, one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure devices are receiving a lot of interest. We report here functional 1D resonant tunneling diodes obtained via bottom-up assembly of designed segments of different semiconductor materials in III/V nanowires. The emitter, collector, and the central quantum dot are made from InAs and the barrier material from InP. Ideal resonant tunneling behavior, with peak-to-valley ratios of up to 50:1 and current densities of 1 nA/μm2 was observed at low temperatures.

  9. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  10. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Romanov, Alexey E. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Beltz, Glenn E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.

  11. Benefits and Drawbacks of A High Frequency Gan Zvzcps Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanes J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the benefits and drawbacks of replacing the traditional Si Mosfets transistors with enhancement mode GaN transistors in a Half-Bridge Zero Voltage and Zero Current Switching Power Switching (ZVZCPS converter. This type of converters is usually used as Electronic Power Converters (EPC for telecommunication satellites travelling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs. In this study, firstly the converter is theoretically analysed, obtaining its operation, losses and efficiency equations. From these equations, optimizations maps based on the main system parameters are obtained. These optimization maps are the key to quantify the potential benefits of GaN transistors in this type of converters. Theoretical results show that using GaN transistors, the frequency of the converter can be pushed from 125kHz to 830kHz without sacrificing the converter efficiency. This frequency increase is directly related to reduction on the EPC size and weight.

  12. Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Hoshi; Kishino, Katsumi; Sakai, Masaru; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities were demonstrated using room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outer diameter, height, and thickness of the GaN nanorings were approximately 750-800, 900, and 130-180 nm, respectively. The nanorings functioned as whispering-gallery-mode (WGM)-type optical cavities and exhibited sharp resonant peaks like lasing actions. The evanescent component of the WGM was strongly affected by the refractive index of the ambient environment, the type of liquid, and the sucrose concentration of the analyzed solution, resulting in shifts of the resonant wavelengths. The results indicate that the GaN nanorings can potentially be used in sugar sensors of the biosensors.

  13. Studies on electronic structure of GaN(0001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Chang Kun; Xu Fa Qiang; Deng Rui; Liu Feng; Yibulaxin, K

    2002-01-01

    An electronic structure investigation on GaN(0001) is reported. The authors employ a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) approach to calculate the partial density of state, which is in agreement with previous experimental results. The effects of the Ga3d semi-core levels on the electronic structure of GaN are discussed. The valence-electronic structure of the wurtzite GaN(0001) surface is investigated using synchrotron radiation excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The bulk bands dispersion along GAMMA A direction in the Brillouin zones is measured using normal-emission spectra by changing photon-energy. The band structure derived from authors' experimental data is compared well with the results of authors' FPLAPW calculation. Furthermore, off-normal emission spectra are also measured along the GAMMA K and GAMMA M directions. Two surface states are identified, and their dispersions are characterized

  14. Magnesium doped GaN grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarneros, C., E-mail: cesyga@yahoo.com.mx [Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. I.P.N. 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez, V. [Ingenieria Electrica, Seccion Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. I.P.N. 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    We have studied the optical and electrical characteristics of undoped and doped GaN layers. The n- and p-type layers have been prepared by low pressure MOCVD technique. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were carried at low temperature. In the PL spectra of undoped GaN layer, a low intensity band edge emission and a broad yellow emission band were observed. The donor-acceptor pair (DAP) emission and its phonon replicas were observed in Mg lightly doped GaN layer. The dominance of the blue and the yellow emissions increased in the PL spectra as the Mg concentration was increased. The X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structure of the layers. Both the undoped and the doped layers exhibited hexagonal structure. The samples were annealed and significant changes were not observed in Hall Effect and in the PL measurements, so we suggest that there is no need of a thermal annealing for magnesium acceptor activation.

  15. Dislocations in hexagonal and cubic GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenau, A. T.; Elsner, J.; Jones, R.; Heggie, M. I.; Öberg, S.; Frauenheim, T.; Briddon, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    The structure and electronic activity of several types of dislocations in both hexagonal and cubic GaN are calculated using first-principles methods. Most of the stoichiometric dislocations investigated in hexagonal GaN do not induce deep acceptor states and thus cannot be responsible for the yellow luminescence. However, it is shown that electrically active point defects, in particular gallium vacancies and oxygen-related defect complexes, can be trapped at the stress field of the dislocations and may be responsible for this luminescence. For cubic GaN, we find the ideal stoichiometric 60° dislocation to be electrically active and the glide set to be more stable than the shuffle. The dissociation of the latter is considered.

  16. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  17. Electrical properties of polycrystalline GaN films functionalized with cysteine and stabilization of GaN nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Oviedo, Mariana J; López, Oscar Edel Contreras

    2012-10-01

    GaN was synthesized onto sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition, reacting gallium, ammonium chloride and ammonia. The polycrystalline films were immersed in glycine, aspartic acid and cysteine solutions. Cysteine chemisorbed onto GaN films produced detectable changes in conductivity, mobility and Hall coefficient indicating that GaN is capable of detecting and reacting with thiolate groups, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Cys-GaN film solution was adjusted to pH 10, upon which the GaN nanoparticles were transferred to the aqueous phase forming a suspension stable for seven days. The alkaline colloid was then further adjusted down to pH 3 retaining stability for three days. The GaN colloid obtained represents a suitable medium to study GaN properties for biological applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.

    2016-12-01

    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (0001) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  19. GaN for x-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboz, Jean-Yves; Laügt, Marguerite; Schenk, David; Beaumont, Bernard; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Wieck, Andreas D.; Zimmerling, Tino

    2008-06-01

    The potential of GaN based materials for x-ray detection is investigated. The absorption coefficient in GaN is measured as a function of photon energy between 6 and 40keV. Metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors are fabricated and characterized. The response dependence on bias, the temporal dynamics, and the response dependence on detector geometry all together point toward a mixing of photovoltaic and photoconductive effects. Thanks to a large photoconductive gain, the detector has a decent responsivity at the expense of a large response time.

  20. Dislocation luminescence in GaN single crystals under nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the dislocation luminescence in GaN by nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and Raman. The dislocation luminescence peaking at 3.12 eV exhibits a series of special properties in the cathodoluminescence measurements, and it completely disappears after annealing at 500°C. Raman spectroscopy shows evidence for existence of vacancies in the indented region. A comprehensive investigation encompassing cathodoluminescence, Raman, and annealing experiments allow the assignment of dislocation luminescence to conduction-band-acceptor transition involving Ga vacancies. The nanoscale plasticity of GaN can be better understood by considering the dislocation luminescence mechanism. PMID:25593548

  1. Metal (Ni, Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pezold, J.; Bristowe, P. D.

    2006-06-01

    The stability and electronic properties of metal (Ni, Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN were studied using density functional calculations. Two complexes (NiGa-VN and VGa-Aui-VN) were found to exhibit relatively low formation energies in their neutral charge state under p-type conditions and are predicted to act as deep acceptors in GaN. As such they are unlikely to contribute to the hole carrier concentration in p-GaN and are probably not responsible for the low electrical resistance of Au/Ni contacts. They may, however, act as compensation centres in n-GaN.

  2. Simulations of defect-interface interactions in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, J.A.; Bristowe, P.D.

    2000-07-01

    The authors report on the interaction of native point defects with commonly observed planar defects in GaN. Using a pair potential model they find a positive binding energy for all native defects to the three boundary structures investigated indicating a preference for native defects to form in these interfaces. The binding energy is highest for the Ga interstitial and lowest for vacancies. Interstitials, which are not thought to occur in significant concentrations in bulk GaN, should form in the (11{bar 2}0) IDB and the (10{bar 1}0) SMB and consequently alter the electronic structure of these boundaries.

  3. Dislocation luminescence in GaN single crystals under nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Xu, Ke; Fan, Ying Min; Wang, Jian Feng; Zhang, Ji Cai; Ren, Guo Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the dislocation luminescence in GaN by nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and Raman. The dislocation luminescence peaking at 3.12 eV exhibits a series of special properties in the cathodoluminescence measurements, and it completely disappears after annealing at 500°C. Raman spectroscopy shows evidence for existence of vacancies in the indented region. A comprehensive investigation encompassing cathodoluminescence, Raman, and annealing experiments allow the assignment of dislocation luminescence to conduction-band-acceptor transition involving Ga vacancies. The nanoscale plasticity of GaN can be better understood by considering the dislocation luminescence mechanism.

  4. Growth of bulk GaN crystal by Na flux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imade, M.; Miyoshi, N.; Yoshimura, M.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we reported the recent advances in the growth of GaN crystals on GaN templates and spontaneously nucleated GaN seeds by Na flux method. In the growth on GaN templates, it was clarified that the growth mode could be controlled by changing the flux composition. Based on the changes in the growth mode under different flux compositions, a growth sequence that is effective for the growth of thick GaN substrates with a low dislocation density was proposed. In the growth on pyramidal GaN seeds, we investigated the dependence of the growth rate, crystallinity and the growth habit on the flux composition. Results showed that a low Ga composition was preferred to grow high-crystallinity prismatic GaN crystals with a high growth rate. When a spontaneously nucleated GaN seed was used, a bulk GaN crystal with a hexagonal pillar consisting of six m-facets, and its length and diameter were 10 mm and 8 mm, respectively, was obtained. Furthermore, we found that the addition of Ca and Li to Ga-Na melt improved transparency of GaN crystals grown on pyramidal GaN seeds.

  5. Zigzag GaN/Ga2O3 heterogeneous nanowires: Synthesis, optical and gas sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Zigzag GaN/Ga2O3 heterogeneous nanowires (NWs were fabricated, and the optical properties and NO gas sensing ability of the NWs were investigated. We find that NWs are most effective at 850 °C at a switching process once every 10 min (on/off = 10 min per each with a mixture flow of NH3 and Ar. The red shift of the optical bandgap (0.66 eV is observed from the UV-vis spectrum as the GaN phase forms. The gas sensing characteristics of the developed sensor are significantly replaced to those of other types of NO sensors reported in literature.

  6. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  7. Controllable High-Speed Rotation of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D. L.; Zhu, F. Q.; Cammarata, R. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    We report a versatile method for executing controllable high-speed rotation of nanowires by ac voltages applied to multiple electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 1800 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. We have determined the torque due to the fluidic drag force on nanowire of different lengths. We also demonstrate a micromotor using a rotating nanowire driving a dust particle into circular motion. This method has been used to rotate magnetic and nonmagnetic nanowires as well as carbon nanotubes.

  8. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.

  9. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  10. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  11. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  13. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  14. Silicon—a new substrate for GaN growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    obtained good results. Therefore, the use of compliant substrates for GaN growth seems to be promising, as the quality of material is comparable to that grown on SiC or sapphire. (IV) Patterning substrates by masking or etching the sub- strates or buffer layer is another low cost but highly effec- tive way to reduce the stress ...

  15. Electrical measurements in GaN: Point defects and dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Look, D.C.; Fang, Z.; Polenta, L.

    2000-07-01

    Defects can be conveniently categorized into three types: point, line, and areal. In GaN, the important point defects are vacancies and interstitials; the line defects are threading dislocations; and the areal defects are stacking faults. The authors have used electron irradiation to produce point defects, and temperature-dependent Hall-effect (TDH) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements to study them. The TDH investigation has identified two point defects, an 0.06-eV donor and a deep acceptor, thought to be the N vacancy and interstitial, respectively. The DLTS study has found two point-defect electron traps, at 0.06 eV and 0.09 eV, respectively; the 0.06-eV trap actually has two components, with different capture kinetics. With respect to line defects, the DLTS spectrum is as-grown GaN includes an 0.45-eV electron trap, which has the characteristics of a dislocation, and the TDH measurements show that threading-edge dislocations are acceptor-like in n-type GaN. Finally, in samples grown by the hydride vapor phase technique, TDH measurements indicate a strongly n-type region at the GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, which may be associated with stacking faults. All of the defects discussed above can have an influence on the dc and/or ac conductivity of GaN.

  16. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. (Gans, 1960; Schmidt and Inger, 1957). Ovoviviparity i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos found in material from three localities are recorded in Table I. The dispropor- tionate amount of yolk relative to the size of the embryo, first described for T. wiegmanni. (Hediger 1935) and subsequently for the South American Amphisbaena manni by Gans and. Alexander (1962), is a feature also of the development ...

  18. Growth of ZnO and GaN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.; Hong, S.-K.; Matsumoto, K.; Tokunaga, H.; Tachibana, A.; Lee, S. W.; Cho, M.-W.

    . Zinc oxide (ZnO) and gallium nitride (GaN) are wide bandgap semi conductors applicable to light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to blue light. Now ZnO and GaN are key ma terials for optoelectronic device applications and their applications are being rapidly expanded to lots of other technology including electronics, biotechnology, nanotech-nology, and fusion technology among all these. As a fundamental starting point for the development of this new technique, epitaxy of ZnO and GaN films is one of the most important key technology. Hence, development of the growth technique for high quality epitaxial films is highly necessary. Among the various kinds of epi taxy technique for semiconductor films developed so far, physical vapor deposition (PVD)-based epitaxy technique has been revealed to be the appropriate way for the high quality ZnO film and related alloy growths, while chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-based epitaxy technique has been proved to be the best method for the high quality GaN film and related alloy growths.

  19. Mn DOPING OF GaN LAYERS GROWN BY MOVPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šimek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present a growth of Ga1-xMnxN layers by MOVPE. Mn doped GaN layers were grown with and without undoped GaN templates on (0001 sapphire substrates in a quartz horizontal reactor. For the deposition of Ga1-xMnxN layers (MCp2Mn was used as a Mn – precursor. The flow of the Mn precursor was 0.2-3.2 μmol.min-1. The deposition of Ga1-xMnxN layers was carried out under the pressure of 200 mbar, the temperature 1050 °C and the V/III ratio of 1360. For the growth of high quality GaN:Mn layers it was necessary to grow these layers on a minimally partially coalesced layer of pure GaN. The direct deposition of GaN:Mn layer on the low temperature GaN buffer layer led to a three-dimensional growth during the whole deposition process. Another investigated parameter was the influence of nitrogen on the layer’s properties. A nearly constant ferromagnetic moment persisting up to room temperature was observed on the synthesized thin films.

  20. On the magnetic properties of Gd implanted GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Maryško, M.; Jirák, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Sofer, Z.; Peřina, Vratislav; Hardtdegen, H.; Buchal, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 7 (2008), 07D107/1-07D107/3 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : GaN * Curie-type * FM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2008

  1. Electrochemical characterization of GaN surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of the electrochemical properties of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and hybrid vapor phase epitaxy grown n-type GaN in aqueous electrolytes. For this purpose, we perform cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of potentials and frequencies, using a pure aqueous electrolyte and adding two different types of redox couples, as well as applying different surface treatments to the GaN electrodes. For Ga-polar GaN electrodes, the charge transfer to an electrolyte is dominated by surface states, which are not related to dislocations and are independent of the specific growth technique. These surface states can be modified by the surface treatment; they are generated by etching in HCl and are passivated by oxidation. Different surface defect states are present on N-polar GaN electrodes which do not significantly contribute to the charge transfer across the GaN/electrolyte interface.

  2. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices....

  3. Use of hydrogen etching to remove existing dislocations in GaN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yen-Hsien; Chu, Chung-Ming; Wu, Yin-Hao; Hsu, Ying-Chia; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Lee, Wei-I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, based on the anisotropic nature of hydrogen (H2) etching on GaN, we describe a new approach to the removal of threading dislocations in GaN layers. The top surfaces of c-plane (Ga-face) and a-plane GaNs are considered stable in H2; therefore, H2 etches only crystal imperfections such as dislocation and basal plane stacking fault (BSF) sites. We used H2 to etch undoped c-plane GaN, n-type c-plane GaN, a-plane GaN, and an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure. Several examinations were performed, indicating deep cavities on the c-plane GaN samples after H2 etching; furthermore, gorge-like grooves were observed on the a-plane GaN samples. The deep cavities on the c-plane GaN were considered the etched dislocation sites, and the gorge-like grooves on the a-plane GaN were considered the etched BSF sites. Photoluminescence measurements were performed and the results indicated that the H2-etched samples demonstrate superior optoelectronic properties, probably because of the elimination of dislocations.

  4. Nanostructural characteristics of oxide-cap GaN nanotips by iodine-gallium ions etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhan-Shuo [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Fei-Yi, E-mail: fyhung@mail.mse.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn, E-mail: changsj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micr/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bohr-Ran [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Bo-Cheng [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Jen; Hsu, Wen-I. [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > 1D GaN nanostructures have attracted great attention in recent years. The dry-etching process has several advantages because of its simplicity, safety and convenience. Besides, the formation mechanism of 1D GaN nanostructures prepared using the dry-etching method is worth to research. Notably, GaN nanotips can be applied to the field emission measurement. We found that oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO. So, the present oxide-cap GaN nanotips possessed better field emission property, so that it may be considered as a candidate for an advanced field emission displayer. - Abstract: GaN nanotips array was fabricated by an iodine-assist enhanced focused ions beam etching (IFIBE) via the double masks silver oxide (AgO) and gallium oxide (GaO). The function of AgO is used to protect from the elimination of GaO so as to remain GaO on GaN nanotip. The different size of silver cluster was able to assist the formation of GaN nanotips through the double mask process (AgO and GaO). After IFIBE process, the silver mask disappeared and only gallium oxide with a polycrystalline structure was left on top. Oxide-capping GaN nanotips were able to improve the field emission properties (turn-on field was 2.2 V/{mu}m) due to the lower work function of GaN resulted from the distribution of electron existed the interface between GaN and GaO.

  5. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: riama@ifsp.edu.br [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  6. Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Akhil; Rogers, David J.; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhu, Liangchen; Phillips, Matthew R.; Sundaram, Suresh; Gautier, Simon; Moudakir, Tarik; El-Gmili, Youssef; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Sandana, Vinod E.; Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Bove, Philippe; Prior, Kevin A.; Djebbour, Zakaria; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling.

  7. Photonic nanowires for quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.

    Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro-phot...

  8. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  9. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  10. Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-10-01

    We study multiband semiconducting nanowires proximity coupled with an s-wave superconductor and calculate the topological phase diagram as a function of the chemical potential and magnetic field. The nontrivial topological state corresponds to a superconducting phase supporting an odd number of pairs of Majorana modes localized at the ends of the wire, whereas the nontopological state corresponds to a superconducting phase with no Majoranas or with an even number of pairs of Majorana modes. Our key finding is that multiband occupancy not only lifts the stringent constraint of one-dimensionality, but also allows having higher carrier density in the nanowire. Consequently, multiband nanowires are better suited for stabilizing the topological superconducting phase and for observing the Majorana physics. We present a detailed study of the parameter space for multiband semiconductor nanowires focusing on understanding the key experimental conditions required for the realization and detection of Majorana fermions in solid-state systems. We include various sources of disorder and characterize their effects on the stability of the topological phase. Finally, we calculate the local density of states as well as the differential tunneling conductance as functions of external parameters and predict the experimental signatures that would establish the existence of emergent Majorana zero-energy modes in solid-state systems.

  11. Nanowire-based Quantum Photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulgarini, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I studied individual quantum dots embedded in one-dimensional nanostructures called nanowires. Amongst the effects given by the nanometric dimensions, quantum dots enable the generation of single light particles: photons. Single photon emitters and detectors are central building

  12. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  13. Photoelectrochemistry of III-V epitaxial layers and nanowires for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Enck, Ryan; Chung, Roy; Kelley, Stephen; Sampath, Anand; Reed, Meredith; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    III-V materials, which exhibit high absorption coefficients and charge carrier mobility, are ideal templates for solar energy conversion applications. This work describes the photoelectrochemistry research in several IIIV/electrolyte junctions as an enabler for device design for solar chemical reactions. By designing lattice-matched epitaxial growth of InGaP and GaP on GaAs and Si, respectively, extended depletion region electrodes achieve photovoltages which provide an additional boost to the underlying substrate photovoltage. The InGaP/GaAs and GaP/Si electrodes drive hydrogen evolution currents under aqueous conditions. By using nanowires of InN and InP under carefully controlled growth conditions, current and capacitance measurements are obtained to reveal the nature of the nanowire-electrolyte interface and how light is translated into photocurrent for InP and a photovoltage in InN. The materials system is expanded into the III-V nitride semiconductors, in which it is shown that varying the morphology of GaN on silicon yields insights to how the interface and light conversion is modulated as a basis for future designs. Current extensions of this work address growth and tuning of the III-V nitride electrodes with doping and polarization engineering for efficient coupling to solar-driven chemical reactions, and rapid-throughput methods for III-V nanomaterials synthesis in this materials space.

  14. Anodic stripping voltammetry of silver(I) using unmodified GaN film and nanostructure electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. Y.; Liu, B. D.; Yuan, F.; Zhuang, H.; Wang, C.; Shi, D.; Xu, Y. K.; Jiang, X.

    2015-11-01

    A new area of simple and effective wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for silver (I) detection using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been demonstrated. GaN electrode has exhibited obvious advantages over mercury (Hg) in silver ion evolution for its nontoxicity and wide range of anodic potential. ASV tests confirm GaN electrodes exhibit desirable stability and very sensitive response to Ag(I) in aqueous solution. Comparing with GaN nanostructures, bulky GaN thin film shows superior electrochemical sensitivity with Ag(I) detection limit as low as 10 ppb. However, modified GaN nanostructure electrodes with better conductivity are supposed to have more promising applications in trace silver ion detection.

  15. GaN layer growth by HVPE on m-plane sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usikov, Alexander; Shapovalov, Lisa; Ivantsov, Vladimir; Kovalenkov, Oleg; Syrkin, Alexander [Technologies and Devices International an Oxford Instruments Company, 12214 Plum Orchard Dr., Silver Spring, MD 20904 (United States); Spiberg, Philippe; Brown, Robert [Ostendo Technologies, Inc., 6185 Paseo del Norte, Suite 200, Carlsbad, CA 92011 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Semipolar GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by HVPE. Insertion of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x{proportional_to}0.1-0.6) layer in-between m-plane sapphire substrate and GaN layer promoted to improve crystalline quality and to grow of semipolar (11-22) plane GaN layers. X-ray diffraction (11-22){omega}-scan rocking curve FWHM of 298 arcsec was measured for a 30 {mu}m thick (11-22)GaN layer. Depending on growth conditions, m-plane GaN layer having micro-crystallites of other orientations (mainly of (11-24) plane GaN layer) was also grown. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Photo-induced Doping in GaN Epilayers with Graphene Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R. M. S.; Yeh, T. W.; Yang, W. Y.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Kuo, H. C.; Chiu, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new doping scheme where photo-induced carriers from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be injected into GaN and greatly enhance photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epilayers. An 8.3-fold enhancement of PL in GaN is observed after the doping. On the basis of time-resolved PL studies, the PL enhancement is attributed to the carrier transfer from GQDs to GaN. Such a carrier transfer process is caused by the work function difference between GQDs and GaN, which is verified by Kelvin probe measurements. We have also observed that photocurrent in GaN can be enhanced by 23-fold due to photo-induced doping with GQDs. The improved optical and transport properties from photo-induced doping are promising for applications in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26987403

  17. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  18. Quantitative determination of hexagonal minority phase in cubic GaN using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, H.; Eckey, L.; Hoffmann, A.; Thomsen, C.; Meyer, B. K.; Schikora, D.; Hankeln, M.; Lischka, K.

    1995-12-01

    We show that Raman scattering is a very sensitive and straightforward tool for the quantitative determination of a structural minority phase in GaN. In- and on-plane excitations, as well as polarization dependent measurements on predominantly cubic and hexagonal GaN samples, were performed and forward scattering effects were found. We were able to verify as an example the phase purity of a cubic GaN sample down to the 1% level.

  19. Development of novel quality assurance systems based on GaN dosimeter probes for brachytherapy

    OpenAIRE

    GUIRAL, Pierrick

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to develop and characterize novel quality assurance systems based on Gallium Nitride (GaN) dosimeter probe for brachytherapy. It includes characterization and simulation studies of the GaN transducer and of the dosimeter probe as well as the implementation and testing of two quality assurance system prototypes.The radioluminescence properties of the GaN transducer have been studied for optimization of the dosimeter response. Characterization studies of dosimeter probes incorpor...

  20. Thermal Annealing induced relaxation of compressive strain in porous GaN structures

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The effect of annealing on strain relaxation in porous GaN fabricated using electroless chemical etching is presented. The Raman shift of 1 cm-1 in phonon frequency of annealed porous GaN with respect to as-grown GaN corresponds to a relaxation of compressive strain by 0.41 ± 0.04 GPa. The strain relief promises a marked reduction in threading dislocation for subsequent epitaxial growth.

  1. Magnetic crossover effect in Nickel nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Gloaguen, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaire et Chimie Analytique, CNRS-UMR 6521, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Gieraltowski, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Tannous, C., E-mail: tannous@univ-brest.f [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    A crossover effect in the magnetic reversal mechanism within arrays of Nickel nanowires whose diameter varies from 15 to 100 nm is observed around 50 nm. Hysteresis loops and FMR measurements confirm that nanowire diameter controls effectively the nanowire easy axis as well as the magnetization reversal mechanism. This might be very interesting for spintronic devices based on current-induced domain motion such as non-volatile magnetic memory elements (MRAM) and low Ohmic loss devices.

  2. Misfit dislocations in composites with nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, M Y; Sheinerman, A G

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested which describes the generation and evolution of misfit dislocations in composite solids containing nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the framework of the model, the ranges of the geometric parameters (nanowire sizes, misfit parameter, interspacing between the nanowire and the free surface of the composite) are calculated at which the generation of various misfit dislocation configurations (loops, semi-loops and dipoles) is energetically favourable. Transformations of these dislocation configurations and their specific features are discussed.

  3. Preparation and characterization of haematite nanowire arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, D S; Liu, Q F; Zhang, L Y

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowires embedded in anodic alumina membranes were obtained after heat-treating beta-FeOOH nanowire arrays fabricated by electrochemical deposition. Haematite polycrystalline nanowires with maximum length of about 7 mu m and average diameter of about 120 nm were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Morin temperature below 80 K and Neel temperature of about 350 K for the alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowire arrays, far lower than those of bulk material, were measured by Moessbauer spectroscopy and using a Magnetic Property Measurement System.

  4. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  5. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  6. GaN epitaxial layers prepared on nano-patterned Si(001) substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C C; Chang, S J; Kuo, C H; Ko, C H; Wann, Clement H; Cheng, Y C; Lin, W J

    2011-02-01

    We report the growth of GaN epitaxial layer on Si(001) substrate with nano-patterns prepared by dry etching facility used in integrated circuit (IC) industry. It was found that the GaN epitaxial layer prepared on nano-patterned Si(001) substrate exhibits both cubic and hexagonal phases. It was also found that threading dislocation observed from GaN prepared on nano-patterned Si(001) substrate was significantly smaller than that prepared on conventional unpatterned Si(111) substrate. Furthermore, it was found that we can reduce the tensile stress in GaN epitaxial layer by about 78% using the nano-patterned Si(001) substrate.

  7. Surface irregularities of MBE grown cubic GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. P.; Frey, T.; Köhler, U.; Wang, C.; As, D. J.; Schöttker, B.; Lischka, K.; Schikora, D.

    1999-02-01

    Cubic GaN layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0 0 1)GaAs substrates. The influence of intentional deviations from stoichiometric growth conditions on the structural homogeneity of the epitaxial layers and the GaN/GaAs interface was studied. Optical micrographs and AFM-images of the epilayers grown in a Ga-stabilised regime reveal the existence of different types of surface irregularities. We conclude that the irregularities observed are the result of successively melt-back etching in GaN and GaAs and solution growth within Ga-droplets due to the change of the saturation conditions of the liquid Ga-phase on the surface of the growing film.

  8. Unoccupied band structure of wurtzite GaN(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valla, T.; Johnson, P.D. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Dhesi, S.S.; Smith, K.E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Doppalapudi, D.; Moustakas, T.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Shirley, E.L. [NIST, PHY B208, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    We report an inverse photoemission study of the unoccupied states of thin-film {ital n}-type wurtzite GaN. For incident electron energies below 30 eV, free-electron bands do not provide a good description of the initial state. However, using a calculated quasiparticle band structure for the initial state, we can obtain good agreement between our measurements and the calculated low-lying conduction bands. No evidence of unoccupied surface states is observed in the probed part of the Brillouin zone, confirming earlier angle resolved photoemission studies, which identified the surface states on GaN(0001) as occupied dangling bond states, resonant with the valence band. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Metal(Ni,Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezold, J. von; Bristowe, P.D. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    The stability and electronic properties of metal (Ni, Au)-vacancy complexes in GaN were studied using density functional calculations. Two complexes (Ni{sub Ga}-V{sub N} and V{sub Ga}-Au{sub i}-V{sub N}) were found to exhibit relatively low formation energies in their neutral charge state under p-type conditions and are predicted to act as deep acceptors in GaN. As such they are unlikely to contribute to the hole carrier concentration in p-GaN and are probably not responsible for the low electrical resistance of Au/Ni contacts. They may, however, act as compensation centres in n-GaN. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Cubic-phase GaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zheng, L. X.; Li, J. B.; Wang, X. J.; Xu, D. P.; Wang, Y. T.; Hu, X. W.; Han, P. D.

    1999-04-01

    The feasibility of growing device-quality cubic GaN/GaAs(001) films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated. The optical quality of the GaN films was characterized by room-temperature photoluminescence measurements, which shows a full width at half maximum of 46 meV. The structural quality of the films was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. There are submicron-size grains free from threading dislocations and stacking faults. More importantly, a cubic-phase GaN blue light-emitting diode has been fabricated. The device process, which is very simple and compatible with current GaAs technology, indicates a promising future for the blue light-emitting diode.

  11. Single crystalline PtSi nanowires, PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures, and nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Wu, Wen-Wei; Bai, Jingwei; Chen, Lih J; Tu, K N; Huang, Yu

    2008-03-01

    We report the formation of PtSi nanowires, PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures, and nanodevices from such heterostructures. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that silicon nanowires can be converted into PtSi nanowires through controlled reactions between lithographically defined platinum pads and silicon nanowires. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that PtSi/Si/PtSi heterostructure has an atomically sharp interface with epitaxial relationships of Si[110]//PtSi[010] and Si(111)//PtSi(101). Electrical measurements show that the pure PtSi nanowires have low resistivities approximately 28.6 microOmega.cm and high breakdown current densities>1x10(8) A/cm2. Furthermore, using single crystal PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces, we have fabricated high-performance nanoscale field-effect transistors from intrinsic silicon nanowires, in which the source and drain contacts are defined by the metallic PtSi nanowire regions, and the gate length is defined by the Si nanowire region. Electrical measurements show nearly perfect p-channel enhancement mode transistor behavior with a normalized transconductance of 0.3 mS/microm, field-effect hole mobility of 168 cm2/V.s, and on/off ratio>10(7), demonstrating the best performing device from intrinsic silicon nanowires.

  12. Defect distribution along single GaN nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Anna; Polenta, Laura; Rossi, Marco; Richter, Thomas; Marso, Michel; Meijers, Ralph; Calarco, Raffaella; Lüth, Hans

    2006-07-01

    In this letter we report on spectral photoconductivity (PC) on different sections of single MBE-grown GaN nanowhiskers of diameters ranging on the order of 100 nm. The photoconductivity spectra show, besides the band-gap related transition, deep-levels corresponding to the yellow, green, and blue bands. A strong spatial localization of specific photocurrent peaks has been observed, indicating that the defects responsible for such transitions are distributed inhomogeneously along the column growth direction.

  13. Dislocation luminescence in GaN single crystals under nanoindentation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jun; Xu, Ke; Fan, Ying Min; Wang, Jian Feng; Zhang, Ji Cai; Ren, Guo Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the dislocation luminescence in GaN by nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and Raman. The dislocation luminescence peaking at 3.12 eV exhibits a series of special properties in the cathodoluminescence measurements, and it completely disappears after annealing at 500?C. Raman spectroscopy shows evidence for existence of vacancies in the indented region. A comprehensive investigation encompassing cathodoluminescence, Raman, and annealing experiments...

  14. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  15. Investigation on thermodynamics of ion-slicing of GaN and heterogeneously integrating high-quality GaN films on CMOS compatible Si(100) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Jia, Qi; You, Tiangui; Zhang, Runchun; Lin, Jiajie; Zhang, Shibin; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Wenjie; Ou, Xin; Wang, Xi

    2017-11-08

    Die-to-wafer heterogeneous integration of single-crystalline GaN film with CMOS compatible Si(100) substrate using the ion-cutting technique has been demonstrated. The thermodynamics of GaN surface blistering is in-situ investigated via a thermal-stage optical microscopy, which indicates that the large activation energy (2.5 eV) and low H ions utilization ratio (~6%) might result in the extremely high H fluence required for the ion-slicing of GaN. The crystalline quality, surface topography and the microstructure of the GaN films are characterized in detail. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for GaN (002) X-ray rocking curves is as low as 163 arcsec, corresponding to a density of threading dislocation of 5 × 107 cm-2. Different evolution of the implantation-induced damage was observed and a relationship between the damage evolution and implantation-induced damage is demonstrated. This work would be beneficial to understand the mechanism of ion-slicing of GaN and to provide a platform for the hybrid integration of GaN devices with standard Si CMOS process.

  16. Annealing of GaN under high pressure of nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Porowski, S; Kolesnikov, D; Lojkowski, W; Jager, V; Jäger, W; Bogdanov, V; Suski, T; Krukowski, S

    2002-01-01

    Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride are basic materials for blue optoelectronic devices. The essential part of the technology of these devices is annealing at high temperatures. Thermodynamic properties of the Ga-N system and their consequences to application of high nitrogen pressure for the annealing of GaN based materials are summarized. The diffusion of Zn, Mg and Au in high dislocation density heteroepitaxial GaN/Al sub 2 O sub 3 layers will be compared with the diffusion in dislocation-free GaN single crystals and homoepitaxial layers. It will be shown that high dislocation density can drastically change the diffusion rates, which strongly affects the performance of nitride devices. Inter-diffusion of Al, Ga and In in AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures will be also considered. It will be shown that in contrast to stability of metal contacts, which is strongly influenced by dislocations, the inter-diffusion of group III atoms in QW structures is not affected strongly by...

  17. Rare earth point defects in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, S.

    2007-12-14

    In this work we investigate rare earth doped GaN, by means of theoretical simulations. The huge unit cells necessary to model the experimental system, where dilute amount of rare earth ions are used, are handled with the charge self consistent density-functional based-tight binding (SCC-DFTB) calculational scheme. The method has been extended to include LDA+U and simplified self interaction corrected (SIC)-like potentials for the simulation of systems with localised and strongly correlated electrons. A set of tight-binding parameters has been created to model the interaction of GaN with some dopants, including a selection of lanthanide ions interesting due to their optical or magnetic properties (Pr, Eu, Gd, Er and Tm). The f-electrons were treated as valence electrons. A qualitatively correct description of the band gap is crucial for the simulation of rare earth doped GaN, because the luminescence intensity of the implanted samples depends on the size of the host band gap and because the rare earths could introduce charge transition levels near the conduction band. In this work these levels are calculated with the Slater-Janak (SJ) transition state model, which allows an approximate calculation of the charge transition levels by analysing the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the DFT. (orig.)

  18. Metal contacts on ZnSe and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxstad, Kristin Joy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the development of blue light emitting materials and devices. The focus has been on GaN and ZnSe, direct band gap semiconductors with bands gaps of 3.4 and 2.6 eV, respectively. To have efficient, reliable devices it is necessary to have thermally and electrically stable Ohmic contacts. This requires knowledge of the metal-semiconductor reaction behavior. To date few studies have investigated this behavior. Much information has accumulated over the years on the behavior of metals on Si and GaAs. This thesis provides new knowledge for the more ionic wide band gap semiconductors. The initial reaction temperatures, first phases formed, and phase stability of Pt, Pd, and Ni on both semiconductors were investigated. The reactions of these metals on ZnSe and GaN are discussed in detail and correlated with predicted behavior. In addition, comparisons are made between these highly ionic semiconductors and Si and GaAs. The trends observed here should also be applicable to other II-VI and III-Nitride semiconductor systems, while the information on phase formation and stability should be useful in the development of contacts for ZnSe and GaN devices.

  19. Dislocation core structures in Si-doped GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, S. L., E-mail: srhode@imperial.ac.uk; Fu, W. Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Horton, M. K. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pennycook, T. J. [SuperSTEM, STFC Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Dusane, R. O. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Moram, M. A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-14

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the core structures of threading dislocations in plan-view geometry of GaN films with a range of Si-doping levels and dislocation densities ranging between (5 ± 1) × 10{sup 8} and (10 ± 1) × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. All a-type (edge) dislocation core structures in all samples formed 5/7-atom ring core structures, whereas all (a + c)-type (mixed) dislocations formed either double 5/6-atom, dissociated 7/4/8/4/9-atom, or dissociated 7/4/8/4/8/4/9-atom core structures. This shows that Si-doping does not affect threading dislocation core structures in GaN. However, electron beam damage at 300 keV produces 4-atom ring structures for (a + c)-type cores in Si-doped GaN.

  20. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  1. Si Complies with GaN to Overcome Thermal Mismatches for the Heteroepitaxy of Thick GaN on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Choi, Woojin; Chen, Renjie; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials has advanced through the epitaxy of thin coherently strained layers, the strain sharing in virtual and nanoscale substrates, and the growth of thick films with intermediate strain-relaxed buffer layers. However, the thermal mismatch is not completely resolved in highly mismatched systems such as in GaN-on-Si. Here, geometrical effects and surface faceting to dilate thermal stresses at the surface of selectively grown epitaxial GaN layers on Si are exploited. The growth of thick (19 µm), crack-free, and pure GaN layers on Si with the lowest threading dislocation density of 1.1 × 107 cm-2 achieved to date in GaN-on-Si is demonstrated. With these advances, the first vertical GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si substrates with low leakage currents and high on/off ratios paving the way for a cost-effective high power device paradigm on an Si CMOS platform are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  3. Mapping the local structure of nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    The crystallographic and compositional structure of heterostructured semiconductor nanowires has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The native geometry of the studied InP-GaAs nanowires (80-100 nm in diameter) is in general too thick for reliable high-resolution TEM imaging...

  4. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazibegovic, S.; Car, D.; Zhang, H.; Balk, S.C.; Logan, J.A.; Moor, M.W.A. de; Cassidy, M.C.; Schmits, R.; Xu, D.; Wang, G.; Krogstrup, P.; Veld, R.L.M. op het; Zuo, K.; Vos, Y.; Shen, J.; Bouman, D.; Shojaei, B.; Pennachio, D.; Lee, J.S.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Koelling, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Palmstrøm, C.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a

  5. Functionalization of magnetic nanowires by charged biopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnin, D.; Callegari, V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We report on a facile method for the preparation of biocompatible and bioactive magnetic nanowires. The method consists of the direct deposition of polysaccharides by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly onto a brush of metallic nanowires; obtained by electrodeposition of the metal within the nanopores ...

  6. Structural characteristics of single crystalline GaN films grown on (111) diamond with AlN buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécz, Béla; Tóth, Lajos; Barna, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    , eliminated the inversion domains and reduced the density of threading dislocations in the GaN epilayers. The films have an in-plane epitaxial relationship [1010]GaN//[110]diamond. Thus GaN (0001) thin films of single epitaxial relationship and of single polarity were realised on diamond with AlN buffer....

  7. Noise spectroscopy of nanowire structures: fundamental limits and application aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitusevich, Svetlana; Zadorozhnyi, Ihor

    2017-04-01

    Nanowires (NWs) have recently emerged as a new class of materials demonstrating unique properties which may completely differ from their bulk counterparts. The main aim of this work is to give an overview of results on noise and fluctuation phenomena in NW-based structures. We emphasize that noise is one of the main parameters, which determines the characteristics of the device structures and sets the fundamental limits of the working principles and operation regimes of NWs as key electronic elements, including field-effect transistors (FETs). We review the studies focusing on the understanding of noise sources and the main application aspects of noise spectroscopy. Noise application aspects will provide information about the performance of core-shell NW structures, the gate-coupling effect and its advantages for detection of the useful signal with prospects to extract it from the noise level, random telegraph signal as a useful tool for enhanced sensitivity, novel components of noise reflecting dielectric polarization fluctuation processes and fluctuation phenomena as a sensitive tool for molecular charge dynamics in NW FETs. Moreover, noise spectroscopy assists understanding of electronic transport regimes and effects, transport peculiarities in topological materials and aspects reflecting Majorana bound states. Thus noise in NWs on the basis of Si, Ge, Si/Ge, GaAs, InAs, InGaAs, Au, GaAs/AlGaAs, GaAsSb, SnO2, GaN, ZnO, CuO, In2O3 and AlGaN/GaN materials reflects a great variety of phenomena and processes, information about their stability and reliability. It can be utilized for numerous different applications in nanoelectronics and bioelectronics.

  8. Growth and structural characterization of III-V semiconductor nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the growth and structural properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures are studied. These nanowires represent structures suitable for both fundamental physics and applications in electronic devices such as (tunnel) field effect transistors. The III-V nanowires are grown with molecular beam epitaxy, high κ dielectric layers are deposited conformally around the nanowires by atomic layer deposition. The morphological and structural characteristics of ...

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  10. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Teresa J. (Arizona State University); Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  11. Nanowires for thermal energy conversion and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renkun

    This dissertation presents the application of nanowires in two aspects of thermal energy conversion and management: (i) silicon (Si) nanowires as efficient and scalable thermoelectric materials due to the reduced thermal conductivity (k), and (ii) Si and copper (Cu) nanowire arrays for enhanced phase change heat transfer including boiling and evaporation and their applications in thermal management of microelectronics. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3), we describe thermal and thermoelectric measurements of individual Si nanowires for studying phonon transport properties and their potential application in thermoelectrics. A theoretical model based on coherent phonon scattering was developed to explain the experiemental data, which suggests that phonon-boundary scattering is highly frequency dependent. For low frequency (long wavelength) phonons, the transport is nearly ballistic, whereas high frequency or short wavelength phonons scatter diffusively at nanowire boundary. The competition between the two phonon transmission regimes results in the unusual linear behavior of the thermal conductance of thin VLS Si nanowires at low temperature. Next, the thermal conductivity of EE Si nanowires, which have much rougher surface compared to VLS nanowires, was measured and found to be five-eight times lower than that of VLS counterparts with similar diameters. The substantial reduction in k is presumably due to the higher surface roughness, since both types of nanowires have single crystalline cores. In particular, for ˜ 50 nm EE Si nanowires etched from 0.1 O-cm B-doped p-Si (˜2 x 1017 cm-3 dopant concentration), the k is around 1.6 Wm-1K-1 and the kL is ˜1.2 Wm-1 K-1 at room temperature, approaching that of amorphous Si. The single nanowire measurements show the great promise of using Si nanowire arrays as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials. As the second focus of the thesis (chapter 4 and 5), nanowire arrays were used for enhanced phase

  12. Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M M; Anantram, M P; Karim, K S

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices.

  13. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  14. Thiolated Gold Nanowires: Metallic versus Semiconducting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Luo, Weidong [ORNL; Nobusada, Katsuyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Japan; Whetten, Robert L [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Tremendous research efforts have been spent on thiolated gold nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of thiolate (RS-) on gold, but thiolated gold nanowires have received almost no attention. Here we computationally design two such one-dimensional nanosystems by creating a linear chain of Au icosahedra, fused together by either vertex sharing or face sharing. Then neighboring Au icosahedra are bridged by five thiolate groups for the vertex-sharing model and three RS?Au?SR motifs for the face-sharing model. We show that the vertex-sharing thiolated gold nanowire can be made either semiconducting or metallic by tuning the charge, while the face-sharing one is always metallic. We explain this difference between the two nanowires by examining their band structures and invoking a previously proposed electron-count rule. Implications of our findings for previous experimentation of gold nanowires are discussed, and a potential way to make thiolated gold nanowires is proposed.

  15. Thiolated gold nanowires: metallic versus semiconducting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-en; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Luo, Weidong; Whetten, Robert L

    2009-08-25

    Tremendous research efforts have been spent on thiolated gold nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of thiolate (RS-) on gold, but thiolated gold nanowires have received almost no attention. Here we computationally design two such one-dimensional nanosystems by creating a linear chain of Au icosahedra, fused together by either vertex sharing or face sharing. Then neighboring Au icosahedra are bridged by five thiolate groups for the vertex-sharing model and three RS-Au-SR motifs for the face-sharing model. We show that the vertex-sharing thiolated gold nanowire can be made either semiconducting or metallic by tuning the charge, while the face-sharing one is always metallic. We explain this difference between the two nanowires by examining their band structures and invoking a previously proposed electron-count rule. Implications of our findings for previous experimentation of gold nanowires are discussed, and a potential way to make thiolated gold nanowires is proposed.

  16. Precise Placement of Metallic Nanowires on a Substrate by Localized Electric Fields and Inter-Nanowire Electrostatic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Hyeok Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placing nanowires at the predetermined locations on a substrate represents one of the significant hurdles to be tackled for realization of heterogeneous nanowire systems. Here, we demonstrate spatially-controlled assembly of a single nanowire at the photolithographically recessed region at the electrode gap with high integration yield (~90%. Two popular routes, such as protruding electrode tips and recessed wells, for spatially-controlled nanowire alignment, are compared to investigate long-range dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and short-range nanowire-nanowire electrostatic interaction for determining the final alignment of attracted nanowires. Furthermore, the post-assembly process has been developed and tested to make a robust electrical contact to the assembled nanowires, which removes any misaligned ones and connects the nanowires to the underlying electrodes of circuit.

  17. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Braniste

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle–cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  18. Basic ammonothermal growth of bulk GaN single crystal using sodium mineralizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Young Kuk

    2017-11-01

    Basic ammonothermal growth of GaN crystals was studied. We examined the effect of different sodium-based mineralizers, including sodium amide, sodium azide, and sodium metal, on the growth rate and quality of the as-grown GaN crystals. Ammonothermally grown GaN crystal in sodium metal mineralizer showed significant increase in both the growth rate and quality of the as-grown GaN crystals. The full-width half-maximum values of the as-grown GaN crystal using sodium metal mineralizer were 270 arcsec for Ga face and 88 arcsec for N face. Also, we reported approximately 2 in. GaN crystals using sodium metal mineralizer. Ammonothermally grown GaN crystal showed higher chemical stability than HVPE-grown GaN crystal after H3PO4 etching at 160 °C for 2 h. The dark spot density in cathodoluminescence image was measured at the level of 1 × 105/cm2.

  19. Strong deep-UV and visible luminescence from GaN nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Jyoti, N.; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-03-01

    This paper reports strong deep-ultraviolet and visible photoluminescence (PL) of the GaN nanoparticles depending on the conversion time from Ga2O3 to GaN. Monoclinic β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 2.5-5.0 nm were fabricated prior to conversion to GaN. The Ga2O3 nanoparticles were converted to GaN in the tube furnace with NH3 flow at 900°C for 10, 30, 60, and 120 min. Depending on the conversion time, the converted GaN nanoparticle size became bigger with the increase of the conversion time. The characteristic GaN x-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks became bigger when the conversion time increased. The PL intensity drastically increased with the increase of the conversion time. The spectra profile completely overlapped for GaN samples converted for 10, 30, and 60 min, with the maximum peak at 390 nm. However, the PL spectrum slightly narrowed and red-shifted with the maximum peak at 400 nm for the GaN nanoparticles converted for 120 min.

  20. Electronic and Optical Properties of Two-Dimensional GaN from First-Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nocona; Bayerl, Dylan; Shi, Guangsha; Mengle, Kelsey A; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2017-11-07

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an important commercial semiconductor for solid-state lighting applications. Atomically thin GaN, a recently synthesized two-dimensional material, is of particular interest because the extreme quantum confinement enables additional control of its light-emitting properties. We performed first-principles calculations based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory to investigate the electronic, optical, and excitonic properties of monolayer and bilayer two-dimensional (2D) GaN as a function of strain. Our results demonstrate that light emission from monolayer 2D GaN is blueshifted into the deep ultraviolet range, which is promising for sterilization and water-purification applications. Light emission from bilayer 2D GaN occurs at a similar wavelength to its bulk counterpart due to the cancellation of the effect of quantum confinement on the optical gap by the quantum-confined Stark shift. Polarized light emission at room temperature is possible via uniaxial in-plane strain, which is desirable for energy-efficient display applications. We compare the electronic and optical properties of freestanding two-dimensional GaN to atomically thin GaN wells embedded within AlN barriers in order to understand how the functional properties are influenced by the presence of barriers. Our results provide microscopic understanding of the electronic and optical characteristics of GaN at the few-layer regime.

  1. Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on AlN/Si(111) nanorods fabricated by nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Shin, In-Su; Jin, Lu; Kim, Donghyun; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-06-01

    Nanoheteroepitaxy (NHE) of GaN on an AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure was investigated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Silica nanosphere lithography was employed to fabricate a periodic hexagonal nanorod array with a narrow gap of 30 nm between the nanorods. We were successful in obtaining a fully coalesced GaN film on the AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation (TD) bending and termination by stacking faults occurred near the interface between GaN and the AlN/Si(111) nanorods, resulting in the reduction of TD density for the NHE GaN layer. The full width at half-maximum of the X-ray rocking curve for (102) plane of the NHE GaN was found to decrease down to 728 arcsec from 1005 arcsec for the GaN layer on a planar AlN/Si(111) substrate, indicating that the crystalline quality of the NHE GaN was improved. Also, micro-Raman measurement showed that tensile stress in the NHE GaN layer was reduced significantly as much as 70% by introducing air voids between the nanorods.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of subwavelength nanostructures on freestanding GaN slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Sameshima, Hidehisa; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    We develop a novel way to fabricate subwavelength nanostructures on the freestanding GaN slab using a GaN-on-silicon system by combining self-assemble technique and backside thinning method. Silicon substrate beneath the GaN slab is removed by bulk silicon micromachining, generating the freestanding GaN slab and eliminating silicon absorption of the emitted light. Fast atom beam (FAB) etching is conducted to thin the freestanding GaN slab from the backside, reducing the number of confined modes inside the GaN slab. With self-assembled silica nanospheres acting as an etching mask, subwavelength nanostructures are realized on the GaN surface by FAB etching. The reflection losses at the GaN interfaces are thus suppressed. When the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active layers are excited, the light extraction efficiency is significantly improved for the freestanding nanostructured GaN slab. This work provides a very practical approach to fabricate freestanding nanostructures on the GaN-on-silicon system for further improving the light extraction efficiency.

  3. Controllable process of nanostructured GaN by maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanfei; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiadong; Shen, Yang; Huang, Zengli; Zhang, Jian; Dingsun, An

    2017-11-01

    This work improved the anisotropically etching profile of GaN with Cl2 ICP by adjusting etching pressure and gas flow. High etching rate is achieved by lowering pressure and gas flow instead of increasing etching power. High etching power is unfavorable because it may cause physical damages on the surface. In addition, it is noticed that the material of the carrier, used for holding samples during etching, has significant effects on the morphology and profile of the etched GaN surface. A smooth and large-area GaN surface was achieved by proper ICP etching with a big piece of Si carrier; whereas, with other kinds of carriers, various nano-structures were formed on the GaN surfaces after etching. In fact, it is the etching resistance of carrier materials that impacts the surface profile of etched GaN. Needle-like and grass-like nanostructures on etched GaN surfaces were observed with Al and sapphire carriers, of which the process is very similar to RIE-grass or black-silicon technology. This controllable maskless dry-etching process for the GaN nanostructured surface may show more potential applications in GaN devices.

  4. Transmission measurement of the photonic band gap of GaN photonic crystal slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, J.; Roeling, E.M.; Rong, B.; Nguyen, H.M.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.; Rogge, S.; Karouta, F.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A high-contrast-ratio (30 dB) photonic band gap in the near-infrared transmission of hole-type GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) is reported. These crystals are deeply etched in a 650 nm thick GaN layer grown on sapphire. A comparison of the measured spectrum with finite difference time

  5. Conduction, reverse conduction and switching characteristics of GaN E-HEMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlie; Lindblad Fogsgaard, Martin; Christiansen, Michael Noe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper switching and conduction characterization of the GS66508P-E03 650V enhancement mode gallium nitride (GaN) transistor is described. GaN transistors are leading edge technology and as so, their characteristics are less than well documented. The switching characteristics are found using...

  6. Three-color integration on rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Steckl, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have realized full color integration on rare-earth-doped thin-film electroluminescent (EL) GaN using lateral integration. Tm, Er, and Eu dopants were in situ doped into GaN thin films during growth in order to obtain blue, green, and red emission, respectively. Three color pixel arrays have been fabricated using spin-on-glass films as the sacrificial layers for lift-off lithography. The pixel dimensions are 0.2×0.7 mm2, and the separation is 0.2 mm. dc EL devices were fabricated using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes. Typical applied voltage was 30-40 V. The blue emission from Tm-doped GaN has a peak at 477 nm, the green emission from Er-doped GaN has two peaks at 537 and 558 nm, while the red emission from Eu-doped GaN has a peak at 621 nm.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of epitaxial GaN layer laterally overgrown

    CERN Document Server

    Feng Gan; Wang Yu Tian; Yang Hui; Liang Jun Wu; Zheng Wen Li; Jia Quan Jie

    2002-01-01

    The GaN layer grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on sapphire (0001) has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results show that ELO GaN stripes bend towards the SiN sub x mask in directions perpendicular to the stripe direction. This lead to the GaN (0001) crystal planes in the 'wings' (overgrown GaN) exhibit crystallographic tilts away from those in the 'window' (seed) regions. The GaN (0002) diffraction was used to determine the grain sizes in the wing region and window region, respectively. It is found that the grain size in the wing region increases about three times comparing to those in window region

  8. Surface decomposition and annealing behavior of GaN implanted with Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Hua Ming; Chen Chang Chun; Wang Sen; Zhu De Zhang; Xu Hong Jie

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on surface decomposition of GaN implanted with low energy (80 keV) Eu ion to a low dose (1 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2), and its annealing behavior under high temperature (1050 degree C) in N sub 2 are performed. The as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN films are characterized by proton elastic scattering (PES), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that Eu ion implantation induces radiation defects and decomposition of GaN. The GaN surface decomposition is more serious during high temperature annealing. The atomic ratio of N in as-grown, as-implanted and annealed GaN film is 47 at.%, 44 at.% and 40 at.%, respectively. As a result, a rough Ga-rich layer is formed at the surface, though the lattice defects are partly removed after high temperature annealing

  9. Quantum Yield of Reflection Mode Varied Doping GaN Photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the NEA photocathode activation and evaluation experiment system, the varied doping GaN photocathode has been activated and evaluated. According to the diffusion and orientation drifting equation, the quantum yield formula of reflection mode varied doping NEA GaN photocathode was gotten. The factors affecting the quantum efficiency of varied doping GaN photocathode were studied. For the varied doping GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency is mainly decided by the escape probability of electron P, he absorption coefficient α, the electron diffuse length LD, the reflectance of cathode materials for incident light R, emission layer thickness Te and the inside electric field E. The experiment and analysis results show: With the directional inside electric field in the bulk, the varied doping NEA GaN photocathode has better photoemission performance than uniform doping photocathode.

  10. Nondestructive measurement of homoepitaxially grown GaN film thickness with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Takehiro

    2017-12-01

    In vertical devices containing GaN homoepitaxial layers on GaN substrates, the layer thickness is a key parameter that needs to be clarified before starting the device process. We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to a homoepitaxially grown GaN film that consisted of an n‑-GaN layer. The estimated film thickness from the FT-IR spectrum agreed well with the results of cross-sectional scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence images. This is the first report of nondestructive film thickness measurements for homoepitaxially grown GaN and indicates the applicability of FT-IR to the nondestructive inspection of vertical GaN power devices.

  11. The effect of Si on the growth mode of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pezold, J.; Oliver, R. A.; Kappers, M. J.; Bristowe, P. D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2006-06-01

    In the growth of InGaN on a SiH4-exposed GaN surface, a change in the growth mode is observed for low SiH4 doses. To help explain this observation the potential energy surface of Ga and N adatoms on a GaN (0001) surface containing an isolated Si atom in the terminating layer was calculated using plane wave density functional theory. The surface Si atom decreases the diffusion barrier of Ga and N adatoms relative to the corresponding diffusion barriers on the ideal GaN (0001) surface. In addition, the adatom binding energies were not significantly affected by the Si surface atom. It was therefore concluded that the observed transition in growth mode of GaN cannot be simply explained by the presence of isolated Si atoms on the GaN surface.

  12. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next...

  13. Influence of GaN column diameter on structural properties for InGaN nanocolumns grown on top of GaN nanocolumns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GaN column diameter DGaN on structural properties was systematically investigated for InGaN nanocolumns (NCs grown on top of GaN NCs. We demonstrated a large critical layer thickness of above 400 nm for In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN NCs. The structural properties were changed at the boundary of DGaN=D0 (∼120 nm. Homogeneous InGaN NCs grew axially on the GaN NCs with DGaN≤D0, while InGaN-InGaN core-shell structures were spontaneously formed on the GaN NCs with DGaN>D0. These results can be explained by a growth system that minimizes the total strain energy of the NCs.

  14. Cathodoluminescence studies on GaN on Si(211) and Si(311) substrates; Kathodolumineszenzuntersuchungen an GaN auf Si(211)- und Si(311)-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias; Dempewolf, Anja; Bertram, Frank; Hempel, Thomas; Christen, Juergen; Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Dadgar, Armin; Krost, Alois [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence measurements were used to study GaN layers on Si(211) and Si(311 substrates at liquid helium temperatures. Non-c axis oriented GaN growth allows a reduction of polarization fields and thus the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) that reduces the efficiency of optoelectronic devices. The authors used appropriated high-indices Si(h11) substrates with a MOVPE grown AlN seed layer and an AlGaN buffer layer, two thick GaN layers with an AlN interlayer. The low-temperature luminescence spectra showed three dominant luminescence channels: the bound exciton D(0),X), donor-acceptor pairs (DAP) and basal plane stacking faults luminescence. The stacking fault luminescence on Si(211) is significantly reduced compared to GaN on Si(311). The results indicate a strong inhomogeneity of Si(311) compared to Si(211).

  15. Homoepitaxial n-core: p-shell gallium nitride nanowires: HVPE overgrowth on MBE nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Aric; Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matthew; Dodson, Christopher; Harvey, Todd; Herrero, Andrew; Rourke, Devin; Schlager, John; Sanford, Norman; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Davydov, Albert; Motayed, Abhishek; Tsvetkov, Denis

    2011-11-18

    We present the homoepitaxial growth of p-type, magnesium doped gallium nitride shells by use of halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on n-type gallium nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Scanning electron microscopy shows clear dopant contrast between the core and shell of the nanowire. The growth of magnesium doped nanowire shells shows little or no effect on the lattice parameters of the underlying nanowires, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence measurements of the nanowires show the appearance of sub-bandgap features in the blue and the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of acceptors. Finally, electrical measurements confirm the presence of electrically active holes in the nanowires.

  16. Ab initio investigations of the strontium gallium nitride ternaries Sr 3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5: Promising materials for optoelectronic

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5 could be promising potential materials for applications in the microelectronics, optoelectronics and coating materials areas of research. We studied in detail their structural, elastic, electronic, optical as well as the vibrational properties, by means of density functional theory framework. Both of these ternaries are semiconductors, where Sr3GaN3 exhibits a small indirect gap whereas Sr6GaN5 has a large direct gap. Indeed, their optical properties are reported for radiation up to 40 eV. Charge densities contours, Hirshfeld and Mulliken populations, are reported to investigate the role of each element in the bonding. From the mechanical properties calculation, it is found that Sr6GaN5 is harder than Sr3GaN3, and the latter is more anisotropic than the former. The phonon dispersion relation, density of phonon states and the vibrational stability are reported from the density functional perturbation theory calculations. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of germanium nanowires and germanium/silicon radially heterostructured nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthorpe, Irene Anne

    Semiconductor nanowires offer new opportunities to study physical phenomena in low-dimensional nanostructures. They also possess technologically useful properties for applications in electronics, optics, sensing, and thermoelectrics. Germanium nanowires are of particular interest, because of germanium's compatibility with standard silicon integrated circuit fabrication processes, its high electronic carrier mobilities, and the low temperature required for germanium nanowire growth. In this work, epitaxially-aligned germanium nanowires are grown on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Uniform nanowire diameters between 5 and 50 nm are obtained through the use of monodisperse gold colloids as catalysts. The crystallographic orientation of the nanowires, their strain, and their heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate are characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A process for removing the gold catalysts from the tips of the germanium nanowires is demonstrated. Silicon shells are then heteroepitaxially deposited around the wires to fabricate radial heterostructures. These shells passivate the germanium nanowire surface, create electronic band offsets to confine holes away the surface where they can scatter or recombine, and induce strain which could allow for the engineering of properties such as band gap and carrier mobilities. However, analogous to planar heteroepitaxy, surface roughening and misfit dislocations can relax this strain. The effects of coaxial dimensions on strain relaxation in these structures are analyzed quantitatively by TEM and synchrotron XRD, and these results are related to continuum elasticity models. Lessons learned generated two successful strategies for synthesizing coherent core-shell nanowires with large misfit strain: chlorine surface passivation and growth of nanowires with low-energy sidewall facets. Both approaches avoid the strain

  18. Oxide nanowires for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Yodyingyong, Supan; Xi, Junting; Myers, Daniel; Cao, Guozhong

    2012-03-07

    Oxide nanowire arrays were studied for their applications to solar cells. It was demonstrated that the nanowires could provide direct pathways for electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells and therefore, while forming photoelectrode films, they offered better suppression of charge recombination than nanoparticles. However, the photoelectron films consisting of nanowires suffered a disadvantage in giving large surface area for dye adsorption. Such a shortcoming of nanowires had been exemplified in this paper illustrating that it could be well compensated by incorporating with nanoparticles to form a nanoparticle-nanowire array hybrid photoelectrode film. The oxide nanowires were also demonstrated to be able to enhance the performance of inverted structure polymer solar cells as a cathode buffer layer by establishing a large interface with the polymers so as to facilitate the transport of photogenerated electrons from the polymer to the electron collecting electrode. Such an enhancement effect could be further boosted while the nanowires were replaced with nanotubes; the latter may build up larger interface with the polymers than the former and therefore facilitates the electron transport more efficiently.

  19. Review on photonic properties of nanowires for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkapati, S; Jagadish, C

    2016-07-25

    III-V semiconductor nanowires behave as optical antennae because of their shape anisotropy and high refractive index. The antennae like behavior modifies the absorption and emission properties of nanowires compared to planar materials. Nanowires absorb light more efficiently compared to an equivalent volume planar material, leading to higher short circuit current densities. The modified emission from the nanowires has the potential to increase the open circuit voltage from nanowire solar cells compared to planar solar cells. In order to achieve high efficiency nanowire solar cells it is essential to control the surface state density and doping in nanowires. We review the physics of nanowire solar cells and progress made in addressing the surface recombination and doping of nanowires, with emphasis on GaAs and InP materials.

  20. ZnO-nanowire as a nanogenerator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Markus Andreas; Senz, Stephan; Alexe, Marin; Goesele, Ulrich [Max Planck Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recently nanogenerators for powering nanodevices were reported in which ZnO-nanowire arrays convert mechanical energy in electrical energy by bending the ZnO-nanowires. We simulate the experiments in which the ZnO nanowires were bent by AFM tip by FEM-calculations for an ideal nonconducting piezoelectric ZnO-nanowire with a length of 600 nm and a diameter of 50 nm fixed perpendicular to a substrate. The top part of this nanowire was bent about 140 nm by a force applied at the top of the nanowire. At the point of the applied force the electrical potential has a maximum of +1.3 V. In the rest of the nanowire the electrical potential is +0.3 V for the stretched side and -0.3 V for the compressed. The piezoelectric charge generate the signal on the capacitance between the two sides, which is about 10{sup -5} pF for the whole wire. A lower value of 10{sup -7} pF is estimated for the AFM point contact. However, most ZnO-nanowires are n-doped semiconductors with a typically resistivity of 1 {omega}cm. One consequence is a very fast discharging of the piezoelectric generate charge in the order of magnitude of 1 ps. Even, in the case of an ideal nonconducting nanowire, the voltage at the input capacity of any preamplifier ({proportional_to}1-5 pF) would be of the order of 10{sup -7} V, which corresponds to a charge of about one electron.

  1. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  2. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Topaloglu, S, E-mail: andrey.lysov@uni-due.de [Department of Electronics Engineering, Maltepe University, Marmara Egitim Koeyue, 34857, Maltepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  3. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A.; Offer, M.; Gutsche, C.; Regolin, I.; Topaloglu, S.; Geller, M.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.-J.

    2011-02-01

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  4. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  5. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  6. Chlorine-based plasma etching of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul, R.J.; Briggs, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pearton, S.J.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Constantine, C.; Baratt, C. [Plasma-Therm, Inc., Saint Petersburg, FL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The wide band gap group-III nitride materials continue to generate interest in the semiconductor community with the fabrication of green, blue, and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs), blue lasers, and high temperature transistors. Realization of more advanced devices requires pattern transfer processes which are well controlled, smooth, highly anisotropic and have etch rates exceeding 0.5 {micro}m/min. The utilization of high-density chlorine-based plasmas including electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems has resulted in improved GaN etch quality over more conventional reactive ion etch (RIE) systems.

  7. Pressure-induced phase transition in GaN nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Q; Zhang, W; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Cui, T; Xie, Y; Liu, J; Zou, G

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments on GaN nanocrystals with 50 nm diameter have been carried out using a synchrotron x-ray source and a diamond-anvil cell up to about 79 GPa at room temperature. A pressure-induced first-order structural phase transition from the wurtzite-type structure to the rock-salt-type structure starts at about 48.8 GPa. The rock-salt-type phase persists to the highest pressure in our experimental range.

  8. Role of oxygen at screw dislocations in GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, I; Browning, N D

    2003-10-17

    Here we report the first direct atomic scale experimental observations of oxygen segregation to screw dislocations in GaN using correlated techniques in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The amount of oxygen present in each of the three distinct types of screw dislocation core is found to depend on the evolution and structure of the core, and thus gives rise to a varying concentration of localized states in the band gap. Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, the substitution of oxygen for nitrogen is observed to extend over many monolayers for the open core dislocation.

  9. Erbium Doped GaN Lasers by Optical Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    thermal properties . The thermal conductivity GaN is very high (κ = 230 W/mK) and is more than one order of magnitude higher than YAG (κ = 14 W/mK...the ground state to a higher-lying inner 4f manifold in Er3+ ions without invoking a non- radiative energy transfer , hence generating a much smaller...installation of a high power 980 laser. The system is dedicated to the studies of the optical and lasing properties of Er:GaN crystals. The views

  10. Quantum plasmonic waveguides: Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, C. E. A.; Piccitto, G.; Priolo, F.

    2017-11-01

    Combining miniaturization and good operating speed is a compelling yet crucial task for our society. Plasmonic waveguides enable the possibility of carrying information at optical operating speed while maintaining the dimension of the device in the nanometer range. Here we present a theoretical study of plasmonic waveguides extending our investigation to structures so small that Quantum Size Effects (QSE) become non-negligible, namely quantum plasmonic waveguides. Specifically, we demonstrate and evaluate a blue-shift in Surface Plasmon (SP) resonance energy for an ultra-thin gold nanowire.

  11. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    blende InP nanowires. We have constructed the energy band diagram of the resulting multiquantum well heterostructure and have performed detailed quantum mechanical calculations of the electron and hole wave functions. The excitation power dependent blue-shift of the photoluminescence can be explained...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering.......We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...

  12. Antimonide Heterostructure Nanowires - Growth, Physics and Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the growth and application of antimonide heterostructure nanowires for low-power electronics. In the first part of the thesis, GaSb, InSb and InAsSb nanowire growth is presented, and the distinguishing features of the growth are described. It is found that the presence of Sb results in more than 50 at. % group-III concentration in the Au seed particle on top of the nanowires. It is further concluded that the effective V/III ratio inside the seed particle is reduced co...

  13. Semiconductor Nanowires: What's Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peidong; Yan, Ruoxue; Fardy, Melissa

    2010-04-28

    In this perspective, we take a critical look at the research progress within the nanowire community for the past decade. We discuss issues on the discovery of fundamentally new phenomena versus performance benchmarking for many of the nanowire applications. We also notice that both the bottom-up and top-down approaches have played important roles in advancing our fundamental understanding of this new class of nanostructures. Finally we attempt to look into the future and offer our personal opinions on what the future trends will be in nanowire research.

  14. Electrodeposited L10 CoPt nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallet, J.; Yu-Zhang, K.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of face-centred cubic (fee) CoPt (0.45 nanowires were electrodeposited into thin film nanoporous alumina supported on a Si substrate. The heat treatment under specific conditions was then carried out in order to transform the fee phase into the face-centred tetragonal or L1 ordered...... phase. The influence of both the phase transition and the temperature on the magnetic properties of Co Pt nanowires has been studied. Coercive fields higher than 1 T (10kOe) have been obtained at room temperature with ordered nanowires, 80 nm in diameter....

  15. Silicon carbide nanowires: synthesis and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huczko, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Agnieszka [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University (Poland); Savchyn, Volodymyr; Karbovnyk, Ivan [Department of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Popov, Anatoli I. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized via a combustion synthesis route. Structural studies showed that obtained SiC nanowires belong dominantly to 3C polytype with zincblend structure. Cathodoluminescence spectra from these nanostructures within the temperature range of 77..300 K, show obvious differences with respect to the bulk materials. The exciton band of the bulk 3C-SiC is significantly damped and the prevailing line is found to be at 1.99 eV (77 K), proving the key role of defect centers in optical properties of the investigated nanomaterial. Purified SiC nanowires. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.

  17. Homoepitaxial growth of GaN crystals by Na-flux dipping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taro; Nakamura, Koshi; Imanishi, Masayuki; Murakami, Kosuke; Imabayashi, Hiroki; Takazawa, Hideo; Todoroki, Yuma; Matsuo, Daisuke; Imade, Mamoru; Maruyama, Mihoko; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    The realization of low-dislocation-density bulk GaN crystals is necessary for use in the fabrication of future high-power devices with low power consumption. In this study, we attempted the regrowth of low-dislocation-density (104-105 cm-2) GaN substrates to fabricate thick and low-dislocation-density GaN crystals using the dipping technique with the Na-flux method. In the growth using this dipping technique, the generation of dislocations at the interface between the GaN substrate and the regrowth layer was prevented, and we succeeded in fabricating thick and low-dislocation-density GaN crystals. In the growth without the dipping technique, the surface of the GaN substrate demonstrated meltback immediately before the growth, and dislocations were newly generated. These results indicate that the Na-flux dipping technique has potential use for the fabrication of low-dislocation-density bulk GaN crystals.

  18. A GaN bulk crystal with improved structural quality grown by the ammonothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tadao; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji

    2007-08-01

    The realization of high-performance optoelectronic devices, based on GaN and other nitride semiconductors, requires the existence of a high-quality substrate. Non-polar or semipolar substrates have recently been proven to provide superior optical devices to those on conventional c-plane substrates. Bulk GaN growth enables GaN substrates sliced along various favourable crystal orientations. Ammonothermal growth is an attractive method for bulk GaN growth owing to its potential to grow GaN ingots at low cost. Here we report on improvement in the structural quality of GaN grown by the ammonothermal method. The threading dislocation densities estimated by plan-view transmission electron microscopy observations were less than 1 x 10(6) cm(-2) for the Ga face and 1 x 10(7) cm(-2) for the N face. No dislocation generation at the interface was observed on the Ga face, although a few defects were generated at the interface on the N face. The improvement in the structural quality, together with the previous report on growth rate and scalability, demonstrates the commercial feasibility of the ammonothermal GaN growth.

  19. Reducing dislocation density in GaN films using a cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hui-Youn; Kwon, S. K.; Chang, Y. I.; Cho, M. J.; Park, K. H.

    2009-08-01

    The threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN films grown directly on flat sapphire substrates is typically >10 10/cm 2, which can deteriorate the properties of GaN-based LEDs significantly. This paper reports an approach to reducing the TD density in a GaN layer using a variety of patterned sapphire substrates (PSS). A cone-shaped PSS produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOVCD) was used for GaN deposition. Three types of GaN specimens were prepared at the initial nucleation stage, middle growth stage and final growth stage. The TDs generated on the cone-shaped PSS were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a strain mapping simulation using HRTEM images, which evaluated the residual strain distribution. A large number of TDs were generated and the residual strain by the lattice distortions remained above the top of the cone-shaped regions. However, no TDs and residual strain were observed at the slope of the cone-shaped regions. This might be due to the formation of a GaN layer by lateral overgrowth at the slope of the cone-shaped regions, resulting in less lattice mismatch and incoherency between the GaN and sapphire. In conclusion, the TD density in the GaN layer could be reduced significantly, approximately 10 7/cm 2, using the cone-shaped PSS.

  20. Photoelectrochemical water splitting on nanoporous GaN thin films for energy conversion under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dezhong; Xiao, Hongdi; Fang, Jiacheng; Liu, Jianqiang; Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Xiangdong; Ma, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous (NP) GaN thin films, which were fabricated by an electrochemical etching method at different voltages, were used as photoelectrodes during photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in 1 M oxalic acid solution. Upon illumination at a power density of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), water splitting is observed in NP GaN thin films, presumably resulting from the valence band edge which is more positive than the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In comparison with NP GaN film fabricated at 8 V, NP GaN obtained at 18 V shows nearly twofold enhancement in photocurrent with the maximum photo-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 1.05% at ~0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This enhancement could be explained with (i) the increase of surface area and surface states, and (ii) the decrease of resistances and carrier concentration in the NP GaN thin films. High stability of the NP GaN thin films during the PEC water splitting further confirms that the NP GaN thin film could be applied to the design of efficient solar cells and solar fuel devices.

  1. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  2. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hung; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2010-08-07

    In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ) and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  3. Optimized Spiral Metal-Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Cavity for Ultra-High Circular Dichroism Ultraviolet Lasing at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Chun; Liao, Shu-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-05-25

    Circularly polarized laser sources with small footprints and high efficiencies can possess advanced functionalities in optical communication and biophotonic integrated systems. However, the conventional lasers with additional circular-polarization converters are bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic circuits, and most active chiral plasmonic nanostructures nowadays exhibit broadband emission and low circular dichroism. In this work, with spirals of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWRs) covered by a metal layer, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and -1.6 (±2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with the high degrees of circular polarizations.

  4. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu S; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2012-02-24

    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  6. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu S.; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  7. Radiotracer Spectroscopy on Group II Acceptors in GaN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The semiconductor GaN is already used for the production of high power light emitting diodes in the blue and UV spectral range. But the $\\rho$-type doping, which is usually obtained by Mg doping, is still inefficient due to compensation and passivation effects caused by defects present in the material. It is theoretically predicted, that Be is a more promising candidate for $\\rho$-doping with a lower ionization energy of 60meV. It is our goal to investigate the electrical and optical properties of Be- and Mg-related defects in GaN to clarify the problem of compensation and passivation. The used methods are standard spectroscopic methods in semiconductor physics which are improved by using radioactive isotopes. The radioactive decay of $^{7}$Be and $^{28}$Mg is used to clearly correlate different signals with Be or Mg related defects. We intend to use the spectroscopic techniques Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy (TAS), photoluminescence (PL) and additionally Hall-effect...

  8. GaN nanophosphors for white-light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mirgender; Singh, V. P.; Dubey, Sarvesh; Suh, Youngsuk; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    GaN nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by carbothermal reduction combined with nitridation, using Ga2O3 powder and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as precursors. Characterization of the NPs was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was also performed to detect the chemical states of the different species. A universal yellow luminescence (YL) band was observed from complexes of Ga vacancies with O anti-sites and of O anti-sites with C. Further increments in the C content were observed with continued growth and induced an additional blue luminescence (BL) band. Tuning of the YL and BL bands resulted in white-light emission under certain experimental conditions, thus offering a new way of employing GaN nanophosphors for solid-state white lighting. Calculations of the correlated color temperature and color-quality scale parameters confirmed the utility of the experimental process for different applications.

  9. X-ray detection with GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Schmid, Martin; Thalhammer, Stefan [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Howgate, John; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years precise miniature-dosimeters for real-time detection of X-rays in medicine have been developed with two aspects to monitor radiation in the region of interest and to improve therapeutic methods. Sensors include Germanium or Silicon photoconductive detectors, MOSFETs, and PIN-diodes. While miniaturization of these systems for spatial resolved detection is possible, they suffer from disadvantages. Sensor properties like material degradation, poor measurement stability and a limited detection range circumvent routine clinical applications. Here we show the development and evaluation of radiation detectors based on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films. While previous publications revealed relative low energy absorption of GaN, it is possible to achieve very high signal amplification factors inside the material due to an appropriate sensor configuration, which, in turn, compensates the low energy absorption. Our devices, which have detection volumes smaller than 10{sup (}-6) cm{sup 3}, show a high sensitivity to X-ray intensity and can record the air kerma rate (free-in-air) range of 1 microgray/s to 10 mGy/s with a signal stability of 1% and a linear total dose response over time. The presented results show the potential of GaN-based thin films for dosimetry and imaging applications.

  10. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technolog...

  11. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  12. Oleylamine Assisted Synthesis of Ultralong Copper Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Michael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the hydrothermal synthesis of smooth and ultralong copper nanowires (Cu NW prepared using oleylamine (OM, oleic acid (OA, and Cl- ion as coordinating and etching agents respectively. Cu nanowires with mean diameters around 82.3 nm and lengths exceeding 300 μm were synthesized using 2 % vol. OM and 1.8 mM OA at 120ºC after 12 h. The Cu NWs exhibit five-fold twinning and growth along the [110] direction. The morphological evolution of the products were also observed and discussed. Without Cl-, octahedral crystals instead of nanowires were formed. The addition of oleic acid as coordinating agent resulted to fewer particles and smoother nanowires which exhibit excellent mechanical stability. This method provides a simple, low-cost and high yield synthesis of Cu NWs for applications such as gas sensors and transparent conducting electrodes.

  13. Nonradiative Step Facets in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Zhang, Yunyan; Tait, Edward W; Hine, Nicholas D M; Liu, Huiyun; Beanland, Richard

    2017-04-12

    One of the main advantages of nanowires for functional applications is their high perfection, which results from surface image forces that act on line defects such as dislocations, rendering them unstable and driving them out of the crystal. Here we show that there is a class of step facets that are stable in nanowires, with no long-range strain field or dislocation character. In zinc-blende semiconductors, they take the form of Σ3 (112) facets with heights constrained to be a multiple of three {111} monolayers. Density functional theory calculations show that they act as nonradiative recombination centers and have deleterious effects on nanowire properties. We present experimental observations of these defects on twin boundaries and twins that terminate inside GaAsP nanowires and find that they are indeed always multiples of three monolayers in height. Strategies to use the three-monolayer rule during growth to prevent their formation are discussed.

  14. Epitaxial growth and optical transitions of cubic GaN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, D.; Hankeln, M.; As, D. J.; Lischka, K.; Litz, T.; Waag, A.; Buhrow, T.; Henneberger, F.

    1996-09-01

    Single-phase cubic GaN layers are grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. The temperature dependence of the surface reconstruction is elaborated. The structural stability of the cubic growth in dependence of the growth stoichiometry is studied by RHEED measurements and numerical simulations of the experimental RHEED patterns. Growth oscillations on cubic GaN are recorded at higher substrate temperatures and nearly stoichiometric adatom coverage. Photoluminescence reveals the dominant optical transitions of cubic GaN and, by applying an external magnetic field, their characteristic g factors are determined.

  15. Residual stress distribution and deflection analysis of very thin GaN membrane supported devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, A.; Müller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Comanescu, F.; Purica, M.; Stefanescu, A.; Stavrinidis, A.; Dinescu, A.; Moldoveanu, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the deflection analysis and stress distribution in GaN membranes supported devices. The influence of metallization thickness and type on the deflection and stress distribution was analysed on several test structures. The thickness of the supporting GaN membrane was 0.5 µm. Through this analysis, we hope to gain a better understanding of the technological limits for manufacturing very thin and reliable GaN membrane supported devices like film bulk acoustic resonators and backside-illuminated UV photodetectors. The investigations have been performed by optical profilometry using the white light interferometry technique for the deflection and micro Raman spectroscopy for the stress analysis.

  16. Porous GaN electrode for anodic stripping voltammetry of silver(I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-04-01

    Here we demonstrate porous GaN electrode can be applied for trace Ag(I) detection. Compared to traditional planar electrodes, porous GaN electrode can detect lower concentration of Ag(I) as it possesses more deposition sites (crystal defects) and larger surface area. Under the optimum conditions, porous GaN electrode shows a linear voltammetric response in the Ag(I) concentration range from 1 to 100ppb with the detection limit of 0.5ppb. Such an unmodified, high-porosity and chemically stable electrode is promising to operate in real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser action in Eu-doped GaN thin-film cavity at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Steckl, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    Rare-earth-based lasing action in GaN is demonstrated. Room-temperature stimulated emission (SE) was obtained at 620 nm from an optical cavity formed by growing in situ Eu-doped GaN thin films on sapphire substrates. The SE threshold for optical pumping of a ˜1 at. % Eu-doped GaN sample was ˜10kW/cm2. The SE threshold was accompanied by reductions in the emission linewidth and lifetime. A modal gain of ˜43cm-1 and a modal loss of ˜20cm-1 were obtained.

  18. 10kW TWT Transition to GaN IRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Research 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) December 2014-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 10kW TWT Transition to GaN IRE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...to develop a Gallium Nitride (GaN) replacement for 10kW Traveling Wave Tube ( TWT ). A phased approach will be used to develop a solid state...replacement for the TWT . Phase I covered by this IRE, was to do market research on commercially available GaN transistors as a substitute for traveling wave

  19. Interfacial Structure and Chemistry of GaN on Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yucheng; Cui, Ying; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Lieten, Ruben R.; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    2013-12-01

    The interface of GaN grown on Ge(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is resolved by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. A novel interfacial structure with a 5∶4 closely spaced atomic bilayer is observed that explains why the interface is flat, crystalline, and free of GeNx. Density functional theory based total energy calculations show that the interface bilayer contains Ge and Ga atoms, with no N atoms. The 5∶4 bilayer at the interface has a lower energy than a direct stacking of GaN on Ge(111) and enables the 5∶4 lattice-matching growth of GaN.

  20. Stacking fault energies in Si doped GaN: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, J. A.; Bristowe, P. D.

    2000-07-01

    The variation of stacking fault energy in GaN as a function of silicon doping is calculated using density functional theory. It is found that the stacking fault energy reduces with increasing silicon concentration in agreement with experimental observations of higher stacking fault densities in Si doped GaN compared to undoped GaN. The result is explained in terms of a decrease in the magnitude of the Mulliken charges on the atoms as silicon is incorporated into the lattice and an increase in the overlap populations. We propose that Mulliken charges can be used to predict how any substitutional impurity will influence the stacking fault formation energy.

  1. Microstructures of GaN thin films grown on graphene layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyobin; Chung, Kunook; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Chan Soon; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Miyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2012-01-24

    Plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images show the microstructural properties of GaN thin films grown on graphene layers, including dislocation types and density, crystalline orientation and grain boundaries. The roles of ZnO nanowalls and GaN intermediate layers in the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on graphene, revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan M; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27.6 at liquid helium temperature. These sub-100-nm-diameter structures are promising components for solar cells as well as electronic applications.

  3. Step-flow kinetics in nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C-Y; Tersoff, J; Reuter, M C; Stach, E A; Ross, F M

    2010-11-05

    Nanowire growth occurs by step flow at the wire-catalyst interface, with strikingly different step-flow kinetics for solid versus liquid catalysts. Here we report quantitative in situ measurements of step flow together with a kinetic model that reproduces the behavior. This allows us to identify the key parameters controlling step-flow growth, evaluate changes in the catalyst composition during growth, and identify the most favorable conditions for growing abrupt heterojunctions in nanowires.

  4. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, M; Bond, T; Behymer, E; Chang, A

    2010-02-23

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 103 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  5. Periodic nanowire array at the crystal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsutomo; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-07-23

    A dislocation in a crystalline material has dangling bonds at its core and a strong strain field in its vicinity. Consequently, the dislocation attracts solute atoms and forms a so-called Cottrell atmosphere along the dislocation. A crystalline dislocation can be used as a template to produce nanowires by selectively doping foreign atoms along the dislocation. However, control of the configuration, spacing, and density of the formed periodic nanowire array has heretofore been extremely difficult. Here we show a method for fabricating ordered, electrically conductive nanowire arrays using periodic dislocations at crystal interfaces. As a demonstration, we fabricated arrays of titanium nanowires arranged at intervals of either 13 or 90 nm and then confirmed by scanning probe microscopy that they exhibit electrical conductivity inside an insulating aluminum oxide. Significantly, we were able to precisely control nanowire periodicity by the choice of crystal orientation and/or crystal planes at the crystal interface. This simple method for the fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays of highly controlled density should be widely applicable to electrical, magnetic, and optical devices.

  6. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-05-26

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 {mu}m thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  7. Effect of local fields on the Mg acceptor in GaN films and GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanut, M. E.; Dashdorj, J.; Sunay, U. R.; Leach, J. H.; Udwary, K.

    2016-10-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Mg acceptor is studied in a variety of GaN samples, including mm-thick free-standing substrates and sub-micron heteroepitaxial films. The former allows a view of the acceptor unique for EPR—in an environment with less than 107 cm-3 dislocations and doping densities ranging from 4 × 1016 to 6 × 1018 cm-3. By probing Mg in a broad range of samples in one study a new feature of the acceptor emerges. The EPR data reveal an anisotropic line shape that reflects a change in the crystal field in the vicinity of the Mg acceptor. This feature must be accommodated by any of the models proposed for the Mg acceptor. Here, we show that one such previously proposed model agrees well with the EPR data obtained from the wide variety of samples studied. The work implies that Mg-doped GaN contains a common Mg-related defect which can be affected by local crystal fields established during growth.

  8. Nanowire assembly, e.g. for optical probes, comprises optically trapping high aspect ratio semiconductor nanowire with infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching nanowire to organic or inorganic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Pauzauskie, P.; Radenovic, A.; Trepagnier, E.; Liphardt, J.; Yang, P.

    2007-01-01

    NOVELTY - A nanowire assembly method comprises optically trapping a semiconductor nanowire with an infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching the nanowire to an organic or inorganic structure by laser fusing. The nanowire is further trapped in a fluid environment. The optical trap has a beam wavelength of 1064 nm. The nanowire has an aspect ratio greater than 100 and a diameter less than 100 (preferably less than 80) nm. The nanowire and the organic or inorganic structure form a heterost...

  9. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  10. Protein immobilization onto electrochemically synthesized CoFe nanowires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2015-01-01

    CoFe nanowires have been synthesized by the electrodeposition technique into the pores of a polycarbonate membrane with a nominal pore diameter of 50 nm, and the composition of CoFe nanowires varying...

  11. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  12. Optical properties of AlGaN nanowires synthesized via ion beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Santanu; Magudapathy, P.; Sivadasan, A. K.; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-05-01

    AlGaN plays a vital role in hetero-structure high electron mobility transistors by employing a two-dimensional electron gas as an electron blocking layer in multi-quantum well light emitting diodes. Nevertheless, the incorporation of Al into GaN for the formation of the AlGaN alloy is limited by the diffusion barrier formed by instant nitridation of Al adatoms by reactive atomic N. The incorporation of Al above the miscibility limit, however, can be achieved by the ion beam technique. The well known ion beam mixing (IBM) technique was carried out with the help of Ar+ irradiation for different fluences. A novel approach was also adopted for the synthesis of AlGaN by the process of post-irradiation diffusion (PID) as a comparative study with the IBM technique. The optical investigations of AlGaN nanowires, synthesized via two different methods of ion beam processing, are reported. The effect of irradiation fluence and post-irradiation annealing temperature on the random alloy formation was studied by the vibrational and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. Vibrational studies show one-mode phonon behavior corresponding to the longitudinal optical (LO) mode of A1 symmetry [A1(LO)] for the wurtzite phase of AlGaN nanowires in the random alloy model. A maximum Al atomic percentage of ˜6.3%-6.7% was calculated with the help of band bowing formalism from the Raman spectral analysis for samples synthesized in IBM and PID processes. PL studies show the extent of defects present in these samples.

  13. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  14. Long-range magnetostatic interactions in arrays of nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, V; González, J M; Vázquez, M

    2000-01-01

    Experimental measurements and micromagnetic simulations of the hysteresis loops of arrays of cobalt nanowires are compared here. Arrays of cobalt nanowires (200 nm in diameter) were electrodeposited into the pores of alumina membranes (thickness 60 mu m). Their hysteresis loops along the axial direction of nanowires were measured using vibrating sample magnetometry. Micromagnetic simulations were performed considering dipolar interaction between nanowires leading to similar hysteresis loops as those obtained experimentally.

  15. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven Lawrence [Storrs, CT; Yuan, Jikang [Storrs, CT

    2011-02-15

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves.

  16. Vertical nanowire probes for intracellular signaling of living cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Rhim, Hyewhon; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Park, Seung-Han; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The single living cell action potential was measured in an intracellular mode by using a vertical nanoelectrode. For intracellular interfacing, Si nanowires were vertically grown in a controlled manner, and optimum conditions, such as diameter, length, and nanowire density, were determined by culturing cells on the nanowires. Vertical nanowire probes were then fabricated with a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process including sequential deposition of the passivation and electr...

  17. Development of Epitaxial GaN Films for RF Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop epitaxial GaN films with threading dislocation density less than 10^6 cm^-2. We propose an innovative approach...

  18. Maskless epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN layers on structured Si(111) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, A.; Rodt, S.; Reißmann, L.; Bimberg, D.; Schröder, H.; Obermeier, E.; Riemann, T.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.

    2001-02-01

    GaN layers are laterally overgrown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on structured Si(111) substrates in a single growth process. The substrates are structured with parallel grooves along the Si or perpendicular to the Si direction by standard photolithography and subsequent dry etching. Due to the anisotropic chemical dry etch process, the remaining Si ridges are underetched. The GaN layer grows nearly exclusively on the bottom of the grooves and on the top of the ridges between the grooves. These two growth fronts are completely separated from each other. As a consequence, the GaN layer growing from the ridge area between grooves can extend over the grooves. This process is similar to the so called pendeo-epitaxy process, but is completely mask free during growth and does not require any growth interruption. The improvement of the crystalline and the optical quality of the GaN layer is demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy.

  19. Graphene quilts for thermal management of high-power GaN transistors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Zhong; Liu, Guanxiong; Khan, Javed M; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we show that thermal management of GaN transistors can be substantially improved via introduction of alternative heat-escaping channels implemented with few-layer graphene-an excellent heat conductor...

  20. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  1. Etching and ellipsometry studies on CL-VPE grown GaN epilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puviarasu P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface morphological characteristics of wet chemical etched GaN layers grown at different temperatures on (0 0 0 1 sapphire substrates by Chloride-Vapor Phase Epitaxy (Cl-VPE have been studied using optical microscope. Significant surface morphology changes have been observed in correlation to the growth temperature and etching time. Also optical properties of the as grown and high-energy silicon (Si ion irradiated gallium nitride (GaN epilayers were studied using monochromatic ellipsometry. The effect of ion fluences on the refractive index of the GaN has been investigated and it has been found to decrease with an increase of ion fluence. This decrease is attributed to irradiation-induced defects and polycrystallization which plays an important role in determining the optical properties of silicon (Si ion irradiated GaN layers.

  2. Identifying threading dislocations in GaN films and substrates by electron channelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladasa, Ranga J; Liu, Fang; Porter, Lisa M; Davis, Robert F; Koleske, Daniel D; Mulholland, Greg; Jones, Kenneth A; Picard, Yoosuf N

    2011-12-01

    Electron channelling contrast imaging of threading dislocations in GaN (0002) substrates and epitaxial films has been demonstrated using a conventional polepiece-mounted backscatter detector in a commercial scanning electron microscope. The influence of accelerating voltage and diffraction vector on contrast features denoting specific threading dislocation types has been studied. As confirmed by coordinated transmission electron microscopy analysis, electron channelling contrast imaging contrast features for edge-type threading dislocations are spatially smaller than mixed-type threading dislocations in GaN. This ability to delineate GaN edge threading dislocations from mixed type was also confirmed by defect-selective etch processing using molten MgO/KOH. This study validates electron channelling contrast imaging as a nondestructive and widely accessible method for spatially mapping and identifying dislocations in GaN with wider applicability for other single-crystal materials. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. High-resistance GaN epilayers with low dislocation density via growth mode modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. Y.; Xu, F. J.; Wang, J. M.; Lu, L.; Yang, Z. J.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.

    2016-09-01

    High-resistance GaN with low dislocation density adopting growth mode modification has been investigated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The sheet resistance of the order of 1016 Ω/sq has been achieved at room temperature by diminishing the oxygen impurity level close to the substrate with an AlN blocking layer. Attributed to this method which offers more freedom to tailor the growth mode, a three-dimensional (3D) growth process is introduced by adjusting the growth pressure and temperature at the initial stage of the GaN epitaxy to improve the crystalline quality. The large 3D GaN grains formed during this period roughen the surface, and the following coalescence of the GaN grains causes threading dislocations bending, which finally remarkably reduces the dislocation density.

  4. Formation of helical dislocations in ammonothermal GaN substrate by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibuchi, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kimoto, Yasuji; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2016-03-01

    GaN substrate produced by the basic ammonothermal method and an epitaxial layer on the substrate was evaluated using synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and transmission electron microscopy. We revealed that the threading dislocations present in the GaN substrate are deformed into helical dislocations and the generation of the voids by heat treatment in the substrate for the first observation in the GaN crystal. These phenomena are formed by the interactions between the dislocations and vacancies. The helical dislocation was formed in the substrate region, and not in the epitaxial layer region. Furthermore, the evaluation of the influence of the dislocations on the leakage current of Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on the epitaxial layer is discussed. The dislocations did not affect the leakage current characteristics of the epitaxial layer. Our results suggest that the deformation of dislocations in the GaN substrate does not adversely affect the epitaxial layer.

  5. Temperature dependence of energy transfer mechanisms in Eu-doped GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Won; Everitt, Henry O.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Zavada, J. M.

    2004-06-01

    The temperature dependent behavior of continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence of Eu-doped GaN in the visible region is measured for both the 5D0→7F2 and 5D0→7F3 transitions. The radiative decay of these transitions, following pulsed laser excitation of the GaN host, is monitored by a grating spectrometer and photomultiplier tube detector system. In addition to these two radiative energy transfer pathways within Eu3+, the data reveal two nonradiative energy transfer paths between Eu3+ and the host GaN. Decay constants for the relaxation processes are extracted from the data using a numerically solved rate equation model. Although the dominant radiative relaxation processes decayed with a temperature insensitive decay constant of 166 μs, a prominent role for nonradiative transfer between Eu3+ and impurities within the GaN host was deduced above 180 K.

  6. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  7. Robust Visible and Infrared Light Emitting Devices Using Rare-Earth-Doped GaN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steckl, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) dopants (such as Er, Eu, Tm) in the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) GaN are investigated for the fabrication of robust visible and infrared light emitting devices at a variety of wavelengths...

  8. Thermal Modeling of GaN HEMTs on Sapphire and Diamond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salm, III, Roman P

    2005-01-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductors have entered into Naval radar use and will eventually replace vacuum tube and conventional solid-state amplifiers for all modern military radar and communications applications. Gallium Nitride (GaN...

  9. Fabrication of a Lateral Polarity GaN MESFET: An Exploratory Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes exploratory studies in the fabrication of the GaN LPH structures and their application in the fabrication of a depletion-mode metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs...

  10. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 743. GaN and Related Alloys - 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wetzel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Symposium L, "GaN and Related Alloys-2002," was held December 2-6 at the 2002 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts During nine half-day oral sessions, nine invited talks and 53 contributed talks...

  11. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  12. Microstructure evolution of GaN buffer layer on MgAl 2O 4 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.-F.; Han, P.-D.; Cheng, L.-S.; Zhang, Z.; Duan, S.-K.; Teng, X.-G.

    1998-10-01

    Microstructure of GaN buffer layer grown on (1 1 1)MgAl 2O 4 substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been observed that the early deposition of GaN buffer layer on the substrate at a relatively low temperature formed a continual island-sublayer (5 nm thick) with hexagonal crystallographic structure, and the subsequent GaN buffer deposition led to crystal columns which are composed of nano-crystal slices with mixed cubic and hexagonal phases. After high-temperature annealing, the crystallinity of nano-crystal slices and island-sublayer in the buffer layer have been improved. The formation of threading dislocations in the GaN film is attributed not only to the lattice mismatch of GaN/MgAl 2O 4 interface, but also to the stacking mismatches at the crystal column boundaries.

  13. LEDs on HVPE grown GaN substrates: Influence of macroscopic surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK. S. Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the strong influence of GaN substrate surface morphology on optical properties and performance of light emitting devices grown on freestanding GaN. As-grown freestanding HVPE GaN substrates show excellent AFM RMS and XRD FWHM values over the whole area, but distinctive features were observed on the surface, such as macro-pits, hillocks and facets extending over several millimeters. Electroluminescence measurements reveal a strong correlation of the performance and peak emission wavelength of LEDs with each of these observed surface features. This results in multiple peaks and non-uniform optical output power for LEDs on as-grown freestanding GaN substrates. Removal of these surface features by chemical mechanical polishing results in highly uniform peak wavelength and improved output power over the whole wafer area.

  14. Thermal Quenching of Photoluminescence from Er-Doped GaN Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, J. T; Hoemmerich, U; Lee, D. C; Heikenfeld, J; Steckl, A. J; Zavada, J. M

    2002-01-01

    The green (537 and 558 nm) and near infrared (1.54 micrometers) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Er-doped GaN thin films have been investigated as a function of temperature, excitation wavelength, and pump intensity...

  15. Nanowires: properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quasi one-dimensional nanowires possess unique electrical, electronic, thermoelectrical, optical, magnetic and chemical properties, which are different from that of their parent counterpart. The physical properties of nanowires are influenced by the morphology of the nanowires, diameter dependent band gap, carrier ...

  16. Theory of surface second-harmonic generation in silica nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    -based nanowires is critically discussed, based on simulations of second-harmonic generation in nanowires with a fluctuating phase-matching wavelength. It is concluded that efficient wavelength conversion will require strong improvements in the nanowire uniformity, peak powers well in excess of 10 KW, increase...

  17. Understanding quantum confinement in nanowires: basics, applications and possible laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S Noor

    2014-10-22

    A comprehensive investigation of quantum confinement in nanowires has been carried out. Though applied to silicon nanowires (SiNWs), it is general and applicable to all nanowires. Fundamentals and applications of quantum confinement in nanowires and possible laws obeyed by these nanowires, have been investigated. These laws may serve as backbones of nanowire science and technology. The relationship between energy band gap and nanowire diameter has been studied. This relationship appears to be universal. A thorough review indicates that the first principles results for quantum confinement vary widely. The possible cause of this variation has been examined. Surface passivation and surface reconstruction of nanowires have been elucidated. It has been found that quantum confinement owes its origin to surface strain resulting from surface passivation and surface reconstruction and hence thin nanowires may actually be crystalline-core/amorphous-shell (c-Si/a-Si) nanowires. Experimental data available in the literature corroborate with the suggestion. The study also reveals an intrinsic relationship between quantum confinement and the surface amorphicity of nanowires. It demonstrates that surface amorphicity may be an important tool to investigate the electronic, optoelectronic and sensorial properties of quantum-confined nanowires.

  18. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  19. Measurement of light diffusion in ZnO nanowire forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M.A.M.; van der Wel, R.E.C.; Dijkhuis, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Optimum design of efficient nanowire solar cells requires better understanding of light diffusion in a nanowire array. Here we demonstrate that our recently developed ultrafast all-optical shutter can be used to directly measure the dwell time of light in a nanowire array. Our measurements on

  20. Microbial nanowires and methods of making and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, Gemma; Cologgi, Dena; Worden, Robert Mark; Castro-Forero, Angelines A.; Steidl, Rebecca

    2017-03-21

    Electrically conductive nanowires, and genetically or chemically modified production and use of such nanowires with altered conductive, adhesive, coupling or other properties are described. The disclosed nanowires are used as device or device components or may be adapted for soluble metal remediation.

  1. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D.S.

    2010-06-02

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [11-20] direction with a rectangular crosssection and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with {approx}1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitals to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states.

  2. Evolution of deep centers in GaN grown by hydride vapor phaseepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Look, D.C.; Jasinski, J.; Benamara, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar, R.J.

    2001-04-18

    Deep centers and dislocation densities in undoped n GaN, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), were characterized as a function of the layer thickness by deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. As the layer thickness decreases, the variety and concentration of deep centers increase, in conjunction with the increase of dislocation density. Based on comparison with electron irradiation induced centers, some dominant centers in HVPE GaN are identified as possible point defects.

  3. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Characterization of an Mg- implanted GaN p-i-n Diode Travis J. Anderson, Jordan D. Greenlee, Boris N. Feigelson, Karl D. Hobart, and Francis J...Kub Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Abstract: A p-i-n diode formed by the implantation of Mg in GaN was fabricated and...characterized. After implantation , Mg was activated using the symmetrical multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique with heating pulses up to 1340C

  4. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography of crystallographic defects in GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Sintonen, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the crystal structures of bulk, homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial GaN were characterized by synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and defect selective etching (DSE). The SR-XRT image contrast of threading screw dislocations and threading mixed dislocations in GaN were determined. The images caused by the strain fields of threading screw dislocations and threading screw dislocation clusters were simulated, and the simulated and experimental...

  5. Efficient Incorporation of Mg in Solution Grown GaN Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Efficient Incorporation of Mg in Solution Grown GaN Crystals Jaime A. Freitas, Jr., Boris N. Feigelson, and Travis J. Anderson Naval Research...and optical spectroscopy studies carried out on GaN crystals grown in solution detect and identify Mg as the dominant shallow acceptor. Selective...selected crystal orientations.6) HVPE wafers are in general n-type (free carrier concentration of typically 5 1017/cm3), have a high dislocation

  6. Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A while reverse biased at 1200V. The safe zone of the single pulse avalanche current is limited by peak pulse power and energy deposited in the...Vertical GaN devices are studied under cryogenic conditions, radiation, and ruggedness performance under repetitive avalanche stress. Mg, which is used...temperatures below 200K. Impact ionization based avalanche breakdown in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77K and 423K for the first time

  7. An ultra-thin compliant sapphire membrane for the growth of less strained, less defective GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Daeyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Choi, Daehan; Shin, In-Su; Lee, Donghyun; Bae, Dukkyu; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-05-01

    An ultra-thin (26 nm) sapphire (Al2O3) membrane was used as a compliant substrate for the growth of high quality GaN. The density of misfit dislocations per unit length at the interface between the GaN layer and the sapphire membrane was reduced by 28% compared to GaN on the conventional sapphire substrate. Threading dislocation density in GaN on the sapphire membrane was measured to be 2.4×108/cm2, which is lower than that for GaN on the conventional sapphire substrate (3.2×108/cm2). XRD and micro-Raman results verifed that the residual stress in GaN on the sapphire membrane was as low as 0.02 GPa due to stress absorption by the ultra-thin compliant sapphire membrane.

  8. Evolution of threading dislocations in GaN epitaxial laterally overgrown on GaN templates using self-organized graphene as a nano-mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Cao, Bing; He, Shunyu; Qi, Lin; Li, Zongyao; Cai, Demin; Zhang, Yumin; Ren, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Ke

    2017-09-01

    Growth of high-quality GaN within a limited thickness is still a challenge, which is important both in improving device performance and in reducing the cost. In this work, a self-organized graphene is investigated as a nano-mask for two-step GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth (2S-ELOG) in hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Efficient improvement of crystal quality was revealed by x-ray diffraction. The microstructural properties, especially the evolution of threading dislocations (TDs), were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Stacking faults blocked the propagation of TDs, and fewer new TDs were subsequently generated by the coalescence of different orientational domains and lateral-overgrown GaN. This evolution mechanism of TDs was different from that of traditional ELOG technology or one-step ELOG (1S-ELOG) technology using a two-dimensional (2D) material as a mask.

  9. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  10. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  11. From Stable ZnO and GaN Clusters to Novel Double Bubbles and Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Farrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A bottom up approach is employed in the design of novel materials: first, gas-phase “double bubble” clusters are constructed from high symmetry, Th, 24 and 96 atom, single bubbles of ZnO and GaN. These are used to construct bulk frameworks. Upon geometry optimization—minimisation of energies and forces computed using density functional theory—the symmetry of the double bubble clusters is reduced to either C1 or C2, and the average bond lengths for the outer bubbles are 1.9 Å, whereas the average bonds for the inner bubble are larger for ZnO than for GaN; 2.0 Å and 1.9 Å, respectively. A careful analysis of the bond distributions reveals that the inter-bubble bonds are bi-modal, and that there is a greater distortion for ZnO. Similar bond distributions are found for the corresponding frameworks. The distortion of the ZnO double bubble is found to be related to the increased flexibility of the outer bubble when composed of ZnO rather than GaN, which is reflected in their bulk moduli. The energetics suggest that (ZnO12@(GaN48 is more stable both in gas phase and bulk frameworks than (ZnO12@(ZnO48 and (GaN12@(GaN48. Formation enthalpies are similar to those found for carbon fullerenes.

  12. Control of dislocation morphology and lattice distortion in Na-flux GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S.; Mizuta, Y.; Imanishi, M.; Imade, M.; Mori, Y.; Sumitani, K.; Imai, Y.; Kimura, S.; Sakai, A.

    2017-09-01

    The dislocation morphology and lattice distortion, including the tilting and twisting of lattice planes, at the Na-flux GaN/seed-GaN interface were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and position-dependent nanobeam X-ray diffraction (nanoXRD). The results revealed that the dislocation morphology and lattice distortion in Na-flux GaN at the initial growth stage are strongly influenced by the seed-GaN surface morphology and the growth mode of Na-flux GaN. From the TEM results, one can observe that the formation of dislocation-related etch pits (DREPs) on the seed-GaN surface and the three-dimensional (3D) growth mode for Na-flux GaN give rise to the bending and lateral propagation of dislocations penetrating from the seed-GaN to the Na-flux GaN. This simultaneously results in homogenization of the GaN crystal domain structure as confirmed by nanoXRD. The mechanism responsible for the bending and lateral propagation of dislocations by the formation of DREPs and the 3D growth mode for the Na-flux GaN and the correlation between the dislocation morphology and the lattice distortion are discussed on the basis of TEM and nanoXRD results.

  13. Synthesis of GaN Nanorods by a Solid-State Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Bao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An atom-economical and eco-friendly chemical synthetic route was developed to synthesize wurtzite GaN nanorods by the reaction of NaNH2 and the as-synthesized orthorhombic GaOOH nanorods in a stainless steel autoclave at 600∘C. The lengths of the GaN nanorods are in the range of 400–600 nm and the diameters are about 80–150 nm. The process of orthorhombic GaOOH nanorods transformation into wurtzite GaN nanorods was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, indicating that the GaN product retained essentially the same basic topological morphology in contrast to that of the GaOOH precursor. It was found that rhombohedral Ga2O3 was the intermediate between the starting orthorhombic GaOOH precursor and the final wurtzite GaN product. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that the as-prepared wurtzite GaN nanorods showed strong blue emission.

  14. Electron spin dynamics in cubic GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buß, J. H.; Schupp, T.; As, D. J.; Brandt, O.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2016-12-01

    The electron spin dynamics in cubic GaN is comprehensively investigated by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy over a wide range of temperatures, magnetic fields, and doping densities. The spin dynamics is found to be governed by the interplay of spin relaxation of localized electrons and Dyakonov-Perel relaxation of delocalized electrons. Localized electrons significantly contribute to spin relaxation up to room temperature at moderate doping levels, while Dyakonov-Perel relaxation dominates for high temperatures or degenerate doping levels. Quantitative agreement to Dyakonov-Perel theory requires a larger value of the spin-splitting constant than theoretically predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of charged dislocations.

  15. Fabrication of AlGaN/GaN Ω-shaped nanowire fin-shaped FETs by a top-down approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ki-Sik; Sindhuri, Vodapally; Jo, Young-Woo; Son, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    An AlGaN/GaN-based Ω-shaped nanowire fin-shaped FET (FinFET) with a fin width of 50 nm was fabricated using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-based lateral wet etching. An atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO2 side-wall layer served as the etching mask. ALD Al2O3 and TiN layers were used as the gate dielectric and gate metal, respectively. The Ω-shaped gate structure fully depletes the active fin body and almost completely separates the depleted fin from the underlying thick GaN buffer layer, resulting in superior device performance. The top-down processing proposed in this work provides a viable pathway towards gate-all-around devices for III-nitride semiconductors.

  16. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Yu Shih; Makoto Shiojiri; Ching-Hsiang Chen; Sheng-Fu Yu; Chung-Ting Ko; Jer-Ren Yang; Ray-Ming Lin; Miin-Jang Chen

    2015-01-01

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic la...

  17. DFT modeling of carbon incorporation in GaN(0001) and GaN(000 1 \\xAF ) metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempisty, Pawel; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kusaba, Akira; Shiraishi, Kenji; Krukowski, Stanislaw; Bockowski, Michal; Kakimoto, Koichi; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The carbon incorporation mechanism in GaN(0001) and GaN(000 1 ¯) during MOVPE was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results confirm that the crucial factors for carbon incorporation are Fermi level pinning and accompanying surface band bending. In addition, the lattice symmetry has a strong dependence on the stability of carbon in a few subsurface layers, which results from interactions between the impurities and surface states. It was shown that these effects are responsible for facilitating or hindering the incorporation of impurities and dopants. The influence of diluent gas species (hydrogen or nitrogen) on carbon incorporation was discussed.

  18. Wafer-Scale High-Throughput Ordered Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Yaguang

    2010-09-08

    This article presents an effective approach for patterned growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with high throughput and low cost at wafer scale without using cleanroom technology. Periodic hole patterns are generated using laser interference lithography on substrates coated with the photoresist SU-8. ZnO NWs are selectively grown through the holes via a low-temperature hydrothermal method without using a catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density, and as-synthesized morphology. The development of textured ZnO seed layers for replacing single crystalline GaN and ZnO substrates extends the large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on substrates of other materials, such as polymers, Si, and glass. This combined approach demonstrates a novel method of manufacturing large-scale patterned one-dimensional nanostructures on various substrates for applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optoelectronics, and electronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and defect selective etching analysis of threading dislocations in GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Sintonen, Sakari; Rudzinski, Mariusz; Suihkonen, Sami; Jussila, Henri; Knetzger, Michael; Meissner, Elke; Danilewsky, Andreas; Tuomi, Turkka O.; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    The crystal quality of bulk GaN crystals is continuously improving due to advances in GaN growth techniques. Defect characterization of the GaN substrates by conventional methods is impeded by the very low dislocation density and a large scale defect analysis method is needed. White beam synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT) is a rapid and non-destructive technique for dislocation analysis on a large scale. In this study, the defect structure of an ammonothermal c-plane GaN substrat...

  20. Growth and stacking fault reduction in semi-polar GaN films on planar Si(112) and Si(113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Veit, Peter; Mueller, Mathias; Schmidt, Gordon; Dempewolf, Anja; Hempel, Thomas; Blaesing, Juergen; Bertram, Frank; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Fakultaet fuer Naturwissenschaften, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    We report on metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of semi-polar growth of nearly (1 anti 106) oriented GaN films on Si(112) and (1 anti 105) and (1 anti 104) GaN on Si(113). We analyze the GaN crystallites by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL). A correlation between optical properties and microstructure is presented. Our studies reveal a significant reduction of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) in semi-polar GaN grown on planar Si(112) by applying a low temperature (LT) AlN interlayer. We find that the insertion of the LT-AlN interlayer can eliminate the stacking faults in the upper GaN layer, when the LT-AlN interlayer is inserted on a smooth GaN buffer. The LT-AlN interlayer results in lattice relaxation due to misfit dislocation formation at the GaN/LT-AlN interface. In comparison, GaN grown on Si(113) with same growth conditions and a rough GaN surface does not show any BSF reduction while it is reduced for a smooth GaN layer (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Silicon nanowire properties from theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, H.M.

    2007-09-10

    Silicon has played an outstanding role at the end of the 20th century and is still one of the most important components for micro computing. In recent years the ability to miniaturize semiconductor structures and devices to nanometer length scales has opened an all new field of physics, i.e. nanoscience. Simply by miniaturizing the size of semiconducting structures the physics describing electronic or vibronic properties has to be altered fundamentally leading to new phenomena and interesting effects. For silicon the two major mile-stones where the fabrication of porous silicon and later the fabrication of free-standing silicon nanowires. The intense research concerning the fabrication of silicon nanowires has led to single crystalline nanowires with diameters of only a few nanometers. The hope that drove these intense research efforts where to find efficient photonic properties in these quantized systems. In the first part of this work detailed theoretical investigations are presented for the commonly observed ([111] and [11 anti 2]) representatives of free-standing and for the most frequently discussed ([001]) silicon nanowires not (so far) observed as free standing wires. Using density functional theory in the local density approximation the electronic properties as well as the structural changes due to the reduced dimensionality of silicon nanowires are calculated and discussed. The comparison to recent experimental, scanning tunneling experiments reveal a fundamental discrepancy between the calculated band structures and experimental findings. With our results we are able to explain these differences. Raman investigations on silicon nanowires where in a state of controversial discussion about the origin of observed red shifted spectra. Various contributions like quantum confinement, photo excitation and thermal effects where discussed. The second part of this thesis contributes to this discussion, with detailed laser power dependent Raman spectroscopic

  2. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibart, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an extremely promising wide band gap semiconductor material for optoelectronics and high temperature, high power electronics. Actually, GaN is probably the most important semiconductor since silicon. However, achievement of its full potential has still been limited by a dramatic lack of suitable GaN bulk single crystals. GaN has a high melting temperature and a very high decomposition pressure; therefore it cannot be grown using conventional methods used for GaAs or Si like Czochraslski or Bridgman growths. Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal commercially available, all technological development of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Most of the current device structures are grown on sapphire or 6H-SiC. However, since their lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients are not well-matched to GaN, the epitaxial growth generates huge densities of defects, with threading dislocations (TDs) being the most prevalent (109-1011 cm-2). As a comparison, homoepitaxially grown GaAs exhibits ~102-104 dislocation cm-2, and homoepitaxial Si almost 0. Actually this large density of TDs in GaN drastically limits the performance and operating lifetime of nitride-based devices. Therefore, there is currently a tremendous technological effort to reduce these defects. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is currently the most widely used technology. Actually, all optoelectronic commercial device structures are fabricated using MOVPE. In MOVPE, the most appropriate precursor for nitrogen is ammonia (NH3), whereas either trimethyl or triethylgallium may be used as a gallium source. MOVPE of GaN requires a high partial pressure of NH3, high growth temperatures (~1000-1100°C) and a growth chamber specially designed to avoid premature reactions between the ammonia and gallium alkyls. Since sapphire (or 6H-SiC) and GaN are highly mismatched, direct growth of GaN is impossible. Therefore, the growth of GaN on any substrate first requires

  3. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhili

    2017-04-11

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  4. Light-trapping properties of the Si inclined nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Huangfu, Huichao; He, Long; Wang, Jiazhuang; Yang, Dong; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    The light trapping performance of Si nanowire with different inclination angles were systematically studied by COMSOL Multiphysics. The inclined nanowires with inclination angles smaller than 60° show greater light trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanowires. The Si solar cell with the inclined nanowires of the optimal parameters, whose θ=30°, P=400 nm, D=140 nm, can achieve a 32.395 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density and a 35.655% conversion efficiency. The study of the inclined nanowire provides an effective way for further utilization of the incoming light.

  5. Identification and characterization of icosahedral metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Samuel; Serena, Pedro A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Guerrero, Carlo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Paredes, Ricardo [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apto. 20632, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela); Garcia-Mochales, Pedro [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Tomas y Valiente 7, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    We present and discuss an algorithm to identify ans characterize the long icosahedral structures (staggered pentagonal nanowires with 1-5-1-5 atomic structure) that appear in Molecular Dynamics simulations of metallic nanowires of different species subjected to stretching. The use of the algorithm allows the identification of pentagonal rings forming the icosahedral structure as well as the determination of its number n{sub p}, and the maximum length of the pentagonal nanowire L{sub p}{sup m}. The algorithm is tested with some ideal structures to show its ability to discriminate between pentagonal rings and other ring structures. We applied the algorithm to Ni nanowires with temperatures ranging between 4 K and 865 K, stretched along the[100] direction. We studied statistically the formation of pentagonal nanowires obtaining the distributions of length L{sub p}{sup m} and number of rings n{sub p} as function of the temperature. The L{sub p}{sup m} distribution presents a peaked shape, with peaks locate at fixes distances whose separation corresponds to the distance between two consecutive pentagonal rings. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Semiconducting Silicide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song; Sczech, Jeannine; Higgins, Jeremy; Zhou, Feng; Shi, Li

    2008-03-01

    Semiconducting silicides are promising thermoelectric materials. In addition to their respectable thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT up to 0.8), silicides have the advantages of low cost, excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength, and outstanding oxidation resistance, making them suitable for high temperature applications. We have developed general synthetic approaches to single crystal nanowires of silicides to investigate the enhancement of thermoelectric properties due to the reduced nanoscale dimension and to explore their applications in thermoelectrics. We will discuss the synthesis and structural characterization of nanowires of chromium disilicide (CrSi2) prepared via a chemical vapor transport (CVT) method and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of organometallic precursors to synthesize the Novontony Chimney ladder phase MnSi1.75. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity of individual CrSi2 nanowires were characterized using a suspended microdevice and correlated with the structural information obtained by microscopy on the same nanowires. This combined Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements also provide an effective approach to probing the Fermi level, carrier concentration and mobility in nanowires. We will also discuss our progress in using individual nanostructures combined well-defined structural characterization to conclusively investigate the complex thermoelectric behaviors of silicide materials.

  7. Nanomechanics of Single Crystalline Tungsten Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Cimalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystalline tungsten nanowires were prepared from directionally solidified NiAl-W alloys by a chemical release from the resulting binary phase material. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD proves that they are single crystals having identical crystallographic orientation. Mechanical investigations such as bending tests, lateral force measurements, and mechanical resonance measurements were performed on 100–300 nm diameter wires. The wires could be either directly employed using micro tweezers, as a singly clamped nanowire or in a doubly clamped nanobridge. The mechanical tests exhibit a surprisingly high flexibility for such a brittle material resulting from the small dimensions. Force displacement measurements on singly clamped W nanowires by an AFM measurement allowed the determination of a Young's modulus of 332 GPa very close to the bulk value of 355 GPa. Doubly clamped W nanowires were employed as resonant oscillating nanowires in a magnetomotively driven resonator running at 117 kHz. The Young's modulus determined from this setup was found to be higher 450 GPa which is likely to be an artefact resulting from the shift of the resonance frequency by an additional mass loading.

  8. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  9. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  10. Directed Assembly of Cells with Magnetic Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, M.; Hultgren, A.; Chen, C. S.; Reich, D. H.

    2003-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of magnetic nanowires for assembly and manipulation of mammalian cells. Currently, superparamagnetic beads are used for manipulations of cells, but large field strengths and gradients are required for these to be effective. Unlike the beads, the large remnant magnetization of the nanowires offers the prospect of a variety of low-field manipulation techniques. Ferromagnetic nanowires suspended in fluids can be easily manipulated and assembled using small magnetic field [1]. The wires can be bound to cells, and the dipolar interaction between the nanowires can be used to create self-assembled cell chains. Microfabricated arrays of Py magnets were used to trap single cells or chains of cells bound to Ni nanowires. Possible applications of these techniques include controlled initiation of cell cultures, as well as isolation of individual cells. This work was supported by DARPA/AFOSR Grant No. F49620-02-1-0307 and by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Grant No. 2001-17715. [1] M. Tanase et.al., Nanoletters 1, 155 (2001), J. Appl. Phys. 91, 8549 (2002).

  11. Metastable magnetic domain walls in cylindrical nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.A.; MacLaren, D.A.; McVitie, S., E-mail: Stephen.McVitie@glasgow.ac.uk

    2015-05-01

    The stability of the asymmetric domain wall (ATDW) in soft magnetic cylindrical nanowires and nanotubes is investigated using micromagnetic simulations. Our calculated phase diagram shows that for cylindrical permalloy nanowires, the transverse domain wall (TDW) is the ground state for radii below 20 nm whilst the Bloch point wall (BPW) is favoured in thicker wires. The ATDW stabilises only as a metastable state but with energy close to that of the BPW. Characterisation of the DW spin structures reveals that the ATDW has a vortex-like surface spin state, in contrast to the divergent surface spins of the TDW. This results in lowering of surface charge above the critical radius. For both cylindrical nanotubes and nanowires we find that ATDWs only appear to exist as metastable static states and are particularly suppressed in nanotubes due to an increase in magnetostatic energy. - Highlights: • We simulate the micromagnetic structures of domain walls in cylindrical nanowires. • A phase diagram identifies ground and metastable states. • Asymmetric transverse walls are metastable in nanowires but suppressed in tubes. • Unrolling surface magnetisation aids visualisation of asymmetry and chirality. • We predict experimental discrimination based on magnetic charge distribution.

  12. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M.C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E.A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid state lighting and single photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyze nanowire growth as a “mixing bowl”, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures. PMID:26168344

  13. Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Kim, Tae-Sik; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Himchan; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Hoichang; Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Controlled alignment and patterning of individual semiconducting nanowires at a desired position in a large area is a key requirement for electronic device applications. High-speed, large-area printing of highly aligned individual nanowires that allows control of the exact numbers of wires, and their orientations and dimensions is a significant challenge for practical electronics applications. Here we use a high-speed electrohydrodynamic organic nanowire printer to print large-area organic semiconducting nanowire arrays directly on device substrates in a precisely, individually controlled manner; this method also enables sophisticated large-area nanowire lithography for nano-electronics. We achieve a maximum field-effect mobility up to 9.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with extremely low contact resistance (organic semiconducting nanowires. Extremely fast nanolithography using printed semiconducting nanowire arrays provide a simple, reliable method of fabricating large-area and flexible nano-electronics.

  14. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  15. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  16. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires\\' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  17. Microfiber coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingxin; Wu, Junjie; Fang, Wei; You, Lixing; Tong, Limin

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting nanowires single-photon detectors (SNSPDs or SSPDs) have emerged as an attractive single-photon detection technology with high performance. Two types of SNSPDs have been developed so far. One is the standard-fiber-coupled SNSPD with the light normally incident on the meandered nanowires, the other is waveguide-coupled SNSPD with the nanowires fabricated on the surface of the waveguide which guides photons while the fiber is coupled to the waveguide. Here we propose a new type of SNSPD integrated with microfiber. The photons are guided by a microfiber and evanescently absorbed by the nanowire of SNSPD when the nanowire is parallel and very close to the microfiber. The numerical simulation results show that the fiber to detector coupling efficiency can be close to unity with optimized device structure/parameters. With a minimal total NbN nanowire length of about 300 μm, the absorption of the nanowire can reach 90%.

  18. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  19. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  20. Electrowetting on ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the electrowetting character on ZnO nanowires. We grow the ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) by a hydrothermal method, and the ZnO nanowires surface is further hydrophobized by spin-coating Teflon. Such a prepared surface shows superhydrophobic properties with an initial contact angle 165°. When the applied external voltage between the ITO and the sessile droplet is less than 50 V, the contact angle continuously changed from 165° to 120°, and exhibits instant reversibility. For a slightly higher voltage, a mutation of the contact angle changing to 100° was observed and the contact angle was not reversible after removing the applied voltage, which indicates a transition from non-wetting state to wetting state. Further increasing of the applied voltage, the apparent contact angle decreased to an invariable value 70°, and electrical breakdown emerged synchronously.

  1. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-09-18

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li(+) gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions.

  2. How Copper Nanowires Grow and How To Control Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shengrong; Stewart, Ian E; Chen, Zuofeng; Li, Bo; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2016-03-15

    Scalable, solution-phase nanostructure synthesis has the promise to produce a wide variety of nanomaterials with novel properties at a cost that is low enough for these materials to be used to solve problems. For example, solution-synthesized metal nanowires are now being used to make low cost, flexible transparent electrodes in touch screens, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and solar cells. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of solution-phase syntheses that enable control over the assembly of atoms into nanowires in the last 15 years, but proposed mechanisms for nanowire formation are usually qualitative, and for many syntheses there is little consensus as to how nanowires form. It is often not clear what species is adding to a nanowire growing in solution or what mechanistic step limits its rate of growth. A deeper understanding of nanowire growth is important for efficiently directing the development of nanowire synthesis toward producing a wide variety of nanostructure morphologies for structure-property studies or producing precisely defined nanostructures for a specific application. This Account reviews our progress over the last five years toward understanding how copper nanowires form in solution, how to direct their growth into nanowires with dimensions ideally suited for use in transparent conducting films, and how to use copper nanowires as a template to grow core-shell nanowires. The key advance enabling a better understanding of copper nanowire growth is the first real-time visualization of nanowire growth in solution, enabling the acquisition of nanowire growth kinetics. By measuring the growth rate of individual nanowires as a function of concentration of the reactants and temperature, we show that a growing copper nanowire can be thought of as a microelectrode that is charged with electrons by hydrazine and grows through the diffusion-limited addition of Cu(OH)2(-). This deeper mechanistic understanding, coupled to an

  3. Imaging Electrons in Ultra-thin Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Erin E.

    2011-12-01

    Ultra-thin semiconductor nanowires are promising systems in which to explore novel low-dimensional physics and are attractive candidates for future nanoelectronics. Ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 20 to 30 nm are essentially one-dimensional (ID) for moderate electron number, because only one radial subband is occupied. Low-temperature scanning gate microscopy is especially well suited for improving our understanding of nanowires in order to optimize the construction of nanowire systems. We use a home-built liquid-He cooled scanning gate microscope (SGM) to probe and manipulate electrons beneath the surface of devices. The SGM's conductance images are obtained by scanning the charged SGM tip above the sample and recording the change in conductance through the device as a function of tip position. We present simulations of extracting the amplitude of the 1D electron wavefunction along the length of the quantum dot in an ultra-thin InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire (diameter = 30 nm) using a SGM. A weakly perturbing SGM tip slightly dents the electron wavefunction inside the quantum dot, and we propose measuring the change in energy of the dot due to the perturbation as a function of tip position. By measuring the change in energy of the dot and by knowing the form of the tip potential, the amplitude of the wavefunction can be found. This extraction technique could serve as a powerful tool to improve our understanding of electron behavior in quasi-1 D systems. We have used our SGM to image the conductance through an ultra-thin (diameter ˜ 30 nm) 1nAs nanowire with two InP barriers. Our imaging technique provides detailed information regarding the position and flow of electrons in the nanowire. We demonstrate that the charged SPM tip's position or voltage can be used to control the number of electrons on the quantum dots. We spatially locate three quantum dots in series along the length of the ultra-thin nanowire. Using energy level spectroscopy and the

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Glassy Carbon Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lentz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of carbon-based micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems has revived the interest in glassy carbon, whose properties are relatively unknown at lower dimensions. In this paper, electrical conductivity of individual glassy carbon nanowires was measured as a function of microstructure (controlled by heat treatment temperature and ambient temperature. The semiconducting nanowires with average diameter of 150 nm were synthesized from polyfurfuryl alcohol precursors and characterized using transmission electron and Raman microscopy. DC electrical measurements made at 90 K to 450 K show very strong dependence of temperature, following mixed modes of activation energy and hopping-based conduction.

  5. Magnetic logic using nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowicz, J; Vernier, N; Ferré, J; Maziewski, A; Stanescu, D; Ravelosona, D; Jacqueline, A S; Chappert, C; Rodmacq, B; Diény, B

    2009-05-27

    In addition to a storage function through the magnetization of nanowires, domain wall propagation can be used to trigger magnetic logic functions. Here, we present a new way to realize a pure magnetic logic operation by using magnetic nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy. Emphasis is given on the generation of the logic function 'NOT' that is based on the dipolar interaction between two neighbouring magnetic wires, which favours the creation of a domain wall. This concept has been validated on several prototypes and the results fit well with the expectations.

  6. Titanium catalyzed silicon nanowires and nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. U. Usman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires, nanoplatelets, and other morphologies resulted from silicon growth catalyzed by thin titanium layers. The nanowires have diameters down to 5 nm and lengths to tens of micrometers. The two-dimensional platelets, in some instances with filigreed, snow flake-like shapes, had thicknesses down to the 10 nm scale and spans to several micrometers. These platelets grew in a narrow temperature range around 900 celsius, apparently representing a new silicon crystallite morphology at this length scale. We surmise that the platelets grow with a faceted dendritic mechanism known for larger crystals nucleated by titanium silicide catalyst islands.

  7. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  8. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  9. An optically guided microdevice comprising a nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microdevice (100) for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto an associated object. Simultaneous non-contact spatial control over the microdevice in terms of translational movement in three dimensions, and rotational movement around at least two axes, preferably...... three axes, is possible. The microdevice further comprises a nanowire (150) being arranged for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto said associated object. This is advantageous for obtaining better spatial control of the microdevice comprising the nanowire, and this enables that light could more...

  10. Enhanced magnetotransport in nanopatterned manganite nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Lorena; Morellón, Luis; Algarabel, Pedro A; Rodríguez, Luis A; Magén, César; De Teresa, José M; Ibarra, Manuel R

    2014-02-12

    We have combined optical and focused ion beam lithographies to produce large aspect-ratio (length-to-width >300) single-crystal nanowires of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 that preserve their functional properties. Remarkably, an enhanced magnetoresistance value of 34% in an applied magnetic field of 0.1 T in the narrowest 150 nm nanowire is obtained. The strain release at the edges together with a destabilization of the insulating regions is proposed to account for this behavior. This opens new strategies to implement these structures in functional spintronic devices.

  11. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Smooth nanowire/polymer composite transparent electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, Whitney; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Burkhard, George F. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Peumans, Peter [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domashevskaya, E. P., E-mail: ftt@phys.vsu.ru; Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu. [Voronezh State University, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  14. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy of GaN and lateral overgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibart, Pierre [Lumilog S.A., 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, F-06220 Vallauris (France)

    2004-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is an extremely promising wide band gap semiconductor material for optoelectronics and high temperature, high power electronics. Actually, GaN is probably the most important semiconductor since silicon. However, achievement of its full potential has still been limited by a dramatic lack of suitable GaN bulk single crystals. GaN has a high melting temperature and a very high decomposition pressure; therefore it cannot be grown using conventional methods used for GaAs or Si like Czochraslski or Bridgman growths. Since there is no GaN bulk single crystal commercially available, all technological development of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. Most of the current device structures are grown on sapphire or 6H-SiC. However, since their lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients are not well-matched to GaN, the epitaxial growth generates huge densities of defects, with threading dislocations (TDs) being the most prevalent (10{sup 9}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}). As a comparison, homoepitaxially grown GaAs exhibits {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} dislocation cm{sup -2}, and homoepitaxial Si almost 0. Actually this large density of TDs in GaN drastically limits the performance and operating lifetime of nitride-based devices. Therefore, there is currently a tremendous technological effort to reduce these defects. Metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is currently the most widely used technology. Actually, all optoelectronic commercial device structures are fabricated using MOVPE. In MOVPE, the most appropriate precursor for nitrogen is ammonia (NH{sub 3}), whereas either trimethyl or triethylgallium may be used as a gallium source. MOVPE of GaN requires a high partial pressure of NH{sub 3}, high growth temperatures ({approx}1000-1100 deg. C) and a growth chamber specially designed to avoid premature reactions between the ammonia and gallium alkyls. Since sapphire (or 6H-SiC) and GaN are highly mismatched, direct growth of GaN is

  15. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  16. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, George [MIT Lincoln Lab., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  17. Synthesis and characterization of WO3 nanowires and metal nanoparticle-WO3 nanowire composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Mária; Pusztai, Péter; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Kordás, Krisztián; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2013-07-01

    Tungsten-trioxide nanowire bundles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method. Sodium-tungstate was used as precursor and sodium-sulfate as structure directing agent. All the reflections of the X-ray diffractogram of the synthesized wires belong to the hexagonal phase of the tungsten trioxide. The nanowires were successfully decorated with metal nanoparticles by wet impregnation. The TEM investigation showed that using different metal precursors resulted in different particle sizes and coverage on the surface.

  18. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walt W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-05-01

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO2 structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO2 resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO2, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO2 nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO2 in the contact region between the Ag and TiO2 nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO2 nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  19. Study of spin dynamics and damping on the magnetic nanowire arrays with various nanowire widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehun [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, Yuya; Konioshi, Katsunori [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yoon, Jungbum [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Miwa, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Jung, Myung-Hwa [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); You, Chun-Yeol, E-mail: cyyou@inha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics including Gilbert damping in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. We have measured the ferromagnetic resonance of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays using vector-network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) and analyzed the results with the micromagnetic simulations. We find excellent agreement between the experimental VNA-FMR spectra and micromagnetic simulations result for various applied magnetic fields. We find that the same tendency of the demagnetization factor for longitudinal and transverse conditions, N{sub z} (N{sub y}) increases (decreases) as increasing the nanowire width in the micromagnetic simulations while N{sub x} is almost zero value in transverse case. We also find that the Gilbert damping constant increases from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse case, while it is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case. - Highlights: • We investigate the spin dynamic properties in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. • The demagnetization factors have similar tendency with the prism geometry results. • The Gilbert damping constant is increased from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse. • The Gilbert damping constant is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case.

  20. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Luchan; Zhou, Y. Norman, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Duley, Walt W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-05-16

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO{sub 2} structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO{sub 2} resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO{sub 2}, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO{sub 2} in the contact region between the Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  1. Optically active centers in Eu implanted, Eu in situ doped GaN, and Eu doped GaN quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiou, L.; Braud, A.; Doualan, J.-L.; Moncorgé, R.; Park, J. H.; Munasinghe, C.; Steckl, A. J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Daudin, B.

    2009-02-01

    A comparison is presented between Eu implanted and Eu in situ doped GaN thin films showing that two predominant Eu sites are optically active around 620 nm in both types of samples with below and above bandgap excitation. One of these sites, identified as a Ga substitutional site, is common to both types of Eu doped GaN samples despite the difference in the GaN film growth method and in the doping technique. High-resolution photoluminescence (PL) spectra under resonant excitation reveal that in all samples these two host-sensitized sites are in small amount compared to the majority of Eu ions which occupy isolated Ga substitutional sites and thus cannot be excited through the GaN host. The relative concentrations of the two predominant host-sensitized Eu sites are strongly affected by the annealing temperature for Eu implanted samples and by the group III element time opening in the molecular beam epitaxy growth. Red luminescence decay characteristics for the two Eu sites reveal different excitation paths. PL dynamics under above bandgap excitation indicate that Eu ions occupying a Ga substitutional site are either excited directly into the D50 level or into higher excited levels such as D51, while Eu ions sitting in the other site are only directly excited into the D50 level. These differences are discussed in terms of the spectral overlap between the emission band of a nearby bound exciton and the absorption bands of Eu ions. The study of Eu doped GaN quantum dots reveals the existence of only one type of Eu site under above bandgap excitation, with Eu PL dynamics features similar to Eu ions in Ga substitutional sites.

  2. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    This thesis explores the self- and directed assembly of nanowires. Specifically, we examine the driving forces behind nanowire self-assembly and the macro-structures that are formed. Particle-dense, oriented nanowire structures show promise in the fields of photonics, energy, sensing, catalysis, and electronics. Arrays of spherical particles have already found uses in electronic inks, sensing arrays, and many other commercial applications; but, it is a challenge to create specific arrays of morphologically and/or compositionally anisotropic particles. The following chapters illuminate the interactions that drive the assembly of anisotropic particles in high density solutions in the absence of applied fields or solution drying. Special emphasis is placed on the structures that are formed. The properties of micro- and nanoparticles and their assembly are introduced in Chapter 1. In particular, the properties of shape and material anisotropic particles are highlighted, while challenges in producing desired arrays are discussed. In this thesis, metallic nanowires of increasing complexity were used to examine the self-assembly behavior of both shape and material anisotropic particles. Nanowires were synthesized through templated electrodeposition. In this process, porous alumina membranes served as a template in which metal salts were reduced to form particles. Upon template dissolution, billions of nominally identical particles were released. We specifically focused on segmented, metallic nanowires 2-13 mum in length and 180 to 350 nm in diameter. Since these particles have strong van der Waals (VDWs) attractions, an electrostatically repulsive coating was necessary to prevent aggregation; we used small molecule, DNA, or amorphous silica coatings. Nanowires and their coatings were characterized by electron microscopy. In order to study self-assembly behavior, particle-dense aqueous suspensions were placed within an assembly chamber defined by a silicone spacer. The

  3. Arrays of indefinitely long uniform nanowires and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mecit; Khudiyev, Tural; Ozgur, Erol; Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Ozgur, Ekin O.; Deniz, Hakan; Korkut, Enes; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2011-07-01

    Nanowires are arguably the most studied nanomaterial model to make functional devices and arrays. Although there is remarkable maturity in the chemical synthesis of complex nanowire structures, their integration and interfacing to macro systems with high yields and repeatability still require elaborate aligning, positioning and interfacing and post-synthesis techniques. Top-down fabrication methods for nanowire production, such as lithography and electrospinning, have not enjoyed comparable growth. Here we report a new thermal size-reduction process to produce well-ordered, globally oriented, indefinitely long nanowire and nanotube arrays with different materials. The new technique involves iterative co-drawing of hermetically sealed multimaterials in compatible polymer matrices similar to fibre drawing. Globally oriented, endlessly parallel, axially and radially uniform semiconducting and piezoelectric nanowire and nanotube arrays hundreds of metres long, with nanowire diameters less than 15 nm, are obtained. The resulting nanostructures are sealed inside a flexible substrate, facilitating the handling of and electrical contacting to the nanowires. Inexpensive, high-throughput, multimaterial nanowire arrays pave the way for applications including nanowire-based large-area flexible sensor platforms, phase-changememory, nanostructure-enhanced photovoltaics, semiconductor nanophotonics, dielectric metamaterials,linear and nonlinear photonics and nanowire-enabled high-performance composites.

  4. Size Effect and Deformation Mechanism in Twinned Copper Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to demonstrate the synergistic effects of the extrinsic size (nanowire length and intrinsic size (twin boundary spacing on the failure manner, yield strength, ductility and deformation mechanism of the twinned nanowires containing high density coherent twin boundaries CTBs paralleled to the nanowires’ axis. The twinned nanowires show an intense extrinsic size effect, i.e., shorter is stronger and more ductile, and an intense intrinsic size effect, i.e., thinner is stronger. Notably, the strengthening effect degradation of CTBs in the twinned nanowires is observed with an increase in nanowire length: remarkable strengthening effect can be obtained for the short nanowires, but the strengthening effect becomes less pronounced for the long nanowires. The twinned nanowires fail via a ductile manner or via a brittle manner depending on the synergistic effect of the nanowire length and twin boundary spacing. By atomic-level observation of the plastic deformation, we found that the emission of a trailing 30° partial from the free surface controls the yield behavior of the twinned nanowires. We also found that the special zigzag extended dislocations are formed by the dislocation–CTBs interactions, and propagate to sustain the plastic deformation.

  5. Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, A.; Enderlein, R.; Leite, J. R.; da Silva, S. W.; Galzerani, J. C.; Schikora, D.; Kloidt, M.; Lischka, K.

    1996-04-01

    Hexagonal and cubic GaN layers are grown on (001) GaAs substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy. First order Raman spectra are taken from these layers at various incident laser wavelengths and temperatures. The T2 transverse-optical (TO) and longitudinal-optical (LO) frequencies of cubic GaN are determined, as well as the A1 TO and LO, E1 TO, and E2 frequencies of hexagonal GaN. The T2 TO frequency of cubic GaN lies between the A1 and E1 TO frequencies of hexagonal GaN as one expects comparing the lattice dynamics of zincblende and wurtzite type crystals. The T2 TO frequency is close to the calculated value but disagrees with a recently reported experimental value. For the hexagonal layer, all frequencies are close to those previously measured. A broad Raman structure below the A1 LO peak is interpreted in terms of a disturbed long range order of the hexagonal layer.

  6. Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN were deeply investigated in this paper. Working as an ideal homogeneous substrate material in LED industry, GaN ought to be equipped with a smooth and flat surface. Taking the strong chemical stability of GaN into account, photocatalytic oxidation technology was adopted in GaN CMP process to realize efficient removal. It was found that, because of the improved reaction rate of photocatalytic oxidation, GaN material removal rate (MRR) increases by a certain extent with catalyst concentration increasing. Cross single line analysis on the surface after polishing by Phase Shift MicroXAM-3D was carried out to prove the better removal effect with higher catalyst concentration. Ultraviolet intensity field in H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system was established and simulated, revealing the variation trend of ultraviolet intensity around the outlet of the slurry. It could be concluded that, owing to the higher planarization efficiency and lower energy damage, the UV lamp of 125 W is the most appropriate lamp in this system. Based on the analysis, defects removal model of this work was proposed to describe the effects of higher catalyst concentration and higher power of UV lamp.

  7. The study of electronic structures and optical properties of Al-doped GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Enling; Hou Liping; Liu Mancang; Xi Meng; Wang Xiqiang; Dai Yuanbin [Sciences School, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, China 710054 (China); Li Lisha, E-mail: lienling@xaut.edu.cn, E-mail: ping4917305@163.com [Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an, China 710068 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The electronic structures and optical properties of undoped and Al-doped GaN (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, x=0.0625, 0.125, 0.25) have been studied based on generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method of density functional theory (DFT). The differences of the electronic structures and optical properties of undoped and Al-doped GaN have been discussed in detail. The result shows: according to total density of state of undoped and Al-doped GaN, the conduction band becomes width and moves to high energy level with gradual increase concentration of Al impurity. Impurity energy band isn't found in energy band structures of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, the same as energy band structures of undoped GaN, but the band gaps gradually become wide with increase of Al impurity. Absorption spectra of undoped and Al-doped GaN of main absorption peak moves to high energy level with increase of Al impurity.

  8. Lateral color integration on rare-earth-doped GaN electroluminescent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.

    2002-03-01

    Lateral color integration has been obtained using GaN thin films doped with Er and Eu. These rare-earth doped GaN (GaN:RE) films were grown on Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Independent red and green emissions have been obtained from side-by-side Er and Eu electroluminescent devices. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence operation show green emissions at 537 and 558 nm from Er-doped GaN and red emission at 621 nm from Eu-doped GaN. Two patterning fabrication techniques have been investigated to obtain lateral integration: (a) use of shadow masks during 400 °C growth of GaN:RE films; (b) photoresist liftoff in conjunction with <100 °C GaN:RE growth. Devices fabricated by the shadow mask method were bright enough to be detected under the ambient light at a bias of 30 V. The GaN:RE films were clear and their surfaces were smooth with nanoscale GaN grains. The root mean square surface roughness was measured to be 5-10 nm.

  9. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi gan Locus, Involved in Galactan Catabolism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-01-01

    β-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK2. Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-β-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-β-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  10. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Gan locus, involved in galactan catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-10-01

    beta-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK(2). Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-beta-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-beta-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny.

  11. Strain engineering of atomic and electronic structures of few-monolayer-thick GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Saito, Y.; Tominaga, J.; Hyot, B.; André, B.

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors possess the potential to ultimately minimize the size of devices and concomitantly drastically reduce the corresponding energy consumption. In addition, materials in their atomic-scale limit often possess properties different from their bulk counterparts paving the way to conceptually novel devices. While graphene and 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides remain the most studied materials, significant interest also exists in the fabrication of atomically thin structures from traditionally 3D semiconductors such as GaN. While in the monolayer limit GaN possesses a graphenelike structure and an indirect band gap, it was recently demonstrated that few-layer GaN acquires a Haeckelite structure in the direction of growth with an effectively direct gap. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering of the atomic and electronic structure of few-monolayer-thick GaN structures, which opens new avenues for their practical application in flexible nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. Our simulations further suggest that due to the weak van der Waals-like interaction between a substrate and an overlayer, the use of a MoS2 substrate may be a promising route to fabricate few-monolayer Haeckelite GaN experimentally.

  12. Use of GaN as a Scintillating Ionizing Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensman, Johnathan; Guardala, Noel; Mathur, Veerendra; Alasagas, Leslie; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Statham, John; Marron, Daniel; Millett, Marshall; Marsh, Jarrod; Currie, John; Price, Jack

    2017-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a III/V direct bandgap semiconductor which has been used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) since the 1990s. Currently, due to a potential for increased efficiency, GaN is being investigated as a replacement for silicon in power electronics finding potential uses ranging from data centers to electric vehicles. In addition to LEDs and power electronics though, doped GaN can be used as a gamma insensitive fast neutron detector due to the direct band-gap, light propagation properties, and response to ionizing radiations. Investigation of GaN as a semiconductor scintillator for use in a radiation detection system involves mapping the response function of the detector crystal over a range of photon and neutron energies, and measurements of light generation in the GaN crystal due to proton, alpha, and nitrogen projectiles. In this presentation we discuss the measurements made to date, and plausible interpretations of the response functions. This work funded in part by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division In-house Laboratory Independent Research program.

  13. Photoluminescence of GaN Film Exposed to Chlorine-Containing Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Banno, Yoshitsugu; Nakano, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Keiji

    2015-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) has been an attractive semiconductor material for the application to not only light emitting diodes, but also high power devices. The advantage of the material is that it can be fabricated to maximize the number density of devices a single wafer. In our current technology, we mainly utilize low-temperature plasma for dry etching. In fact, GaN generally requires chlorine-containing plasma for chemical etching. However, the use of plasma has a drawback that can induce unwanted changes on the fabricating devices in some conditions. This is called as plasma-induced damage (PID). We have so far monitored the development of PIDs with photoluminescence (PL) emitted from the GaN surface during argon plasma process. In this time, we exposed a GaN film to chlorine-containing plasma and monitored the PID development. Our PL measurements show that the chlorine-containing plasma almost gave no change in PL property of GaN, while argon plasma gave drastic changes. This is because the speed of etching by chlorine species was faster than the speed of damage creations by plasma. In this presentation, we will show further results of this experiment along with some analyses for the purpose of industrial application.

  14. The effect of Si on the growth mode of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezold, J. von; Oliver, R.A.; Kappers, M.J.; Bristowe, P.D.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    In the growth of InGaN on a SiH{sub 4}-exposed GaN surface, a change in the growth mode is observed for low SiH{sub 4} doses. To help explain this observation the potential energy surface of Ga and N adatoms on a GaN (0001) surface containing an isolated Si atom in the terminating layer was calculated using plane wave density functional theory. The surface Si atom decreases the diffusion barrier of Ga and N adatoms relative to the corresponding diffusion barriers on the ideal GaN (0001) surface. In addition, the adatom binding energies were not significantly affected by the Si surface atom. It was therefore concluded that the observed transition in growth mode of GaN cannot be simply explained by the presence of isolated Si atoms on the GaN surface. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-24

    GaN crystal growth requires higher purity of materials. Some contaminants in NH3 gas could be the causal factor of defects in GaN crystals. These atoms act as donor or acceptor. In order to clearly demonstrate the effect of gaseous impurities such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial layer with purifier, and H2O-doped GaN series layers. As similar to the results of CO and CO2-doped GaN series, the increase tendency of carrier density changing with increasing H2O concentration. The FWHMs of XRC around (0002) remain stable, witnessing that the crystal quality of GaN layer remain good. LT (15K) PL of undoped-GaN and H2O-doped GaN were measured, the D0X emission peak intensity of all H2O-doped GaN are decreased drastically compared with undoped-GaN. H2O impurity was doped into GaN layer, which not only effects electrical properties and but also effects the radiative emission and furthermore effects PL intensity, its mechanism is discussed.

  16. Reliability-Driven Assessment of GaN HEMTs and Si IGBTs in 3L-ANPC PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Yang, Yongheng; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, thermal loading of the state-of-the-art GaN HEMTs and traditional Si IGBTs in 3L-ANPC PV inverters is presented considering real-field long-term mission profiles (i.e., ambient temperature and solar irradiance). A comparison of Si IGBT against GaN HEMT with three different...

  17. Ultra-Low Inductance Design for a GaN HEMT Based 3L-ANPC Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Castellazzi, Alberto; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell design for a 3L-ANPC based on 650 V GaN HEMT devices is presented. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which are the main contr...

  18. Application of orthodox defect-selective etching for studying GaN single crystals, epitaxial layers and device structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamler, G.; Borysiuk, J.; Weyher, J.L.; Presz, A.; Wozniak, M.; Grzegory, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this communication, results are presented of the application of etching in molten E+M etch (KOH-NaOH eutectic mixture with 10% MgO) for studying defects in GaN. The method was used to study defects on differently oriented cleavage and basal planes of GaN single crystals, MOCVD-, MBE- and

  19. Effect of growth polarity on vacancy defect and impurity incorporation in dislocation-free GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K.; Lucznik, B.; Grzegory, I.; Teisseyre, H.; Suski, T.; Porowski, S.; Hageman, P.R.; Likonen, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have used positron annihilation, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and photoluminescence to study the point defects in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on GaN bulk crystals. The results show that N polar growth incorporates many more donor and acceptor type impurities and also Ga

  20. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  1. Superenhancers: novel opportunities for nanowire optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudiyev, Tural; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-12-16

    Nanowires play a crucial role in the development of new generation optoelectronic devices ranging from photovoltaics to photodetectors, as these designs capitalize on the low material usage, utilize leaky-mode optical resonances and possess high conversion efficiencies associated with nanowire geometry. However, their current schemes lack sufficient absorption capacity demanded for their practical applicability, and more efficient materials cannot find widespread usage in these designs due to their rarity and cost. Here we suggest a novel and versatile nanoconcentrator scheme utilizing unique optical features of non-resonant Mie (NRM) scattering regime associated with low-index structures. The scattering regime is highly compatible with resonant Mie absorption effect taking place in nanowire absorbers. This technique in its optimized forms can provide up to 1500% total absorption enhancement, 400-fold material save and is suitable for large-area applications with significant area preservation compared to thin-film of same materials. Proposed superenhancer concept with its exceptional features such as broadband absorption enhancement, polarization immunity and material-independent manner paves the way for development of efficient nanowire photosensors or solar thermophotovoltaic devices and presents novel design opportunities for self-powered nanosystems.

  2. Visualizing hybridized quantum plasmons in coupled nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kristian Lund; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We present full quantum-mechanical calculations of the hybridized plasmon modes of two nanowires at small separation, providing real-space visualization of the modes in the transition from the classical to the quantum tunneling regime. The plasmon modes are obtained as certain eigenfunctions...

  3. Direct observation of nanowire growth and decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Shandakov, Sergey D; Jiang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    knowledge, so far this has been only postulated, but never observed at the atomic level. By means of in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy we monitored and examined the atomic layer transformation at the conditions of the crystal growth and its decomposition using CuO nanowires selected...

  4. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  5. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  6. A Semiconductor Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. W.; Petersson, K. D.; Kuemmeth, F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on...

  7. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  8. Optical Properties of PbSe Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, E.; Tischler, J. G.; Foos, E. E.; Zega, T. J.; Stroud, R. M.; Boercker, J. E.; Cress, C. D.; Efros, Al L.; Erwin, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Colloidal PbSe nanocrystals show potential as a material for high efficiency photovoltaics, for two reasons: (1) tunability of the band gap through a wide range in the near infrared, and (2) efficient multiexciton generation. The charge mobility of PbSe NCs is relatively high compared to other nanocrystalline materials, but is still far from optimal. One possible way to increase the mobility is to use nanowires instead of nanocrystals. To this end we have synthesized high-aspect-ratio (>100) PbSe nanowires in solution. Here we investigate the optical properties of these nanowires using photoluminescence and transmission. We observe clear quantum confinement, and demonstrate that the bandgap can be tuned over the range required, ˜0.4eV, for photovoltaic applications [1]. Finally, we investigate the evolution of quantum confinement when going from 0D to 1D by comparing the optical properties of nanocrystals and nanowires. [1] Schaller et al., Nanoletters 6, 424(2006)

  9. Lasing in nanowires: Ab initio semiclassical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The semiclassical equations which describe lasing in nanowires are derived from first principles. Both the lasing threshold condition and the steady-state regime of operation are discussed. It is shown that the lasing is governed by the Fourier coefficients of the field susceptibility averaged ov...

  10. Quantum fluctuations of voltage in superconducting nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2017-07-01

    At low temperatures non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations can be generated in current-biased superconducting nanowires due to proliferation of quantum phase slips (QPS) or, equivalently, due to quantum tunneling of magnetic flux quanta across the wire. In this paper we review and further extend recent theoretical results related to this phenomenon. Employing the phase-charge duality arguments combined with Keldysh path integral technique we analyze such fluctuations within the two-point and four-point measurement schemes demonstrating that voltage noise detected in such nanowires in general depends on the particular measurement setup. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which turn out to obey Poisson statistics and exhibit a power law dependence on the external bias. We also specifically address a non-trivial frequency dependence of quantum shot noise power spectrum SΩ for both longer and shorter superconducting nanowires. In particular, we demonstrate that SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Furthermore, we predict that SΩ may depend non-monotonously on temperature due to quantum coherent nature of QPS noise. The results of our theoretical analysis can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires.

  11. Radical Beam Gettering Epitaxy of Zno and Gan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgobiani, A. N.; Demin, V. I.; Vorobiev, M. O.; Gruzintsev, A. N.; Hodos, I. I.; Kotljarevsky, M. B.; Kidalov, V. V.; Rogozin, I. V.

    2002-11-01

    P-type ZnO layers with a hole mobility about 23 cm2/(V s), and a hole concentration about 1015 cm-3 were grown by means of radical-beam gettering epitaxy (the annealing of n-ZnO single crystals in atomic oxygen flux). The effect of native defects on the photoluminescence spectra of the layers was studied. The dominant bands in the spectra peaked at 370.2 and 400 nm. These bands were attributed to the annihilation of exciton localised on neutral Vzn and to electron transitions from the conduction band to singly positively charged Vzn correspondingly. The effect of annealing in atomic nitrogen flux of p-CaN:Mg films on their photoluminescence spectra and on the value of their conductivity were studied. Such annealing leads to appearance of a number of emission bands that peaked at 404.9, 390.8 and 378.9 nm and increases hole concentration from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 cm-3, and the hole mobility from 120 to 150 cm2/(V s). The n-ZnO - p-GaN:Mg electroluminescence heterostructures were obtained. Their spectrum contains bands in the excitonic region of GaN at the wavelength 360.2 nm and in the edge region at wavelengths 378.9 and 390.8 nm.

  12. Simulations of electron transport in GaN devices

    CERN Document Server

    Arabshahi, H

    2002-01-01

    model of a device with traps to investigate this suggestion. The model includes the simulation of the capture and release of electrons by traps whose charge has a direct effect on the current flowing through the transistor terminals. The influence of temperature and light on the occupancy of the traps and the I-V characteristics are considered. It is concluded that traps are likely to play a substantial role in the behaviour of GaN field effect transistors. Further simulations were performed to model electron transport in AIGaN/GaN heterojunction FETs. So called HFET structures with a 78 nm Al sub 0 sub . sub 2 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 8 N pseudomorphically strained layer have been simulated, with the inclusion of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects in the strained layer. The polarization effects are shown to not only increase the current density, but also improve the electron transport by inducing a higher electron density close to the positive charge sheet that occurs in the channel. This thesis de...

  13. High pressure annealing of Europium implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenz, K.

    2012-02-09

    GaN epilayers were implanted with Eu to fluences of 1×10^13 Eu/cm2 and 1×10^15 Eu/cm2. Post-implant thermal annealing was performed in ultra-high nitrogen pressures at temperatures up to 1450 ºC. For the lower fluence effective structural recovery of the crystal was observed for annealing at 1000 ºC while optical activation could be further improved at higher annealing temperatures. The higher fluence samples also reveal good optical activation; however, some residual implantation damage remains even for annealing at 1450 ºC which leads to a reduced incorporation of Eu on substitutional sites, a broadening of the Eu luminescence lines and to a strongly reduced fraction of optically active Eu ions. Possibilities for further optimization of implantation and annealing conditions are discussed.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Cubic GaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on thin β-SiC/Si (001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    As, D. J.; Frey, T.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.; Cimalla, V.; Pezoldt, J.; Goldhahn, R.; Kaiser, S.; Gebhardt, W.

    2000-03-01

    The molecular beam epitaxy of cubic GaN on Si(001) substrates, which were covered by a 4 nm thick β-SiC layer, is reported. The structural and optical properties of the cubic GaN epilayers were studied by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements. We find clear evidence for the growth of cubic GaN layers almost free of hexagonal inclusions. The density of extended defects and the near band edge photoluminescence of the cubic GaN layers grown at substrate temperatures of 835 °C is comparable to that of high quality cubic GaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) substrates.

  15. One-step fabrication of porous GaN crystal membrane and its application in energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shouzhi; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Sun, Changlong; Huo, Qin; Zhang, Baoguo; Hu, Haixiao; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) membranes have great potential for a variety of applications. However, fabrication of single-crystalline GaN membranes remains a challenge owing to its chemical inertness and mechanical hardness. This study prepares large-area, free-standing, and single-crystalline porous GaN membranes using a one-step high-temperature annealing technique for the first time. A promising separation model is proposed through a comprehensive study that combines thermodynamic theories analysis and experiments. Porous GaN crystal membrane is processed into supercapacitors, which exhibit stable cycling life, high-rate capability, and ultrahigh power density, to complete proof-of-concept demonstration of new energy storage application. Our results contribute to the study of GaN crystal membranes into a new stage related to the elelctrochemical energy storage application. PMID:28281562

  16. Effects of the surface stoichiometry of seeds on GaN layer growth by hydride vapour phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Zhao, Z D; Xu, W; Sui, Y P; Yu, G H

    2015-05-07

    The effect of the atmosphere in a reactor prior to hydride vapour phase epitaxy on the surface stoichiometry of both the GaN template and layer growth was studied. The surface stoichiometry of metallic Ga layers was clarified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using templates without NH3 protection. The metallic Ga layer acted as a mask and exerted a significant effect on the subsequent epitaxial layer growth mode. GaN grown on the template without protection followed island growth in the initial growth stage. In contrast, GaN epitaxy on the template with NH3 protection quickly converts to pseudo-2D growth. The images of CL illustrate that the GaN epilayer on the template without protection has a lower dislocation density than the GaN epilayer grown on the template with NH3 protection. Reasons behind this effect have been discussed.

  17. Growth of GaN on ZrB 2 substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, Yoshihito; Nitta, Shugo; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu; Otani, Shigeki; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Liu, Rong; Bell, Abigail; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2003-06-01

    Growth of GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on metallic zirconium diboride (ZrB 2) substrate was investigated. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that cubic ZrB xN 1- x is formed on the surface when ZrB 2 is exposed to ammonia-containing atmosphere, which protects the nucleation of GaN or AlN. We solved the problem by covering ZrB 2 surface with very thin AlN or GaN at low temperature, thereby achieving high-quality GaN growth with a dislocation density less than 10 8 cm -2. Direct conduction was achieved through the back of ZrB 2 and the surface of Si-doped GaN.

  18. InGaN/GaN nanowires epitaxy on large-area MoS2 for high-performance light-emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2017-05-18

    The recent study of a wide range of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has created a new era for device design and applications. In particular, the concept of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) utilizing layered TMDCs has the potential to broaden the family of epitaxial growth techniques beyond the conventional methods. We report herein, for the first time, the monolithic high-power, droop-free, and wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes (NW-LEDs) on large-area MoS2 layers formed by sulfurizing entire Mo substrates. MoS2 serves as both a buffer layer for high-quality GaN nanowires growth and a sacrificial layer for epitaxy lift-off. The LEDs obtained on nitridated MoS2 via quasi vdWE show a low turn-on voltage of ∼2 V and light output power up to 1.5 mW emitting beyond the “green gap”, without an efficiency droop up to the current injection of 1 A (400 A cm−2), by virtue of high thermal and electrical conductivities of the metal substrates. The discovery of the nitride/layered TMDCs/metal heterostructure platform also ushers in the unparalleled opportunities of simultaneous high-quality nitrides growth for high-performance devices, ultralow-profile optoelectronics, energy harvesting, as well as substrate reusability for practical applications.

  19. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  20. Dislocation reduction in GaN epilayers by maskless Pendeo-epitaxy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Jun; Lee, Jeong Yong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyung Koun [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang Hee; Cheong, Hung Seob [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    Facet structures of GaN grown by the Pendeo-epitaxy (PE) process with low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) are controlled by growth temperature. PE growth without the use of a mask, termed 'maskless' PE, was performed to reduce crystallographic tilt and to eliminate a source of impurities in the overgrowth material. Tilting behavior and crystalline properties, which were investigated from the result of (0002) X-ray diffraction rocking curves taken perpendicular and parallel to the seed stripe direction, can be improved with high growth temperature. The propagation mechanism of the threading dislocations in the different GaN facet structures is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two-step growth in the PE process is proposed; in this technique, bending of threading dislocations due to facet structure is observed. The two-step growth process shows much lower dislocation density and better crystal quality than conventional maskless PE GaN.