Sample records for homogeneous shear flows

  1. Fractally Fourier decimated homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger dimensions. (United States)

    Fathali, Mani; Khoei, Saber


    Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7≤d≤3.0. The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d. While both turbulent production and dissipation are significantly hampered as d decreases, the evolution of their ratio is almost independent of the Fourier dimension. The mechanism of the energy distribution among different spatial directions is also impeded by decreasing d. Due to this deficient energy distribution, turbulent field shows a higher level of the large-scale anisotropy in lower Fourier dimensions. In addition, the persistence of the vortex stretching mechanism and the forward spectral energy transfer, which are three-dimensional turbulence characteristics, are examined at changing d, from the standard case d=3.0 to the strongly decimated flow field for d=2.7. As the Fourier dimension decreases, these forward energy transfer mechanisms are strongly suppressed, which in turn reduces both the small-scale intermittency and the deviation from Gaussianity. Besides the energy exchange intensity, the variations of d considerably modify the relative weights of local to nonlocal triadic interactions. It is found that the contribution of the nonlocal triads to the total turbulent kinetic energy exchange increases as the Fourier dimension increases.

  2. Nonlinear Terms of MHD Equations for Homogeneous Magnetized Shear Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Z D; Hristov, T S; Mishonov, T M


    We have derived the full set of MHD equations for incompressible shear flow of a magnetized fluid and considered their solution in the wave-vector space. The linearized equations give the famous amplification of slow magnetosonic waves and describe the magnetorotational instability. The nonlinear terms in our analysis are responsible for the creation of turbulence and self-sustained spectral density of the MHD (Alfven and pseudo-Alfven) waves. Perspectives for numerical simulations of weak turbulence and calculation of the effective viscosity of accretion disks are shortly discussed in k-space.

  3. Compressibility Effects on the Growth and Structure of Homogeneous Turbulent Shear Flow (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects within decaying isotropic turbulence and homogeneous turbulent shear flow have been studied using direct numerical simulation. The objective of this work is to increase our understanding of compressible turbulence and to aid the development of turbulence models for compressible flows. The numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence show that compressibility effects are highly dependent on the initial conditions. The shear flow simulations, on the other hand, show that measures of compressibility evolve to become independent of their initial values and are parameterized by the root mean square Mach number. The growth rate of the turbulence in compressible homogeneous shear flow is reduced compared to that in the incompressible case. The reduced growth rate is the result of an increase in the dissipation rate and energy transfer to internal energy by the pressure-dilatation correlation. Examination of the structure of compressible homogeneous shear flow reveals the presence of eddy shocklets, which are important for the increased dissipation rate of compressible turbulence.

  4. Scaling laws for homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame (United States)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Mhuiris, Nessan Macgiolla


    The scaling properties of plane homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame are examined mathematically by a direct analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is proved that two such shear flows are dynamically similar if and only if their initial dimensionless energy spectrum E star (k star, 0), initial dimensionless shear rate SK sub 0/epsilon sub 0, initial Reynolds number K squared sub 0/nu epsilon sub 0, and the ration of the rotation rate to the shear rate omega/S are identical. Consequently, if universal equilibrium states exist, at high Reynolds numbers, they will only depend on the single parameter omega/S. The commonly assumed dependence of such equilibrium states on omega/S through the Richardson number Ri=-2(omega/S)(1-2 omega/S) is proven to be inconsistent with the full Navier-Stokes equations and to constitute no more than a weak approximation. To be more specific, Richardson number similarity is shown to only rigorously apply to certain low-order truncations of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e., to certain second-order closure models) wherein closure is achieved at the second-moment level by assuming that the higher-order moments are a small perturbation of their isotropic states. The physical dependence of rotating turbulent shear flows on omega/S is discussed in detail along with the implications for turbulence modeling.

  5. Dynamic and Thermal Turbulent Time Scale Modelling for Homogeneous Shear Flows (United States)

    Schwab, John R.; Lakshminarayana, Budugur


    A new turbulence model, based upon dynamic and thermal turbulent time scale transport equations, is developed and applied to homogeneous shear flows with constant velocity and temperature gradients. The new model comprises transport equations for k, the turbulent kinetic energy; tau, the dynamic time scale; k(sub theta), the fluctuating temperature variance; and tau(sub theta), the thermal time scale. It offers conceptually parallel modeling of the dynamic and thermal turbulence at the two equation level, and eliminates the customary prescription of an empirical turbulent Prandtl number, Pr(sub t), thus permitting a more generalized prediction capability for turbulent heat transfer in complex flows and geometries. The new model also incorporates constitutive relations, based upon invariant theory, that allow the effects of nonequilibrium to modify the primary coefficients for the turbulent shear stress and heat flux. Predictions of the new model, along with those from two other similar models, are compared with experimental data for decaying homogeneous dynamic and thermal turbulence, homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient, and homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient and constant velocity gradient. The new model offers improvement in agreement with the data for most cases considered in this work, although it was no better than the other models for several cases where all the models performed poorly.

  6. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi


    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  7. Homogenization in chemical reactive flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conca


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the homogenization of two nonlinear models for chemical reactive flows through the exterior of a domain containing periodically distributed reactive solid grains (or reactive obstacles. In the first model, the chemical reactions take place on the walls of the grains, while in the second one the fluid penetrates the grains and the reactions take place therein. The effective behavior of these reactive flows is described by a new elliptic boundary-value problem containing an extra zero-order term which captures the effect of the chemical reactions.

  8. A Rate-Dependent Shear Transformation Zone Model of Shear Band Formation During Flow (United States)

    Hinkle, Adam R.; Falk, Michael L.


    Recent shear-experiments of carbopol gels have revealed the formation of a transient shear band before reaching the steady-state characterized by homogeneous flow. Analysis of this phenomenon using a rate-dependent effective temperature in the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory reveals that the observed fluidization proceeds via two distinct processes: A shear band initiates and broadens via disordering at the interface of the band. This is accompanied by spatially homogeneous fluidization outside of the shear band where the disorder of the gel grows uniformly. Experimental data are used to parameterize the STZ theory, and direct, quantitative comparison is made to measurements of the structural evolution of the gel. NSF IGERT Fellowship Award No. 0801471.

  9. Tilting Shear Layers in Coastal Flows (United States)


    term goals of this research are to explore the evolution of flows with strong horizontal shear and horizontal density gradients (see Figure 1). These...converting horizontal shear to vertical shear. The horizontal shear leads to the growth of vertical vortices that are subsequently tilted, stretched...small-scale flows influence the water properties within the lagoons and merge with the larger scale flows around the islands. Specific targets are: 1

  10. Magnetorheological Shear Flow Near Jamming (United States)

    Vågberg, Daniel; Tighe, Brian


    Flow in magnetorheological (MR) fluids and systems near jamming both display hallmarks of complex fluid rheology, including yield stresses and shear thinning viscosities. They are also tunable, which means that both phenomena can be used as a switching mechanism in ``smart'' fluids, i.e. fluids where properties can be tuned rapidly and reversibly by changing external parameters. We use numerical simulations to investigate the rheological properties of MR fluids close to the jamming transition as a function of the applied field and volume fraction. We are especially interested in the crossover region where both phenomena are needed to describe the observed dynamics. Funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  11. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  12. Transition to turbulence in a shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Mersmann, Alois


    We analyze the properties of a 19 dimensional Galerkin approximation to a parallel shear flow. The laminar flow with a sinusoidal shape is stable for all Reynolds numbers Re. For sufficiently large Re additional stationary flows occur; they are all unstable. The lifetimes of finite amplitude perturbations show a fractal dependence on amplitude and Reynolds number. These findings are in accord with observations on plane Couette flow and suggest a universality of this transition szenario in shear flows.

  13. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  14. Astrophysical Applications of Relativistic Shear Flows (United States)

    Liang, Edison


    We review recent PIC simulation results of relativistic collisionless shear flows in both 2D and 3D. We apply these results to spine-sheath jet models of blazars and gamma-ray-bursters, and to shear flows near the horizon of rapidly spinning black holes. We will discuss magnetic field generation, particle energization and radiation processes, and their observational consequences.

  15. High Shear Homogenization of Lignin to Nanolignin and Thermal Stability of Nanolignin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blends (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; Sudhir Sharma; Yunqiao Pu; Qining Sun; Shaobo Pan; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Art J. Ragauskas


    A new method to prepare nanolignin using a simple high shear homogenizer is presented. The kraft lignin particles with a broad distribution ranging from large micron- to nano-sized particles were completely homogenized to nanolignin particles with sizes less than 100 nm after 4 h of mechanical shearing. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...

  16. The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow (United States)

    Sarkar, S.


    Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.

  17. Anisotropic Spinodal Decomposition under Shear Flow (United States)

    Imaeda, T.; Onuki, A.; Kawasaki, K.


    When a critical fluid is brought into the unstable region in the presence of shear flow, growing fluctuations are greatly elongated in the flow direction, giving rise to strongly anisotropic light scattering. In the strong shear case the linear growth theory becomes applicable in a sizable time region 0 Bar-on and Miller, it is found to increase as t(a') with a' =~ 0.2, whereas the characteristic size in the flow direction continues to increase roughly as t.

  18. Dynamics of colloidal crystals in shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, D.; Wu, Y.L.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.


    We investigate particle dynamics in nearly hard sphere colloidal crystals submitted to a steady shear flow. Both the fluctuations of single colloids and the collective motion of crystalline layers as a whole are studied by using a home-built counter rotating shear cell in combination with confocal

  19. Fourier-Bessel theory on flow acoustics in inviscid shear pipeline fluid flow (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian


    Flow acoustics in pipeline is of considerable interest in both industrial application and scientific research. While well-known analytical solutions exist for stationary and uniform mean flow, only numerical solutions exist for shear mean flow. Based on potential theory, a general mathematical formulation of flow acoustics in inviscid fluid with shear mean flow is deduced, resulting in a set of two second-order differential equations. According to Fourier-Bessel theory which is orthogonal and complete in Lebesgue Space, a solution is proposed to transform the differential equations to linear homogeneous algebraic equations. Consequently, the axial wave number is numerically calculated due to the existence condition of non-trivial solution to homogeneous linear algebraic equations, leading to the vanishment of the corresponding determinant. Based on the proposed method, wave propagation in laminar and turbulent flow is numerically analyzed.

  20. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow (United States)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.


    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  1. Sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, M A [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B A [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Hidalgo, C [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Silva, C [Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Associaccao EURATOM/IST, 1049-001-Lisbon (Portugal); Hron, M [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, AS CR Prague (Czech Republic); GarcIa, L [Universidad Carlos III, 28911-Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J A [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Calvo, I [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Pablos, J L de [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Stoeckel, J [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, AS CR Prague (Czech Republic)


    The universality of the observed characteristics of sheared flows points to a general ingredient to explain the damping/driving mechanisms responsible for the development of these flows in the plasma boundary region of fusion devices. Experiments in the TJ-II stellarator showing that the generation of spontaneous sheared flows at the plasma edge requires a minimum plasma density or density gradient, open a unique possibility to characterize the dynamics of sheared flow development in fusion plasmas. The effective viscosity at the plasma edge can be deduced by means of the decay rate of the perpendicular flow measurement once the driving force has been removed. Changes in the plasma rotation and turbulence have been studied when an electric field is externally applied at the plasma edge. The relaxation of flows and radial electric fields has been compared in the edge plasma region of TJ-II stellarator and CASTOR tokamak showing a striking similarity. The findings can help to test neoclassical and anomalous damping mechanisms in fusion plasmas. Finally, the emergence of the plasma edge sheared flow as a function of plasma density can be explained using a simple second-order phase transition model that reproduces many of the features of the TJ-II experimental data while capturing the qualitative features of the transition near the critical point.

  2. Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Smits, Alexander J


    A good understanding of turbulent compressible flows is essential to the design and operation of high-speed vehicles. Such flows occur, for example, in the external flow over the surfaces of supersonic aircraft, and in the internal flow through the engines. Our ability to predict the aerodynamic lift, drag, propulsion and maneuverability of high-speed vehicles is crucially dependent on our knowledge of turbulent shear layers, and our understanding of their behavior in the presence of shock waves and regions of changing pressure. Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow provides a comprehensive introduction to the field, and helps provide a basis for future work in this area. Wherever possible we use the available experimental work, and the results from numerical simulations to illustrate and develop a physical understanding of turbulent compressible flows.

  3. Hydrodynamic theory of tissue shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Popović, Marko; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume


    We propose a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements. We identify a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We show that anisotropic deformation of tissue and cells can arise from two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven cellular rearrangements. These two active processes result in distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  4. Active dynamics of tissue shear flow (United States)

    Popović, Marko; Nandi, Amitabha; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume


    We present a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a generic linear constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements and we investigate a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We identify two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven topological rearrangements. We find that these two active processes can produce distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  5. Dynamics of microcapsules in oscillating shear flow (United States)

    Zhao, Mengye; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    We present a three-dimensional numerical study on the dynamics of deformable capsules in sinusoidally oscillating shear flow. We consider capsules of spherical and oblate spheroid resting shapes. For spherical resting shapes, we find an identical deformation response during positive and negative vorticities. However, the deformation response becomes unequal and shows complex behavior for nonspherical resting shapes. The average elongation is higher in the retarding phase of the shear flow than in the accelerating phase. Primarily two types of dynamics are observed for nonspherical shapes: a clockwise/counter-clockwise swinging motion in response to the altering flow direction that occurs at both high and low values of shear rate amplitudes, and a continuous/unidirectional tumbling motion that occurs at intermediate values. The unidirectional tumbling motion occurs despite the fact that the time-average vorticity is zero. Such a tumbling motion is accompanied by a continuous tank-treading motion of the membrane in the opposite direction. We obtain phase diagram that shows existence of two critical shear rates and two oscillation frequencies. The unidirectional tumbling motion occurs in the intermediate range, and the clockwise/counter-clockwise swinging motion occurs otherwise. We also find that the dynamics is highly sensitive to the initial condition. A swinging is generally observed when the capsule is released aligned with the extensional or compressional axis of the shear flow, and a tumbling is observed otherwise. These results suggest the possibility of chaotic behavior of cells in time-dependent flows. We provide explanations of such complex dynamics by analyzing the coupling between the shape and angular oscillation and the imposed flow oscillation.

  6. Shear-dependant toroidal vortex flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorasani, Nariman Ashrafi; Haghighi, Habib Karimi [Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pseudoplastic circular Couette flow in annulus is investigated. The flow viscosity is dependent on the shear rate, which directly affects the conservation equations that are solved in the present study by the spectral method in the present study. The pseudoplastic model adopted here is shown to be a suitable representative of nonlinear fluids. Unlike the previous studies, where only the square of shear rate term in the viscosity expression was considered to ease the numerical manipulations, in the present study takes the term containing the quadratic power into account. The curved streamlines of the circular Couette flow can cause a centrifugal instability leading to toroidal vortices, known as Taylor vortices. It is further found that the critical Taylor number becomes lower as the pseudoplastic effect increases. Comparison with existing measurements on pseudoplastic circular Couette flow results in good agreement.

  7. Reynolds stress and shear flow generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.


    to the treatment of the pseudo-Reynolds stress, we present analytical and numerical results which demonstrate that the Reynolds stress in a plasma, indeed, generates a poloidal shear flow. The numerical simulations are performed both in a drift wave turbulence regime and a resistive interchange turbulence regime......The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method...

  8. Red blood cell in simple shear flow (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long


    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  9. Propagation of waves in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, A L


    The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside

  10. An alternative assessment of second-order closure models in turbulent shear flows (United States)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Gatski, Thomas B.


    The performance of three recently proposed second-order closure models is tested in benchmark turbulent shear flows. Both homogeneous shear flow and the log-layer of an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer are considered for this purpose. An objective analysis of the results leads to an assessment of these models that stands in contrast to that recently published by other authors. A variety of pitfalls in the formulation and testing of second-order closure models are uncovered by this analysis.

  11. Active shear flow control for improved combustion (United States)

    Gutmark, E.; Parr, T. P.; Hanson-Parr, D. M.; Schadow, K. C.


    The acoustical and fluid dynamic facets of an excited premixed flame were studied experimentally to evaluate possibilities for development of a stabilizing closed-loop control system. The flame was analyzed as a nonlinear system which includes different subcomponents: acoustics, fluid dynamics, and chemical reaction. Identification of the acoustical and fluid dynamics subsystems is done by analyzing the transfer function, which was obtained by driving the system with both white-noise and a frequency-sweeping sine-wave. The features obtained by this analysis are compared to results of flow visualization and hot-wire flow-field and spectral measurements. The acoustical subsystem is determined by the resonant acoustic modes of the settling chamber. These modes are subsequently filtered and amplified by the flow shear layer, whose instability characteristics are dominated by the preferred mode frequency.

  12. Mixing in a stratified shear flow: Energetics and sampling (United States)

    Ivey, G. N.; Koseff, J. R.; Briggs, D. A.; Ferziger, J. H.


    Direct numerical simulations of the time evolution of homogeneous stably stratified shear flows have been performed for Richardson numbers from 0 to 1 and for Prandtl numbers between 0.1 and 2. The results indicate that mixing efficiency R(sub f) varies with turbulent Froude number in a manner consistent with laboratory experiments performed with Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 700. However, unlike the laboratory results, for a particular Froude number, the simulations do not show a clear dependence on the magnitude of R(sub f) on Pr. The observed maximum value of R(sub f) is 0.25. When averaged over vertical length scales of an order of magnitude greater than either the overturning or Ozmidov scales of the flow, the simulations indicate that the dissipation rate epsilon is only weakly lognormally distributed with an intermittency of about 0.01 whereas estimated values in the ocean are 3 to 7.

  13. Controllability of Non-Newtonian Fluids Under Homogeneous Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Lynda M


    .... The constitutive models are as follows: the Phan-Thien-Tanner model; the Johnson-Segalman model; and the Doi model. The effect of extensional flow on these models and the effect of shear flow on the Doi model have not been explored previous to this work...

  14. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  15. Sustained shear flows in Rayleigh-Bénard convection (United States)

    Quist, Tayler; Anders, Evan; Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey


    Zonal shear flows play important roles in both the solar and geo dynamos. In two dimensional simulations, and at relatively narrow aspect ratios, Rayleigh-Bénard convection naturally achieves zonal shear flows. These zonal flows are driven by the convection and modify it, significantly altering the heat transport and convective structures. Here we study shear flows in two and three-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using the Dedalus pseudospectral framework. At small aspect ratios and at Prandtl number 1, a large horizontal shear naturally occurs. At larger aspect ratios, we find that shearing is naturally prevented unless manually induced; there is a bistability between states dominated by "flywheel" modes and states dominated by large scale shear. We explore these states and the possibilities of sustained large scale shear in 3-D simulations.

  16. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.


    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data...

  17. Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow (United States)

    Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian


    Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.

  18. Dynamics of nonspherical capsules in shear flow (United States)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit; Kalluri, R. Murthy


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a front-tracking method are presented on the dynamics of oblate shape capsules in linear shear flow by considering a broad range of viscosity contrast (ratio of internal-to-external fluid viscosity), shear rate (or capillary number), and aspect ratio. We focus specifically on the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics of capsules, and show how this coupling influences the transition from the tank-treading to tumbling motion. At low capillary numbers, three distinct modes of motion are identified: a swinging or oscillatory (OS) mode at a low viscosity contrast in which the inclination angle θ(t) oscillates but always remains positive; a vacillating-breathing (VB) mode at a moderate viscosity contrast in which θ(t) periodically becomes positive and negative, but a full tumbling does not occur; and a pure tumbling mode (TU) at a higher viscosity contrast. At higher capillary numbers, three types of transient motions occur, in addition to the OS and TU modes, during which the capsule switches from one mode to the other as (i) VB to OS, (ii) TU to VB to OS, and (iii) TU to VB. Phase diagrams showing various regimes of capsule dynamics are presented. For all modes of motion (OS, VB, and TU), a large-amplitude oscillation in capsule shape and a strong coupling between the shape deformation and orientation dynamics are observed. It is shown that the coupling between the shape deformation and orientation is the strongest in the VB mode, and hence at a moderate viscosity contrast, for which the amplitude of shape deformation reaches its maximum. The numerical results are compared with the theories of Keller and Skalak, and Skotheim and Secomb. Significant departures from the two theories are discussed and related to the strong coupling between the shape deformation, inclination, and transition dynamics.

  19. Laminar boundary layers with uniform shear cross flow (United States)

    Weidman, Patrick


    Laminar boundary layers with fully developed uniform shear cross flows are considered. The first streamwise laminar flow is a Blasius boundary layer flow, the second is uniform shear flow over a semi-infinite plate, and the third is the flow induced by a power-law stretching surface. In the first two cases, the effect of streamwise plate motion is taken into account by the parameter λ. In each case, the similarity solutions reduce the governing boundary layer equations to a primary ordinary differential equation for the streamwise flow and a secondary linear equation coupled to the primary solution for the cross flow. It is found that an infinity of solutions exist in each problem and the unique solution in each case is found by applying the Glauert criterion. In some instances, a simple exact solution for the cross flow is presented. Results for the wall shear stresses and velocity profiles are given in graphical form.

  20. Research on wall shear stress considering wall roughness when shear swirling flow vibration cementing (United States)

    Cui, Zhihua; Ai, Chi; Feng, Fuping


    When shear swirling flow vibration cementing, the casing is revolving periodically and eccentrically, which leads to the annulus fluid in turbulent swirling flow state. The wall shear stress is more than that in laminar flow field when conventional cementing. The paper mainly studied the wall shear stress distribution on the borehole wall when shear swirling flow vibration cementing based on the finite volume method. At the same time, the wall roughness affected and changed the turbulent flow near the borehole wall and the wall shear stress. Based on the wall function method, the paper established boundary conditions considering the wall roughness and derived the formula of the wall shear stress. The results showed that the wall roughness significantly increases the wall shear stress. However, the larger the wall roughness, the greater the thickness of mud cake, which weakening the cementing strength. Considering the effects in a comprehensive way, it is discovered that the particle size of solid phase in drilling fluid is about 0.1 mm to get better cementing quality.

  1. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow


    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich


    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity ω in an axial background shear of magnitude Ω by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector Ω and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lat...

  2. A MEMS Floating Element Shear Stress Sensor for Hypersonic Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheplak, Mark


    ... for the measurement of unsteady hypersonic flow phenomena. The work focused on three parts: (1) modeling, optimization, and fabrication of a piezoresistive-based micromachined, floating element shear stress sensor, (2...

  3. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foley, Christopher; Chterev, Ianko; Noble, Bobby; Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Tim

    A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble...

  4. Shear banding and flow-concentration coupling in colloidal glasses. (United States)

    Besseling, R; Isa, L; Ballesta, P; Petekidis, G; Cates, M E; Poon, W C K


    We report experiments on hard-sphere colloidal glasses that show a type of shear banding hitherto unobserved in soft glasses. We present a scenario that relates this to an instability due to shear-concentration coupling, a mechanism previously thought unimportant in these materials. Below a characteristic shear rate γ(c) we observe increasingly nonlinear and localized velocity profiles. We attribute this to very slight concentration gradients in the unstable flow regime. A simple model accounts for both the observed increase of γ(c) with concentration, and the fluctuations in the flow.

  5. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Jing; Wang Jiangan; Wu Ronghua, E-mail: [Col. of Electronic Eng., Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)


    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm{sup 2}. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  6. Numerical Studies of Homogenization under a Fast Cellular Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Iyer, Gautam


    We consider a two dimensional particle diffusing in the presence of a fast cellular flow confined to a finite domain. If the flow amplitude A is held fixed and the number of cells L 2 →∞, then the problem homogenizes; this has been well studied. Also well studied is the limit when L is fixed and A→∞. In this case the solution averages along stream lines. The double limit as both the flow amplitude A→∞and the number of cells L 2 →∞was recently studied [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074]; one observes a sharp transition between the homogenization and averaging regimes occurring at A = L 2. This paper numerically studies a few theoretically unresolved aspects of this problem when both A and L are large that were left open in [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074] using the numerical method devised in [G. A. Pavliotis, A. M. Stewart, and K. C. Zygalakis, J. Comput. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 1030-1055]. Our treatment of the numerical method uses recent developments in the theory of modified equations for numerical integrators of stochastic differential equations [K. C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2001), pp. 102-130]. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Crystal nucleation mechanism in melts of short polymer chains under quiescent conditions and under shear flow (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad; Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja


    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study of crystal nucleation from undercooled melts of n-alkanes, and we identify the molecular mechanism of homogeneous crystal nucleation under quiescent conditions and under shear flow. We compare results for n-eicosane (C20) and n-pentacontahectane (C150), i.e., one system below the entanglement length and one above, at 20%-30% undercooling. Under quiescent conditions, we observe that entanglement does not have an effect on the nucleation mechanism. For both chain lengths, the chains first align and then straighten locally, then the local density increases and finally positional ordering sets in. At low shear rates the nucleation mechanism is the same as under quiescent conditions, while at high shear rates the chains align and straighten at the same time. We report on the effects of shear rate and temperature on the nucleation rates and estimate the critical shear rates, beyond which the nucleation rates increase with the shear rate. In agreement with previous experimental observation and theoretical work, we find that the critical shear rate corresponds to a Weissenberg number of order 1. Finally, we show that the viscosity of the system is not affected by the crystalline nuclei.

  8. Dynamics of a self-diffusiophoretic particle in shear flow. (United States)

    Frankel, Alexandra E; Khair, Aditya S


    Colloidal particles can achieve autonomous motion by a number of physicochemical mechanisms. For instance, if a spherical particle acts as a catalyst with an asymmetric surface reactivity, a molecular solute concentration gradient will develop in the surrounding fluid that can propel the particle via self-diffusiophoresis. Theoretical analyses of self-diffusiophoresis have mostly been considered in quiescent fluid, where the solute concentration is usually assumed to evolve solely via diffusion. In practical applications, however, self-propelled colloidal particles can be expected to reside in flowing fluids. Here, we examine the role of ambient flow on self-diffusiophoresis by quantifying the dynamics of a model Janus particle in a simple shear flow. The imposed flow can distort the self-generated solute concentration gradient. The extent of this distortion is quantified by a Peclet number, Pe, associated with the shear flow. Utilizing matched asymptotic analysis, we determine the concentration gradient surrounding a Janus particle in shear flow at a small, but finite, Peclet number and the resulting particle motion. For example, when the symmetry axis of the particle is aligned with the imposed flow, the Janus particle experiences an O(Pe) cross-streamline drift and an O(Pe(3/2)) reduction in translational velocity along the flow direction. We then analyze the in-plane trajectory of the Janus particle in shear. We find that the particle performs elliptical orbits around its initial position in the flow, which decrease in size with increasing Pe.

  9. Resonant alignment of microswimmer trajectories in oscillatory shear flows (United States)

    Hope, Alexander; Croze, Ottavio A.; Poon, Wilson C. K.; Bees, Martin A.; Haw, Mark D.


    Oscillatory flows are commonly experienced by swimming micro-organisms in the environment, industrial applications, and rheological investigations. We characterize experimentally the response of the alga Dunaliella salina to oscillatory shear flows and report the surprising discovery that algal swimming trajectories orient perpendicular to the flow-shear plane. The ordering has the characteristics of a resonance in the driving parameter space. The behavior is qualitatively reproduced by a simple model and simulations accounting for helical swimming, suggesting a mechanism for ordering and criteria for the resonant amplitude and frequency. The implications of this work for active oscillatory rheology and industrial algal processing are discussed.

  10. Multi-Scale Investigation of Sheared Flows In Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward, Jr., Thomas [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States)


    Flows parallel and perpendicular to magnetic fields in a plasma are important phenomena in many areas of plasma science research. The presence of these spatially inhomogeneous flows is often associated with the stability of the plasma. In fusion plasmas, these sheared flows can be stabilizing while in space plasmas, these sheared flows can be destabilizing. Because of this, there is broad interest in understanding the coupling between plasma stability and plasma flows. This research project has engaged in a study of the plasma response to spatially inhomogeneous plasma flows using three different experimental devices: the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) and the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) stellarator devices at Auburn University, and the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber (SPSC) at the Naval Research Laboratory. This work has shown that there is a commonality of the plasma response to sheared flows across a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic field geometries. The goal of this multi-device, multi-scale project is to understand how sheared flows established by the same underlying physical mechanisms lead to different plasma responses in fusion, laboratory, and space plasmas.

  11. Tracking control of colloidal particles through non-homogeneous stationary flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Híjar, Humberto, E-mail: [Grupo de Sistemas Inteligentes, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad La Salle, Benjamín Franklin 47, 06140, Distrito Federal (Mexico)


    We consider the problem of controlling the trajectory of a single colloidal particle in a fluid with steady non-homogeneous flow. We use a Langevin equation to describe the dynamics of this particle, where the friction term is assumed to be given by the Faxén's Theorem for the force on a sphere immersed in a stationary flow. We use this description to propose an explicit control force field to be applied on the particle such that it will follow asymptotically any given desired trajectory, starting from an arbitrary initial condition. We show that the dynamics of the controlled particle can be mapped into a set of stochastic harmonic oscillators and that the velocity gradient of the solvent induces an asymmetric coupling between them. We study the particular case of a Brownian particle controlled through a plane Couette flow and show explicitly that the velocity gradient of the solvent renders the dynamics non-stationary and non-reversible in time. We quantify this effect in terms of the correlation functions for the position of the controlled particle, which turn out to exhibit contributions depending exclusively on the non-equilibrium character of the state of the solvent. In order to test the validity of our model, we perform simulations of the controlled particle moving in a simple shear flow, using a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics. We confirm numerically that the proposed guiding force allows for controlling the trajectory of the micro-sized particle by obligating it to follow diverse specific trajectories in fluids with homogeneous shear rates of different strengths. In addition, we find that the non-equilibrium correlation functions in simulations exhibit the same qualitative behavior predicted by the model, thus revealing the presence of the asymmetric non-equilibrium coupling mechanism induced by the velocity gradient.

  12. Swinging of two-domains vesicles in shear flow (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Tusch, Simon; Khelloufi, Kamel; Leonetti, Marc


    Giant lipid vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow at low shear rates tank tread (TT) at small viscosity ratio between the inner particle volume and the external fluid, and flip or tumble (T) at large viscosity ratio. The phase diagram of motion of red blood cells is however much more complex. Swinging superimposes to TT, cells wobble and roll rather than tumble with increasing shear rate and present a shear-rate driven transition between TT to T. These features are attributed to the shear elasticity and the non spherical stress-free shape of the cell membrane, which stores shear elastic energy as a function of the relative position of its elements. We have created vesicles with a phase diagram of motion comparable to that of red blood cells by preparing membranes with two lipids and cholesterol. These membranes present two domains separated by a contact line. The line has a tension energy that depends on its relative position on the vesicle. Similarly to red blood cells, two-domains vesicles swing and wobble. An analytical model where line tension energy is added to the Keller and Skalak's model fits our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. Our experiments and model shed light on the motion of deformable particles in shear flow.

  13. Instability of Stratified Shear Flow: Intermittency and Length Scales (United States)

    Ecke, Robert; Odier, Philippe


    The stability of stratified shear flows which occur in oceanic overflows, wind-driven thermoclines, and atmospheric inversion layers is governed by the Richardson Number Ri , a non-dimensional balance between stabilizing stratification and destabilizing shear. For a shear flow with velocity difference U, density difference Δρ and characteristic length H, one has Ri = g (Δρ / ρ) H /U2 . A more precise definition is the gradient Richardson Number Rig =N2 /S2 where the buoyancy frequency N =√{ (g / ρ) ∂ρ / ∂z } , the mean strain S = ∂U / ∂z with z parallel to gravity and with ensemble or time averages defining the gradients. We explore the stability and mixing properties of a wall-bounded shear flow for 0 . 1 alcohol-water mixture injected from a nozzle into quiescent heavier salt-water fluid. The injected flow is turbulent with Taylor Reynolds number about 75. We compare a set of length scales that characterize the mixing properties of our turbulent stratified shear flow including Thorpe Length LT, Ozmidov Length LO, and Ellison Length LE.

  14. A Rotary Flow Channel for Shear Stress Sensor Calibration (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Scott, Michael A.


    A proposed shear sensor calibrator consists of a rotating wheel with the sensor mounted tangential to the rim and positioned in close proximity to the rim. The shear stress generated by the flow at the sensor position is simply tau(sub omega) = (mu)r(omega)/h, where mu is the viscosity of the ambient gas, r the wheel radius, omega the angular velocity of the wheel, and h the width of the gap between the wheel rim and the sensor. With numerical values of mu = 31 (mu)Pa s (neon at room temperature), r = 0.5 m, omega = 754 /s (7200 rpm), and h = 50.8 m, a shear stress of tau(sub omega) = 231 Pa can be generated. An analysis based on one-dimensional flow, with the flow velocity having only an angular component as a function of the axial and radial coordinates, yields corrections to the above simple formula for the curvature of the wheel, flatness of the sensor, and finite width of the wheel. It is assumed that the sensor mount contains a trough (sidewalls) to render a velocity release boundary condition at the edges of the rim. The Taylor number under maximum flow conditions is found to be 62.3, sufficiently low to obviate flow instability. The fact that the parameters entering into the evaluation of the shear stress can be measured to high accuracy with well-defined uncertainties makes the proposed calibrator suitable for a physical standard for shear stress calibration.

  15. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center


    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  16. Coherent structures in homogeneous shear turbulence compared with those in channels (United States)

    Dong, Siwei; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Sekimoto, Atsushi; Jiménez, Javier


    Three-dimensional vortex clusters and coherent structures responsible for the momentum transfer (Qs) are studied by DNS in homogeneous shear turbulence (HST) at Reλ = 50 , 100 and 250, with emphasis on comparisons with channel turbulence (CH). The anisotropic orientation of those structures only appears for volumes larger than Lc3 (Lc is the Corrsin scale). Even in that case, their anisotropy is moderate, similar to the detached structures in the CH. Only strictly attached structures in channels are more anisotropic. The Reynolds stress contained in vortex clusters is mainly associated with Q-s, distributed equally between sweeps (Q4) and ejections (Q2), instead of preferentially with the latter, as in the CH. The average fractal dimension of Qs is roughly 2.1 and that of vortex clusters is 1.8. The relative positions of the structures reveal that they form streamwise trains of groups of a Q2 and a Q4, paired side-by-side in the spanwise direction, with vortex clusters in between, as in the CH. Funded by the ERC Multiflow program and CSC.

  17. Optimization of {beta}-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael D., E-mail: triplettm@battelle.or [Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Life Sciences Global Business (United States); Rathman, James F. [The Ohio State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)


    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, {beta}-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of {beta}-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. {beta}-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. {beta}-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  18. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.


    potential for erosion, it is important to compare the measured shear strength to penetrometer measurements and to develop a correlation (or correlations) between UCS measured by a pocket penetrometer and direct shear strength measurements for various homogeneous and heterogeneous simulants. This study developed 11 homogeneous simulants, whose shear strengths vary from 4 to 170 kPa. With these simulants, we developed correlations between UCS measured by a Geotest E-280 pocket penetrometer and shear strength values measured by a Geonor H-60 hand-held vane tester and a more sophisticated bench-top unit, the Haake M5 rheometer. This was achieved with side-by-side measurements of the shear strength and UCS of the homogeneous simulants. The homogeneous simulants developed under this study consist of kaolin clay, plaster of Paris, and amorphous alumina CP-5 with water. The simulants also include modeling clay. The shear strength of most of these simulants is sensitive to various factors, including the simulant size, the intensity of mixing, and the curing time, even with given concentrations of simulant components. Table S.1 summarizes these 11 simulants and their shear strengths.

  19. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  20. The importance of flow history in mixed shear and extensional flows (United States)

    Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth


    Many complex fluid flows of experimental and academic interest exhibit mixed kinematics with regions of shear and elongation. Examples include flows through planar hyperbolic contractions in microfluidic devices and through porous media or geometric arrays. Through the introduction of a ``flow-type parameter'' α which varies between 0 in pure shear and 1 in pure elongation, the local velocity fields of all such mixed flows can be concisely characterized. It is tempting to then consider the local stress field and interpret the local state of stress in a complex fluid in terms of shearing or extensional material functions. However, the material response of such fluids exhibit a fading memory of the entire deformation history. We consider a dilute solution of Hookean dumbbells and solve the Oldroyd-B model to obtain analytic expressions for the entire stress field in any arbitrary mixed flow of constant strain rate and flow-type parameter α. We then consider a more complex flow for which the shear rate is constant but the flow-type parameter α varies periodically in time (reminiscent of flow through a periodic array or through repeated contractions and expansions). We show that the flow history and kinematic sequencing (in terms of whether the flow was initialized as shearing or extensional) is extremely important in determining the ensuing stress field and rate of dissipated energy in the flow, and can only be ignored in the limit of infinitely slow flow variations.

  1. On Howard's conjecture in heterogeneous shear flow problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the basic heterogeneity distribution function, are negligible as compared to the first-order terms in gβ. 2. Mathematical formulation of the problem. The basic equations governing the linear instability in a Boussinesq inviscid parallel shear flow which is confined between two rigid horizontal boundaries is given by. 451 ...

  2. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the

  3. Ion waves driven by shear flow in a relativistic degenerate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 5. Ion waves driven by shear flow in a relativistic degenerate ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  4. Suspension of rigid spheres in shear flows (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Esteghamatian, Amir; Wachs, Anthony


    Suspension of rigid spheres in a plane Couette flow is studied using three-dimensional particle resolved numerical simulations. We use a fixed mesh that resolves each particle diameter using 24 points and a Distributed Lagrange Multi- plier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) method. The effects of particle volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macrcoscopic and microscopic stresses in the suspension are examined. The kinematics of particle are also studied for a range of dilute to dense suspensions and Stokes to inertial flows. For dense suspensions and also for higher particle Reynolds numbers the particle/particle and particle/wall contacts are enhanced. For such cases, lubrication forces need to be taken into account. We compare simulations with and without the lubrication forces to conclude for what range of parameters lubrication should be incorporated into the simulations.

  5. Red cells and rouleaux in shear flow. (United States)

    Goldsmith, H L


    The rotation and deformation of human red cells and linear aggregates (rouleaux) in dilute plasma suspension were observed in Poiseuille and Couette flow. Single lunideform-led erythrocyte. s and roluleauix rotated in orbits predicted by theory for rigid spheroids. Bending of rouleaux occurred at orientations at which compressive forces act on the particles and the degree of flexibility increased with the number of cells in linear array.

  6. Shear-thinning of molecular fluids in Couette flow (United States)

    Raghavan, Bharath V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin


    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the Boltzmann equation, and continuum thermomechanics to investigate and characterize the shear-thinning behavior of molecular fluids undergoing Couette flow, interacting via a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. In particular, we study the shear-stress under steady-state conditions and its dependency on fluid density and applied shear-strain rate. Motivated by kinetic theory, we propose a rheological equation of state that fits observed system responses exceptionally well and captures the extreme shear-thinning effect. We notice that beyond a particular strain-rate threshold, the fluid exhibits shear-thinning, the degree of which is dependent on the density and temperature of the system. In addition, we obtain a shear-rate dependent model for the viscosity which matches the well established Cross viscosity model. We demonstrate how this model arises naturally from the Boltzmann equation and possesses an inherent scaling parameter that unifies the rheological properties of the LJ fluid. We compare our model with those in the literature. Finally, we formulate a dissipation function modeling the LJ fluid as a quasilinear fluid.

  7. Spherical particle sedimenting in weakly viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Mehlig, Bernhard


    We consider the dynamics of a small spherical particle driven through an unbounded viscoelastic shear flow by an external force. We give analytical solutions to both the mobility problem (the velocity of a forced particle) and the resistance problem (the force on a fixed particle), valid to second order in the dimensionless Deborah and Weissenberg numbers, which represent the elastic relaxation time of the fluid relative to the rate of translation and the imposed shear rate. We find a shear-induced lift at O (Wi ) , a modified drag at O (De2) and O (Wi2) , and a second lift that is orthogonal to the first, at O (Wi2) . The relative importance of these effects depends strongly on the orientation of the forcing relative to the shear. We discuss how these forces affect the terminal settling velocity in an inclined shear flow. We also describe a basis set of symmetric Cartesian tensors and demonstrate how they enable general tensorial perturbation calculations such as the present theory. In particular, this scheme allows us to write down a solution to the inhomogeneous Stokes equations, required by the perturbation expansion, by a sequence of algebraic manipulations well suited to computer implementation.

  8. Analysis on Nonlinear Stress-Growth Data for Shear Flow of Starch Material with Shear Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghu Yu


    Full Text Available The material function of liquid materials for packaging plays an important role in analysis of its mechanical behavior. The mechanical behavior of material affects the packaging process in many aspects, such as selection of packaging materials and preparation of packaging method. Therefore, research on the material function of the liquid material is very helpful to guide the packaging process and look into how the packaging quality and efficiency are affected by the mechanical properties of material. This paper established the material function for the starch solution under shear process. With the relaxation test of the starch solution specimens, the G(t function and dumping function were established and verified. Based on the memory function of starch solution, the material function of starch solution was constructed and approved to be efficiently predict the mechanical behavior during the shear process. Therefore, such material function can be used to guide the operation on the shear flow.

  9. Homogenization and texture development in rapidly solidified AZ91E consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N. R.; Whalen, S. A.; Bowden, M. E.; Olszta, M. J.; Kruska, K.; Clark, T.; Stevens, E. L.; Darsell, J. T.; Joshi, V. V.; Jiang, X.; Mattlin, K. F.; Mathaudhu, S. N.


    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) -a novel processing route that combines high shear and extrusion conditions- was evaluated as a processing method to densify melt spun magnesium alloy (AZ91E) flake materials. This study illustrates the microstructural regimes and transitions in crystallographic texture that occur as a result of applying simultaneous linear and rotational shear during extrusion. Characterization of the flake precursor and extruded tube was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microindentation techniques. Results show a unique transition in the orientation of basal texture development. Despite the high temperatures involved during processing, uniform grain refinement and material homogenization are observed. These results forecast the ability to implement the ShAPE processing approach for a broader range of materials with novel microstructures and high performance.

  10. Cavitation Inception in Immersed Jet Shear Flows (United States)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ndamuso, N.; Price, R.


    Cavitation inception occurring in immersed jets was investigated in a purpose-built mechanical flow rig. The rig utilized custom-built cylindrical and conical nozzles to direct high-velocity jets of variable concentration n-octane-hexadecane mixtures into a fused silica optically accessible receiver. The fluid pressure upstream and down-stream of the nozzles were manually controlled. The study employed a variety of acrylic and metal nozzles. The results show that the critical upstream pressure to downstream pressure ratio for incipient cavitation decreases with increasing n-octane concentration for the cylindrical nozzles, and increases with increasing n-octane concentration for the conical nozzle.

  11. Mean-field dynamo action in renovating shearing flows. (United States)

    Kolekar, Sanved; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Sridhar, S


    We study mean-field dynamo action in renovating flows with finite and nonzero correlation time (τ) in the presence of shear. Previous results obtained when shear was absent are generalized to the case with shear. The question of whether the mean magnetic field can grow in the presence of shear and nonhelical turbulence, as seen in numerical simulations, is examined. We show in a general manner that, if the motions are strictly nonhelical, then such mean-field dynamo action is not possible. This result is not limited to low (fluid or magnetic) Reynolds numbers nor does it use any closure approximation; it only assumes that the flow renovates itself after each time interval τ. Specifying to a particular form of the renovating flow with helicity, we recover the standard dispersion relation of the α(2)Ω dynamo, in the small τ or large wavelength limit. Thus mean fields grow even in the presence of rapidly growing fluctuations, surprisingly, in a manner predicted by the standard quasilinear closure, even though such a closure is not strictly justified. Our work also suggests the possibility of obtaining mean-field dynamo growth in the presence of helicity fluctuations, although having a coherent helicity will be more efficient.

  12. Acceleration feature points of unsteady shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kasten, Jens; Hotz, Ingrid; Hege, Hans-Christian; Noack, Bernd R; Daviller, Guillaume; Morzynski, Marek


    In this paper, we propose a novel framework to extract features such as vortex cores and saddle points in two-dimensional unsteady flows. This feature extraction strategy generalizes critical points of snapshot topology in a Galilean-invariant manner, allows to prioritize features according to their strength and longevity, enables to track the temporal evolution of features, is robust against noise and has no subjective parameters. These characteristics are realized via several constitutive elements. First, acceleration is employed as a feature identifier following Goto and Vassilicos (2006), thus ensuring Galilean invariance. Second, the acceleration magnitude is used as basis for a mathematically well-developed scalar field topology. The minima of this field are called acceleration feature points, a superset of the acceleration zeros. These points are discriminated into vortices and saddle points depending the spectral properties of the velocity Jacobian. Third, all operations are based on discrete topology...

  13. Graphene Nanosheets and Shear Flow Induced Crystallization in Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Xu; C Chen; Y Wang; H Tang; Z Li; B Hsiao


    Combined effects of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) and shear flow on the crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) were investigated by in-situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. For crystallization under quiescent condition (at 145 C), the half-crystallization time (t{sub 1/2}) of nanocomposites containing 0.05 and 0.1 wt % GNSs was reduced to at least 50% compared to that of neat iPP, indicating the high nucleation ability of GNSs. The crystallization rate of iPP was directly proportional to the GNS content. Under a relatively weak shear flow (at a rate of 20 s{sup -1} for 5 s duration) and a low degree of supercooling, the neat iPP exhibited an isotropic structure due to the relaxation of row nuclei. However, visible antisotropic crystals appeared in sheared iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs induced a network structure hindering the mobility of iPP chains and allowing the survival of oriented row nuclei for a long period of time. The presence of GNSs clearly enhanced the effects of shear-induced nucleation as well as orientation of iPP crystals. Two kinds of nucleating origins coexisted in the sheared nanocomposite melt: heterogeneous nucleating sites initiated by GNSs and homogeneous nucleating sites (row nuclei) induced by shear. The difference of t{sub 1/2} of nanocomposites with and without shear was significantly larger than that of neat iPP. The presence of GNSs and shear flow exhibited a synergistic interaction on promoting crystallization kinetics of iPP, although the effect of GNS concentration was not apparent. From WAXD results of isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization of sheared iPP, it was found that the appearance of {beta}-crystals depended on the preservation of row nuclei, where the {alpha}-crystals were predominant in the iPP/GNSs nanocomposites, indicating that GNSs could directly induce {alpha}-crystals of iPP.

  14. Transverse electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O


    Electron-scale surface waves are shown to be unstable in the transverse plane of a shear flow in an initially unmagnetized plasma, unlike in the (magneto)hydrodynamics case. It is found that these unstable modes have a higher growth rate than the closely related electron-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in relativistic shears. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations verify the analytic results and further reveal the emergence of mushroom-like electron density structures in the nonlinear phase of the instability, similar to those observed in the Rayleigh Taylor instability despite the great disparity in scales and different underlying physics. Macroscopic ($\\gg c/\\omega_{pe}$) fields are shown to be generated by these microscopic shear instabilities, which are relevant for particle acceleration, radiation emission and to seed MHD processes at long time-scales.

  15. Numerical simulations of deformation and aggregation of red blood cells in shear flow. (United States)

    Low, Hong-Tong; Ju, M; Sui, Y; Nazir, T; Namgung, B; Kim, Sangho


    This article reviews numerical simulations of red blood cells (RBCs) mainly using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), focusing on the 2-dimensional deformation and aggregation of the cells in simple shear flow. We outline the incorporation of the immersed boundary method into the LBM, in which the membrane forces are obtained from the membrane model. The RBCs are simulated as a single biconcave capsule and as a doublet of biconcave capsules. The transition from swinging to tumbling motions of the RBCs, as induced by reducing the shear rate or increasing the membrane bending stiffness, is discussed. Also discussed is the aggregation tendency of the doublet of RBCs, for which homogenous deformability maintained RBC aggregation, whereas an increased deformability difference resulted in RBC dissociation.

  16. Instability and segregation in bounded particulate shear flows (United States)

    Conway, Stephen L.

    Strategies for processing particulate materials, ranging from nanoparticles to pharmaceutical tablets, remain largely empirical and unreliable. Non-uniformity and segregation threaten product quality and consistency. We tackle these problems using fundamental, mesoscale approaches widespread in analysis of fluids. In paradigmatic gravity and Couette geometries, we examine the high-shear flow regime representative of many mixing and transport operations and characterize their unstable nature and consequent component segregation. Large-scale particle-dynamics simulations and experiments in two and three dimensions are quantified chiefly by Fourier methods, particle image velocimetry and image analysis, and provide tests of the continuum equations of granular kinetic theory. Uniform flows of identical particles spontaneously evolve into coherent clusters due to dissipative collisions and the presence of solid boundaries. Through parametric and transient analysis of numerical results, we find underlying instabilities cause order-of-magnitude variations in macroscopic properties and initiate vorticity. Similar instabilities are expressed experimentally. Measurements also indicate that subsurface circulation driven by velocity gradients near frictional walls is central to the generation of free-surface waves, suggesting a granular analog of fluid boundary layers. Instabilities also trigger segregation in particle mixtures. The magnitude and direction of species flux depends on local gradients describing cluster intensity, with implications for particle size distribution measurements. New segregation modes are quantified experimentally. Novel mixing-segregation transitions occur when we use gas fluidization to overcome particle jamming and show for the first time that granular materials develop vortices consistent with the primary Taylor instability---arguably the most instructive of all shear instabilities in fluids. However, unlike those in fluids, the granular vortices

  17. Free shear layer and swirl flow heat transfer enhancement (United States)

    Wirtz, R. A.; Greiner, M.; Snyder, B.


    Two wall shape induced convective heat transfer enhancement mechanisms for channel flows are investigated. The first uses transverse grooves in a channel wall to produce unstable free shear layers which cause traveling waves to be superimposed on the mean flow, thus augmenting heat transfer. The second uses streamline curvature to produce a swirling secondary flow. In this case, a serpentine channel is investigated. Flow visualization and heat transfer/pressure drop measurements with both air and water show that the expected augmentation mechanisms are operable in both the grooved and serpentine channel configurations at flow rates normally encountered in compact heat exchanger applications. When compared to other enhanced surfaces (such as offset strip fins or corrugated plate fins) on an equal pumping power basis, both the grooved and serpentine configurations of the present study produce performance curves which are comparable to, and in some cases superior to other conventional techniques.

  18. The effects of homogenization treatment on wear resistance of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by extrusion-shear process (United States)

    Hu, H.-J.; Ying, Y.-L.; OU, Z.-W.; Wang, X.-Q.


    Wear resistance of extrusion shear-processed AZ61 magnesium samples with as-cast state and homogenization treatment state has been studied by wear tests using pin-on-disc experiments under dry sliding conditions. Wear rates and friction coefficients between AZ61 magnesium alloy and GCr15 steel have been used to evaluate wear resistances of AZ61 magnesium alloys, and obtained from dry sliding with different frequencies and loads. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used to analyze microstructures before and after the wear tests to find the wear mechanisms of AZ61 magnesium samples with as-cast state and homogenization treatment state. The wear resistances of the homogeneous state samples prepared by extrusion-shear process are close to those of as cast state, which are due to the little differences of microstructures. In addition, the wear mechanisms change from mild wear to severe wear with rise of exerted loads and reciprocating frequencies.

  19. On rotational dynamics of inertial disks in creeping shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challabotla, Niranjan Reddy, E-mail:; Nilsen, Christopher; Andersson, Helge I.


    The rotational motion of an inertial disk-like particle in a creeping linear shear flow is investigated. A disk-like particle in a linear shear flow tends to rotate in the velocity-gradient plane as do rod-like particles. Unlike prolate spheroids, however, oblate spheroids always attain the same steady rotation in the shear plane irrespective of their initial orientation. The drift of the orientation of the rotation axis towards the vorticity vector consists of two qualitatively different stages. First, the wobbling drift towards rotation in the velocity-gradient plane becomes slower with increasing particle inertia, except for the least inertial spheroids. The duration of the second stage, during which the spheroid spins up to match the angular fluid velocity, becomes independent of the aspect ratio for relatively flat particles, provided that a new shape-dependent Stokes number is used. - Highlights: • Oblate spheroids rotate in flow-gradient plane irrespective of initial orientation. • A shape-dependent time scale is proposed for rotation of an oblate spheroid. • The final stage of spin-up is exponential for disk-like particles.

  20. A Computational Model of Deformable Cell Rolling in Shear Flow (United States)

    Eggleton, Charles; Jadhav, Sameer


    Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. The cell rolling velocity is influenced by bond interactions on the molecular scale that oppose hydrodynamic forces at the mesoscale. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for these differences, we developed a 3-D computational model which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The average bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the cell-substrate contact area decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.

  1. Physics of Transitional Shear Flows Instability and Laminar–Turbulent Transition in Incompressible Near-Wall Shear Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boiko, Andrey V; Grek, Genrih R; Kozlov, Victor V


    Starting from fundamentals of classical stability theory, an overview is given of the transition phenomena in subsonic, wall-bounded shear flows. At first, the consideration focuses on elementary small-amplitude velocity perturbations of laminar shear layers, i.e. instability waves, in the simplest canonical configurations of a plane channel flow and a flat-plate boundary layer. Then the linear stability problem is expanded to include the effects of pressure gradients, flow curvature, boundary-layer separation, wall compliance, etc. related to applications. Beyond the amplification of instability waves is the non-modal growth of local stationary and non-stationary shear flow perturbations which are discussed as well. The volume continues with the key aspect of the transition process, that is, receptivity of convectively unstable shear layers to external perturbations, summarizing main paths of the excitation of laminar flow disturbances. The remainder of the book addresses the instability phenomena found at l...

  2. Flow patterns and critical criteria of thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gu


    Full Text Available Flow characteristics of thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers are particularly complicated and poorly understood. In this study, a series of typical flow patterns was examined and their critical criteria were determined. Four flow patterns were identified: mixed, locally unstable, continuously stratified, and two-layer flow. Temperature distributions of the four types of flow patterns were analyzed and compared. The critical Froude numbers for unstable flow, FDcr1, and stable flow, FDcr2, were determined to be 6 and 1, respectively, and comparison of FDcr1 and FDcr2 to the peak Froude numbers, FD1 at the outer bank and FD2 at the inner bank along the anabranch, allowed the flow patterns to be assessed. Then, a discriminant based on initial Jeffreys-Keulegan stability parameters was established to distinguish the flow stages from two-layer flow to completely mixed flow. It is indicated that the three critical Jeffreys-Keulegan parameters increased with the diversion angle of braided rivers. Results also show that, compared to the stratified flow in straight and curved channels, it was more difficult for braided stratified flow to maintain as two-layer flow, and it more easily became mixed flow. Consequently, empirical expressions for stability criteria of the thermally stratified shear flow in braided rivers are presented.

  3. Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)


    A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)

  4. Reduced description of exact coherent states in parallel shear flows. (United States)

    Beaume, Cédric; Chini, Gregory P; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar


    A reduced description of exact coherent structures in the transition regime of plane parallel shear flows is developed, based on the Reynolds number scaling of streamwise-averaged (mean) and streamwise-varying (fluctuation) velocities observed in numerical simulations. The resulting system is characterized by an effective unit Reynolds number mean equation coupled to linear equations for the fluctuations, regularized by formally higher-order diffusion. Stationary coherent states are computed by solving the resulting equations simultaneously using a robust numerical algorithm developed for this purpose. The algorithm determines self-consistently the amplitude of the fluctuations for which the associated mean flow is just such that the fluctuations neither grow nor decay. The procedure is used to compute exact coherent states of a flow introduced by Drazin and Reid [Hydrodynamic Stability (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1981)] and studied by Waleffe [Phys. Fluids 9, 883 (1997)]: a linearly stable, plane parallel shear flow confined between stationary stress-free walls and driven by a sinusoidal body force. Numerical continuation of the lower-branch states to lower Reynolds numbers reveals the presence of a saddle node; the saddle node allows access to upper-branch states that are, like the lower-branch states, self-consistently described by the reduced equations. Both lower- and upper-branch states are characterized in detail.

  5. Resonance of Brownian vortices in viscoelastic shear flows (United States)

    Laas, K.; Mankin, R.


    The dynamics of a Brownian particle in an oscillatory viscoelastic shear flow is considered using the generalized Langevin equation. The interaction with fluctuations of environmental parameters is modeled by an additive external white noise and by an internal Mittag-Leffer noise with a finite memory time. Focusing on the mean angular momentum of particles it is shown that the presence of memory has a profound effect on the behavior of the Brownian vortices. Particularly, if an external noise dominates over the internal noise, a resonance-like dependence of the mean angular momentum of "free" particles, trapped due to the cage effect, on the characteristic memory time is observed. Moreover, it is established that memory effects can induce two kinds of resonance peaks: one resonance peak is related to the presence of external noise and the other is related to the initial positional distribution of particles. The bona fide resonance versus the shear frequency is also discussed.

  6. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)


    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  7. Direct and inverse pumping in flows with homogeneous and non-homogeneous swirl

    CERN Document Server

    Pothérat, A; Charles, Y; Dousset, V


    The conditions in which meridional recirculations appear in swirling flows above a fixed wall are analysed. In the classical Bodew\\"adt problem, where the swirl tends towards a fixed value away from the wall, the well-known "tea-cup effect" drives a flow away from the plate at the centre of the vortex. Simple dimensional arguments applied to a single vortex show that if the intensity of the swirl decreases away from the wall, the sense of the recirculation can be inverted, and that the associated flow rate scales with the swirl gradient. Only if the flow is quasi-2D, does the classical tea-cup effect take place. This basic theory is confirmed by numerical simulations of a square array of steady, electrically driven vortices. Experiments in the turbulent regimes of the same configuration reveal that these mechanisms are active in the average flow and in its fluctuating part. The mechanisms singled out in this letter provide an explanation for previously observed phenomena in electrolyte flows. They also put fo...

  8. Formation of oil droplets in plasticized starch matrix in simple shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emin, M.A.; Hardt, N.A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Schuchmann, H.P.


    This paper describes the effect of simple shear flow on the formation of triglyceride oil droplets in a plasticized starch matrix. An in-house developed shearing device was used that enabled the application of controlled shear flow and rheological characterization of the native maize

  9. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.


    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  10. Bubble nucleation from micro-crevices in a shear flow (United States)

    Groß, T. F.; Bauer, J.; Ludwig, G.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Pelz, P. F.


    The formation of gas bubbles at gas cavities located in walls bounding the flow occurs in many technical applications, but is usually hard to observe. Even though, the presence of a fluid flow undoubtedly affects the formation of bubbles, there are very few studies that take this fact into account. In the present paper new experimental results on bubble formation (diffusion-driven nucleation) from surface nuclei in a shear flow are presented. The observed gas-filled cavities are micrometre-sized blind holes etched in silicon substrates. We measure the frequency of bubble generation (nucleation rate), the size of the detaching bubbles and analyse the growth of the surface nuclei. The experimental findings support an extended understanding of bubble formation as a self-excited cyclic process and can serve as validation data for analytical and numerical models.

  11. Evolution of shear banding flows in metallic glasses characterized by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Li, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Space Power-Sources, 2965 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200245 (China); Luan, Yingwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China)


    To reveal the evolution of shear banding flows, one-dimensional nanostructure metallic glass composites have been studied with molecular dynamics. The inherent size determines the initial thickness of shear bands, and the subsequent broadening can be restricted to some extent. The vortex-like flows evoke the atomic motion perpendicular to the shear plane, which accelerates the interatomic diffusion. The reduction of local strain rate causes the flow softening for monolithic Cu-Zr glass, but the participation of Cu-atoms in the shear banding flow gradually leads to the shear hardening for the composites.

  12. Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow (United States)

    Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan


    Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Numerical simulation of turbulent shear flow using a cascade model; Numerische Simulation turbulenter Scherstroemungen mit einem Kaskadenmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, V.


    Homogeneous stratified turbulent shear flow was simulated numerically using the cascade model of Eggers and Grossmann (1991). The model is made applicable to homogeneous shear flow by transformation into a coordinate system that moves along with a basic flow with a constant vertical velocity gradient. The author simulated cases of stable thermal stratification with Richardson numbers in the range of 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. The simulation data were evaluated with particular regard to the anisotropic characteristics of the turbulence field. Further, the results are compared with some common equation systems up to second order. (orig.) [Deutsch] Thema der vorliegenden Dissertation ist die numerische Simulation homogener geschichteter turbulenter Scherstroemungen. Grundlage der Simulation ist das von Eggers and Grossmann (1991) entwickelte Kaskadenmodell. Dieses Modell wird durch Transformation in ein Koordinatensystem, das mit einem Grundstrom mit konstantem vertikalen Geschwindigkeitsgradienten mitbewegt wird, auf homogene Scherstroemungen angewendet. Simuliert werden Faelle mit stabiler thermischer Schichtung mit Richardsonzahlen im Bereich von 0{<=}Ri{<=}1. Der Schwerpunkt bei der Auswertung der Simulationsdaten liegt auf der Untersuchung der Anisotropie-Eigenschaften des Turbulenzfeldes. Darueber hinaus wird ein Vergleich mit einigen gaengigen Schliessungsansaetzen bis zur zweiten Ordnung gezogen. (orig.)

  14. Heat Release Effects on Scaling Laws for Turbulent Shear Flows (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Dahm, Werner J. A.


    Experiments have long suggested apparent differences in the fundamental scaling laws for turbulent shear flows between reacting and nonreacting flows. These differences result from the density changes produced by exothermic reaction, and are here shown to be similar to the changes produced by free-stream density differences in nonreacting flows. Motivated by this, we show that the fundamental scaling laws can be generalized to predict the changes due to heat release. The bilinear dependence of temperature T(ζ) on an appropriately defined conserved scalar ζ allows the density changes to be related to an equivalent nonreacting flow, in which one of the free-stream fluid temperatures is set to a value determined by the adiabatic flame temperature and the overall stoichiometry. This scaling principle is applied to turbulent jet diffusion flames, and leads to a generalized scaling variable d^+ for both reacting and nonreacting flows; it effectively extends the momentum diameter d^* of Thring & Newby (1952) and Ricou & Spalding (1961) to reacting flows. The resulting predicted effects of heat release show good agreement with all available data from momentum-dominated jet flames. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

  15. Energy considerations in accelerating rapid shear granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available We present a complete expression for the total energy associated with a rapid frictional granular shear flow down an inclined surface. This expression reduces to the often used energy for a non-accelerating flow of an isotropic, ideal fluid in a horizontal channel, or to the energy for a vertically falling mass. We utilize thickness-averaged mass and momentum conservation laws written in a slope-defined coordinate system. Both the enhanced gravity and friction are taken into account in addition to the bulk motion and deformation. The total energy of the flow at a given spatial position and time is defined as the sum of four energy components: the kinetic energy, gravity, pressure and the friction energy. Total energy is conserved for stationary flow, but for non-stationary flow the non-conservative force induced by the free-surface gradient means that energy is not conserved. Simulations and experimental results are used to sketch the total energy of non-stationary flows. Comparison between the total energy and the sum of the kinetic and pressure energy shows that the contribution due to gravity acceleration and frictional resistance can be of the same order of magnitude, and that the geometric deformation plays an important role in the total energy budget of the cascading mass. Relative importance of the different constituents in the total energy expression is explored. We also introduce an extended Froude number that takes into account the apparent potential energy induced by gravity and pressure.

  16. Flow velocities and bed shear stresses in a stone cover under an oscillatory flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenanato, F.; Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    layers of stones. The flow velocities in the pores of the stones were measured using LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer). In addition to the velocity measurements, the bed shear stresses were also measured using a hotfilm (Constant Temperature Anemometry). It is found that the boundary layer of the outer flow...... current boundary layer without any externally generated turbulence. The bd shear stress is found to be very low, more than ten times smaller than in the case of a smooth base bottom without stone cover....

  17. Rheological State Diagrams for Rough Colloids in Shear Flow (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Jamali, Safa; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F.; Larson, Ronald G.; Solomon, Michael J.


    To assess the role of particle roughness in the rheological phenomena of concentrated colloidal suspensions, we develop model colloids with varying surface roughness length scales up to 10% of the particle radius. Increasing surface roughness shifts the onset of both shear thickening and dilatancy towards lower volume fractions and critical stresses. Experimental data are supported by computer simulations of spherical colloids with adjustable friction coefficients, demonstrating that a reduction in the onset stress of thickening and a sign change in the first normal stresses occur when friction competes with lubrication. In the quasi-Newtonian flow regime, roughness increases the effective packing fraction of colloids. As the shear stress increases and suspensions of rough colloids approach jamming, the first normal stresses switch signs and the critical force required to generate contacts is drastically reduced. This is likely a signature of the lubrication films giving way to roughness-induced tangential interactions that bring about load-bearing contacts in the compression axis of flow.

  18. Oscillating sources in a shear flow with a free surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å


    We report on progress on the free surface flow in the presence of submerged oscillating line sources (2D) or point sources (3D) when a simple shear flow is present varying linearly with depth. Such sources are in routine use as Green functions in the realm of potential theory for calculating wave-body interactions, but no such theory exists in for rotational flow. We solve the linearized problem in 2D and 3D from first principles, based on the Euler equations, when the sources are at rest relative to the undisturbed surface. Both in 2D and 3D a new type of solution appears compared to irrotational case, a critical layer-like flow whose surface manifestation ("wave") drifts downstream from the source at the velocity of the flow at the source depth. We analyse the additional vorticity in light of the vorticity equation and provide a simple physical argument why a critical layer is a necessary consequence of Kelvin's circulation theorem. In 3D a related critical layer phenomenon occurs at every depth, whereby a ...

  19. Investigation of Compressibility Effect for Aeropropulsive Shear Flows (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.


    Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines operate within a wide range of Mach numbers and altitudes. Fundamental fluid dynamic mechanisms involve complex choking, mass entrainment, stream mixing and wall interactions. The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville is involved in an on- going experimental and numerical modeling study of non-axisymmetric ejector-based combined cycle propulsion systems. This paper attempts to address the modeling issues related to mixing, shear layer/wall interaction in a supersonic Strutjet/ejector flow field. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solutions incorporating turbulence models are sought and compared to experimental measurements to characterize detailed flow dynamics. The effect of compressibility on fluids mixing and wall interactions were investigated using an existing CFD methodology. The compressibility correction to conventional incompressible two- equation models is found to be necessary for the supersonic mixing aspect of the ejector flows based on 2-D simulation results. 3-D strut-base flows involving flow separations were also investigated.

  20. Effect of confinement on droplet coalescence in shear flow. (United States)

    Chen, Dongju; Cardinaels, Ruth; Moldenaers, Paula


    The effect of confinement on the coalescence of Newtonian (polydimethylsiloxane) droplets in a Newtonian (polyisobutylene) matrix is investigated experimentally. A counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscopy setup, is used to visualize two interacting droplets during shear flow. The ratio of droplet-to-matrix viscosity is kept constant at 1.1. Droplet collisions are studied for a range of droplet sizes, both in bulk conditions and for gap spacings that are comparable to the droplet size. As a result, we present the first quantitative experimental data set for the coalescence of two equal-sized droplets in a pure shear flow with varying degrees of confinement. Compared to bulk conditions, for droplets smaller than roughly 0.2 times the gap spacing, a slight degree of confinement only decreases the orientation angle at which the droplets coalesce whereas the critical conditions for coalescence remain unaltered. For more confined conditions, the critical capillary number up to which coalescence can occur, increases. Therefore, confinement clearly promotes coalescence. In addition, the droplet trajectories, the time-dependent orientation angle of the droplet pair, and the droplet deformation prior to the coalescence event are systematically studied, and a comparison between the confined and the unconfined situation is provided. It is shown that the presence of two parallel walls can induce changes in the flow field around the droplet pair, which cause an increase of the interaction time between the droplets. Moreover, for sufficiently confined droplets, the additional force originating from the presence of the walls becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic force on the droplet pair, thus influencing the drainage of the matrix film between the droplet surfaces.

  1. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.


    In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersi...

  2. Simulation of nonlinear transient elastography: finite element model for the propagation of shear waves in homogeneous soft tissues. (United States)

    Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M


    In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Performance characterization of a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine in sheared inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbush, Dominic; Polagye, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Donegan, James; McEntee, Jarlath


    A method for constructing a non-dimensional performance curve for a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine in sheared flow is developed for a natural river site. The river flow characteristics are quasi-steady, with negligible vertical shear, persistent lateral shear, and synoptic changes dominated by long time scales (days to weeks). Performance curves developed from inflow velocities measured at individual points (randomly sampled) yield inconclusive turbine performance characteristics because of the spatial variation in mean flow. Performance curves using temporally- and spatially-averaged inflow velocities are more conclusive. The implications of sheared inflow are considered in terms of resource assessment and turbine control.

  4. Restructuring and Break-Up of Two-Dimensional Aggregates in Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Nikolina D.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Mellema, J.


    We consider single two-dimensional aggregates, containing glass particles, placed at a water/air interface. We have investigated the critical shear rate for break-up of aggregates with different sizes in a simple shear flow. All aggregates break-up nearly at the same shear rate (1.8 ± 0.2 s-1)

  5. Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Tinken, T.M.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.


    Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to

  6. Galilean invariance and homogeneous anisotropic randomly stirred flows. (United States)

    Berera, Arjun; Hochberg, David


    The Ward-Takahashi identities for incompressible flow implied by Galilean invariance are derived for the randomly forced Navier-Stokes equation, in which both the mean and fluctuating velocity components are explicitly present. The consequences of the Galilean invariance for the vertex renormalization are drawn from this identity.

  7. Non-canonical Wnt signalling modulates the endothelial shear stress flow sensor in vascular remodelling. (United States)

    Franco, Claudio A; Jones, Martin L; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Vion, Anne-Clemence; Barbacena, Pedro; Fan, Jieqing; Mathivet, Thomas; Fonseca, Catarina G; Ragab, Anan; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Coveney, Peter V; Lang, Richard A; Gerhardt, Holger


    Endothelial cells respond to molecular and physical forces in development and vascular homeostasis. Deregulation of endothelial responses to flow-induced shear is believed to contribute to many aspects of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, how molecular signals and shear-mediated physical forces integrate to regulate vascular patterning is poorly understood. Here we show that endothelial non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates endothelial sensitivity to shear forces. Loss of Wnt5a/Wnt11 renders endothelial cells more sensitive to shear, resulting in axial polarization and migration against flow at lower shear levels. Integration of flow modelling and polarity analysis in entire vascular networks demonstrates that polarization against flow is achieved differentially in artery, vein, capillaries and the primitive sprouting front. Collectively our data suggest that non-canonical Wnt signalling stabilizes forming vascular networks by reducing endothelial shear sensitivity, thus keeping vessels open under low flow conditions that prevail in the primitive plexus.

  8. Velocity-pressure correlation measurements in complex free shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, Yoshitsugu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:; Obi, Shinnosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Simultaneous measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure were performed in various turbulent free shear flows including a turbulent mixing layer and the wing-tip vortex trailing from a NACA0012 half-wing. Two different methods for fluctuating static pressure measurement were considered: a direct method using a miniature Pitot tube and an indirect method where static pressure was calculated from total pressure. The pressure obtained by either of these methods was correlated with the velocity measured by an X-type hot-wire probe. The results from these two techniques agreed with each other in the turbulent mixing layer. In the wing-tip vortex case, however, some discrepancies were found, although overall characteristics of the pressure-related statistics were adequately captured by both methods.

  9. Energy conserving truncations for convection with shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiffeault, J.L.; Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    A method is presented for making finite Fourier mode truncations of the Rayleigh-Benard convection system that preserve invariants of the full partial differential equations in the dissipationless limit. This system is analogous to the flute-reduced MHD equations for large aspect-ratio axisymmetric toroidal systems. These truncations are shown to have no unbounded solutions and provide a description of the thermal flux that has the correct limiting behaviour in a steady-state. A particular low-order truncation (containing 7 modes) is selected and compared with the 6 mode truncation of Howard and Krishnamurti, which does not conserve the total energy in the dissipationless limit. A numerical example is presented to compare the two truncations and study the effect of shear flow on thermal transport.

  10. Transient Growth in Shear Flows: Linearity vs Nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, Chris C T


    Two approaches to the problem of transition to turbulence of shear flows are popular in the literature. The first is the linear one of transient growth which focuses on the likely form of the most 'dangerous' (lowest energy) turbulence-triggering disturbances. The second is the nonlinear calculation of the laminar-turbulent boundary which instead focuses on their typical amplitudes. We look to bridge the gap between these two perspectives by considering the fully nonlinear transient growth problem to estimate both the form and amplitude of the most dangerous disturbance. We thereby discover a new nonlinear optimal disturbance which outgrows the well-known linear optimal for the same initial energy and is crucially much more efficient in triggering turbulence. The conclusion is then that the most dangerous disturbance can differ markedly from what traditional linear transient growth analysis predicts.

  11. Investigation of the Shear Flow Effect and Tip Clearance on a Low Speed Axial Flow Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Varpe


    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of inlet shear flow on the tip leakage flow in an axial flow compressor cascade. A flow with a high shear rate is generated in the test section of an open circuit cascade wind tunnel by using a combination of screens with a prescribed solidity. It is observed that a stable shear flow of shear rate 1.33 is possible and has a gradual decay rate until 15 times the height of the shear flow generator downstream. The computational results obtained agree well with the available experimental data on the baseline configuration. The detailed numerical analysis shows that the tip clearance improves the blade loading near the tip through the promotion of favorable incidence by the tip leakage flow. The tip clearance shifts the centre of pressure on the blade surface towards the tip. It, however, has no effect on the distribution of end wall loss and deviation angle along the span up to 60% from the hub. In the presence of a shear inflow, the end wall effects are considerable. On the other hand, with a shear inflow, the effects of tip leakage flow are observed to be partly suppressed. The shear flow reduces the tip leakage losses substantially in terms of kinetic energy associated with it.

  12. Cross flow response of a cylindrical structure under local shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Chul Kim


    Full Text Available The VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibration analysis of a flexible cylindrical structure under locally strong shear flow is presented. The model is made of Teflon and has 9.5m length, 0.0127m diameter, and 0.001m wall thickness. 11 2-dimensional accelerometers are installed along the model. The experiment has been conducted at the ocean engineering basin in the University of Tokyo in which uniform current can be generated. The model is installed at about 30 degree of slope and submerged by almost overall length. Local shear flow is made by superposing uniform current and accelerated flow generated by an impeller. The results of frequency and modal analysis are presented.

  13. Geometrical Complexity vs. Homogenization Time of Flow Structures Generated by Mixing of Magmas in Lava Flows (United States)

    Petrelli, M.; Perugini, D.; Poli, G.


    Structures produced by mixing of magmas occurring in a lava flow cropping out on the island of Lesbos (Greece) are studied in order to investigate the relationships between the time of homogenization of such structures by chemical diffusion and their geometrical complexity. Several mixing structures having different geometries have been extracted from pictures acquired by a digital camera installed on a petrographical microscope using plane polarized light. All pictures have been acquired utilizing a fixed magnification so that mixing structures have comparable length scales and measure 1.0×1.0 cm^2. Digital images have been converted from color to grayscale and subsequently they have been processed applying a threshold filter to generate binary images in which the mixing structures appear black whereas the image background is white. A number of numerical simulations have been performed to estimate the time required to reach the homogenization of the magma mixing structures by diffusion. The numerical scheme that has been utilized to simulate the diffusion process is a typical finite difference scheme based on the classical binary diffusion protocol. Each black and white image containing mixing structures has been considered as the initial configuration of the magmatic system so that the initial condition of the simulations is determined by the geometry of mixing structures. In order to develop models free from dimensional constraints the simulations have been made dimensionless using a series of scaling factors. The parameter used to quantify the degree of homogenization of mixing structures is the Degree of Homogenization (DH). DH is defined as the ratio between the mean composition of a mixing structure at a given time and the theoretical hybrid composition calculated for the same structure. DH can vary between zero and 1.0; the more DH approaches to 1.0, the more the structures has been homogenized. In order to quantify the geometrical complexity of the mixing

  14. Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.


    Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we...... observe an increase of the transport if the viscous damping of the self-generated shear flows is absent. This behavior is in contrast to the standard argument that sheared flows suppress turbulence and transport via a decorrelation mechanism. An explanation of this behavior in terms of the transport...

  15. Growth of viscoelastic wings and the reduction of particle mobility in a viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Murch, William L.; Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca


    The motion of a rigid spherical particle in a sheared polymeric fluid is studied via experiments and numerical simulations. We study particle mobility in highly elastic fluids, where the deformation due to the sphere's movement and the shear flow both result in significant stretching of the polymer. The shear flow is imposed in a plane perpendicular to the sphere's movement, resulting in regions of high polymer tension in the wake of the sphere that can extend well into the shear flow and gradient directions. We observe that these viscoelastic wake structures, resembling wings, are linked to an increase in the form drag, providing a mechanism for a dramatic decrease in the particle mobility.

  16. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.


    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Adhesion dynamics of circulating tumor cells under shear flow in a bio-functionalized microchannel (United States)

    Siu-Lun Cheung, Luthur; Zheng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lian; Baygents, James C.; Guzman, Roberto; Schroeder, Joyce A.; Heimark, Ronald L.; Zohar, Yitshak


    The adhesion dynamics of circulating tumor cells in a bio-functionalized microchannel under hydrodynamic loading is explored experimentally and analyzed theoretically. EpCAM antibodies are immobilized on the microchannel surface to specifically capture EpCAM-expressing target breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 from a homogeneous cell suspension in shear flow. In the cross-stream direction, gravity is the dominant physical mechanism resulting in continuous interaction between the EpCAM cell receptors and the immobilized surface anti-EpCAM ligands. Depending on the applied shear rate, three dynamic states have been characterized: firm adhesion, rolling adhesion and free rolling. The steady-state velocity under adhesion- and free-rolling conditions as well as the time-dependent velocity in firm adhesion has been characterized experimentally, based on video recordings of target cell motion in functionalized microchannels. A previously reported theoretical model, utilizing a linear spring to represent the specific receptor-ligand bonds, has been adopted to analyze adhesion dynamics including features such as the cell-surface binding force and separation gap. By fitting theoretical predictions to experimental measurements, a unified exponential decay function is proposed to describe the target cell velocity evolution during capture; the fitting parameters, velocity and time scales, depend on the particular cell-surface system.

  18. Dynamics of Miura-patterned foldable sheets in shear flow. (United States)

    Dutta, Sarit; Graham, Michael D


    We study the dynamics of piecewise rigid sheets containing predefined crease lines in shear flow. The crease lines act like hinge joints along which the sheet may fold rigidly, i.e. without bending any other crease line. We choose the crease lines such that they tessellate the sheet into a two-dimensional array of parallelograms. Specifically, we focus on a particular arrangement of crease lines known as a Miura-pattern in the origami community. When all the hinges are fully open the sheet is planar, whereas when all are closed the sheet folds over itself to form a compact flat structure. Due to rigidity constraints, the folded state of a Miura-sheet can be described using a single fold angle. The hinged sheet is modeled using the framework of constrained multibody systems in the absence of inertia. The hydrodynamic drag on each of the rigid panels is calculated based on an inscribed elliptic disk, but intra-panel hydrodynamic interactions are neglected. We find that when the motion of a sheet remains symmetric with respect to the flow-gradient plane, after a sufficiently long time, the sheet either exhibits asymptotically periodic tumbling and breathing, indicating approach to a limit cycle; or it reaches a steady state by completely unfolding, which we show to be a half-stable node in the phase space. In the case of asymmetric motion of the sheet with respect to the flow-gradient plane, we find that the terminal state of motion is one of - (i) steady state with a fully unfolded or fully folded configuration, (ii) asymptotically periodic tumbling, indicating approach to a limit cycle, (iii) cyclic tumbling without repetition, indicating a quasiperiodic orbit, or (iv) cyclic tumbling with repetition after several cycles, indicating a resonant quasiperiodic orbit. No chaotic behavior was found.

  19. Shear flows of dense suspensions: flow modification by particle clustering and mixing (United States)

    Vowinckel, Bernhard; Carmi, Meital; Biegert, Edward; Meiburg, Eckart


    We investigate numerically the behavior of sheared, dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant particles, for finite Reynolds number values. This type of problem is of particular interest for multiple applications in environmental, mechanical as well as process engineering such as debris flows, slurries, and pneumatic conveying in pipelines. Controlling channel flows laden with dense suspensions is very important as it can result in jamming of the channel, hence, lowering the efficiency of a hydraulic facility. It was observed that there exists a regime for which a small increase in shear force can cause a drastic, discontinuous increase of the effective viscosity of the mixture. This abrupt transition is commonly referred to as discontinuous shear thickening. We carry out phase-resolved numerical simulations to understand the modification of the flow on the grain scale in full detail allowing for improved definitions of threshold conditions. As the properties of the carrier fluid remain unchanged during the simulation, the thickening must be caused by the disperse phase, for example, by effects of changes in spatial particle distribution, clustering, and mixing. We provide a detailed statistical analysis to answer this question.

  20. A new set of equations describing immiscible two-phase flow in homogeneous porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Alex; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Savani, Isha; Vassvik, Morten


    Based on a simple scaling assumption concerning the total flow rate of immiscible two-phase flow in a homogeneous porous medium under steady-state conditions and a constant pressure drop, we derive two new equations that relate the total flow rate to the flow rates of each immiscible fluid. By integrating these equations, we present two integrals giving the flow rate of each fluid in terms of the the total flow rate. If we in addition assume that the flow obeys the relative permeability (generalized Darcy) equations, we find direct expressions for the two relative permeabilities and the capillary pressure in terms of the total flow rate. Hence, only the total flow rate as a function of saturation at constant pressure drop across the porous medium needs to be measured in order to obtain all three quantities. We test the equations on numerical and experimental systems.

  1. Shear-flow susceptibility near the low-density transition in TJ-II (United States)

    Carralero, D.; Calvo, I.; da Graça, S.; Carreras, B. A.; Estrada, T.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.


    The emergence of the plasma edge shear-flow layer has been recently shown to be consistent with second-order transition model coupling shear amplification by Reynolds stress and turbulence reduction by shear. A fundamental feature of second-order transitions in equilibrium thermodynamics is the divergence of the susceptibility near the critical point. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to find out whether an analogous phenomenon takes place in the transition leading to the formation of the shear-flow layer in the TJ-II stellarator.

  2. Measurements of Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in Channel Flow in Microgravity (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian J.; Skor, Mark


    Under microgravity conditions, the shear lift force acting on bubbles, droplets or solid particles in multiphase flows becomes important because under normal gravity, this hydrodynamic force is masked by buoyancy. This force plays an important role in furnishing the detachment process of bubbles in a setting where a bubble suspension is needed in microgravity. In this work, measurements of the shear lift force acting on a bubble in channel flow are performed. The shear lift force is deduced from the bubble kinematics using scaling and then compared with predictions from models in literature that address different asymptotic and numerical solutions. Basic trajectory calculations are then performed and the results are compared with experimental data of position of the bubble in the channel. A direct comparison of the lateral velocity of the bubbles is also made with the lateral velocity prediction from investigators, whose work addressed the shear lift on a sphere in different two-dimensional shear flows including Poiseuille flow.

  3. Combined modeling of cell aggregation and adhesion mediated by receptor–ligand interactions under shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Du


    Full Text Available Blood cell aggregation and adhesion to endothelial cells under shear flow are crucial to many biological processes such as thrombi formation, inflammatory cascade, and tumor metastasis, in which these cellular interactions are mainly mediated by the underlying receptor–ligand bindings. While theoretical modeling of aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics of interacting cells have been well studied separately, how to couple these two processes remains unclear. Here we develop a combined model that couples cellular aggregation dynamics and adhesion kinetics under shear flow. The impacts of shear rate (or shear stress and molecular binding affinity were elucidated. This study provides a unified model where the action of a fluid flow drives cell aggregation and adhesion under the modulations of the mechanical shear flow and receptor–ligand interaction kinetics. It offers an insight into understanding the relevant biological processes and functions.

  4. Mechanotransduction Signaling in Podocytes from Fluid Flow Shear Stress. (United States)

    Srivastava, Tarak; Dai, Hongying; Heruth, Daniel P; Alon, Uri S; Garola, Robert E; Zhou, Jianping; Duncan, R Scott; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; McCarthy, Ellen T; Sharma, Ram; Johnson, Mark L; Savin, Virginia J; Sharma, Mukut


    Recently we and others have found that hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely tensile stress and fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) can directly and distinctly alter podocyte structure and function. The ultrafiltrate flow over the major processes and cell body generates FFSS to podocyte. Our previous work suggests that COX2-PGE2-EP2 axis plays an important role in mechanoperception of FFSS in podocyte (Srivastava et al. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 307: F1323-F1333, 2014). To address mechanotransduction of the perceived mechanical stimulus through EP2 receptor, cultured podocytes were exposed to FFSS (2 dynes/cm2) for 2hrs. Total RNA from cells at the end of treatment, 2h post-FFSS and 24h post-FFSS was used for whole exon array analysis. The differentially regulated genes (pmechanotransduction as well as exogenous PGE2 activate the Akt-GSK3β-β-catenin (Ser552) and ERK/MAPK but not the cAMP-PKA signal transduction cascades. These pathways are reportedly associated with FFSS-induced and EP2-mediated signaling in other epithelial cells as well. Current regimen for treating hyperfiltration-mediated injury largely depends on targeting the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. Present study identifies specific transduction mechanisms and provides novel information on the direct effect of FFSS on podocytes. These results suggest that targeting EP2 receptor-mediated signaling pathways holds therapeutic significance for delaying progression chronic kidney disease secondary to hyperfiltration. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  5. Shear flow instabilities in the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Reddy

    Full Text Available Shear flow instability is studied in the Earth's magnetotail by treating plasma as compressible. A dispersion relation is derived from the linearized MHD equations using the oscillating boundary conditions at the inner central plasma sheet/outer central plasma sheet (OCPS interface and OCPS/plasma-sheet boundary layer (PSBL interface, whereas the surface-mode boundary condition is used at the PSBL/lobe interface. The growth rates and the real frequencies are obtained numerically for near-Earth (∣X∣~10–15 RE and far-Earth (∣X∣~100 RE magnetotail parameters. The periods and wavelengths of excited modes depend sensitively on the value of plasma-sheet half thickness, L, which is taken as L=5 RE for quiet time and L=1 RE for disturbed time. The plasma-sheet region is found to be stable for constant plasma flows unless MA3>1.25, where MA3 is the Alfvén Mach number in PSBL. For near-Earth magnetotail, the excited oscillations have periods of 2–20 min (quiet time and 0.5–4 min (disturbed time with typical transverse wavelengths of 2–30 RE and 0.5–6.5 RE, respectively; whereas for distant magnetotail, the analysis predicts the oscillation periods of ~8–80 min for quiet periods and 2–16 min for disturbed periods.

  6. Immersed boundary method predictions of shear stresses for different flow topologies occuring in cerebral aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhal, Julia Olegivna; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Pereira, J.M.C.; Janela, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Borges, L.

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented that facilitates the computation of incompressible fluid flow in complex flow domains. We apply this method to simulate the flow in cerebral aneurysms, and focus on the accuracy with which the flow field and the corresponding shear stress

  7. Investigation of a reattaching turbulent shear layer Flow over a backward-facing step (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kline, S. J.; Johnston, J. P.


    The paper studies incompressible flow over a backward-facing step in order to investigate the flow characteristics in the separated shear layer, the reattachment zone, and the redeveloping boundary layer after reattachment. It is shown that turbulent intensities and shear stress reach maxima in the reattachment zone, followed by rapid decay near the surface after reattachment. In addition, it is found that downstream of reattachment, the flow returns very slowly to the structure of an ordinary turbulent boundary layer.

  8. Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans. (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; Tinken, Toni M; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J


    Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear on endothelial function in vivo. On 3 separate days, we examined bilateral brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men (24+/-3 years) before and after a 30-minute intervention consisting of cuff inflation to 25, 50, or 75 mm Hg. Cuff inflations resulted in "dose"-dependent increases in retrograde shear rate, compared with the noncuffed arm, within subjects (P<0.001). Flow-mediated dilation in the cuffed arm did not change in response to the 25-mm Hg stimulus but decreased significantly after both the 50- and 75-mm Hg interventions (P<0.05). The decrease in flow-mediated dilation after the 75-mm Hg intervention was significantly larger than that observed after a 50-mm Hg intervention (P=0.03). In the noncuffed arm, no changes in shear rate or flow-mediated dilation were observed. These results demonstrate that an increase in retrograde shear rate induces a dose-dependent attenuation of endothelial function in humans. This finding contributes to our understanding regarding the possible detrimental effects of retrograde shear rate in vivo.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of sheared interfacial flow (United States)

    Reboux, S.; Sagaut, P.; Lakehal, D.


    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent interfacial gas-liquid flows are described in this paper. The variational multiscale approach (VMS) introduced by Hughes for single-phase flows is systematically assessed against direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained at a shear Reynolds number Re⋆=171, and compared to LES results obtained with the Smagorinsky model, modified by a near-interface turbulence decay treatment. The models are incorporated in the same pseudospectral DNS solver built within the boundary fitting method used by Fulgosi et al. for air-water flow. The LES are performed for physical conditions allowing low interface deformations that fall in the range of capillary waves of wave slope ak =0.01. The LES results show that both the modified Smagorinsky model and the VMS are capable to predict the boundary layer structure in the gas side, including the decay process, and to cope with the anisotropy of turbulence in the liquid blockage layer underneath the interface. Higher-order turbulence statistics, including the transfer of energy between the normal stresses is also well predicted by both approaches, but qualitatively the VMS results remain overall better than the modified Smagorinsky model. The study has demonstrated that the key to the prediction of the energy transfer mechanism is in the proper prediction of the fluctuating pressure field, which has been found out of reach of any of the LES methodologies. The superiority of the VMS is demonstrated through the analysis of the subgrid transport and exchange terms in the resolved kinetic energy, where it is indeed shown to be self-adaptive with regard to the eddy viscosity. Although VMS is shown to be sensitive to filter scale partition and model constant, the optimal setting can be easily translated in the interface tracking/finite-volume context, which makes it very useful for practical purposes. An important point is that the VMS approach yields very satisfactory results without the need

  10. Experiments on the flow past long circular cylinders in a shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, M. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hydromechanik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helmut-Schmidt-Universitaet, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Rodi, W. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Hydromechanik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Szepessy, S. [Alfa Laval, Tumba (Sweden); Badran, O. [Al-Balqa' Applied University, FET, Amman (Jordan)


    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the flow past circular cylinders, with the mean flow perpendicular to the cylinder axis, at conditions that yield a strong three-dimensional behaviour. The experiments were carried out in the subcritical regime. Long cylinders with end plates were subjected to shear flow with a linear velocity profile in the spanwise direction generated by means of a curved gauze. It was concluded that spanwise cellular structures of vortex shedding emerged in the wake, more clearly for some boundary conditions than others. These structures are characterised by a portion of spanwise length, a cell, having constant shedding frequency over a time average, which implies that there were no vortex dislocations inside that cell during that time. These features were studied using flow visualisation and hot-film anemometry. Spectra of the local shedding frequency are shown, revealing the effect of the shear parameter {beta}(=0.02 and 0.04) and aspect ratio L/D(=20.6 and 8) on the stability and geometry of the cells at several Reynolds numbers in the range of 3.13 x 10{sup 3}{<=}Re{sub m}{<=}1.25 x 10{sup 4}. (orig.)

  11. Reverse-flow adsorption for process-integrated recycling of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marras, F.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Supramolecular strategies, based on hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions, were investigated as tools for the recovery and recycling of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts by using reverse-flow adsorption (RFA) technology. The association (in solution) and adsorption (on support) of new

  12. Inflammatory responses of endothelial cells experiencing reduction in flow after conditioning by shear stress. (United States)

    Matharu, Nick M; McGettrick, Helen M; Salmon, Mike; Kissane, Steve; Vohra, Rajiv K; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B


    Exposure of endothelial cells (EC) to shear stress reduces their response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We tested how shear-conditioned EC responded to reduction in flow, either by spontaneously binding leukocytes, or by increasing sensitivity to TNF. Human umbilical vein EC were exposed to shear stress of 2.0 Pa (20 dyn/cm(2)) for 24 h. Shear was then reduced to stasis (30 sec perfusion each hour to exchange medium) or 0.003 Pa (creeping flow). At chosen times, neutrophils were perfused over the EC at 0.1 Pa (effective reperfusion). EC developed an ability to capture flowing neutrophils that lasted from 1 to 3 h after flow reduction, which was reduced by antibody against P-selectin or pre-treatment of EC with an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. Adhesion of neutrophils to TNF-treated EC was greatly suppressed by shear-conditioning, remained suppressed immediately after cessation of flow and then took 48 h to approach the level in static cultures. Interestingly, the response to TNF remained suppressed in cultures switched to creeping flow. Gene array analysis confirmed that differently recovered cells had separate phenotypes. Thus, an acute response of EC to reduction in shear may contribute to leukocyte recruitment, along with hypoxia, in ischaemia and reperfusion. Prolonged cessation of flow may increase the sensitivity of EC to inflammatory stimuli, but this effect may be suppressed by residual flow.

  13. Simulations of droplet coalescence in simple shear flow. (United States)

    Shardt, Orest; Derksen, J J; Mitra, Sushanta K


    Simulating droplet coalescence is challenging because small-scale (tens of nanometers) phenomena determine the behavior of much larger (micrometer- to millimeter-scale) droplets. In general, liquid droplets colliding in a liquid medium coalesce when the capillary number is less than a critical value. We present simulations of droplet collisions and coalescence in simple shear flow using the free-energy binary-liquid lattice Boltzmann method. In previous simulations of low-speed collisions, droplets coalesced at unrealistically high capillary numbers. Simulations of noncoalescing droplets have not been reported, and therefore, the critical capillary number for simulated collisions was unknown. By simulating droplets with radii up to 100 lattice nodes, we determine the critical capillary number for coalescence and quantify the effects of several numerical and geometric parameters. The simulations were performed with a well-resolved interface, a Reynolds number of one, and capillary numbers from 0.01 to 0.2. The ratio of the droplet radius and interface thickness has the greatest effect on the critical capillary number. As in experiments, the critical capillary number decreases with increasing droplet size. A second numerical parameter, the interface diffusivity (Péclet number) also influences the conditions for coalescence: coalescence occurs at higher capillary numbers with lower Péclet numbers (higher diffusivity). The effects of the vertical offset between the droplets and the confinement of the droplets were also studied. Physically reasonable results were obtained and provide insight into the conditions for coalescence. Simulations that match the conditions of experiments reported in the literature remain computationally impractical. However, the scale of the simulations is now sufficiently large that a comparison with experiments involving smaller droplets (≈10 μm) and lower viscosities (≈10(-6) m(2)/s, the viscosity of water) may be possible

  14. Constitutive Curve and Velocity Profile in Entangled Polymers during Start-Up of Steady Shear Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.


    Time-dependent shear stress versus shear rate, constitutive curve, and velocity profile measurements are reported in entangled polymer solutions during start-up of steady shear flow. By combining confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we determine the time-dependent velocity profile in polybutadiene and polystyrene solutions seeded with fluorescent 150 nm silica and 7.5 μm melamine particles. By comparing these profiles with time-dependent constitutive curves obtained from experiment and theory, we explore the connection between transient nonmonotonic regions in the constitutive curve for an entangled polymer and its susceptibility to unstable flow by shear banding [Adams et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 102, 067801-4]. Surprisingly, we find that even polymer systems which exhibit transient, nonmonotonic shear stress-shear rate relationships in bulk rheology experiments manifest time-dependent velocity profiles that are decidedly linear and show no evidence of unstable flow. We also report that interfacial slip plays an important role in the steady shear flow behavior of entangled polymers at shear rates above the reciprocal terminal relaxation time but has little, if any, effect on the shape of the velocity profile. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Sympathetic nervous system activation, arterial shear rate, and flow-mediated dilation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Atkinson, C.L.; Ono, K.; Sprung, V.S.; Spence, A.L.; Pugh, C.J.; Green, D.J.


    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of arterial shear to changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) during sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in healthy humans. Ten healthy men reported to our laboratory four times. Bilateral FMD, shear rate (SR), and catecholamines were

  16. Stability of nanofluids in quiescent and shear flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Haisheng


    Full Text Available Abstract An experimental study was conducted to investigate the structural stability of ethylene glycol-based titanium dioxide nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids prepared by two-step method. The effects of particle concentration, fluid temperature, shear rate and shear duration were examined. Particle size and thermal conductivity measurements in quiescent state indicated the existence of aggregates and that they were stable in temperatures up to 60°C. Shear stability tests suggested that the structure of nanoparticle aggregates was stable in a shear interval of 500-3000 s-1 measured over a temperature range of 20-60°C. These findings show directions to resolve controversies surrounding the underlying mechanisms of thermal conduction and convective heat transfer of nanofluids.

  17. Torsional shear flow of granular materials: shear localization and minimum energy principle (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick


    The rheological properties of granular matter submitted to torsional shear are investigated numerically by means of discrete element method. The shear cell is made of a cylinder filled by grains which are sheared by a bumpy bottom and submitted to a vertical pressure which is applied at the top. Regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. The effects of the (i) the applied pressure, (ii) sidewall friction, and (iii) angular velocity are investigated. A model, based on the purely local μ (I)-rheology and a minimum energy principle is able to capture the effect of the two former quantities but unable to account the effect of the latter. Although, an ad hoc modification of the model allows to reproduce all the numerical results, our results point out the need for an alternative rheology.

  18. Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow (United States)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian


    This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.

  19. Homogenization of granular pipe flow by means of helical inner-wall texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbücheln Felix


    Full Text Available The homogenization of granular flows through narrow pipes is important for a broad range of technological and industrial applications. Here we show, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, that such homogenization can be achieved by adding a helical inner-wall texture to the pipe, without the need for energy input from any external source. By using such a texture, jamming is prevented and the granular flux can be predicted using a modified Beverloo equation that accounts for the wavelength of the helical texture.

  20. Modeling and analysis for three-dimensional flow with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat


    Full Text Available This work addresses the steady three-dimensional boundary layer flow of Maxwell fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived by homotopic procedure. Impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity and concentration is discussed. It is noted that an increase in the Deborah number decreases both the velocity components. Also concentration distribution decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter.

  1. Page 1 & Coherent structures in turbulent shear flows 175 Sirkar K K ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass. : MIT Press). Theodorsen T 1952 Proc. Second Midwestern Mechanics Conference (Ohio State University) p. 1. Townsend A A 1956 The structure of turbulent shear flow (Cambridge: University Press). Townsend A A 1979.J. Fluid Mech.

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the coalescence efficiency of droplets in simple shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousa, H.A.H.; Koutsoukos, P.G.; Agterof, W.G.M.; Mellema, J.


    The coalescence efficiency of two Newtonian droplets submerged in a Newtonian fluid subjected to a simple shear flow was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation was based on observing collisions between two droplets under a microscope. The theoretical

  3. Shear-induced particle diffusion and its effects on the flow of concentrated suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acrivos, A. [City College of CUNY, New York, NY (United States)


    The mechanism underlying shear-induced particle diffusion in concentrated suspensions is clarified. Examples are then presented where this diffusion process plays a crucial role in determining the manner by which such suspensions flow under laminar conditions.

  4. Final Report - Investigation of Intermittent Turbulence and Turbulent Structures in the Presence of Controlled Sheared Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark A. [University of New Mexico


    Final Report for grant DE-FG02-06ER54898. The dynamics and generation of intermittent plasma turbulent structures, widely known as "blobs" have been studied in the presence of sheared plasma flows in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics flow of nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and velocity slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the steady magnetohydrodynamic flow of viscous nanofluid. The flow is caused by a stretching surface with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. An incompressible fluid fills the porous space. Copper-water and silver-water nanofluids are investigated in this study. Transformation method reduces the non-linear partial differential equations governing the flow into the ordinary differential equation by similarity transformations. The obtained equations are then solved for the development of series solutions. Convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly discussed. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, concentration and skin friction coefficient are shown and analyzed through graphs.

  6. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina


    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Shear Stress Dependence of Flow Properties of Gelatinized Modified Starch Suspensions


    朝田, 仁; 鈴木, 寛一


    Flow properties of gelatinized modified starch suspensions were studied using a tube viscometer. The modified starches used were commercially available samples of hydroxypropylated distarch phosphate derived from waxy corn and potato starches (Starch A and Starch B). Two types of irreversible shear stress dependence of flow behavior were observed. By applying shear stress on the gelatinized starch suspensions, fluidity of Starch A (5.0 wt%) decreased to an equilibrium value, while fluidity of...

  8. Investigation into the dual role of shear flow in 2D MHD turbulence. (United States)

    Newton, Andrew P L; Kim, Eun-Jin


    The turbulent diffusion eta_{T} of a large-scale magnetic field B0 is numerically studied in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an imposed shear flow. We demonstrate that a shear flow plays a dual role, quenching transport through shear destruction and enhancing it via resonance. Specifically without resonance eta_{T} proportional, variantB_{0};{-4} with no shear (rms shearing rate=Omega=0) and eta_{T} proportional, variantOmega;{-2.7} for B_{0}=0, while with resonance eta_{T} proportional, variantB_{0};{-2} proportional, variantOmega;{-2}. These results indicate that the absence of resonance is responsible for the most catastrophic reductions in transport.

  9. Computational analysis of integrated biosensing and shear flow in a microfluidic vascular model (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy F.; Young, Edmond W. K.; Simmons, Craig A.


    Fluid flow and flow-induced shear stress are critical components of the vascular microenvironment commonly studied using microfluidic cell culture models. Microfluidic vascular models mimicking the physiological microenvironment also offer great potential for incorporating on-chip biomolecular detection. In spite of this potential, however, there are few examples of such functionality. Detection of biomolecules released by cells under flow-induced shear stress is a significant challenge due to severe sample dilution caused by the fluid flow used to generate the shear stress, frequently to the extent where the analyte is no longer detectable. In this work, we developed a computational model of a vascular microfluidic cell culture model that integrates physiological shear flow and on-chip monitoring of cell-secreted factors. Applicable to multilayer device configurations, the computational model was applied to a bilayer configuration, which has been used in numerous cell culture applications including vascular models. Guidelines were established that allow cells to be subjected to a wide range of physiological shear stress while ensuring optimal rapid transport of analyte to the biosensor surface and minimized biosensor response times. These guidelines therefore enable the development of microfluidic vascular models that integrate cell-secreted factor detection while addressing flow constraints imposed by physiological shear stress. Ultimately, this work will result in the addition of valuable functionality to microfluidic cell culture models that further fulfill their potential as labs-on-chips.

  10. Cyclical shear fracture and viscous flow during transitional ductile-brittle deformation in the Saddlebag Lake Shear Zone, California (United States)

    Compton, Katharine E.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Holk, Gregory J.


    Exhumed shear zones often contain folded and/or dynamically recrystallized structures, such as veins and pseudotachylytes, which record broadly contemporaneous brittle and ductile deformation. Here, we investigate veins within the Saddlebag Lake Shear Zone, central Sierra Nevada, California, to constrain the conditions and processes that caused fractures to form during ductile deformation. The shear zone mylonites contain compositional banding at centimeter- to meter- scales, and a ubiquitous, grain-scale, continuous- to spaced-foliation defined by aligned muscovite and chlorite grains. Veins of multiple compositions formed in two predominant sets: sub-parallel to the foliation and at high angle to the foliation. Some foliation sub-parallel veins show apparent shear offset consistent with the overall kinematics of the shear zone. These veins are folded with the foliation and are commonly boudinaged, showing they were rigid inclusions after formation. Quartz microstructures and fluid inclusion thermobarometry measurements indicate the veins formed by fracture at temperatures between 400-600 °C. Quartz, feldspar and tourmaline δ18O values (+ 2.5 to + 16.5) suggest extended fluid-rock interaction that involved magmatic, metamorphic, and meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. The orientation and spatial distribution of the veins shows that shear fractures formed along mechanically weak foliation planes. We infer fracture was promoted by perturbations to the strain rate and/or pore pressure during frictional-viscous deformation in a low effective stress environment. Evidence for repeated fracture and subsequent flow suggest both the stress and pore pressure varied, and that the tendency to fracture was controlled by the rates of pore pressure recovery, facilitated by fracture cementation. The tectonic setting and inferred phenomenological behavior were similar to intra-continental transform faults that host triggered tectonic tremor, suggesting the mechanisms that caused

  11. Feedbacks Between Deformation and Fluid Flow in Mantle Shear Zones from Zabargad, Red Sea (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Boudier, F. I.; Vauchez, A. R.; Zaderatzky, M.


    Peridotites in the Zabargad island, Red Sea, record different stages of lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling during rifting. Field mapping highlights a pervasive high-temperature NW-SE, subvertical foliation with lineations pluning 50°NW. This foliation is overprinted by a series of lower-temperature mylonitic zones with slightly oblique foliations and subhorizontal lineations, which record progressive strain localization under retrogressive conditions during the final exhumation of the peridotites (Nicolas and Boudier, JGR 1987). We performed a petrostructural study of ca. 50 samples collected by A. Nicolas and F. Boudier in the 80s from the different deformation facies. This study highlights: (1) a rather pervasive, but highly heterogeneous distribution of the LT deformation and (2) a feedback between deformation and fluid flow. The HT deformation is recorded in medium grained plagioclase- and spinel-peridotites by a homogeneous foliation and lineation marked by a shape-preferred orientation of plagioclase and olivine and a consistent CPO of all major-rock forming phases. The LT temperature deformation results in dynamic recrystallization of olivine leading to a marked grain size reduction by dynamic recrystallization of olivine, remobilization of orthopyroxene by dissolution-precipitation, and crystallization of amphibole. Increasing finite strain is recorded by the increase in the volume of the fine-grained material and of the amphibole proportion. The latter may attain in totally recrystallized cm-wide ultramylonite bands up to 30%. This together with the strong amphibole SPO and CPO corroborate fluid focusing and enhanced reaction rates into active shear zones. In the LT shear zones we also document: (1) changes in the olivine CPO, indicating changes in the dominant slip system and (2) unusual orthopyroxene CPO, which we interpret as due to oriented crystallization. Static replacement of pyroxenes by amphibole with no associated LT deformation

  12. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in nonlinear radiative flow of Jeffrey fluid between two stretchable rotating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available This article addresses MHD Jeffrey fluid flow between two stretchable rotating disks. Momentum equation with magnetic field is presented. Energy equation is constructed in presence of heat source/sink and nonlinear radiation. Thermal stratification and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are accounted. The related systems have been solved for convergent solutions. Velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are analyzed. The velocities (radial, axial, tangential are increasing functions of Deborah number. Decline in axial velocity is noticed at lower disk for larger ratio of relaxation to retardation times constant. Thermal field is enhanced for temperature ratio parameter. Concentration has opposite behavior for larger homogeneous parameter and Schmidt number. Surface drag force decays for larger ratio of relaxation to retardation times at both disks. Heat transfer rate enhances for temperature ratio parameter. Keywords: Two stretchable rotating disks, Jeffrey fluid, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Heat generation/absorption, Thermal stratification, Nonlinear thermal radiation

  13. Emergence and decay rate of the edge plasma flow shear near a critical transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J M; Garcia, L [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B A [BACV Solutions, Inc, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)], E-mail:


    Recently, the experimental results for the emergence of the plasma shear flow layer in TJ-II have been explained as a second-order phase transition like process by using a simple model of envelope equations for the fluctuation level, the averaged poloidal velocity shear and the pressure gradient (2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 122509). Here, we extend this model by incorporating radial coupling. The model is applied to the study of the turbulence-shear flow interaction when the energy flux is low. Transition dynamics and their concomitant thresholds are examined within the context of this model. The effect of an external torque induced by electrode biasing has also been considered. In particular, we analyze the decay rate of the shear flow after switching off the biasing.

  14. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim


    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-organization in suspensions of end-functionalized semiflexible polymers under shear flow (United States)

    Myung, Jin Suk; Winkler, Roland G.; Gompper, Gerhard


    The nonequilibrium dynamical behavior and structure formation of end-functionalized semiflexible polymer suspensions under flow are investigated by mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations. The hybrid simulation approach combines the multiparticle collision dynamics method for the fluid, which accounts for hydrodynamic interactions, with molecular dynamics simulations for the semiflexible polymers. In equilibrium, various kinds of scaffold-like network structures are observed, depending on polymer flexibility and end-attraction strength. We investigate the flow behavior of the polymer networks under shear and analyze their nonequilibrium structural and rheological properties. The scaffold structure breaks up and densified aggregates are formed at low shear rates, while the structural integrity is completely lost at high shear rates. We provide a detailed analysis of the shear- rate-dependent flow-induced structures. The studies provide a deeper understanding of the formation and deformation of network structures in complex materials.

  16. Phase locking and flux-flow resonances in Josephson oscillators driven by homogeneous microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm


    We investigate both analytically and numerically phase locking and flux-flow resonances of long Josephson junctions in the presence of homogeneous microwave fields. We use a power balance analysis and a perturbation expansion around the uniform rotating solution to derive analytical expressions...... for the locking range in current of the phase-lock steps is also derived. These results are found to be in good agreement with numerical results....

  17. Shear-thinning effects on vortex breakdown in swirling pipe flows: experiments and simulations (United States)

    Dennis, David; Petit, Tom; Thompson, Deacon; Poole, Robert


    Laminar pipe flow with a controllable wall swirl has been studied both numerically and experimentally to explore the behaviour of inelastic shear-thinning fluids. The pipe consists of two smoothly joined sections that can be rotated independently about the same axis. The circumstances of flow entering a stationary pipe from a rotating pipe (decaying swirl) and flow entering a rotating pipe from a stationary pipe (growing swirl) have been investigated. A numerical parametric study using a simple power law model is conducted and reveals the axial length of the recirculation region is increased for shear-thinning fluids and decreased for shear-thickening (in comparison to the Newtonian reference). The critical swirl ratio required to induce the breakdown at a range of Reynolds numbers and extent of shear-thinning is investigated and a method of scaling is presented that collapses all the data for all fluids (shear-thickening, Newtonian and shear-thinning) onto a single universal curve. Experimental visualisations using an aqueous solution of Xantham Gum (shear-thinning) confirm the conclusions drawn from the numerical results.

  18. A new gas release model for a homogeneous liquid-gas mixture flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessal, Mohand [Department of Transport and Petroleum Equipment, Faculty of Oil and Chemistry, University of Boumerde' s, Boumerde' s 35000 (Algeria)]. E-mail:; Bennacer, Rachid [Laboratoire Materiaux et Sciences des Constructions, Universite Cergy-Pontoise, Paris (France)


    The gas release phenomenon, resulting from a rapid decompression in a homogeneous gas-liquid flow is expressed by multiplying the mixture density by a degassing coefficient G {sub r}. The effect of this coefficient is calculated by using the classical conservation equations of fluid mechanics and diffusion laws. These equations are solved by an improved new two time step finite difference scheme. The method of characteristics is used at the boundaries. The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data and confirm the gas release effect on the flow parameters.

  19. Experimental comparison of the dynamic evaporator response using homogeneous and slip flow modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth


    The dynamic response from an evaporator is important for control of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Essentially, the prediction of refrigerant charge inside the evaporator is crucial for the dynamic behavior. The prediction of refrigerant charge follows from suitable void fraction...... correlations from the literature. A chosen set of void fraction correlations (slip flow) and the assumption of homogeneous flow will be investigated in this paper and compared to experiments on a simple coaxial type evaporator. The numerical model of the evaporator is a dynamic distributed mixture model, where...

  20. Study on the Formation and Initial Transport for Non-Homogeneous Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ping Shu


    Full Text Available Non-homogeneous debris flows generally occur during the rainy seasons in Southwest China, and have received considerable attention in the literature. Regarding the complexity in debris flow dynamics, experimental approaches have proven to be effective in revealing the formative mechanism for debris flow, and quantifying the relations between the various influencing factors with debris-flow formation and subsequent transport processes. Therefore, a flume-based and experimental study was performed at the Debris Flow Observation and Research Station of Jiangjia Gully in Yunnan Province, to theoretically analyze favorable conditions for debris-flow formation and initial transport by selecting the median particle size d50, flow rate Q, vertical grading coefficient ψ, slopes S, and the initial soil water contents W as the five variables for investigation. To achieve this, an optimal combination of these variables was made through an orthogonal experimental design to determine their relative importance upon the occurrence and initial mobilization behavior of a debris flow and to further enhance our insight into debris-flow triggering and transport mechanisms.

  1. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liangjie

    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  2. Steady shear flow properties of Cordia myxa leaf gum as a function of concentration and temperature. (United States)

    Chaharlang, Mahmood; Samavati, Vahid


    The steady shear flow properties of dispersions of Cordia myxa leaf gum (CMLG) were determined as a function of concentration (0.5-2.5%, w/w), and temperature (10-50 °C). The CMLG dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior at all concentrations and temperatures. The Power-law (Ostwald-Waele's) and Herschel-Bulkley models were employed to characterize flow behavior of CMLG solutions at 0.1-100 s(-1) shear rate. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was observed at all temperatures and concentrations. While increase in temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior indices, adverse effect was obtained by increasing the concentration. The Power-law model was found the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior of CMLG. The pseudoplasticity of CMLG increased markedly with concentration. An Arrhenius-type model was also used to describe the effect of temperature. The activation energy (Ea) appeared in the range of 5.972-18.104 kJ/mol, as concentration increased from 0.5% to 2.5%, at a shear rate of 10 s(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lift on a Steady Airfoil in Low Reynolds Number Shear Flow (United States)

    Hammer, Patrick; Visbal, Miguel; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr


    Current understanding of airfoil aerodynamics is primarily based on a uniform freestream velocity approaching the airfoil, without consideration for possible presence of shear in the approach flow. Inviscid theory by Tsien (1943) shows that a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack experiences positive lift, i.e. a shift in the zero-lift angle of attack, in the presence of positive mean shear in the approach flow. In the current work, 2D computations are conducted on a steady NACA 0012 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of Re = 12,000, at zero angle of attack. A uniform shear profile (i.e. a linear velocity variation) is used for the approach flow by modifying the FDL3DI Navier-Stokes solver (Visbal and Gaitonde, 1999). Interestingly, opposite to the inviscid prediction of Tsien (1943), the results for the airfoil at zero angle of attack show that the average lift is negative in the shear flow. The magnitude of this lift grows as the shear rate increases. Additional results are presented regarding the physics underlying the shear effect on lift. A companion experimental study is also given in a separate presentation. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-15-1-0224.

  4. Nature of Transport across Sheared Zonal Flows in Electrostatic Ion-Temperature-Gradient Gyrokinetic Plasma Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [JNL Scientific, Inc., Casa Grande, AZ; Decyk, Viktor [University of California, Los Angeles; Carreras, Benjamin A [BACV Solutions, Inc., Oak Ridge


    It is shown that the usual picture for the suppression of turbulent transport across a stable sheared flow based on a reduction of diffusive transport coefficients is, by itself, incomplete. By means of toroidal gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic, collisionless ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, it is found that the nature of the transport is altered fundamentally, changing from diffusive to anticorrelated and subdiffusive. Additionally, whenever the flows are self-consistently driven by turbulence, the transport gains an additional non-Gaussian character. These results suggest that a description of transport across sheared flows using effective diffusivities is oversimplified.

  5. Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.


    Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.

  6. Spatial correlations of hydrodynamic fluctuations in simple fluids under shear flow: A mesoscale simulation study. (United States)

    Varghese, Anoop; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G


    Hydrodynamic fluctuations in simple fluids under shear flow are demonstrated to be spatially correlated, in contrast to the fluctuations at equilibrium, using mesoscopic hydrodynamic simulations. The simulation results for the equal-time hydrodynamic correlations in a multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) fluid in shear flow are compared with the explicit expressions obtained from fluctuating hydrodynamics calculations. For large wave vectors k, the nonequilibrium contributions to transverse and longitudinal velocity correlations decay as k^{-4} for wave vectors along the flow direction and as k^{-2} for the off-flow directions. For small wave vectors, a crossover to a slower decay occurs, indicating long-range correlations in real space. The coupling between the transverse velocity components, which vanishes at equilibrium, also exhibits a k^{-2} dependence on the wave vector. In addition, we observe a quadratic dependency on the shear rate of the nonequilibrium contribution to pressure.

  7. VOF simulation on a large bubble in a linear shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Lee, Jae-Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Instability of flow around a body moving in a fluid can induce lift force acting on the body. One example of this phenomena is a bubble rising. Lift acting on a bubble effects on a void fraction distribution of a bubbly flow, which can be related to two phase flow in a nuclear reactor, bubble column reactor, and a flow around a ship. This leads researchers to use experimental or numerical methods. Study of Tomiyama et al.(2002) is the most well known experimental results on a bubble rising in a linear shear flow. They used water-glycerin mixture as a liquid and rotating belt to make linear shear flow, and measured lift coefficients. VOF simulations are conducted for investigation of lift acting on single bubble rising in a high Re linear shear flow. In spite of small amount of data and numerical error about spurious current near bubble interface, some insights can be obtained. First, a turbulence model generates large difference on C{sub L} of large Re bubble. Second, for lift acting on a large Re bubble in a linear shear flow, Re is better scale than E{sub oH} and C{sub L} is proportional to inverse of Re. Despite of some quantitative difference between results of experiment(Yang et al.(2013), Li et al.(2016)) and present numerical study, all results shows -7

  8. Impact of E × B shear flow on low-n MHD instabilities. (United States)

    Chen, J G; Xu, X Q; Ma, C H; Xi, P W; Kong, D F; Lei, Y A


    Recently, the stationary high confinement operations with improved pedestal conditions have been achieved in DIII-D [K. H. Burrell et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 056103 (2016)], accompanying the spontaneous transition from the coherent edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) to the broadband MHD turbulence state by reducing the neutral beam injection torque to zero. It is highly significant for the burning plasma devices such as ITER. Simulations about the effects of E × B shear flow on the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) are carried out using the three-field two-fluid model in the field-aligned coordinate under the BOUT++ framework. Using the shifted circular cross-section equilibriums including bootstrap current, the results demonstrate that the E × B shear flow strongly destabilizes low-n peeling modes, which are mainly driven by the gradient of parallel current in peeling-dominant cases and are sensitive to the Er shear. Adopting the much more general shape of E × B shear ([Formula: see text]) profiles, the linear and nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show qualitative consistence with the experiments. The stronger shear flow shifts the most unstable mode to lower-n and narrows the mode spectrum. At the meantime, the nonlinear simulations of the QH-mode indicate that the shear flow in both co- and counter directions of diamagnetic flow has some similar effects. The nonlinear mode interaction is enhanced during the mode amplitude saturation phase. These results reveal that the fundamental physics mechanism of the QH-mode may be shear flow and are significant for understanding the mechanism of EHO and QH-mode.

  9. Flow rate calibration to determine cell-derived microparticles and homogeneity of blood components. (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Lerdwana, Surada; Kittisares, Kulvara; Palasuwan, Attakorn; Palasuwan, Duangdao


    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator. The concentration of MPs and their origins in whole blood (n=100), PRBCs (n=100), and PCs (n=92) were determined using a FACSCalibur. The MPs' fold-changes were calculated to assess the homogeneity of the blood components. Comparing the platelet counts conducted by automated counting and flow-rate calibration showed an r2 of 0.6 (y=0.69x+97,620). The CVs of the within-run and between-run variations of flow-rate calibration were 8.2% and 12.1%, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean bias of -31,142platelets/μl. MP enumeration revealed both the difference in MP levels and their origins in whole blood, PRBCs, and PCs. Screening the blood components demonstrated high heterogeneity of the MP levels in PCs when compared to whole blood and PRBCs. The results of the present study suggest the accuracy and precision of flow-rate calibration for enumerating MPs. This flow-rate approach is affordable for assessing the homogeneity of MPs in blood components in routine laboratory practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transonic flow of steam with non-equilibrium and homogenous condensation (United States)

    Virk, Akashdeep Singh; Rusak, Zvi


    A small-disturbance model for studying the physical behavior of a steady transonic flow of steam with non-equilibrium and homogeneous condensation around a thin airfoil is derived. The steam thermodynamic behavior is described by van der Waals equation of state. The water condensation rate is calculated according to classical nucleation and droplet growth models. The current study is based on an asymptotic analysis of the fluid flow and condensation equations and boundary conditions in terms of the small thickness of the airfoil, small angle of attack, closeness of upstream flow Mach number to unity and small amount of condensate. The asymptotic analysis gives the similarity parameters that govern the problem. The flow field may be described by a non-homogeneous transonic small-disturbance equation coupled with a set of four ordinary differential equations for the calculation of the condensate mass fraction. An iterative numerical scheme which combines Murman & Cole's (1971) method with Simpson's integration rule is applied to solve the coupled system of equations. The model is used to study the effects of energy release from condensation on the aerodynamic performance of airfoils operating at high pressures and temperatures and near the vapor-liquid saturation conditions.

  11. Vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder in planar shear flow (United States)

    Gsell, Simon; Bourguet, Remi; Braza, Marianna


    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of bluff bodies are common in nature and in engineering applications where flexible or flexibly mounted structures are exposed to wind and ocean currents. VIV have been thoroughly studied through the canonical problem of an elastically mounted, rigid cylinder immersed in uniform flow. However, in the real physical systems where VIV develop, the oncoming flows are usually non-uniform. The present work investigates the impact of a shear of the oncoming current in the cross-flow direction. As a first preliminary step, focus is placed on the fixed cylinder case; the analysis is based on a series of numerical simulations over a wide range of shear rates, at Reynolds number 100. It is found that the shear leads to the cancellation of wake unsteadiness beyond a critical value of the shear rate. Once the rigid cylinder is elastically mounted, free vibrations arise over the entire range of shear rates under study, including beyond the above mentioned critical value. Different flow-structure interaction regimes are uncovered. Some of them exhibit a major deviation from the uniform-flow case, with a profound reconfiguration of the wake patterns and a dramatic amplification of the structural response amplitudes.

  12. Effects of shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number flow: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Vortex shedding has been identified as a potential major source of loading on the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant Cold Water Pipe (CWP). To gain a better understanding of the vortex shedding phenomena, a series of model tests has been conducted. The results of this investigation are presented. The effects of current shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number (R/sub e/) flow around a circular cylinder used to model the OTEC CWP are addressed. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel on a 56-inch long, 6-inch diameter circular cylinder for various flow and shear conditions. Measurements were conducted to describe the frequencies of the eddies shed from the cylinder and to investigate the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder. From these tests it was determined that shedding for high R/sub e/ sheared flow is characterized by the formation of distinct cells of eddies with constant frequency, that pressure fluctuations on the surface of the cylinder are greater for sheared flow than unsheared flow, and that the mean surface pressures are generally independent of the magnitude of shear.

  13. Effect of Wall Shear Stress Distribution on Manning Coefficient of Smooth Open Rectangular Channel Flows


    BİLGİL, Ahmet


    The determination of velocity distribution in open channel flows is crucial in many critical engineering problems such as channel design, calculation of energy losses and sedimentation. In this study, velocity distribution is experimentally investigated in a smooth rectangular open channel. Wall shear stresses are calculated using measured local velocities. Assuming logarithmic velocity distribution along perpendiculars to a wetted perimeter, dimensionless wall shear stresses K(I) =...

  14. Shear flow suppresses the volume of the nucleation precursor clusters in lysozyme solutions (United States)

    Byington, Michael C.; Safari, Mohammad S.; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Vekilov, Peter G.


    Shear flow alters the rate at which crystals nucleate from solution, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, we explore the response to shear of dense liquid clusters, which may serve as crystal nucleation precursors. Solutions of the protein lysozyme were sheared in a Couette cell at rates from 0.3 to 200 s-1 for up to seven hours. The cluster size and total population volume were characterized by dynamic light scattering. We demonstrate that shear rates greater than 10 s-1 applied for longer than one hour reduce the volume of the cluster population. The likely mechanism of the observed response involves enhanced partial unfolding of the lysozyme molecules, which exposes hydrophobic surfaces between the constituent domains to the aqueous solution. We show that disruption of the intramolecular S-S bridges does not contribute to the mechanism of response to shear. The decrease of the cluster population volume with increasing shear rate or shear time implies that nucleation could be inhibited at moderate shear rates.

  15. Area Expansivity Moduli of Regenerating Plant Protoplast Cell Walls Exposed to Shear Flows (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuu; Iino, Masaaki; Watanabe, Ugai


    To control the elasticity of the plant cell wall, protoplasts isolated from cultured Catharanthus roseus cells were regenerated in shear flows of 115 s-1 (high shear) and 19.2 s-1 (low shear, as a control). The surface area expansivity modulus and the surface breaking strength of these regenerating protoplasts were measured by a micropipette aspiration technique. Cell wall synthesis was also measured using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye. High shear exposure for 3 h doubled both the surface area modulus and breaking strength observed under low shear, significantly decreased cell wall synthesis, and roughly quadrupled the moduli of the cell wall. Based on the cell wall synthesis data, we estimated the three-dimensional modulus of the cell wall to be 4.1± 1.2 GPa for the high shear, and 0.35± 0.2 GPa for the low shear condition, using the surface area expansivity modulus divided by the cell wall thickness, which is identical with the Young’s modulus divided by 2(1-σ), where σ is Poisson's ratio. We concluded that high shear exposure considerably strengthens the newly synthesized cell wall.

  16. Association beween resting heart rate, shear and flow-mediated dilation in healthy adults. (United States)

    Fox, Brandon M; Brantley, Lucy; White, Claire; Seigler, Nichole; Harris, Ryan A


    Preclinical data have demonstrated that heart rate (HR) can directly impact vascular endothelial function, in part, through a shear-stress mechanism. This study sought to explore, in humans, the associations between resting heart rate and both shear and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The brachial artery FMD test was performed in 31 apparently healthy volunteers. Basal (B) and hyperaemic (H) shear were quantified in the following two ways using data from the FMD test: the traditional cumulative shear area under the curve up to peak dilation (Shearcum) method; and our novel method of shear summation (Shearsum), which accounts for HR by summing each individual cardiac cycle shear up to peak dilation. Data were grouped by tertiles based on resting HR as follows: low (LHR = 43-56 beats min(-1); n = 10); middle (MHR = 58-68 beats min(-1); n = 11); and high (HHR = 69-77 beats min(-1); n = 10). Within the LHR group, both B-Shearcum and H-Shearcum were significantly higher (P heart rate and both shear and endothelial function in humans. Moreover, these findings have implications for considering heart rate as an important physiological variable when quantifying shear and performing the FMD test. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  17. Impact of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux in Jeffrey Fluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional stretched flow of Jeffrey fluid in view of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is addressed. Effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are also considered. Suitable transformations are used to form ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are computed. Impact of significant parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration and skin friction coefficient is addressed. Analysis of thermal relaxation is made. The obtained results show that ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number have inverse relation for velocity profile. Temperature distribution has decreasing behavior for Prandtl number and thermal relaxation time. Also concentration decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter.

  18. Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri


    Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.

  19. Scale Effects in the Flow of a Shear-Thinning Fluid in Rough Fractures (United States)

    Meheust, Y.; Roques, C.; Le Borgne, T.; Selker, J. S.


    The understanding of flow processes involving non-Newtonian fluids in the subsurface is of interest for many engineering applications, from in-situ remediation to enhanced oil recovery. The fluids of interest in such applications (f.e., polymers in remediation) often present shear-thinning properties, i.e., their viscosity decreases as a function of the local shear rate. We investigate how fracture wall roughness impacts the flow of a shear-thinning fluid. Numerical simulations of flow in 3D fracture geometries are carried out by solving a modified Navier-Stokes equation incorporating the Carreau viscous-shear model. The synthetic fractures consist of two rough surfaces which are isotropic self-affine geometries and correlated with each other above a scale which we denote correlation length (see Méheust et al. PAGEOPH 2003). Perfect plastic closing is assumed when the surfaces touch each other. The objective is to test how varying the correlation length impacts the flow behavior, for different degrees of closure, and how this behavior diverges for shear-thinning fluids from what is known for Newtonian fluids. The results from the 3D simulations are also compared to 2D simulations based on the lubrication theory, which we have developed as an extension of the Reynolds equation for Newtonian fluids. We also discuss the implications of our results for the general understanding of the flows of shear-thinning fluids in fractured media and of solute transport by such flows. References:Méheust, Y., & Schmittbuhl, J. (2003). Scale effects related to flow in rough fractures. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160(5-6), 1023-1050.

  20. Stability of an external gravity wave in a stratified basic flow with lateral shear


    Tomizuka, Akira


    The author investigates the stability of an external gravity wave progressing horizontally in an inviscid and incompressible stratified basic flow with lateral shear. (1) In the model which basic flow has a Helmholtz velocity profile, there exist no neutral solutions contrary to internal gravity waves. Perturbations are always unstable independent of the coefficient of vertical wave mode m or the wave number k_y. (2) In the model which basic flow is composed of unbounded layers with the centr...

  1. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I: Linear stability analysis and basic patterns


    Marietti, Yannick; Debierre, Jean-Marc; Bock, Thomas-Michael; Kassner, Klaus


    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stabiliy limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near the onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. ...

  2. The lift-up effect: the linear mechanism behind transition and turbulence in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Luca


    The formation and amplification of streamwise velocity perturbations induced by cross-stream disturbances is ubiquitous in shear flows. This disturbance growth mechanism, so neatly identified by Ellingsen and Palm in 1975, is a key process in transition to turbulence and self-sustained turbulence. In this review, we first present the original derivation and early studies and then discuss the non-modal growth of streaks, the result of the lift-up process, in transitional and turbulent shear flows. In the second part, the effects on the lift-up process of additives in the fluid and of a second phase are discussed and new results presented with emphasis on particle-laden shear flows. For all cases considered, we see the lift-up process to be a very robust process, always present as a first step in subcritical transition.

  3. Effects of non-homogeneous flow on ADCP data processing in a hydroturbine forebay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, S. F.; Richmond, M. C.; Romero-Gomez, P.; Serkowski, J. A.


    Observations of the flow conditions in the forebay of a hydroelectric power station indicate significant regions of non-homogeneous velocities near the intakes and shoreline. The effect of these non-homogeneous regions on the velocity measurement of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is investigated. By using a numerical model of an ADCP operating in a velocity field calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the errors due to the spatial variation of the flow velocity are identified. The numerical model of the ADCP is referred to herein as a Virtual ADCP (VADCP). Two scenarios are modeled in the numerical analyses presented. Firstly the measurement error of the VADCP is calculated for a single instrument adjacent to the short converging intake of the powerhouse. Secondly, the flow discharge through the forebay is estimated from a transect of VADCP instruments at dif- ferent distances from the powerhouse. The influence of instrument location and orientation are investigated for both cases. A velocity error of over up to 94% of the reference velocity is calculated for a VADCP modeled adjacent to an operating intake. Qualitative agreement is observed between the calculated VADCP velocities and reference velocities by an offset of one intake height upstream of the powerhouse.

  4. Correlation between vortices and wall shear stress in a curved artery model under pulsatile flow conditions (United States)

    Cox, Christopher; Plesniak, Michael W.


    One of the most physiologically relevant factors within the cardiovascular system is the wall shear stress. The wall shear stress affects endothelial cells via mechanotransduction and atherosclerotic regions are strongly correlated with curvature and branching in the human vasculature, where the shear stress is both oscillatory and multidirectional. Also, the combined effect of curvature and pulsatility in cardiovascular flows produces unsteady vortices. In this work, our goal is to assess the correlation between multiple vortex pairs and wall shear stress. To accomplish this, we use an in-house high-order flux reconstruction Navier-Stokes solver to simulate pulsatile flow of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid through a rigid 180° curved artery model. We use a physiologically relevant flow rate and generate results using both fully developed and uniform entrance conditions, the latter motivated by the fact that flow upstream to a curved artery may not be fully developed. Under these two inflow conditions, we characterize the evolution of various vortex pairs and their subsequent effect on several wall shear stress metrics. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  5. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow. (United States)

    Tian, Fang-Bao


    An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  6. Numerical study for melting heat transfer and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in flow involving carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Khursheed; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Asghar, Saleem


    Present work concentrates on melting heat transfer in three-dimensional flow of nanofluid over an impermeable stretchable surface. Analysis is made in presence of porous medium and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Single and multi-wall CNTs (carbon nanotubes) are considered. Water is chosen as basefluid. Adequate transformations yield the non-linear ordinary differential systems. Solution of emerging problems is obtained using shooting method. Impacts of influential variables on velocity and temperature are discussed graphically. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are numerically discussed. The results for MWCNTs and SWCNTs are compared and examined.

  7. Shear flow generation and energetics in electromagnetic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Kendl, A.; Garcia, O.E.


    acoustic mode (GAM) transfer in drift-Alfvén turbulence is investigated. By means of numerical computations the energy transfer into zonal flows owing to each of these effects is quantified. The importance of the three driving ingredients in electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence for conditions...... relevant to the edge of fusion devices is revealed for a broad range of parameters. The Reynolds stress is found to provide a flow drive, while the electromagnetic Maxwell stress is in the cases considered a sink for the flow energy. In the limit of high plasma β, where electromagnetic effects and Alfvén...

  8. Shear-induced particle migration in one-, two-, and three-dimensional flows (United States)

    Gao, C.; Gilchrist, J. F.


    We investigate the segregation resulting from the competition between advection and shear-induced migration of suspensions in steady open flows. Herringbone channels form a concentration profile deviating from the particle focusing found in straight channels. Transients can result from a buckling instability during the onset of migration when particle-depleted fluid is injected into particle-rich fluid. In chaotic flows, the better mixing found at low bulk volume fraction is not seen at higher bulk volume fraction. Thus, the ability of static mixers to reduce the effects of shear-induced migration is significantly limited.

  9. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    superposed flow condition on viscoelastic properties of LLDPE, Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and hybrid of short glass fibre and Kev- lar fibre reinforced LLDPE. Parallel-plate rheometer was employed for these tests. Rheological parameters.

  10. Two-dimensional dynamics of a trapped active Brownian particle in a shear flow. (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Debnath, Tanwi; Ghosh, Pulak K


    We model the two-dimensional dynamics of a pointlike artificial microswimmer diffusing in a harmonic trap subject to the shear flow of a highly viscous medium. The particle is driven simultaneously by the linear restoring force of the trap, the drag force exerted by the flow, and the torque due to the shear gradient. For a Couette flow, elliptical orbits in the noiseless regime, and the correlation functions between the particle's displacements parallel and orthogonal to the flow are computed analytically. The effects of thermal fluctuations (translational) and self-propulsion fluctuations (angular) are treated separately. Finally, we discuss how to extend our approach to the diffusion of a microswimmer in a Poiseuille flow. These results provide an accurate reference solution to investigate, both numerically and experimentally, hydrodynamics corrections to the diffusion of active matter in confined geometries.

  11. Transient dynamics of eccentric double emulsion droplets in a simple shear flow (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Dabiri, Sadegh


    We numerically examine the time-dependent behavior of double emulsions in a simple shear flow using finite volume and front-tracking methods. A single inner drop is initially located eccentrically to the outer drop. When the eccentricity is contained within the plane of shear, the inner drop experiences a "revolving" motion within the plane of shear, orbiting about the center of the compound drop while slowly moving outward. The inner drop eventually experiences a limit cycle, where no more outward movement occurs because the distance between the two interfaces is reduced to a thin liquid film for portions of the revolving cycle. In addition, eccentricity in the direction normal to the plane of shear is tested. In this case, the inner droplet undergoes a "drifting" motion, slowly moving perpendicularly to the plane of shear until only a thin layer remains between the two interfaces. Finally, the revolving and drifting motions are simultaneously observed when the in-plane-of-shear eccentricity is included in addition to the off-plane-of-shear eccentricity. The observed behaviors are not qualitatively affected by the inner to outer droplet radii ratio, and are preserved when Re≤5 ,Cao≤0.1 , and Cai<0.2 .

  12. Kinematics of horizontal simple shear zones of concentric arcs (Taylor-Couette flow) with incompressible Newtonian rheology (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Biswas, Rakesh


    We present preliminary kinematic analyses of Taylor-Couette flow. We consider deformation of a Newtonian incompressible ductile material inside rotating horizontal listric (concentric circular) boundaries. The velocity profile is curved indicating non-uniform shear strain but leads to the same shear sense. Each material point on progressive shear keeps increasing shear strain linearly with time. A curve of no movement, the `neutral curve', may exist inside the shear zone. Irregular geometries of initially regular markers and their individual non-matching strain paths indicate inhomogeneous deformaion in such Taylor-Couette flow.

  13. Stick-slip instabilities in sheared granular flow: The role of friction and acoustic vibrations. (United States)

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M


    We propose a theory of shear flow in dense granular materials. A key ingredient of the theory is an effective temperature that determines how the material responds to external driving forces such as shear stresses and vibrations. We show that, within our model, friction between grains produces stick-slip behavior at intermediate shear rates, even if the material is rate strengthening at larger rates. In addition, externally generated acoustic vibrations alter the stick-slip amplitude, or suppress stick-slip altogether, depending on the pressure and shear rate. We construct a phase diagram that indicates the parameter regimes for which stick-slip occurs in the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations of a fixed amplitude and frequency. These results connect the microscopic physics to macroscopic dynamics and thus produce useful information about a variety of granular phenomena, including rupture and slip along earthquake faults, the remote triggering of instabilities, and the control of friction in material processing.

  14. Thread-based microfluidics: Flow patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous microfiber bundles. (United States)

    Berthier, J; Brakke, K A; Gosselin, D; Berthier, E; Navarro, F


    Thread-based microfluidics has recently seen considerable developments in the domain of portable diagnostic systems, smart bandages and tissue engineering. Similarly to paper-based microfluidics, thread-based microfluidics uses the wicking of fibers to move fluids. It has the advantage of confining and guiding the fluid along the yarns in a one, two or three dimensional space. A global approach to the motion of fluids in yarns and fiber bundles has already been reported in the literature based on the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law. However no detailed investigation of the flow pattern inside the bundle has been conducted, depending on the internal structure of the bundle. Especially when the bundle possesses heterogeneous wetting properties, such as two different wetting regions interior and exterior, different flow patterns may exist. In this work, we perform a theoretical and numerical analysis of the different flow regimes for homogenous and heterogeneous fiber bundles. It is demonstrated that a limited number of fibers is sufficient for thread-based capillary flows, and that a caging of the flow can be achieved by realizing a lyophobic envelope. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design optimization of scaffold microstructures using wall shear stress criterion towards regulated flow-induced erosion. (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Schellekens, Michiel; Zhou, Shiwei; Cadman, Joseph; Li, Wei; Appleyard, Richard; Li, Qing


    Tissue scaffolds aim to provide a cell-friendly biomechanical environment for facilitating cell growth. Existing studies have shown significant demands for generating a certain level of wall shear stress (WSS) on scaffold microstructural surfaces for promoting cellular response and attachment efficacy. Recently, its role in shear-induced erosion of polymer scaffold has also drawn increasing attention. This paper proposes a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) approach for design of scaffold microstructure in terms of the WSS uniformity criterion, by downgrading highly-stressed solid elements into fluidic elements and/or upgrading lowly-stressed fluidic elements into solid elements. In addition to this, a computational model is presented to simulate shear-induced erosion process. The effective stiffness and permeability of initial and optimized scaffold microstructures are characterized by the finite element based homogenization technique to quantify the variations of mechanical properties of scaffold during erosion. The illustrative examples show that a uniform WSS is achieved within the optimized scaffold microstructures, and their architectural and biomechanical features are maintained for a longer lifetime during shear-induced erosion process. This study provides a mathematical means to the design optimization of cellular biomaterials in terms of the WSS criterion towards controllable shear-induced erosion.

  16. Sphere interaction in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids (United States)

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland


    It is well-known that, up to the initial sphere displacement, binary encounters of spheres in bounded shear flow of a Newtonian fluid can have either swapping or non-swapping trajectories under creeping flow conditions. The motion of dilute sphere suspensions in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids at zero Reynolds number has been studied. The pass and return trajectories of the two ball mass centers in a two wall driven shear flow are similar to those in a Newtonian fluid; but they lose the symmetry due to the effect of elastic force arising from viscoelastic fluids. A tumbling chain of two balls (a dipole) may occur, depending on the value of the Weissenberg number and the initial vertical displacement of the ball mass center to the middle plane between two walls. The two ball tumbling motion has also been compared with that of an ellipsoid in bounded shear flow Oldroyd-B fluids. This work was supported by NSF (Grant DMS-1418308).

  17. Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Velocity, Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in Radial and Ulnar Arteries Using Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xia, Chunming; Stephen, Gandy; Khan, Faisel; Corner, George A; Hoskins, Peter R; Huang, Zhihong


    Parameters of blood flow measured by ultrasound in radial and ulnar arteries, such as flow velocity, flow rate and wall shear rate, are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research. Investigation of these measurements is useful for evaluating accuracy and providing knowledge of error sources. A method for simulating the spectral Doppler ultrasound measurement process was developed with computational fluid dynamics providing flow-field data. Specific scanning factors were adjusted to investigate their influence on estimation of the maximum velocity waveform, and flow rate and wall shear rate were derived using the Womersley equation. The overestimation in maximum velocity increases greatly (peak systolic from about 10% to 30%, time-averaged from about 30% to 50%) when the beam-vessel angle is changed from 30° to 70°. The Womersley equation was able to estimate flow rate in both arteries with less than 3% error, but performed better in the radial artery (2.3% overestimation) than the ulnar artery (15.4% underestimation) in estimating wall shear rate. It is concluded that measurements of flow parameters in the radial and ulnar arteries with clinical ultrasound scanners are prone to clinically significant errors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. On homogenization of stokes flow in slowly varying media with applications to fluid–structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and

  19. Mechanotransduction of flow-induced shear stress by endothelial glycocalyx fibers is torque determined. (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan


    To test the hypothesis that the mechanotransduction of flow-induced shear stress on endothelial cells (ECs) might be triggered by the total torque transmitted from the glycocalyx fibers to the ECs rather than by the total shear force acting directly on the membrane of ECs, we formulated the arterial wall as a five-layer model and numerically investigated the effect of two types of damages to the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) on the flow in the EGL and on the drag force and bending moment acting on the glycocalyx fibers. One type of damage was to alter the thickness of the EGL, and the other was to damage its integrity. The results revealed that almost all amount of the shear stress acting on ECs was transmitted to the cells by the EGL and that the flow-induced shear stress acting directly on the cell membrane was negligibly small. In addition, the total force transmitted from the glycocalyx fibers to the cell membrane in the forms of drag force was hardly affected by the damages to the EGL. However, such damages could significantly influence the total torque at the roots of the EGL fibers. In conclusion, the mechanotransduction of shear stress by the EGL might be torque determined rather than force determined.

  20. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.


    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.

  1. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Xu, Xinliang; Rice, Stuart A.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Cohen, Itai


    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows. PMID:22198839

  2. Human red blood cell behavior under homogeneous extensional flow in a hyperbolic-shaped microchannel. (United States)

    Yaginuma, T; Oliveira, M S N; Lima, R; Ishikawa, T; Yamaguchi, T


    It is well known that certain pathological conditions result in a decrease of red blood cells (RBCs) deformability and subsequently can significantly alter the blood flow in microcirculation, which may block capillaries and cause ischemia in the tissues. Microfluidic systems able to obtain reliable quantitative measurements of RBC deformability hold the key to understand and diagnose RBC related diseases. In this work, a microfluidic system composed of a microchannel with a hyperbolic-shaped contraction followed by a sudden expansion is presented. We provide a detailed quantitative description of the degree of deformation of human RBCs under a controlled homogeneous extensional flow field. We measured the deformation index (DI) as well as the velocity of the RBCs travelling along the centerline of the channel for four different flow rates and analyze the impact of the particle Reynolds number. The results show that human RBC deformation tends to reach a plateau value in the region of constant extensional rate, the value of which depends on the extension rate. Additionally, we observe that the presence of a sudden expansion downstream of the hyperbolic contraction modifies the spatial distribution of cells and substantially increases the cell free layer (CFL) downstream of the expansion plane similarly to what is seen in other expansion flows. Beyond a certain value of flow rate, there is only a weak effect of inlet flow rates on the enhancement of the downstream CFL. These in vitro experiments show the potential of using microfluidic systems with hyperbolic-shaped microchannels both for the separation of the RBCs from plasma and to assess changes in RBC deformability in physiological and pathological situations for clinical purposes. However, the selection of the geometry and the identification of the most suitable region to evaluate the changes on the RBC deformability under extensional flows are crucial if microfluidics is to be used as an in vitro clinical

  3. Symmetry breaking in MAST plasma turbulence due to toroidal flow shear

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, M F J; Field, A R; Ghim, Y -c; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A


    The flow shear associated with the differential toroidal rotation of tokamak plasmas breaks an underlying symmetry of the turbulent fluctuations imposed by the up-down symmetry of the magnetic equilibrium. Using experimental Beam-Emission-Spectroscopy (BES) measurements and gyrokinetic simulations, this symmetry breaking in ion-scale turbulence in MAST is shown to manifest itself as a tilt of the spatial correlation function and a finite skew in the distribution of the fluctuating density field. The tilt is a statistical expression of the "shearing" of the turbulent structures by the mean flow. The skewness of the distribution is related to the emergence of long-lived density structures in sheared, near-marginal plasma turbulence. The extent to which these effects are pronounced is argued (with the aid of the simulations) to depend on the distance from the nonlinear stability threshold. Away from the threshold, the symmetry is effectively restored.

  4. The shear flow processing of controlled DNA tethering and stretching for organic molecular electronics. (United States)

    Yu, Guihua; Kushwaha, Amit; Lee, Jungkyu K; Shaqfeh, Eric S G; Bao, Zhenan


    DNA has been recently explored as a powerful tool for developing molecular scaffolds for making reproducible and reliable metal contacts to single organic semiconducting molecules. A critical step in the process of exploiting DNA-organic molecule-DNA (DOD) array structures is the controlled tethering and stretching of DNA molecules. Here we report the development of reproducible surface chemistry for tethering DNA molecules at tunable density and demonstrate shear flow processing as a rationally controlled approach for stretching/aligning DNA molecules of various lengths. Through enzymatic cleavage of λ-phage DNA to yield a series of DNA chains of various lengths from 17.3 μm down to 4.2 μm, we have investigated the flow/extension behavior of these tethered DNA molecules under different flow strengths in the flow-gradient plane. We compared Brownian dynamic simulations for the flow dynamics of tethered λ-DNA in shear, and found our flow-gradient plane experimental results matched well with our bead-spring simulations. The shear flow processing demonstrated in our studies represents a controllable approach for tethering and stretching DNA molecules of various lengths. Together with further metallization of DNA chains within DOD structures, this bottom-up approach can potentially enable efficient and reliable fabrication of large-scale nanoelectronic devices based on single organic molecules, therefore opening opportunities in both fundamental understanding of charge transport at the single molecular level and many exciting applications for ever-shrinking molecular circuits.

  5. Constraint and flow: Poiseuille shear response of a surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flow responses of L3 phases as well as their accommodation to the constraint of a prox- imate surface – in both these situations over appropriate ranges the higher symmetry of the stacked membrane phases is established. These phases exhibit a strong dynamical scaling due to their entropic stabilization by hydrodynamic ...

  6. Nucleation of protein crystals under the influence of solution shear flow. (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Pan, Weichun; Hodjaoglu, Feyzim; Vekilov, Peter G


    Several recent theories and simulations have predicted that shear flow could enhance, or, conversely, suppress the nucleation of crystals from solution. Such modulations would offer a pathway for nucleation control and provide a novel explanation for numerous mysteries in nucleation research. For experimental tests of the effects of shear flow on protein crystal nucleation, we found that if a protein solution droplet of approximately 5 microL (2-3 mm diameter at base) is held on a hydrophobic substrate in an enclosed environment and in a quasi-uniform constant electric field of 2 to 6 kV cm(-1), a rotational flow with a maximum rate at the droplet top of approximately 10 microm s(-1) is induced. The shear rate varies from 10(-3) to 10(-1) s(-1). The likely mechanism of the rotational flow involves adsorption of the protein and amphiphylic buffer molecules on the air-water interface and their redistribution in the electric field, leading to nonuniform surface tension of the droplet and surface tension-driven flow. Observations of the number of nucleated crystals in 24- and 72-h experiments with the proteins ferritin, apoferritin, and lysozyme revealed that the crystals are typically nucleated at a certain radius of the droplet, that is, at a preferred shear rate. Variations of the rotational flow velocity resulted in suppression or enhancement of the total number of nucleated crystals of ferritin and apoferritin, while all solution flow rates were found to enhance lysozyme crystal nucleation. These observations show that shear flow may strongly affect nucleation, and that for some systems, an optimal flow velocity, leading to fastest nucleation, exists. Comparison with the predictions of theories and simulations suggest that the formation of ordered nuclei in a "normal" protein solution cannot be affected by such low shear rates. We conclude that the flow acts by helping or suppressing the formation of ordered nuclei within mesoscopic metastable dense liquid

  7. Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.


    The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...

  8. Aggregation and Breakup of Colloidal Particle Aggregates in Shear Flow, Studied with Video Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolpekin, V.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.


    We used video microscopy to study the behavior of aggregating suspensions in shear flow. Suspensions consisted of 920 nm diameter silica spheres, dispersed in a methanol/bromoform solvent, to which poly(ethylene glycol) (M = 35.000 g) was added to effect weak particle aggregation. With our solvent

  9. Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.


    From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained magne...

  10. On the internal gravity waves in the stratified ocean with shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Vitaly V


    In this paper, we consider a fundamental problem of describing the dynamics of internal gravity waves in the stratified ocean with shear flows. We develop an asymptotic representation of the wave fields in terms of the Green's functions. We explore the far field of the internal gravity waves generated by disturbing sources, and propose asymptotic algorithms for calculating its dynamics.

  11. Symmetry breaking perturbative flows to retrieve resonant modes in plane shear layers

    CERN Document Server

    Akinaga, Takeshi; Generalis, Sotos


    We propose a simple computational procedure in order to resolve the degeneracy, which invariably exists on the background of fluid motion associated with a channel of infinite extent. The procedure is applied to elucidate the bifurcation structure for the particular case of laterally heated flow with the addition of a perturbative Poiseuille flow component. The introduction of a symmetry breaking perturbation as the simplest imperfection alters the bifurcation tree of the original shear flow. As a result, the previously unknown higher order nonlinear solutions for the unperturbed flow are discovered, without implementing classical stability theory.

  12. Restructuring and break-up of two-dimensional aggregates in shear flow. (United States)

    Vassileva, Nikolina D; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder; Mellema, Jorrit


    We consider single two-dimensional aggregates, containing glass particles, placed at a water/air interface. We have investigated the critical shear rate for break-up of aggregates with different sizes in a simple shear flow. All aggregates break-up nearly at the same shear rate (1.8 +/- 0.2 s(-)(1)) independent of their size. The evolution of the aggregate structure before break-up was also investigated. With increasing shear rate, the aggregates adopt a more circular shape, and the particles order in a more dense, hexagonal structure. A simple theoretical model was developed to explain the experimentally observed break-up. In the model, the aggregate is considered as a solid circular disk that will break near its diameter. The capillary and drag force on the two parts of the aggregate were calculated, and from this force balance, the critical shear rate was found. The model shows a weak size dependence of the critical shear rate for the considered aggregates. This is consistent with the experimental observations.

  13. Mean flow stability wave models for coherent structures in open shear flows: experimental assessment of potentials and limitations (United States)

    Oberleithner, Kilian; Rukes, Lothar; Paschereit, Oliver; Soria, Julio


    We report on a number of experimental and theoretical investigations of shear flow instabilities in jet flows. In these studies, linear stability analysis is employed to the time-averaged flow taken from experiments, contrasting the ``classic'' stability approach that is based on a stationary base flow. The eigenmodes of the time-averaged flow are considered as models for the nonlinearly saturated state of the instability waves. The accuracy of these models is validated through a detailed comparison with experiments. In this talk we outline the potential and limitation of these flow models for convectively and globally unstable jet flows. The first author was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) is greatfully acknowledged.

  14. Sub-auroral flow shear observed by King Salmon HF radar and RapidMAG (United States)

    Hori, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Ohtaka, T.; Kunitake, M.; Watari, S.; Nagatsuma, T.; Troshichev, O. A.


    We examine in detail the evolution of ionospheric flow shears in the sub-auroral region associated with alternate northward/southward turnings of the IMF. The flow shear structures are often observed in the dusk sector by the SuperDARN King Salmon (KSR) HF radar. Interestingly, some of those show the eastward (westward) flow on the lower (higher) latitude side, respectively, opposite to the typical polarity of the dusk convection cell. In those flow shear events, the IMF has a weak but persistent southward component (~ -1 to -3 nT) before onset of flow shears and following decreases of the southward IMF or even northward turning appear to cause the flow shears. The ground magnetograms provided by the Russian Auroral and Polar Ionospheric Disturbance Magnetometers (RapidMAG) show gradual increases (abrupt declines) of the H-component in association with the increases (decreases) of the merging electric field, respectively, derived from the simultaneous solar wind-IMF observations. The fairly coherent increases (decreases) of the H-component over the wide range of local time (afternoon to evening) indicate development (decay) of the large-scale DP2 current system. A detailed analysis on the 2-D convection structure near the lower latitude edge of the dusk convection cell shows that the ionospheric plasma generally flows westward there and has a larger speed with increasing latitude particularly during increases of the merging electric field. However, once the southward IMF decreases or even shifts to northward and thereby the merging electric field goes down, the region of westward flow moves toward higher latitudes and instead an eastward flow emerges there, forming a flow shear of the counterclockwise sense. This indicates that a downward field-aligned current (FAC), which is the Region-2 (R2) sense on the dusk side, flows into the flow shear region. Subsequently the convection returns to a westward flow again upon increases of the merging electric field due to the

  15. Estimating bed shear stress from remotely measured surface turbulent dissipation fields in open channel flows (United States)

    Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.


    Synoptic information on bed shear stress is necessary in predicting the transport of sediments and environmental contaminants in rivers and open channels. Existing methods of estimating bed shear stress typically involve measuring vertical profiles of streamwise velocity or Reynolds stress and taking advantage of the logarithmic or the constant stress region, respectively, to determine friction velocity and subsequently, bed shear stress. While effective, these methods yield local measurements of bed shear stress only. Direct measurements of bed shear stress can also be obtained through measurements with a drag plate. However, this method yields average shear stress information over the area of the plate and is impractical for large-scale implementation in the field. Here we present a method capable of providing continuous synoptic measurements of bed shear stress over a large field-of-view. A series of Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurements were made in a variety of flows generated in a wide-open channel facility. Turbulent dissipation is calculated on the free surface from the 2-D LSPIV results and is correlated with near-surface ADV measurements of turbulent dissipation in the water column. The ADV results are consistent with the Nezu (1977) established relationship for the vertical variation of turbulent dissipation in the water column. Knowledge of the correlation between free-surface and near-surface dissipation values coupled with Nezu's (1977) relationship allow a robust and accurate estimate of friction velocity to be made and subsequently, shear stress at the bed can be estimated.

  16. Shear Flow Induced Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes in Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He


    Full Text Available A new procedure for the fabrication of natural rubber composite with aligned carbon nanotubes is provided in this study. The two-step approach is based on (i the preparation of mixture latex of natural rubber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and other components and (ii the orientation of carbon nanotubes by a flow field. Rubber composite sheets filled with variable volume fraction of aligned carbon nanotubes were fabricated and then confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies. An obvious increase in thermal conductivity has been obtained after the alignment of carbon nanotubes. The dynamic mechanical analysis was carried out in a tear mode for the composite.

  17. Direct and noisy transitions in a model shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pausch


    Full Text Available The transition to turbulence in flows where the laminar profile is linearly stable requires perturbations of finite amplitude. “Optimal” perturbations are distinguished as extrema of certain functionals, and different functionals give different optima. We here discuss the phase space structure of a 2D simplified model of the transition to turbulence and discuss optimal perturbations with respect to three criteria: energy of the initial condition, energy dissipation of the initial condition, and amplitude of noise in a stochastic transition. We find that the states triggering the transition are different in the three cases, but show the same scaling with Reynolds number.

  18. Viscoelasticity and nonlinear simple shear flow behavior of an entangled asymmetric exact comb polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Snijkers, F.


    We report upon the characterization of the steady-state shear stresses and first normal stress differences as a function of shear rate using mechanical rheometry (both with a standard cone and plate and with a cone partitioned plate) and optical rheometry (with a flow-birefringence setup) of an entangled solution of asymmetric exact combs. The combs are polybutadienes (1,4-addition) consisting of an H-skeleton with an additional off-center branch on the backbone. We chose to investigate a solution in order to obtain reliable nonlinear shear data in overlapping dynamic regions with the two different techniques. The transient measurements obtained by cone partitioned plate indicated the appearance of overshoots in both the shear stress and the first normal stress difference during start-up shear flow. Interestingly, the overshoots in the start-up normal stress difference started to occur only at rates above the inverse stretch time of the backbone, when the stretch time of the backbone was estimated in analogy with linear chains including the effects of dynamic dilution of the branches but neglecting the effects of branch point friction, in excellent agreement with the situation for linear polymers. Flow-birefringence measurements were performed in a Couette geometry, and the extracted steady-state shear and first normal stress differences were found to agree well with the mechanical data, but were limited to relatively low rates below the inverse stretch time of the backbone. Finally, the steady-state properties were found to be in good agreement with model predictions based on a nonlinear multimode tube model developed for linear polymers when the branches are treated as solvent.

  19. Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows (United States)

    Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.


    The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.

  20. Investigation of flow and material induced hemolysis with a Couette type high shear system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, S.; Glasmacher, B. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; IZKF ' BIOMAT' Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, Aachen (Germany); Paul, R.; Reul, H. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Mottaghy, K. [Inst. for Physiology, Aachen Univ. (Germany)


    Damage of red blood cells (hemolysis) in miniaturized pump systems for heart support is induced by contact with artificial surfaces and high mechanical shear forces. In vitro experiments with porcine blood under well defined material and flow conditions with a new Couette model showed hemolysis not starting until shear stresses of 400 Pa and exposure times of 400 ms. Hemolysis in general was much lower than predicted in earlier investigations. Heparinized blood revealed a more sensitive behaviour as compared to citrated blood (CPDA-1). (orig.)

  1. Periodic magnetorotational dynamo action as a prototype of nonlinear magnetic-field generation in shear flows. (United States)

    Herault, J; Rincon, F; Cossu, C; Lesur, G; Ogilvie, G I; Longaretti, P-Y


    The nature of dynamo action in shear flows prone to magnetohydrodynamc instabilities is investigated using the magnetorotational dynamo in Keplerian shear flow as a prototype problem. Using direct numerical simulations and Newton's method, we compute an exact time-periodic magnetorotational dynamo solution to three-dimensional dissipative incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with rotation and shear. We discuss the physical mechanism behind the cycle and show that it results from a combination of linear and nonlinear interactions between a large-scale axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field and nonaxisymmetric perturbations amplified by the magnetorotational instability. We demonstrate that this large-scale dynamo mechanism is overall intrinsically nonlinear and not reducible to the standard mean-field dynamo formalism. Our results therefore provide clear evidence for a generic nonlinear generation mechanism of time-dependent coherent large-scale magnetic fields in shear flows and call for new theoretical dynamo models. These findings may offer important clues to understanding the transitional and statistical properties of subcritical magnetorotational turbulence.

  2. Periodic magnetorotational dynamo action as a prototype of nonlinear magnetic-field generation in shear flows (United States)

    Herault, J.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Longaretti, P.-Y.


    The nature of dynamo action in shear flows prone to magnetohydrodynamc instabilities is investigated using the magnetorotational dynamo in Keplerian shear flow as a prototype problem. Using direct numerical simulations and Newton’s method, we compute an exact time-periodic magnetorotational dynamo solution to three-dimensional dissipative incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with rotation and shear. We discuss the physical mechanism behind the cycle and show that it results from a combination of linear and nonlinear interactions between a large-scale axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field and nonaxisymmetric perturbations amplified by the magnetorotational instability. We demonstrate that this large-scale dynamo mechanism is overall intrinsically nonlinear and not reducible to the standard mean-field dynamo formalism. Our results therefore provide clear evidence for a generic nonlinear generation mechanism of time-dependent coherent large-scale magnetic fields in shear flows and call for new theoretical dynamo models. These findings may offer important clues to understanding the transitional and statistical properties of subcritical magnetorotational turbulence.

  3. Direct numerical simulations of agglomeration of circular colloidal particles in two-dimensional shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Joon, E-mail:; Djilali, Ned, E-mail: [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)


    Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified.

  4. The analysis of MHD blood flows through porous arteries using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria


    In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined.

  5. Theoretical study of motion of small spherical air bubbles in a uniform shear flow of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Murtuza Mehdi


    Full Text Available A simple Couette flow velocity profile with an appropriate correlation for the free terminal rise velocity of a single bubble in a quiescent liquid can produce reliable results for the trajectories of small spherical air bubbles in a low-viscosity liquid (water provided the liquid remains under uniform shear flow. Comparison of the model adopted in this paper with published results has been accomplished. Based on this study it has also been found that the lift coefficient in water is higher than its typical value in a high-viscosity liquid and therefore a modified correlation for the lift coefficient in a uniform shear flow of water within the regime of the Eötvös number 0.305≤Eo≤1.22 is also presented.

  6. Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing (United States)


    The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design. PMID:29145408

  7. Effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability during shear swirling flow vibration cementing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cui

    Full Text Available The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1 the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2 the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability. On the upside, the pulse pressure is conducive to enhancing the liquidity of the annulus fluid, reducing the fluid gel strength, and preventing the formation of fluid from channeling. But greater pulse pressure may cause lost circulation and even formation fracturing. Therefore, in order to ensure smooth cementing during SSFVC, the effect of pulse pressure should be considered when cementing design.

  8. Analytical approximations for the orientation distribution of small dipolar particles in steady shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.; Pedley, T.J.


    Analytical approximations are obtained to solutions of the steady Fokker-Planck equation describing the probability density function for the orientation of dipolar particles in a steady, low-Reynolds-number shear flow and a uniform external field. Exact computer algebra is used to solve the equat......Analytical approximations are obtained to solutions of the steady Fokker-Planck equation describing the probability density function for the orientation of dipolar particles in a steady, low-Reynolds-number shear flow and a uniform external field. Exact computer algebra is used to solve...... to swimming cells in bioconvection are discussed. A separate symptotic expansion is performed for the case in which spherical particles are in a flow with high vorticy, and the results are compared with the truncated spherical harmonic expansion. Agreement between the two methods is excellent....

  9. Shear flow-ballooning instability as a possible mechanism for hydromagnetic fluctuations. [at plasmapause boundary (United States)

    Vinas, A. F.; Madden, T. R.


    A unified linear electromagnetic analysis of both the Kelvin-Helmholtz (shear flow) instability and of the ballooning (interchange) instability is carried out on the basis of MHD theory. In the analysis, the concept of the Richardson instability of hydrodynamic flows is extended into the hydromagnetic context by unifying both the shear flow and the ballooning instability. As essential concept of the analysis is the role played by the magnetic buoyancy due to an effective gravity produced by the curvature of the field lines which provides the basic step by which both instabilities could be coupled. The results of the study are applied to the plasmapause to explain the excitation of hydromagnetic waves in that region, including the effect of the hot particles from the plasma sheet.

  10. Experimental study of granular flows in a rough annular shear cell. (United States)

    Jasti, Venkata; Higgs, C Fred


    The study of granular flows in physics has always been important because of their recurring presence in nature and industry. However, the nonlinear and multiphase behavior exhibited by these particulate systems makes them hard to model and predict. Several experiments were conducted in the past to gain insight into granular flows. The current experimental work furthers this insight and specifically attempts to understand the effect of rough surfaces on granular flows, namely, their local flow behavior. Understanding this interaction can have implications on industrial-scale granular problems. In this work, a granular shear cell, a two-dimensional annular shear cell, was developed to conduct shear experiments where roughness is imposed on the driving surface and experimentally quantified. A digital particle tracking velocimetry data retrieval scheme was developed to extract solid fraction, velocity, and granular temperature data from the experiments as a function of the roughness factor and wheel rotation rate. In general, the steady-state results show the two distinct regions as expected-a high-velocity and dilute-gas-like kinetic region near the moving wall and a high-solid-fraction liquid-like frictional flow regime away from the moving wall. Parametric studies conducted show that the normalized slip near the moving wall decreases with increasing wall roughness and decreasing wall rotation rate. Slip is an important parameter which can be easily interpreted as momentum transfer or traction performance in granular systems related to wheel-terrain interaction, agricultural processing, and most notably granular lubrication.

  11. Oscillating line source in a shear flow with a free surface: critical layer-like contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å


    The linearized water-wave radiation problem for an oscillating submerged line source in an inviscid shear flow with a free surface is investigated analytically at finite, constant depth in the presence of a shear flow varying linearly with depth. The surface velocity is taken to be zero relative to the oscillating source, so that Doppler effects are absent. The radiated wave out from the source is calculated based on Euler's equation of motion with the appropriate boundary and radiation conditions, and differs substantially from the solution obtained by assuming potential flow. To wit, an additional wave is found in the downstream direction in addition to the previously known dispersive wave solutions; this wave is non-dispersive and we show how it is the surface manifestation of a critical layer-like flow generated by the combination of shear and mass flux at the source, passively advected with the flow. As seen from a system moving at the fluid velocity at the source's depth, streamlines form closed curves ...

  12. Experiments on a Steady Low Reynolds Number Airfoil in a Shear Flow (United States)

    Olson, David; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr


    The aerodynamics of steady airfoils in uniform flow have received considerably more attention than that of an airfoil operating in a non-uniform flow. Inviscid theory by Tsien (1943) shows that an airfoil experiences a decrease in the zero lift angle of attack for a shear flow with uniform clockwise vorticity. The current work utilizes a shaped honeycomb technique to create a velocity profile with a large region of uniform shear in a water tunnel. Direct force measurements are implemented and validated using experiments on a circular cylinder and NACA 0012 in a uniform cross-flow. Results for a NACA 0012 airfoil with a chord Reynolds number of 1.2 ×104 in a non-uniform approach flow are compared to concurrent CFD calculations (presented in a companion talk) showing an increase in the zero lift angle of attack; in contradiction with inviscid theory. The effect of shear on the mean lift coefficient over a wide range of angles of attack is also explored. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-15-1-0224.

  13. Global bifurcations to subcritical magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow (United States)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Longaretti, P.-Y.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Herault, J.


    Magnetorotational dynamo action in Keplerian shear flow is a three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic process whose study is relevant to the understanding of accretion and magnetic field generation in astrophysics. Transition to this form of dynamo is subcritical and shares many characteristics of transition to turbulence in non-rotating hydrodynamic shear flows. This suggests that these different fluid systems become active through similar generic bifurcation mechanisms, which in both cases have eluded detailed understanding so far. In this paper, we investigate numerically the bifurcation mechanisms at work in the incompressible Keplerian magnetorotational dynamo problem in the shearing box framework. Using numerical techniques imported from dynamical systems research, we show that the onset of chaotic dynamo action at magnetic Prandtl numbers larger than unity is primarily associated with global homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations of nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles. These global bifurcations are supplemented by local bifurcations of cycles marking the beginning of period-doubling cascades. This suggests that nonlinear magnetorotational dynamo cycles provide the pathway to turbulent injection of both kinetic and magnetic energy in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic Keplerian shear flow in the absence of an externally imposed magnetic field. Studying the nonlinear physics and bifurcations of these cycles in different regimes and configurations may subsequently help to better understand the conditions of excitation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and instability-driven dynamos in various astrophysical systems and laboratory experiments. The detailed characterization of global bifurcations provided for this three-dimensional subcritical fluid dynamics problem may also prove useful for the problem of transition to turbulence in hydrodynamic shear flows.

  14. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Bao Tian


    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid. In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  15. Possible ionospheric preconditioning by shear flow leading to equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell


    Full Text Available Vertical shear in the zonal plasma drift speed is apparent in incoherent and coherent scatter radar observations of the bottomside F region ionosphere made at Jicamarca from about 1600–2200 LT. The relative importance of the factors controlling the shear, which include competition between the E and F region dynamos as well as vertical currents driven in the E and F regions at the dip equator, is presently unknown. Bottom-type scattering layers arise in strata where the neutral and plasma drifts differ widely, and periodic structuring of irregularities within the layers is telltale of intermediate-scale waves in the bottomside. These precursor waves appear to be able to seed ionospheric interchange instabilities and initiate full-blown equatorial spread F. The seed or precursor waves may be generated by a collisional shear instability. However, assessing the viability of shear instability requires measurements of the same parameters needed to understand shear flow quantitatively - thermospheric neutral wind and off-equatorial conductivity profiles. Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Space plasma physics (Waves and instabilities

  16. Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim


    Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.

  17. Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Gu


    Full Text Available Dilute surfactant solution of 25 ppm in the two-dimensional channel is investigated experimentally compared with water flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV system is used to take 2D velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane. Based on the frames of instantaneous vectors and statistical results, the phenomenon of zero Reynolds shear stress appearing in the drag-reducing flow is discussed. It is found that 25 ppm CTAC solution exhibits the highest drag reduction at Re = 25000 and loses drag reduction completely at Re = 40000. When drag reduction lies in the highest, Reynolds shear stress disappears and reaches zero although the RMS of the velocity fluctuations is not zero. By the categorization in four quadrants, the fluctuations of 25 ppm CTAC solution are distributed in all four quadrants equally at Re = 25000, which indicates that turnaround transportation happens in drag-reducing flow besides Reynolds shear stress transportation. Moreover, the contour distribution of streamwise velocity and the fluctuations suggests that turbulence transportation is depressed in drag-reducing flow. The viscoelasticity is possible to decrease the turbulence transportation and cause the turnaround transportation.

  18. Numerical tackling for viscoelastic fluid flow in rotating frame considering homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa Maqsood

    Full Text Available This study provides a numerical treatment for rotating flow of viscoelastic (Maxwell fluid bounded by a linearly deforming elastic surface. Mass transfer analysis is carried out in the existence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. By means of usual transformation, the governing equations are changed into global similarity equations which have been tackled by an expedient shooting approach. A contemporary numerical routine bvp4c of software MATLAB is also opted to develop numerical approximations. Both methods of solution are found in complete agreement in all the cases. Velocity and concentration profiles are computed and elucidated for certain range of viscoelastic fluid parameter. The solutions contain a rotation-strength parameter λ that has a considerable impact on the flow fields. For sufficiently large value of λ, the velocity fields are oscillatory decaying function of the non-dimensional vertical distance. Concentration distribution at the surface is found to decrease upon increasing the strengths of chemical reactions. A comparison of present computations is made with those of already published ones and such comparison appears convincing. Keywords: Maxwell fluid, Similarity solution, Numerical method, Chemical reaction, Stretching sheet

  19. Hydrodynamics of two phase flow through homogeneous and stratified porous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W; Lee, H; Dhir, V K; Catton, I


    An experimental investigation of two-phase flow through porous layers formed of nonheated glass particles has been made. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution, bed porosity and bed stratification on void fraction and pressure drop through particulate beds formed in a cylindrical and rectangular test section has been investigated. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction in homogeneous beds. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two-phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined. The observations in stratified beds indicate depletion or build up of voids at the interface between high and low permeability regions. Blocking of the flow into one of the layers of laterally stratified beds caused the pressures at different horizontal locations at the same bed height to be different from each other.

  20. Numerical investigation of homogeneous condensation in Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Cheng, W.; Luo, X.; Yang, J.


    The effect of heat addition induced by condensation of water vapor on Prandtl-Meyer flows is investigated numerically. Two configurations are considered to study the formation of the stationary waves and the movement of the oscillatory shocks caused by homogeneous condensation. One is a nozzle-shaped channel bounded by lower and upper walls, and the other is an upper unbounded corner expansion. For the first configuration, cases with a sharp corner and a rounded corner are compared to highlight the influence of the sharp corner, where the cooling rate is very large. The density variation in the zone near the corner is smoothed, and the influence on the flow structure caused by the sharp corner is very limited in the neighborhood of the sharp corner. For a relatively low initial saturation, the structures of the condensation shock in the numerical simulation agree well with the experimental results in the literature. The increase of the initial saturation makes the condensation shock move upstream, and eventually leads to an unsteady shock motion. The tendency is similar to that in the condensation process in nozzles. For the unbounded corner expansion, the wave structure forms a two-dimensional distribution. Multiple shock waves are observed in the numerical schlieren image, which are caused by a sequence of quenching (by the condensation shock) and rebuilding (by the Prandtl-Meyer expansion) of the condensation. This mutual interaction can also be recognized by the wavy shape of the nucleation rate distribution.

  1. The dynamics of a capsule in a wall-bounded oscillating shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, LaiLai; Brandt, Luca


    The motion of an initially spherical capsule in a wall-bounded oscillating shear flow is investigated via an accelerated boundary integral implementation. The neo-Hookean model is used as the constitutive law of the capsule membrane. The maximum wall-normal migration is observed when the oscillation period of the imposed shear is of the order of the relaxation time of the elastic membrane; hence, the optimal capillary number scales with the inverse of the oscillation frequency and the ratio agrees well with the theoretical prediction in the limit of high-frequency oscillation. The migration velocity decreases monotonically with the frequency of the applied shear and the capsule-wall distance. We report a significant correlation between the capsule lateral migration and the normal stress difference induced in the flow. The periodic variation of the capsule deformation is roughly in phase with that of the migration velocity and normal stress difference, with twice the frequency of the imposed shear. The maximum...

  2. Phase Diagram and Breathing Dynamics of Red Blood Cell Motion in Shear Flow (United States)

    Bagchi, Prosenjit; Yazdani, Alireza


    We present phase diagrams of red blood cell dynamics in shear flow using three-dimensional numerical simulations. By considering a wide range of shear rate and interior-to-exterior fluid viscosity ratio, it is shown that the cell dynamics is often more complex than the well-known tank-treading, tumbling and swinging motion, and is characterized by an extreme variation of the cell shape. We identify such complex shape dynamics as `breathing' dynamics. During the breathing motion, the cell either completely aligns with the flow direction and the membrane folds inward forming two cusps, or, it undergoes large swinging motion while deep, crater-like dimples periodically emerge and disappear. At lower bending rigidity, the breathing motion occurs over a wider range of shear rates, and is often characterized by the emergence of a quad-concave shape. The effect of the breathing dynamics on the tank-treading-to-tumbling transition is illustrated by detailed phase diagrams which appear to be more complex and richer than those of vesicles. In a remarkable departure from classical theory of nondeformable cells, we find that there exists a critical viscosity ratio below which the transition is dependent on shear rate only. Supported by NSF.

  3. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow (United States)

    Armstrong, William D [Laramie, WY; Naughton, Jonathan [Laramie, WY; Lindberg, William R [Laramie, WY


    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  4. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows (United States)

    Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin


    The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

  5. Turbulence generation by mountain wave breaking in flows with directional wind shear (United States)

    Vittoria Guarino, Maria; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.


    In this study, wave breaking, and the potential for the generation of turbulence in the atmosphere, is investigated using high-resolution numerical simulations of idealized atmospheric flows with directional wind shear over a three-dimensional isolated mountain. These simulations, which use the WRF-ARW model, differ in degree of flow non-linearity and directional wind shear intensity, quantified through the dimensionless mountain height and the Richardson number of the incoming flow. The aim is to predict wave breaking occurrence based on large-scale variables. The simulation results have been used to produce a regime diagram representing a description of wave breaking behavior in parameter space. By selecting flow overturning occurrence as a discriminating factor, it was possible to split the regime diagram in two sub-regions representing: a non-wave breaking regime and a wave breaking regime. The regime diagram shows that in the presence of directional shear wave breaking may occur over lower mountains that in a constant-wind case. When mountain waves break, the associated convective instability can lead to turbulence generation (known as Clear Air Turbulence or CAT in a non-cloudy atmosphere), thus, regions within the simulation domain where wave breaking and potential development of CAT are expected have been identified. The extent of these regions is variable and increases with the background shear intensity. In contrast with constant-wind flows, where wave breaking occurs in the stream-wise direction aligned with the mountain, for the helical wind profiles considered in this study as prototypes of flows with directional wind shear, flow overturning regions have a more three-dimensional geometry. The analysis of the model outputs, supported by theoretical arguments, suggest the existence of a link between wave breaking and the relative orientation of the incoming wind vector and the horizontal velocity perturbation vector. In particular, in a wave breaking

  6. Model-based control of transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows (United States)

    Moarref, Rashad

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Dissipation of kinetic energy by turbulent flow around airplanes, ships, and submarines increases resistance to their motion (drag). In this dissertation, we have designed flow control strategies for enhancing performance of vehicles and other systems involving turbulent flows. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly numerical simulations and experiments, we have developed control-oriented models of wall-bounded shear flows that enable simulation-free and computationally-efficient design of flow controllers. Model-based approach to flow control design has been motivated by the realization that progressive loss of robustness and consequential noise amplification initiate the departure from the laminar flow. In view of this, we have used the Navier-Stokes equations with uncertainty linearized around the laminar flow as a control-oriented model for transitional flows and we have shown that reducing the sensitivity of fluctuations to external disturbances represents a powerful paradigm for preventing transition. In addition, we have established that turbulence modeling in conjunction with judiciously selected linearization of the flow with control can be used as a powerful control-oriented model for turbulent flows. We have illustrated the predictive power of our model-based control design in three concrete problems: preventing transition by (i) a sensorless strategy based on traveling waves and (ii) an optimal state-feedback controller based on local flow information; and (iii) skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows by transverse wall oscillations. We have developed analytical and computational tools based on perturbation analysis (in the control amplitude) for control design by means of spatially- and temporally- periodic flow manipulation in problems (i) and (iii), respectively. In problem (ii), we have utilized tools for designing structured optimal state

  7. Effects of Gravity and Shear on the Dynamics and Stability of Particulate and Multiphase Flows (United States)

    Sangani, Ashor S.


    The main objectives of this project are to understand the differing particulate and multiphase flow behaviors that will occur in space and in Earth's gravity. More specifically, the project is concerned with understanding the effect of shear and gravity on two relatively ideal suspensions with significant inertial effects. The first is a gas-solid suspension at small Reynolds numbers and finite Stokes numbers. In this type of suspensions the inertia of the particle phase is significant while the hydrodynamic interactions are dominated by viscous forces in the suspending fluid. The other is a bubble suspension at small Weber and large Reynolds numbers. The hydrodynamic interactions in such suspensions are dominated by the inertial effects in the suspending fluid, but these inertial interactions can be described using potential flow theory. Our main objective is to examine the effects of shear and gravity on the average properties and stability of these two suspensions.

  8. Dynamics of Ellipsoidal Particles in Simple Shear Flows under the Influence of Uniform Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Sobecki, Christopher; Zhang, Yanzhi; Wang, Cheng


    Our recent experiments demonstrated a ``torque''-based method to separate nonspherical particles by combining shear flows and uniform magnetic fields. Experiments showed correlation between the lateral migration of the particle and the asymmetry of the particle rotation. To further understand the effect of magnetic field on the particle rotation, we study the rotational dynamics of an ellipsoidal particle, in an unbounded simple shear flow at zero-Reynolds numbers, subject to a uniform magnetic field. A dimensionless parameter,S, is defined to represent the relative strength between the magnetic and hydrodynamic torques. Without magnetic fields, the particle completes a family of periodic rotations known as Jeffery's Orbit. With a magnetic field, we find that there exists a critical value of S (Scr) . The particle is able to execute complete rotations for a weak magnetic field (SScr, we determine the steady-state angles of the particle, and analyze their stability.

  9. The instability of counter-propagating kernel gravity waves in a constant shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Umurhan, O M; Harnik, N; Lott, F


    The mechanism describing the recently developed notion of kernel gravity waves (KGWs) is reviewed and such structures are employed to interpret the unstable dynamics of an example stratified plane parallel shear flow. This flow has constant vertical shear, is infinite in the vertical extent, and characterized by two density jumps of equal magnitude each decreasing successively with height, in which the jumps are located symmetrically away from the midplane of the system. We find that for a suitably defined bulk-Richardson number there exists a band of horizontal wavenumbers which exhibits normal-mode instability. The instability mechanism closely parallels the mechanism responsible for the instability seen in the problem of counter-propagating Rossby waves. In this problem the instability arises out of the interaction of counter-propagating gravity waves. We argue that the instability meets the Hayashi-Young criterion for wave instability. We also argue that the instability is the simplest one that can arise ...

  10. Investigation of Particle Sampling Bias in the Shear Flow Field Downstream of a Backward Facing Step (United States)

    Meyers, James F.; Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Hepner, Timothy E.


    The flow field about a backward facing step was investigated to determine the characteristics of particle sampling bias in the various flow phenomena. The investigation used the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient as a measure of statistical dependence and thus the degree of velocity bias. While the investigation found negligible dependence within the free stream region, increased dependence was found within the boundary and shear layers. Full classic correction techniques over-compensated the data since the dependence was weak, even in the boundary layer and shear regions. The paper emphasizes the necessity to determine the degree of particle sampling bias for each measurement ensemble and not use generalized assumptions to correct the data. Further, it recommends the calculation of the velocity:data rate correlation coefficient become a standard statistical calculation in the analysis of all laser velocimeter data.

  11. On Shear Stress Distributions for Flow in Smooth or Partially Rough Annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B.; Hedberg, S.


    It is commonly assumed that for turbulent flow in annuli the radii of zero shear and maximum velocity are coincident. By inspection of the differential equations for such flow and by an integral analysis it is shown that this is not necessarily true. To check whether important differences could occur, experiments were made in which velocity and shear stress distributions were measured in one smooth and two partially rough annuli. The results show no difference in the radii for the smooth annulus, but for the partially rough annuli there was a small but significant difference. This difference explains the breakdown of Hall's transformation theory reported by other investigators. The error introduced by use of Hall's theory is however small, of the order of 10 % or less.

  12. Page 1 T - Shear flow of nematics 38 OO7 OO7 O.O.5 V (cm/sec ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the case of PAA.) When a field H is applied normal to the plates thc I e is a. Stabilizing effect and in decreases at first more Slowly with the increase of shear rate and finally at large shear rates approaches mil. in general decreases in the presence of a field H. applied along the flow direc- tion (figure 1 a). At low shear rates in ...

  13. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan


    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  14. Shear-Layer Manipulation of Backward-Facing Step Flow with Forcing: A Numerical Study (United States)


    approximation. Algebraic multigrid algorithm is employed in conjunction with an im- plicit residual smoothing scheme. The solver is par- allelized using...with freestream flow and an increas- ing amalgamation of vortices due to a reinforced flapping motion excited by the forcing at a harmo- nized burst...periodic phenomena inher- ent in the shear layer have undergone increasing amalgamation in relation to the breakup of rolling structures and vortex

  15. A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug


    Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.

  16. Non-Newtonian hydrodynamics for a dilute granular suspension under uniform shear flow. (United States)

    Chamorro, Moisés G; Reyes, Francisco Vega; Garzó, Vicente


    We study in this work a steady shearing laminar flow with null heat flux (usually called "uniform shear flow") in a gas-solid suspension at low density. The solid particles are modeled as a gas of smooth hard spheres with inelastic collisions while the influence of the surrounding interstitial fluid on the dynamics of grains is modeled by means of a volume drag force, in the context of a rheological model for suspensions. The model is solved by means of three different but complementary routes, two of them being theoretical (Grad's moment method applied to the corresponding Boltzmann equation and an exact solution of a kinetic model adapted to granular suspensions) and the other being computational (Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation). Unlike in previous studies on granular sheared suspensions, the collisional moment associated with the momentum transfer is determined in Grad's solution by including all the quadratic terms in the stress tensor. This theoretical enhancement allows for the detection and evaluation of the normal stress differences in the plane normal to the laminar flow. In addition, the exact solution of the kinetic model gives the explicit form of the velocity moments of the velocity distribution function. Comparison between our theoretical and numerical results shows in general a good agreement for the non-Newtonian rheological properties, the kurtosis (fourth velocity moment of the distribution function), and the velocity distribution of the kinetic model for quite strong inelasticity and not too large values of the (scaled) friction coefficient characterizing the viscous drag force. This shows the accuracy of our analytical results that allows us to describe in detail the flow dynamics of the granular sheared suspension.

  17. Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick


    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  18. Endothelial cell dynamics under pulsating flows: significance of high versus low shear stress slew rates (d(tau)/dt). (United States)

    Hsiai, Tzung K; Cho, Sung K; Honda, Henry M; Hama, Susan; Navab, Mohamad; Demer, Linda L; Ho, Chih-Ming


    Shear stress modulates endothelial cell (EC) remodeling via realignment and elongation. We provide the first evidence that the upstroke slopes of pulsatile flow, defined as shear stress slew rates (positive d(tau)/dt), affect significantly the rates at which ECs remodel. We designed a novel flow system to isolate various shear stress slew rates by precisely controlling the frequency, amplitude, and time-averaged shear stress (tau(ave)) of pulsatile flow. Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers were exposed to three conditions: (1) pulsatile flow (1 Hz) at high slew rate (293 dyn/cm2 s), (2) pulsatile flow (1 Hz) at low slew rate (71 dyn/cm2s), and (3) steady laminar flow at d(tau)/dt = 0. All of the three conditions were operated at tau(ave) = 50 dyn/cm2. BAEC elongation and alignment were measured over 17 h. We were able to demonstrate the effects of shear stress slew rates ((tau)/dt) on EC remodeling at a fixed spatial shear stress gradient (d(tau)/dx). We found that pulsatile flow significantly increased the rates at which EC elongated and realigned, compared to steady flow at d(tau)/dt = 0. Furthermore, EC remodeling was faster in response to high than to low slew rates at a given tau(ave).

  19. Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester. (United States)

    Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin


    Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser.

  20. Inviscid instabilities of non-planar transversely sheared flows governed by the generalized Rayleigh pressure equation (United States)

    Afsar, Mohammed; Sescu, Adrian


    Transition in boundary layer flow over flat/curved surfaces and at moderate to high freestream disturbances or under the influence of various surface roughness elements often involves inviscid secondary instability. This stage in transition can be pictured as being a parametric resonance-type phenomena where a unstable primary flow saturates to a more-or-less steady-state, susceptible to infinitesimal three-dimensional wave-like instability modes that grow much faster than the primary. In decades of research on boundary layers, experimenters have relied upon an inflection point in the wall normal y and/or spanwise directions z of the primary as a pre-cursor to transition. This assertion, based on Rayleigh's theorem, does not however apply in transversely sheared flows. In this talk, we show that an alternative local criterion for inviscid secondary instability - sharing similarities to the original one-dimensional Rayleigh criterion - exists for a class of non-planar transversely sheared flows at long streamwise wavelength. Our general stability criterion is, remarkably, given by necessity of the surface U y , z possessing at least one saddle point in the plane. We analyze this saddle-point criterion numerically show its relevance to secondary instabilities. M.Z.A. would like to anknowledge financial support from Laminar Flow Control (LFC-UK) Research Program at Imperial College London and would like to thank Professor Philip Hall for motivating his interest in this problem.

  1. A new parallel plate shear cell for in situ real-space measurements of complex fluids under shear flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yu Ling; Brand, Joost; van Gemert, Jos; Verkerk, Jaap; Wisman, H.; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout


    We developed and tested a parallel plate shear cell that can be mounted on top of an inverted microscope to perform confocal real-space measurements on complex fluids under shear. To follow structural changes in time, a plane of zero velocity is created by letting the plates move in opposite

  2. Flow properties of fresh concrete by using modified geotechnical Vane shear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwally A. Abd Elaty


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been performed to study the efficiency of using modified geotechnical Vane shear test to evaluate the fresh properties of concrete. Different concrete mixes with different coarse aggregates (both type and size were conducted. Moreover different shapes and sizes of Vane probes were investigated. Also the influence of using enhancing workability admixtures was studied. The results of the shear Vane test were statistically analyzed and compared with those for standard tests. The results reveal that the Vane shear test with modified blades can be simply executed to measure workability of concrete anywhere with a good efficiency. Useful equations with good correlation coefficients are established between the well known standard tests include compacting factor, slump, VeBe and flow tests and the Vane yield method. Size effect phenomenon related to Vane size is recorded for the Vane yield stress results. The results of the Vane yield stress could clearly distinguish between not only mixes made up of different aggregate types but also the aggregate maximum nominal size. The results of the Vane shear test are clearly affected by using enhancing workability admixtures and its dosage. A direct proportion between Vane yield stress results and the companion compacting factors test values is strongly noticed which introduces the Vane test method as a simple instrument that could be simply adapted anywhere to measure the workability of fresh concrete instead of compacting factor that is a laboratory apparatus.

  3. Convective thermal fluxes in unsteady non-homogeneous flows generating complex three dimensional vorticity patterns (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary


    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form convective driven mixing. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2, 3]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Rayleigh and Atwood numbers and compare the scaling and the multifractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the non-homogeneous. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overall turbulent process is evaluated [4 - 6]. Diffusion is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of Thermoelectric generated heating and cooling [2, 4]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by a buoyant heat flux either in the base or in a side wall of the convective enclosure [1, 6]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine or sugar solutions and fresh water in order to form a density interface and low Prandtl number mixing with only temperature gradients [7]. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [8, 9]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using salt or sugar solutions and

  4. Singing sand as an instability arising from a shear-plug flow (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane


    Desert sand dunes can have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this is the song of the dunes. After the early travelers who first mentioned it (Darwin, Marco-Polo, ...) later scientific observations have shown that if not all dunes sing, all the singing dunes are composed of dry, well-sorted and coated sand; this sound occurs when the sand is sheared, and particularly on field during avalanches on a slip face of a singing dune? Several observations—recent and less recent—have shown that the sound frequency is likely equal to the shear rate of the flow, or at least is varying in the same way. We have been able to reproduce these avalanches in laboratory on an inclined plane with singing sand from Morocco and Oman, which has made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers measuring local vertical oscillations of the flowing surface show that the phenomenon does not require resonance in the depth or in the dune. Measures of velocity and flow rate during avalanches enhance the co-existence of a plug flow with a large shear band underneath, both strongly correlated to the sound emission. A new model has been developed, based on the mechanical interaction between the plug area and the transient force chains in the flow. This model predicts a threshold that depends on the compacity of the granular media and on the surface friction and adhesion properties of the grains, and the value predicted fits quantitively well the data collected from avalanches, as well as from other experimental set-up of singing sand.

  5. Experimental Study about Two-phase Damping Ratio on a Tube Bundle Subjected to Homogeneous Two-phase Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gun; Dagdan, Banzragch [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.

  6. Internal shear layers and uniform momentum zones in a turbulent pipe flow (United States)

    Gul, Melika; Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Westerweel, Jerry


    Turbulent pipe flow has previously been shown to contain large-scale nearly uniform momentum, which are separated by layers of significant shear. These internal layers are of interest, because they are associated with fluid transport between uniform momentum zones, hence with the growth of these large energy-containing motions. In this study, we compare two methods to detect and analyse the internal shear layers; the triple decomposition method (TDM) and the streamwise velocity histogram method. The assessment is based on time-resolved PIV measurements in the cross-section of the pipe spanning a range of Reynolds numbers (Reτ = 700-1178). The strong jumps in the conditionally averaged flow statistics across the layers detected by TDM are smeared out with the histogram method. Using the TDM method, some scaling analyses are performed for the layer thickness, and the velocity jump over the layer. It is found that the layer thickness becomes almost constant after 0.4R, and the streamwise velocity jump decreases from the wall region to the core of the pipe. With the histogram method, on the other hand, one distinct shear layer is distinguished from the distribution of all local peak velocities, which is corresponding to the 95% of the central velocity of the pipe.

  7. A 3-D Computational Model of Cell Rolling Under Shear Flow (United States)

    Jadhav, Sameer; Eggleton, Charles; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos


    Selectin-mediated rolling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on activated endothelium is critical to their recruitment to sites of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that PMN rolling velocity on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow is significantly slower compared to that of microspheres bearing a similar density of selectin ligands. To investigate whether cell deformability is responsible for the aforementioned differences, we developed a three-dimensional computational model based on the immersed boundary method which simulates rolling of a deformable cell on a selectin-coated surface under shear flow with a stochastic description of receptor-ligand bond interaction. We observed that rolling velocity increases with increasing membrane stiffness and this effect is larger at high shear rates. The bond lifetime, number of receptor-ligand bonds and the contact area between cell and substrate decreased with increasing membrane stiffness. This study shows that cellular properties along with the kinetics of selectin-ligand interactions affect leukocyte rolling on selectin-coated surfaces.

  8. Shear localization and effective wall friction in a wall bounded granular flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artoni Riccardo


    Full Text Available In this work, granular flow rheology is investigated by means of discrete numerical simulations of a torsional, cylindrical shear cell. Firstly, we focus on azimuthal velocity profiles and study the effect of (i the confining pressure, (ii the particle-wall friction coefficient, (iii the rotating velocity of the bottom wall and (iv the cell diameter. For small cell diameters, azimuthal velocity profiles are nearly auto-similar, i.e. they are almost linear with the radial coordinate. Different strain localization regimes are observed : shear can be localized at the bottom, at the top of the shear cell, or it can be even quite distributed. This behavior originates from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. Then we study the effective friction at the cylindrical wall, and point out the strong link between wall friction, slip and fluctuations of forces and velocities. Even if the system is globally below the sliding threshold, force fluctuations trigger slip events, leading to a nonzero wall slip velocity and an effective wall friction coefficient different from the particle-wall one. A scaling law was found linking slip velocity, granular temperature in the main flow direction and effective friction. Our results suggest that fluctuations are an important ingredient for theories aiming to capture the interface rheology of granular materials.

  9. Evolution of symmetric reconnection layer in the presence of parallel shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Haoyu [Space Science Institute, School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sate Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao Jinbin [Space Science Institute, School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    The development of the structure of symmetric reconnection layer in the presence of a shear flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field component is studied by using a set of one-dimensional (1D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The Riemann problem is simulated through a second-order conservative TVD (total variation diminishing) scheme, in conjunction with Roe's averages for the Riemann problem. The simulation results indicate that besides the MHD shocks and expansion waves, there exist some new small-scale structures in the reconnection layer. For the case of zero initial guide magnetic field (i.e., B{sub y0} = 0), a pair of intermediate shock and slow shock (SS) is formed in the presence of the parallel shear flow. The critical velocity of initial shear flow V{sub zc} is just the Alfven velocity in the inflow region. As V{sub z{infinity}} increases to the value larger than V{sub zc}, a new slow expansion wave appears in the position of SS in the case V{sub z{infinity}} < V{sub zc}, and one of the current densities drops to zero. As plasma {beta} increases, the out-flow region is widened. For B{sub y0} {ne} 0, a pair of SSs and an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs) are found to be present. Similar to the case of B{sub y0} = 0, there exists a critical velocity of initial shear flow V{sub zc}. The value of V{sub zc} is, however, smaller than the Alfven velocity of the inflow region. As plasma {beta} increases, the velocities of SS and TDIS increase, and the out-flow region is widened. However, the velocity of downstream SS increases even faster, making the distance between SS and TDIS smaller. Consequently, the interaction between SS and TDIS in the case of high plasma {beta} influences the property of direction rotation of magnetic field across TDIS. Thereby, a wedge in the hodogram of tangential magnetic field comes into being. When {beta}{yields}{infinity}, TDISs disappear and the guide magnetic field becomes constant.

  10. Wall shear stress characterization of a 3D bluff-body separated flow (United States)

    Fourrié, Grégoire; Keirsbulck, Laurent; Labraga, Larbi


    Efficient flow control strategies aimed at reducing the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles require a detailed knowledge of the reference flow. In this work, the flow around the rear slanted window of a generic car model was experimentally studied through wall shear stress measurements using an electrochemical method. The mean and fluctuating wall shear stress within the wall impact regions of the recirculation bubble and the main longitudinal vortex structures which develop above the rear window are presented. Correlations allow a more detailed characterization of the recirculation phenomenon within the separation bubble. In the model symmetry plane the recirculation structure compares well with simpler 2D configurations; specific lengths, flapping motion and shedding of large-scale vortices are observed, these similarities diminish when leaving the middle plane due to the strong three-dimensionality of the flow. A specific attention is paid to the convection processes occurring within the recirculation: a downstream convection velocity is observed, in accordance with 2D recirculations from the literature, and an upstream convection is highlighted along the entire bubble length which has not been underlined in some previous canonical configurations.

  11. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I. Linear stability analysis and basic patterns. (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K


    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.

  12. Orientated Crystallization in Discontinuous Aramid Fiber/isotactic Polypropylene Composites under Shear Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larin,B.; Marom, G.; Avila-Orta, C.; Somani, R.Hsiao, B.


    Melt blends of short aramid fibers (AF) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are subjected to shear at 145 C and the structural evolution and final morphology are examined by in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering/diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the presence of short AFs significantly enhances the crystallization of iPP. It is argued that shear flow in this system exerts a twofold orientating action, namely, on the bulk iPP molecules and on the short AFs. The resultant crystalline morphology reflects the combined effects of crystallization on orientated iPP molecules to facilitate a shish kebab morphology and at the interface of the aligned fibers, to form transcrystallinity.

  13. Isomorph invariance of Couette shear flows simulated by the SLLOD equations of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Separdar, Leila; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas


    and nonlinear regimes. For both systems, when represented in reduced units the radial distribution function and the intermediate scattering function are identical for state points that are isomorphic. The strain-rate dependent viscosity, which exhibits shear thinning, is also invariant along an isomorph. Our...... of the two systems. We show analytically that these equations are isomorph invariant provided the reduced strain rate is fixed along the isomorph. Since isomorph invariance is generally only approximate, a range of strain rates were simulated to test for the predicted invariance, covering both the linear...... results extend the isomorph concept to the non-equilibrium situation of a shear flow, for which the phase diagram is three dimensional because the strain rate defines a third dimension....

  14. The temporal evolution of the resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and anomalous transport in shear flow across the magnetic field (United States)

    Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladmir; Mikhailenko, Vladimir


    The temporal evolution of the resistive pressure-gradient-driven mode in the sheared flow is investigated by employing the shearing modes approach. It reveals an essential difference in the processes, which occur in the case of the flows with velocity shearing rate less than the growth rate of the instability in the steady plasmas, and in the case of the flows with velocity shear larger than the instability growth rate in steady plasmas. It displays the physical content of the empirical ``quench rule'' which predicts the suppression of the turbulence in the sheared flows when the velocity shearing rate becomes larger than the maximum growth rate of the possible instability. We found that the distortion of the perturbations by the sheared flow with such velocity shear introduces the time dependencies into the governing equations, which prohibits the application of the eigenmodes formalism and requires the solution of the initial value problem.

  15. Heavy ellipsoids in creeping shear flow: transitions of the particle rotation rate and orbit shape. (United States)

    Lundell, Fredrik; Carlsson, Allan


    The motion of an inertial ellipsoid in a creeping linear shear flow of a Newtonian fluid is studied numerically. This constitutes a fundamental system that is used as a basis for simulations and analysis of flows with heavy nonspherical particles. The torque on the ellipsoid is given analytically by Jeffery [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 102, 161 (1922)]. This torque is coupled with the angular-momentum equation for the particle. The motion is then governed by the Stokes number St=rho(e)gammal(2)/mu, where rho(e) is the density of the ellipsoid, gamma is the rate of shear, l is the length of the major axis of the ellipsoid, and mu is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. For low St (the numerical value depends on the aspect ratio of the particle), the particle motion is similar to the Jeffery orbits obtained for inertia-free particles with the addition of an orbit drift so that the particle eventually lies in the flow-gradient plane. At higher St, more drastic effects are seen. For particles oriented in the flow-gradient plane, the rotation rate increases rather abruptly to half the shear rate in a narrow range of St. For particles with other orientations, the motion goes from a kayaking motion to rotation around an oblique axis. It is suggested that, depending on aspect and density ratios, particle inertia might be sufficient to explain and model orbit drift observed previously at low Reynolds numbers. It is discussed how and when the assumption of negligible fluid inertia and strong particle inertia can be justified from a fundamental perspective for particles of different aspect ratios.

  16. Influence of erythrocyte aggregation on radial migration of platelet-sized spherical particles in shear flow. (United States)

    Guilbert, Cyrille; Chayer, Boris; Allard, Louise; Yu, François T H; Cloutier, Guy


    Blood platelets when activated are involved in the mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombosis, and their migration toward injured vascular endothelium necessitates interaction with red blood cells (RBCs). Rheology co-factors such as a high hematocrit and a high shear rate are known to promote platelet mass transport toward the vessel wall. Hemodynamic conditions promoting RBC aggregation may also favor platelet migration, particularly in the venous system at low shear rates. The aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the impact of RBC aggregation on platelet-sized micro particle migration in a Couette flow apparatus. Biotin coated micro particles were mixed with saline or blood with different aggregation tendencies, at two shear rates of 2 and 10s(-1) and three hematocrits ranging from 20 to 60%. Streptavidin membranes were respectively positioned on the Couette static and rotating cylinders upon which the number of adhered fluorescent particles was quantified. The platelet-sized particle adhesion on both walls was progressively enhanced by increasing the hematocrit (p<0.001), reducing the shear rate (p<0.001), and rising the aggregation of RBCs (p<0.001). Particle count was minimum on the stationary cylinder when suspended in saline at 2s(-1) (57±33), and maximum on the rotating cylinder at 60% hematocrit, 2s(-1) and the maximum dextran-induced RBC aggregation (2840±152). This fundamental study is confirming recent hypotheses on the role of RBC aggregation on venous thrombosis, and may guide molecular imaging protocols requiring injecting active labeled micro particles in the venous flow system to probe human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental evaluation of the use of homogeneous and slip-flow two-phase dynamic models in evaporator modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Antonius, Jesper; Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard


    Distributed dynamic models of a simple coaxial-type evaporator are implemented in the simulation tool Sinda/Fluint. In order to obtain data for model validation an experimental set-up is built, where dynamic responses to changes in inflow and/or outflow of refrigerant are recorded. Model validation...... shows that the dynamic response of the homogeneous model is too fast whereas the simulation results based on the slip-flow model agrees very well with the experimental results. Another difference in the results from the two types of models is the estimation of charge. The charge calculated by the use...... of the homogeneous model is approximately a factor 3 less than the charge calculated using the slip-flow model.The overall conclusion is that when one wants to investigate the dynamic behaviour due to the movement and amount of the refrigerant in the evaporator, then it is needed to use a slip-flow two-phase model...

  18. Nonlinear 3D flow of Casson-Carreau fluids with homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Gireesha

    Full Text Available Nonlinear convective flow of magneto-Carreau-Casson liquids past a deformable surface under the aspects of heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions is investigated. The present phenomenon also included the interaction of nonlinear radiation, Ohmic and Joule dissipations. At moderate to high temperature, the nonlinear convection and radiation are significant. The governed nonlinear system is illustrated numerically via Runge-Kutta based shooting scheme in the domain [0,∞. Role of significant parameters on flow fields as well as on the fiction factor, heat and mass transportation rates are determined and discussed in depth. Comparison is done for distinct flow fields of Carreau and Casson fluids. It is evaluated that the velocities of Casson liquid are higher in comparison to Carreau fluid model. However, liquid temperature for Casson fluid model is weaker in comparison to Carreau fluid. Keywords: Carreau fluid, Casson fluid, Nonlinear thermal radiation: Nonlinear convection, Homogeneous–heterogeneous reaction

  19. Significance of composition and particle size on the shear flow properties of wheat flour. (United States)

    Siliveru, Kaliramesh; Ambrose, Rp Kingsly; Vadlani, Praveen V


    Size-based fractionation of flour particles is an important process in wheat milling. Inter-particle cohesion could affect the dynamic separation process and result in loss in throughput. This study quantifies the effect of particle properties that includes physical and chemical characteristics on the shear flow behavior of wheat flour. The cohesion and flow function values of wheat flour at three moisture contents (10%, 12%, and 14%), three particle sizes (75-106, 45-75, and properties (cohesion, flow function, and angle of internal friction) demonstrates that chemical composition significantly contributes towards the differences in dynamic flowability of wheat flours. In addition, fat composition had a significant effect on the differences in flowability of wheat flours due to the increased inter-particulate cohesion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Detection of flow separation and reattachment using shear-sensitive liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, S. [School of Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Coatings of pure chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to change colour under different levels of surface shear stress. In this study, the liquid crystal was used to provide information about flow separation and reattachment on both a two-dimensional aerofoil and a delta wing. The tests were carried out at a free-stream velocity of 28 m/s and a number of incidence angles. The Reynolds numbers based on the central chord length of the models were 200,000 and 270,000 for the aerofoil and delta wing models, respectively. The study showed that locations of boundary layer separation and reattachment can be identified from spatial variations in the surface colour; the agreement between the results and those obtained using surface oil flow was good. Issues relating to interpretation of the crystal colour pattern and the limitation of this technique in detection of flow separation were also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler


    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  2. Seasonal Variability in Regional Ice Flow Due to Meltwater Injection Into the Shear Margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ (United States)

    Cavanagh, J. P.; Lampkin, D. J.; Moon, T.


    The impact of meltwater injection into the shear margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ via drainage from water-filled crevasses on ice flow is examined. We use Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager panchromatic, high-resolution imagery to monitor the spatiotemporal variability of seven water-filled crevasse ponds during the summers of 2013 to 2015. The timing of drainage from water-filled crevasses coincides with an increase of 2 to 20% in measured ice velocity beyond Jakobshavn Isbræ shear margins, which we define as extramarginal ice velocity. Some water-filled crevasse groups demonstrate multiple drainage events within a single melt season. Numerical simulations show that hydrologic shear weakening due to water-filled crevasse drainage can accelerate extramarginal flow by as much as 35% within 10 km of the margins and enhance mass flux through the shear margins by 12%. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism through which surface melt can influence regional ice flow.

  3. Evaluation of ring shear testing as a characterization method for powder flow in small-scale powder processing equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten


    Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements...... at small consolidation stresses were investigated. For this purpose, three grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. Results showed that powder flow properties depend strongly on the consolidation during testing. The consolidation during discharge in terms of the major principal stress and wall......, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress...

  4. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of a Sheared Flow Stabilized Z-pinch Plasma (United States)

    Forbes, Eleanor


    The ZaP Flow Z-pinch Project investigates the use of sheared-axial flows to stabilize an otherwise unstable plasma configuration. Diagnostics with sub-microsecond resolution are required to obtain accurate time-resolved data since the plasma pulse is approximately 100 μs. Analyzing the Doppler shift of impurity line radiation from the pinch provides a measure of the velocity profile and is a reliable method of determining the plasma sheared flow. The velocity profile is spatially resolved through the use of a 20-chord fiber bundle. The ZaP-HD experiment has used a PI-MAX intensified CCD array to record a single time-resolved spectrum per plasma pulse. Obtaining the evolution of the velocity profile using this method required spectra acquired over hundreds of pulses with identical initial parameters and varying acquisition times. The use of a Kirana 05M ultra-fast framing camera is investigated for recording time-resolved velocity profiles during a single pulse. The Kirana utilizes an ultraviolet intensifier to record 180 frames of UV light at up to 2 million frames per second. An ultraviolet optics system is designed to couple the exit port of an Acton SP-500i spectrometer to the Kirana UV intensifier and focus spectra at the camera detector plane. This work is supported by US DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  5. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)


    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  6. Thin liquid films with time-dependent chemical reactions sheared by an ambient gas flow (United States)

    Bender, Achim; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana


    Chemical reactions in thin liquid films are found in many industrial applications, e.g., in combustion chambers of internal combustion engines where a fuel film can develop on pistons or cylinder walls. The reactions within the film and the turbulent outer gas flow influence film stability and lead to film breakup, which in turn can lead to deposit formation. In this work we examine the evolution and stability of a thin liquid film in the presence of a first-order chemical reaction and under the influence of a turbulent gas flow. Long-wave theory with a double perturbation analysis is used to reduce the complexity of the problem and obtain an evolution equation for the film thickness. The chemical reaction is assumed to be slow compared to film evolution and the amount of reactant in the film is limited, which means that the reaction rate decreases with time as the reactant is consumed. A linear stability analysis is performed to identify the influence of reaction parameters, material properties, and environmental conditions on the film stability limits. Results indicate that exothermic reactions have a stabilizing effect whereas endothermic reactions destabilize the film and can lead to rupture. It is shown that an initially unstable film can become stable with time as the reaction rate decreases. The shearing of the film by the external gas flow leads to the appearance of traveling waves. The shear stress magnitude has a nonmonotonic influence on film stability.

  7. An experimental investigation of underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow. (United States)

    Zhu, Hongjun; You, Jiahui; Zhao, Honglei


    The time taken for spilt oil to appear firstly at the sea surface and its location are two key issues for emergency response. The underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow was studied experimentally in a re-circulating water channel. The high speed imaging technology was employed to record the whole transport process of oil spilt from a leak of a submarine pipe to the surface. Based on the experimental results, three underwater transport types are identified, which are single droplet pattern (model A), linear chain pattern (model B) and oil plume pattern (model C), respectively. The pressure difference inside and outside of the leak determines the underwater transport pattern. For single droplet pattern, the transport of oil droplet has two successive stage, namely the accumulation stage and the buoyant droplet stage. When it comes to linear chain pattern, the first stage changes to be the initial jet stage. Besides the initial jet stage and the buoyant droplet stage, oil plume pattern has an intermediate transition stage, namely the plume development stage. During the whole floating process, the pressure difference dominates the initial stage, while droplet buoyancy is the driven force in the rest. The required time for oil droplets to reach the surface is increased with the decreasing of the initial momentum and the increasing of the shear flow velocity. In the buoyance dominated stage, the floating rate of oil droplets is basically unchanged and the horizontal migration rate is similar with the shear flow velocity. Both the break-up and coalescence of oil droplets have two forms, which are single droplet splitting and droplet-column separation for break-up form and turbulence merging and pursuit merging for coalescence form, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti


    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  9. Vapour bubble growth and detachment at the wall of shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhar, G.; Riboux, G.; Colin, C. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)


    N-pentane micro-bubbles are created on a small heated film flushed-mounted at the lower wall of a horizontal channel. The bubble growth and detachment in the shear flow are filmed with a high-speed video camera. The time evolutions of the bubble radius and bubble centre position are measured from image processing. The growth rate is determined and compared to models of the literature. The experimental results are also used to estimate the different forces acting on the bubble during its growth and after its detachment. (orig.)

  10. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  11. The impact of shearing flows on electroactive biofilm formation, structure, and current generation (United States)

    Jones, A.-Andrew; Buie, Cullen


    A special class of bacteria exist that directly produce electricity. First explored in 1911, these electroactive bacteria catalyze hydrocarbons and transport electrons directly to a metallic electron acceptor forming thicker biofilms than other species. Electroactive bacteria biofilms are thicker because they are not limited by transport of oxygen or other terminal electron acceptors. Electroactive bacteria can produce power in fuel cells. Power production is limited in fuel cells by the bacteria's inability to eliminate protons near the insoluble electron acceptor not utilized in the wild. To date, they have not been successfully evolved or engineered to overcome this limit. This limitation may be overcome by enhancing convective mass transport while maintaining substantial biomass within the biofilm. Increasing convective mass transport increases shear stress. A biofilm may respond to increased shear by changing biomass, matrix, or current production. In this study, a rotating disk electrode is used to separate nutrient from physical stress. This phenomenon is investigated using the model electroactive bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens at nutrient loads comparable to flow-through microbial fuel cells. We determine biofilm structure experimentally by measuring the porosity and calculating the tortuosity from confocal microscope images. Biofilm adaptation for electron transport is quantified using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Our ultimate objective is a framework relating biofilm thickness, porosity, shear stress and current generation for the optimization of bioelectrochemical systems The Alfred P Sloan Foundation MPHD Program.

  12. Shear flow and carbon nanotubes synergistically induced nonisothermal crystallization of poly(lactic acid) and its application in injection molding. (United States)

    Tang, Hu; Chen, Jing-Bin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jia-Zhuang; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming


    The effect of shear flow and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), separately and together, on nonisothermal crystallization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at a relatively large cooling rate was investigated by time-resolved synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Unlike flexible-chain polymers such as polyethylene, and so on, whose crystallization kinetics are significantly accelerated by shear flow, neat PLA only exhibits an increase in onset crystallization temperature after experiencing a shear rate of 30 s(-1), whereas both the nucleation density and ultimate crystallinity are not changed too much because PLA chains are intrinsically semirigid and have relatively short length. The breaking down of shear-induced nuclei into point-like precursors (or random coil) probably becomes increasingly active after shear stops. Very interestingly, a marked synergistic effect of shear flow and CNTs exists in enhancing crystallization of PLA, leading to a remarkable increase of nucleation density in PLA/CNT nanocomposite. This synergistic effect is ascribed to extra nuclei, which are formed by the anchoring effect of CNTs' surfaces on the shear-induced nuclei and suppressing effect of CNTs on the relaxation of the shear-induced nuclei. Further, this interesting finding was deliberately applied to injection molding, aiming to improve the crystallinity of PLA products. As expected, a remarkable high crystallinity in the injection-molded PLA part has been achieved successfully by the combination of shear flow and CNTs, which offers a new method to fabricate PLA products with high crystallinity for specific applications.

  13. Global Well-posedness of the Spatially Homogeneous Kolmogorov-Vicsek Model as a Gradient Flow (United States)

    Figalli, Alessio; Kang, Moon-Jin; Morales, Javier


    We consider the so-called spatially homogenous Kolmogorov-Vicsek model, a non-linear Fokker-Planck equation of self-driven stochastic particles with orientation interaction under the space-homogeneity. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to the equation. We also show that weak solutions exponentially converge to a steady state, which has the form of the Fisher-von Mises distribution.

  14. Tearing Instability of a Current Sheet Forming by Sheared Incompressible Flow (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth; Loureiro, Nuno; Uzdensky, Dmitri


    Sweet-Parker current sheets are unstable to the tearing mode, suggesting they will not form in physical systems. Understanding magnetic reconnection thus requires study of the stability of a current sheet as it forms. Such formation can occur as a result of sheared, sub-Alfvénic incompressible flows into and along the sheet. This work presents an analysis of how tearing perturbations behave in a current sheet forming under the influence of such flows, beginning with a phase when the growth rate of the tearing mode is small and the behavior of perturbations is primarily governed by ideal MHD. Later, after the tearing growth rate becomes significant relative to the time scale of the driving flows, the flows cause a slight reduction in the tearing growth rate and wave vector of the dominant mode. Once the tearing mode enters the nonlinear regime, the flows accelerate the tearing growth slightly; during X-point collapse, the flows have negligible effect on the system behavior. This analysis allows greater understanding of reconnection in evolving systems and increases confidence in the application of tools developed in time-independent current sheets to changing current sheets. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

  15. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S. E.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Astrup, P.; Larsén, X. G.


    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat and moisture also play a role. The variance (square of the standard deviation) of the fluctuation around the mean wind speed is a measure of the kinetic energy content of the turbulence. This kinetic energy can be resolved into the spectral distributions, or spectra, as functions of eddy size, wavenumber, or frequency. Spectra are derived from Fourier transforms of wind records as functions of space or time corresponding to wavenumber and frequency spectra, respectively. Atmospheric spectra often exhibit different subranges that can be distinguished and scaled by the physical parameters responsible for: (1) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen’s early work in 1953 ‘on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow’ led Tchen to predict a shear production subrange with a distinct inverse-linear power law for turbulence in a strongly sheared high-Reynolds number wall-bounded flow, as is encountered in the lowest sheared part of the atmospheric boundary layer, also known as the eddy surface layer. This paper presents observations of spectra measured in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen’s prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree

  16. On the nature of radial transport across sheared zonal flows in electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient gyrokinetic tokamak plasma turbulencea) (United States)

    Sánchez, R.; Newman, D. E.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Carreras, B. A.; Decyk, V. K.


    It is argued that the usual understanding of the suppression of radial turbulent transport across a sheared zonal flow based on a reduction in effective transport coefficients is, by itself, incomplete. By means of toroidal gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic, ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, it is found instead that the character of the radial transport is altered fundamentally by the presence of a sheared zonal flow, changing from diffusive to anticorrelated and subdiffusive. Furthermore, if the flows are self-consistently driven by the turbulence via the Reynolds stresses (in contrast to being induced externally), radial transport becomes non-Gaussian as well. These results warrant a reevaluation of the traditional description of radial transport across sheared flows in tokamaks via effective transport coefficients, suggesting that such description is oversimplified and poorly captures the underlying dynamics, which may in turn compromise its predictive capabilities.

  17. On the nature of radial transport across sheared zonal flows in electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient gyrokinetic tokamak turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [JNL Scientific, Inc., Casa Grande, AZ; Carreras, Benjamin A [BACV Solutions, Inc., Oak Ridge; Decyk, Viktor [University of California, Los Angeles


    It is argued that the usual understanding of the suppression of radial turbulent transport across a sheared zonal flow based on a reduction in effective transport coefficients is, by itself, incomplete. By means of toroidal gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic, ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, it is found instead that the character of the radial transport is altered fundamentally by the presence of a sheared zonal flow, changing from diffusive to anticorrelated and subdiffusive. Furthermore, if the flows are self-consistently driven by the turbulence via the Reynolds stresses (in contrast to being induced externally), radial transport becomes non-Gaussian as well. These results warrant a reevaluation of the traditional description of radial transport across sheared flows in tokamaks via effective transport coefficients, suggesting that such description is oversimplified and poorly captures the underlying dynamics, which may in turn compromise its predictive capabilities.

  18. Coherent structures in a boundary layer and shear layer of a turbulent backward-facing step flow (United States)

    Jovic, Srba; Browne, L. W. B.


    A wind tunnel experiment has been carried out at the NASA Ames Research Center to analyze the evolution of coherent structures from a boundary layer to a shear layer in a turbulent, backward-facing, step flow. A miniature X-wire/cold-wire probe has been used in conjunction with two arrays of cold wires, one aligned in the plane of main shear and the other in the spanwise direction of the flow, to detect and characterize delta-scale organized structures in the outer regions of the flow and to provide detailed information concerning these structures. Kinematic features of the events associated with the large scale structures were analyzed and topological pictures of the evolving flow, as well as the contributions to the Reynolds shear stress components are presented.

  19. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.


    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  20. Zonal flows and long-distance correlations during the formation of the edge shear layer in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, I; Pedrosa, M A; Hidalgo, C [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B A; Garcia, L [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    A theoretical interpretation is given for the observed long-distance correlations in potential fluctuations in TJ-II. The value of the correlation increases above the critical point of the transition for the emergence of the plasma edge shear flow layer. Mean (i.e. surface averaged, zero-frequency) sheared flows cannot account for the experimental results. A model consisting of four envelope equations for the fluctuation level, the mean flow shear, the zonal flow amplitude shear and the averaged pressure gradient is proposed. It is shown that the presence of zonal flows is essential to reproduce the main features of the experimental observations.

  1. Zonal flows and long-distance correlations during the formation of the edge shear layer in the TJ-II stellarator (United States)

    Calvo, I.; Carreras, B. A.; Garcia, L.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.


    A theoretical interpretation is given for the observed long-distance correlations in potential fluctuations in TJ-II. The value of the correlation increases above the critical point of the transition for the emergence of the plasma edge shear flow layer. Mean (i.e. surface averaged, zero-frequency) sheared flows cannot account for the experimental results. A model consisting of four envelope equations for the fluctuation level, the mean flow shear, the zonal flow amplitude shear and the averaged pressure gradient is proposed. It is shown that the presence of zonal flows is essential to reproduce the main features of the experimental observations.

  2. Self-sustaining processes at all scales in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows (United States)

    Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun


    We collect and discuss the results of our recent studies which show evidence of the existence of a whole family of self-sustaining motions in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with scales ranging from those of buffer-layer streaks to those of large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer layer. The statistical and dynamical features of this family of self-sustaining motions, which are associated with streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices, are consistent with those of Townsend's attached eddies. Motions at each relevant scale are able to sustain themselves in the absence of forcing from larger- or smaller-scale motions by extracting energy from the mean flow via a coherent lift-up effect. The coherent self-sustaining process is embedded in a set of invariant solutions of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations which take into full account the Reynolds stresses associated with the residual smaller-scale motions.

  3. PIV measurement of high-Reynolds-number homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in an enclosed flow apparatus with fan agitation (United States)

    Dou, Zhongwang; Pecenak, Zachary K.; Cao, Lujie; Woodward, Scott H.; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui


    Enclosed flow apparatuses with negligible mean flow are emerging as alternatives to wind tunnels for laboratory studies of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) with or without aerosol particles, especially in experimental validation of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). It is desired that these flow apparatuses generate HIT at high Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers ({{R}λ} ) and enable accurate measurement of turbulence parameters including kinetic energy dissipation rate and thereby {{R}λ} . We have designed an enclosed, fan-driven, highly symmetric truncated-icosahedron ‘soccer ball’ airflow apparatus that enables particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and other whole-field flow measurement techniques. To minimize gravity effect on inertial particles and improve isotropy, we chose fans instead of synthetic jets as flow actuators. We developed explicit relations between {{R}λ} and physical as well as operational parameters of enclosed HIT chambers. To experimentally characterize turbulence in this near-zero-mean flow chamber, we devised a new two-scale PIV approach utilizing two independent PIV systems to obtain both high resolution and large field of view. Velocity measurement results show that turbulence in the apparatus achieved high homogeneity and isotropy in a large central region (48 mm diameter) of the chamber. From PIV-measured velocity fields, we obtained turbulence dissipation rates and thereby {{R}λ} by using the second-order velocity structure function. A maximum {{R}λ} of 384 was achieved. Furthermore, experiments confirmed that the root mean square (RMS) velocity increases linearly with fan speed, and {{R}λ} increases with the square root of fan speed. Characterizing turbulence in such apparatus paves the way for further investigation of particle dynamics in particle-laden homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  4. Dilute suspensions in annular shear flow under gravity: simulation and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröer Kevin


    Full Text Available A dilute suspension in annular shear flow under gravity was simulated using multi-particle collision dynamics (MPC and compared to experimental data. The focus of the analysis is the local particle velocity and density distribution under the influence of the rotational and gravitational forces. The results are further supported by a deterministic approximation of a single-particle trajectory and OpenFOAM CFD estimations of the overcritical frequency range. Good qualitative agreement is observed for single-particle trajectories between the statistical mean of MPC simulations and the deterministic approximation. Wall contact and detachment however occur earlier in the MPC simulation, which can be explained by the inherent thermal noise of the method. The multi-particle system is investigated at the point of highest particle accumulation that is found at 2/3 of the particle revolution, starting from the top of the annular gap. The combination of shear flow and a slowly rotating volumetric force leads to strong local accumulation in this section that increases the particle volume fraction from overall 0.7% to 4.7% at the outer boundary. MPC simulations and experimental observations agree well in terms of particle distribution and a close to linear velocity profile in radial direction.

  5. Hydrodynamic stress on small colloidal aggregates in shear flow using Stokesian dynamics. (United States)

    Seto, Ryohei; Botet, Robert; Briesen, Heiko


    The hydrodynamic properties of rigid fractal aggregates have been investigated by considering their motion in shear flow in the Stokesian dynamics approach. Due to the high fluid viscosity and small particle inertia of colloidal systems, the total force and torque applied to the aggregate reach equilibrium values in a short time. Obtaining equilibrating motions for a number of independent samples, one can extract the average hydrodynamic characteristics of the given fractal aggregates. Despite the geometry of these objects being essentially disordered, the average drag-force distributions for aggregates show symmetric patterns. Moreover, these distributions collapse on a single master curve, characteristic of the nature of the aggregates, provided the positions of the particles are rescaled with the geometric radius of gyration. This result can be used to explain the reason why the stress acting on an aggregate and moments of the forces acting on contact points between particles follow power-law behaviors with the aggregate size. Moreover, the values of the exponents can be explained. As a consequence, considering cohesive force typical for colloidal particles, we find that even aggregates smaller than a few dozen particles must experience restructuring when typical shear flow is applied.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Primary Cilium Deformations Under Local Forces and Shear Flows (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Feng, Zhe; Resnick, Andrew; Young, Yuan-Nan


    We study the detailed deformations of a primary cilium under local forces and shear flows by developing a multiscale model based on the state-of-the-art understanding of its molecular structure. Most eukaryotic cells are ciliated with primary cilia. Primary cilia play important roles in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation, but the detailed mechanism for mechanosensation is not well understood. We apply the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to model an entire well with a primary cilium and consider its different components, including the basal body, microtubule doublets, actin cortex, and lipid bilayer. We calibrate the mechanical properties of individual components and their interactions from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate the simulations by comparing the deformation profile of the cilium and the rotation of the basal body with optical trapping experiments. After validations, we investigate the deformation of the primary cilium under shear flows. Furthermore, we calculate the membrane tensions and cytoskeleton stresses, and use them to predict the activation of mechanosensitive channels.

  7. Formation of compositional gradient profiles by using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon under Couette flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Su Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duck Jong; Park, O Ok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Moo Hyun [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)


    We investigated whether a graded-index profile, specified by the polymer compositional gradient, could be formed using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon in a polymer solution. For the presented model system, we generated a shear flow by rotating a glass rod at the center of a polystyrene/methylmethacrylate (PS/MMA) solution and measured the degree of polymer migration by the shear flow field by examining the concentration of polymer solution along the radial direction from the rotating axis to the periphery. Through model experiments, we formed a compositional gradient and controlled its profile in the solution by varying the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight of polymer, and shear rate. Finally, we solidified the gradient profiles by the polymerization of the PS/MMA solution and confirmed that the gradient profiles were maintained with a compositional gradient twice larger than the mother PS/MMA solution.

  8. CO$_2$ dissolution controlled by buoyancy driven shear dispersion in a background hydrological flow

    CERN Document Server

    Unwin, H Juliette T; Woods, Andrew W


    We present an analytical and numerical study of the long-time flow which controls the dissolution of a plume of CO$_2$ following injection into an anticline structure in a deep saline aquifer of finite vertical extent. Over times of tens to thousands of years, some of the CO$_2$ will dissolve into the underlying groundwater to produce a region of relatively dense, CO$_2$ saturated water directly below the plume of CO$_2$. Continued dissolution then requires the supply of CO$_2$ unsaturated aquifer water. This may be provided by a background hydrological flow or buoyancy driven flow caused by the density contrast between the CO$_2$ saturated and unsaturated water in the aquifer. At long times, the interaction of the cross-layer diffusive mixing with the buoyancy, leads to buoyancy driven shear dispersion of the CO$_2$. With a background hydrological flow, the upstream transport of dissolved CO$_2$ by this dispersion becomes balanced by the oncoming hydrological flow so that CO$_2$ rich water can only spread a ...

  9. Laminar, turbulent, and inertial shear-thickening regimes in channel flow of neutrally buoyant particle suspensions. (United States)

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca


    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.

  10. Insights into interstitial flow, shear stress, and mass transport effects on ECM heterogeneity in bioreactor-cultivated engineered cartilage hydrogels. (United States)

    Chen, Tony; Buckley, Mark; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence; Awad, Hani A


    Interstitial flow in articular cartilage is secondary to compressive and shear deformations during joint motion and has been linked with the well-characterized heterogeneity in structure and composition of its extracellular matrix. In this study, we investigated the effects of introducing gradients of interstitial flow on the evolution of compositional heterogeneity in engineered cartilage. Using a parallel-plate bioreactor, we observed that Poiseuille flow stimulation of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen deposition in the surface region of the hydrogel exposed to flow. Experimental measurements of the interstitial flow fields based on the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique suggested that the observed heterogeneity in composition is associated with gradients in interstitial flow in a boundary layer at the hydrogel surface. Interestingly, the interstitial flow velocity profiles were nonlinearly influenced by flow rate, which upon closer examination led us to the original observation that the apparent hydrogel permeability decreased exponentially with increased interfacial shear stress. We also observed that interstitial flow enhances convective mass transport irrespective of molecular size within the boundary layer near the hydrogel surface and that the convective contribution to transport diminishes with depth in association with interstitial flow gradients. The implications of the nonlinearly inverse relationship between the interfacial shear stress and the interstitial flux and permeability and its consequences for convective transport are important for tissue engineering, since porous scaffolds comprise networks of Poiseuille channels (pores) through which interstitial flow must navigate under mechanical stimulation or direct perfusion.

  11. Vascular endothelial wound closure under shear stress: role of membrane fluidity and flow-sensitive ion channels. (United States)

    Gojova, Andrea; Barakat, Abdul I


    Sufficiently rapid healing of vascular endothelium following injury is essential for preventing further pathological complications. Recent work suggests that fluid dynamic shear stress regulates endothelial cell (EC) wound closure. Changes in membrane fluidity and activation of flow-sensitive ion channels are among the most rapid endothelial responses to flow and are thought to play an important role in EC responsiveness to shear stress. The goal of the present study was to probe the role of these responses in bovine aortic EC (BAEC) wound closure under shear stress. BAEC monolayers were mechanically wounded and subsequently subjected to either "high" (19 dyn/cm(2)) or "low" (3 dyn/cm(2)) levels of steady shear stress. Image analysis was used to quantify cell migration and spreading under both flow and static control conditions. Our results demonstrate that, under static conditions, BAECs along both wound edges migrate at similar velocities to cover the wounded area. Low shear stress leads to significantly lower BAEC migration velocities, whereas high shear stress results in cells along the upstream edge of the wound migrating significantly more rapidly than those downstream. The data also show that reducing BAEC membrane fluidity by enriching the cell membrane with exogenous cholesterol significantly slows down both cell spreading and migration under flow and hence retards wound closure. Blocking flow-sensitive K and Cl channels reduces cell spreading under flow but has no impact on cell migration. These findings provide evidence that membrane fluidity and flow-sensitive ion channels play distinct roles in regulating EC wound closure under flow.

  12. A numerical approach for assessing effects of shear on equivalent permeability and nonlinear flow characteristics of 2-D fracture networks (United States)

    Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Yu, Liyuan


    Hydro-mechanical properties of rock fractures are core issues for many geoscience and geo-engineering practices. Previous experimental and numerical studies have revealed that shear processes could greatly enhance the permeability of single rock fractures, yet the shear effects on hydraulic properties of fractured rock masses have received little attention. In most previous fracture network models, single fractures are typically presumed to be formed by parallel plates and flow is presumed to obey the cubic law. However, related studies have suggested that the parallel plate model cannot realistically represent the surface characters of natural rock fractures, and the relationship between flow rate and pressure drop will no longer be linear at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. In the present study, a numerical approach was established to assess the effects of shear on the hydraulic properties of 2-D discrete fracture networks (DFNs) in both linear and nonlinear regimes. DFNs considering fracture surface roughness and variation of aperture in space were generated using an originally developed code DFNGEN. Numerical simulations by solving Navier-Stokes equations were performed to simulate the fluid flow through these DFNs. A fracture that cuts through each model was sheared and by varying the shear and normal displacements, effects of shear on equivalent permeability and nonlinear flow characteristics of DFNs were estimated. The results show that the critical condition of quantifying the transition from a linear flow regime to a nonlinear flow regime is: 10-4 〈 J fluid flow is in a linear regime (i.e., J fluid flow in the nonlinear regime (J 〉 10-3), δ2 is nonlinearly correlated with J. A shear process would reduce the equivalent permeability significantly in the orientation perpendicular to the sheared fracture as much as 53.86% when J = 1, shear displacement Ds = 7 mm, and normal displacement Dn = 1 mm. By fitting the calculated results, the mathematical

  13. Evaluation of ring shear testing as a characterization method for powder flow in small-scale powder processing equipment. (United States)

    Søgaard, Søren Vinter; Pedersen, Troels; Allesø, Morten; Garnaes, Joergen; Rantanen, Jukka


    Powder flow in small-scale equipment is challenging to predict. To meet this need, the impact of consolidation during powder flow characterization, the level of consolidation existing during discharge of powders from a tablet press hopper and the uncertainty of shear and wall friction measurements at small consolidation stresses were investigated. For this purpose, three grades of microcrystalline cellulose were used. Results showed that powder flow properties depend strongly on the consolidation during testing. The consolidation during discharge in terms of the major principal stress and wall normal stress were approximately 200 Pa and 114 Pa, respectively, in the critical transition from the converging to the lower vertical section of the hopper. The lower limit of consolidation for the shear and wall friction test was approximately 500 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. At this consolidation level, the wall and shear stress resolution influences the precision of the measured powder flow properties. This study highlights the need for an improved experimental setup which would be capable of measuring the flow properties of powders under very small consolidation stresses with a high shear stress resolution. This will allow the accuracy, precision and applicability of the shear test to be improved for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Red Blood Cells and Other Nonspherical Capsules in Shear Flow: Oscillatory Dynamics and the Tank-Treading-to-Tumbling Transition (United States)

    Skotheim, J. M.; Secomb, T. W.


    We consider the motion of red blood cells and other nonspherical microcapsules dilutely suspended in a simple shear flow. Our analysis indicates that depending on the viscosity, membrane elasticity, geometry, and shear rate, the particle exhibits either tumbling, tank-treading of the membrane about the viscous interior with periodic oscillations of the orientation angle, or intermittent behavior in which the two modes occur alternately. For red blood cells, we compute the complete phase diagram and identify a novel tank-treading-to-tumbling transition as the shear rate decreases. Observations of such motions coupled with our theoretical framework may provide a sensitive means of assessing capsule properties.

  15. The formation of sporadic E layers by a vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal wind shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Didebulidze


    Full Text Available The formation of the mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es layers by an atmospheric vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal shear flow (horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear is investigated. A three-dimensional atmospheric vortical perturbation (atmospheric shear waves, whose velocity vector is in the horizontal plane and has a vertical wavenumber kz≠0, can provide a vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The shear waves influence the vertical transport of heavy metallic ions and their convergence into thin and dense horizontal layers. The proposed mechanism takes into account the dynamical influence of the shear wave velocity in the horizontal wind on the vertical drift velocity of the ions. It also can explain the multi-layer structure of Es layers. The pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the value of the shear-wave vertical wavelength, the ion-neutral collision frequency and the direction of the background horizontal wind. The modelling of formation of sporadic E layers with a single and a double peak is presented. Also, the importance of shear wave coupling with short-period atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs on the variations of sporadic E layer ion density is examined and discussed.

  16. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.


    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  17. Optimised mixing and flow resistance during shear flow over a rib roughened boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Dorrell, R. M.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.


    A series of numerical investigations has been performed to study the effect of lower boundary roughness on turbulent flow in a two-dimensional channel. The roughness spacing to height ratio, w/k, has been investigated over the range 0.12 to 402 by varying the horizontal rib spacing. The square

  18. Model based prediction of dynamics of particles in particle laden turbulent shear flow (United States)

    Goswami, Partha; Ghosh, Swagnik


    Particle-laden turbulent flows find application in wide range of industrial and natural processes. The advent of fast computing facility has enabled investigation of Particle-laden turbulent flows using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). Still simulating such flows in case of practically applicable geometry is still far from the reality. Therefore modeling such flows is inevitable. The proposed fluctuating force and fluctuating torque simulation is such a modeling method in which the effect of fluid velocity and vorticity fluctuations on the particle is modeled as anisotropic Gaussian white noise. For dilute suspensions, strength of the noise is extracted from diffusivity data of unladen fluid phase. The inter-particle and wall-particle collisions are modeled by introducing co-efficient of restitution (e) and roughness factor (β) in hard sphere collision model. Introduction of rotational diffusivity due to fluid vortical structures can predict the detailed rotational dynamics of particle phase. Present investigations have been performed for dilute sheared suspensions for different roughness factor in the limit of high Stokes number. The results obtained are compared with DNS using one-way coupling.

  19. Michaelis-Menten kinetics in shear flow: Similarity solutions for multi-step reactions. (United States)

    Ristenpart, W D; Stone, H A


    Models for chemical reaction kinetics typically assume well-mixed conditions, in which chemical compositions change in time but are uniform in space. In contrast, many biological and microfluidic systems of interest involve non-uniform flows where gradients in flow velocity dynamically alter the effective reaction volume. Here, we present a theoretical framework for characterizing multi-step reactions that occur when an enzyme or enzymatic substrate is released from a flat solid surface into a linear shear flow. Similarity solutions are developed for situations where the reactions are sufficiently slow compared to a convective time scale, allowing a regular perturbation approach to be employed. For the specific case of Michaelis-Menten reactions, we establish that the transversally averaged concentration of product scales with the distance x downstream as x(5/3). We generalize the analysis to n-step reactions, and we discuss the implications for designing new microfluidic kinetic assays to probe the effect of flow on biochemical processes.

  20. Modeling the effect of flow homogeneity on the fate of Cd, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Spadini, Lorenzo; Delolme, Cécile; Galvez, Rosa; Winiarski, Thierry


    The fate of pollutants in the vadose zone depends on flow pathways. It is generally assumed that homogeneous flow will allow pollutants to reach most of the sorption sites, whereas preferential flow will transport pollutants through restricted zones and prohibit pollutants to reach sorption sites in more stagnant water (e.g. Lassabatere et al., 2004). However, this hypothesis has so far not been validated nor experimentally nor numerically. Experimental validation would require, in a unique soil, to establish heterogeneous and homogeneous flow conditions for the similar hydric (water content) and hydraulic (flow rate) conditions, which is almost impossible to achieve. Eventually, variations in flow heterogeneity may be obtained by varying hydric and hydraulic conditions. But straightforward conclusions on flow heterogeneity cannot be expected from such multi-variable experimental assets. This study investigates numerically the effect of flow heterogeneity on the fate of three heavy metals in calcareous environments. The solute transport code considers MIM model (mobile-immobile model) for describing flow heterogeneity. Water is divided into mobile water and immobile water fractions. Solutes are transported by convection and dispersion in mobile water and diffuse at the interfaces between mobile and immobile water fractions. The speciation code considers metal dissolution/precipitation of carbonates, and complexation on calcite surfaces and cationic exchange on Fe-oxyhydroxides particles (clay). The numerical code is applied to the experimental results obtained for a calcareous soil in contact with three trace elemental cations (Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) under both static (batch experiments) and dynamic conditions (column experiments) (Lassabatere et al., 2007). The model reconstructs accurately the experimental results and then simulates varying contact times (in batches), injection flow rates (in columns), and concentration conditions. Then, the model is used to

  1. Nonlinear saturation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability and generation of shear flow in equatorial spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti


    Full Text Available An analysis of low order mode coupling equations is used to describe the nonlinear behaviour of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability in the equatorial ionosphere. The nonlinear evolution of RT instability leads to the development of shear flow. It is found that there is an interplay between the nonlinearity and the shear flow which compete with each other and saturate the RT mode, both in the collisionless and collisional regime. However, the nonlinearly saturated state, normally known as vortices or bubbles, may not be stable. Under certain condition these bubbles are shown to be unstable to short scale secondary instabilities that are driven by the large gradients which develop within these structures. Some understanding of the role of collisional nonlinearity in the  shear flow generations is also discussed.

  2. Prominence Bubble Shear Flows and the Coupled Kelvin-Helmholtz — Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Hillier, Andrew


    Prominence bubbles are large arched structures that rise from below into quiescent prominences, often growing to heights on the order of 10 Mm before going unstable and generating plume upflows. While there is general agreement that emerging flux below pre-existing prominences causes the structures, there is lack of agreement on the nature of the bubbles and the cause of the instability flows. One hypothesis is that the bubbles contain coronal temperature plasma and rise into the prominence above due to both magnetic and thermal buoyancy, eventually breaking down via a magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to release hot plasma and magnetic flux and helicity into the overlying coronal flux rope. Another posits that the bubbles are actually just “arcades” in the prominence indicating a magnetic separator line between the bipole and the prominence fields with the observed upflows and downflows caused by reconnection along the separator. We analyze Hinode/SOT, SDO/AIA, and IRIS observations of prominence bubbles, focusing on characteristics of the bubble boundary layers that may discriminate between the two hypotheses. We find speeds on the order of 10 km/s in prominence plasma downflows and lateral shear flows along the bubble boundary. Inflows to the boundary gradually increase the thickness and brightness of the layer until plasma drains from there, apparently around the dome-like bubble domain. In one case, shear flow across the bubble boundary develops Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices that we use to infer flow speeds in the low-density bubble on the order of 100 km/sec. IRIS spectra indicate that plasma flows on the bubble boundary at transition region temperatures achieve Doppler speeds on the order of 50 km/s, consistent with this inference. Combined magnetic KH-RT instability analysis leads to flux density estimates of 10 G with a field angle of 30° to the prominence, consistent with vector magnetic field measurements. In contrast, we find no evidence

  3. In-vitro measurement and modelling of shear-induced platelet margination and adhesion in channel flows (United States)

    Qi, Qin M.; Oglesby, Irene; Cowman, Jonathan; Ricco, Antonio J.; Kenny, Dermot; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.


    Blood coagulation is initiated by GPIb and GPIIbIIIa receptors on the platelet surface binding with von Willebrand factors tethered on the vascular wall. This process occurs much faster in the presence of flow shear than in the quiescent fluid. First of all, the near-wall platelet concentration in flowing blood increases significantly. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as platelet margination, is due to shear-induced hydrodynamic interactions between red blood cells and platelets. Flow shear also manifests itself in affecting the reaction kinetics of receptor-ligand binding. The breaking and formation of multiple bonds on the platelet surface result in the translocating motion of platelets rolling close to the vascular wall. To date, a fundamental understanding of how fluid mechanics relate the bond-level kinetics to the platelet-level dynamics is very limited. In this talk, we investigate platelet adhesion under physiological shear rates using both microfluidic experiments and multi-scale modeling. Our model, (based on existing single molecule measurements and hydrodynamics of blood at zero Reynolds number) shows good agreement with experimental results. We discuss the roles of red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit), shear rate, receptor densities in the dynamics of platelet adhesion. These findings also provide implications for how platelet defects and abnormal flow conditions influence hemostasis and thrombosis.

  4. Generalized stability of a shear flow with a free surface with respect to three-dimensional perturbations (United States)

    Mallios, Christos; Bakas, Nikolaos A.


    Modal and nonmodal growth of three-dimensional perturbations in a shear flow with a free surface are examined for a wide range of Froude numbers. By approximating the mean flow with a piecewise linear profile, the modal instabilities are shown to arise from the interaction of three-dimensional edge waves supported at the interfaces of density discontinuity at the surface and mean vorticity discontinuity at the edges of the shear layer. The mechanism and properties of the instability are explained in terms of the dynamics of the edge-wave interactions. Previously reported modal stability analysis restricted to two-dimensional perturbations in the plane of the flow accurately predicts the fastest growing perturbations but underestimates the range of length scales for the unstable structures. Robust nonmodal transient growth of perturbations within a few advective time units is found. For low Froude numbers or low values of the shear, three-dimensional perturbations with small horizontal scales exhibit the largest growth through a synergy between the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms and produce large streamwise streaks in the shear flow without an effect on the free surface. For large Froude numbers or large values of the shear, planar perturbations with larger horizontal scales exhibit the largest energy growth by effectively instigating the modal instability and excite surface waves at large amplitude.

  5. Approximation of wave action flux velocity in strongly sheared mean flows (United States)

    Banihashemi, Saeideh; Kirby, James T.; Dong, Zhifei


    Spectral wave models based on the wave action equation typically use a theoretical framework based on depth uniform current to account for current effects on waves. In the real world, however, currents often have variations over depth. Several recent studies have made use of a depth-weighted current U˜ due to [Skop, R. A., 1987. Approximate dispersion relation for wave-current interactions. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng. 113, 187-195.] or [Kirby, J. T., Chen, T., 1989. Surface waves on vertically sheared flows: approximate dispersion relations. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 1013-1027.] in order to account for the effect of vertical current shear. Use of the depth-weighted velocity, which is a function of wavenumber (or frequency and direction) has been further simplified in recent applications by only utilizing a weighted current based on the spectral peak wavenumber. These applications do not typically take into account the dependence of U˜ on wave number k, as well as erroneously identifying U˜ as the proper choice for current velocity in the wave action equation. Here, we derive a corrected expression for the current component of the group velocity. We demonstrate its consistency using analytic results for a current with constant vorticity, and numerical results for a measured, strongly-sheared current profile obtained in the Columbia River. The effect of choosing a single value for current velocity based on the peak wave frequency is examined, and we suggest an alternate strategy, involving a Taylor series expansion about the peak frequency, which should significantly extend the range of accuracy of current estimates available to the wave model with minimal additional programming and data transfer.

  6. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation (United States)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R.; Gurnon, A. Kate; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J.


    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  7. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation. (United States)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J


    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  8. Hydrodynamic of a deformed bubble in linear shear flow; Hydrodynamique d'une bulle deformee dans un ecoulement cisaille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adoua, S.R


    This work is devoted to the study of an oblate spheroidal bubble of prescribed shape set fixed in a linear shear flow using direct numerical simulation. The three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates using a finite volume method. The bubble response is studied over a wide range of the aspect ratio (1-2.7), the bubble Reynolds number (50-2000) and the non-dimensional shear rate (0.-1.2). The numerical simulations shows that the shear flow imposes a plane symmetry of the wake whatever the parameters of the flow. The trailing vorticity is organized into two anti-symmetrical counter rotating tubes with a sign imposed by the competition of two mechanisms (the Lighthill mechanism and the instability of the wake). Whatever the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient reaches the analytical value obtained in an inviscid, weakly sheared flow corresponding to a lift force oriented in the same direction as that of a spherical bubble. For moderate Reynolds numbers, the direction of the lift force reverses when the bubble aspect ratio is large enough as observed in experiments. This reversal occurs for aspect ratios larger than 2.225 and is found to be directly linked to the sign of the trailing vorticity which is concentrated within two counter-rotating threads which propel the bubble in a direction depending of their sign of rotation. The behavior of the drag does not revel any significant effect induced by the wake structure and follows a quadratic increase with the shear rate. Finally, the torque experienced by the bubble also reverses for the same conditions inducing the reversal of the lift force. By varying the orientation of the bubble in the shear flow, a stable equilibrium position is found corresponding to a weak angle between the small axis of the bubble and the flow direction. (author)

  9. Impaired popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation caused by reduced daily physical activity is prevented by increased shear stress. (United States)

    Teixeira, André L; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C


    We recently showed that 5 days of reduced daily physical activity impair popliteal artery, but not brachial artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the mechanisms by which physical inactivity causes leg vascular dysfunction are unclear. We reason that a reduction in leg blood flow-induced shear stress is a primary underlying mechanism by which reduced daily physical activity impairs popliteal artery FMD. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine whether increased leg blood flow and shear stress during inactivity prevent the reduction in popliteal artery FMD. Bilateral popliteal artery FMD measures were performed at baseline and after 5 days of a transition from high (>10,000 steps/day) to low levels (physical activity in 13 healthy and physically active men [20 ± 2 (SD) yr]. During the inactive period, one foot was submerged in ~42°C water (i.e., heated leg) three times a day for 30 min each period, to increase blood flow and thus shear stress, whereas the contralateral leg remained dry and served as internal control (i.e., nonheated leg). During heating, popliteal artery mean shear rate was increased in the heated leg (change of 119.3 ± 26.4%, P physical activity in the control nonheated leg (P stress during physical inactivity is a key underlying mechanism mediating leg vascular dysfunction.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that the impairment in popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation caused by physical inactivity can be prevented by increased shear stress. These findings indicate that reduced leg blood flow-induced shear stress during physical inactivity may be a key underlying mechanism mediating the detrimental leg vascular effects of physical inactivity. Heating the foot area may be used as a nonpharmacological therapy to combat inactivity-induced leg vascular dysfunction, especially in people who are unable or unwilling to be active. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing. (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem


    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices.

  11. Ring-Sheared Drop (RSD): Microgravity Module for Containerless Flow Studies (United States)

    Gulati, Shreyash; Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; McBride, Samantha A.; Hirsa, Amir H.


    Microgravity is potentially a powerful tool for investigating processes that are sensitive to the presence of solid walls, since fluid containment can be achieved by surface tension. One such process is the transformation of protein in solution into amyloid fibrils; these are protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. In addition to solid walls, experiments with gravity are also subject to influences from sedimentation of aggregates and buoyancy-driven convection. The ring-sheared drop (RSD) module is a flow apparatus currently under development to study formation of amyloid fibrils aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A 25 mm diameter drop of protein solution will be contained by surface tension and constrained by a pair of sharp-edged tubes, forming two contact rings. Shear can be imparted by rotating one ring with the other ring kept stationary. Here we report on parabolic flights conducted to test the growth and pinning of 10 mm diameter drops of water in under 10 s of microgravity. Finite element method (FEM) based fluid dynamics computations using a commercial package (COMSOL) assisted in the design of the parabolic flight experiments. Prior to the parabolic flights, the code was validated against experiments in the lab (1 g), on the growth of sessile and pendant droplets. The simulations show good agreement with the experiments. This modeling capability will enable the development of the RSD at the 25 mm scale for the ISS.

  12. Enhanced Dissipation, Hypoellipticity, and Anomalous Small Noise Inviscid Limits in Shear Flows (United States)

    Bedrossian, Jacob; Coti Zelati, Michele


    We analyze the decay and instant regularization properties of the evolution semigroups generated by two-dimensional drift-diffusion equations in which the scalar is advected by a shear flow and dissipated by full or partial diffusion. We consider both the space-periodic T^2 setting and the case of a bounded channel T × [0,1] with no-flux boundary conditions. In the infinite Péclet number limit (diffusivity {ν\\to 0}), our work quantifies the enhanced dissipation effect due to the shear. We also obtain hypoelliptic regularization, showing that solutions are instantly Gevrey regular even with only partial diffusion. The proofs rely on localized spectral gap inequalities and ideas from hypocoercivity with an augmented energy functional with weights replaced by pseudo-differential operators (of a rather simple form). As an application, we study small noise inviscid limits of invariant measures of stochastic perturbations of passive scalars, and show that the classical Freidlin scaling between noise and diffusion can be modified. In particular, although statistically stationary solutions blow up in {H^1} in the limit {ν \\to 0}, we show that viscous invariant measures still converge to a unique inviscid measure.

  13. Velocity profiles and rheology of a granular bed sheared by a fluid flow (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad

    We discuss an experimental investigation of motion of a granular bed driven by a laminar fluid flow as a function of applied shear rate. This is a model system to investigate a variety of examples where such a situation arises including wind blowing over sand, sediment transport in rivers, slurries, and turbidity currents. We have developed an experimental apparatus which allows examination of the fluid as well as the grain dynamics both at the surface as well as deep into the bed under steady state conditions with refractive index matching technique. This allows us to obtain both the applied local shear stress by the fluid as well as the local strain rate inside the bed. We find that that the granular flux as a function of depth decays exponentially into the bed. Further, the velocity profile is observed to exhibit a crossover from a regime where particles are fully suspended to where there is bed load transport. We will discuss the observed velocity and density profiles in light of various models of granular suspensions. Supported by NSF CBET - 1335928.

  14. [List and drag forces on droplets and particles in wall-bounded shear flows]. [Progress report, Clarkson Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B.


    This project has two goals, to calculate the lift force on a spherical droplet or particle that translates through a shear flow, and to measure the inertial migration velocity that is caused by the lift force. The focus of the study is on a range of Reynolds numbers that has been shown to be of importance in the inertial deposition of aerosols from turbulent shear flows. Aspects of current technical progress summarized are the asymptotic analysis, computer simulations, and experimental measurements. Future plans and resulting publications are given.

  15. [List and drag forces on droplets and particles in wall-bounded shear flows]. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B.


    This project has two goals, to calculate the lift force on a spherical droplet or particle that translates through a shear flow, and to measure the inertial migration velocity that is caused by the lift force. The focus of the study is on a range of Reynolds numbers that has been shown to be of importance in the inertial deposition of aerosols from turbulent shear flows. Aspects of current technical progress summarized are the asymptotic analysis, computer simulations, and experimental measurements. Future plans and resulting publications are given.

  16. Baroclinic Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shearing Flows: Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Zombie Vortices (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram

    infer the height and internal stratification of some astrophysical and geophysical vortices because direct measurements of their vertical structures are difficult. In Chapter 3, we show numerically and experimentally that localized suction in rotating continuously stratified flows produces three-dimensional baroclinic cyclones. As expected from Chapter 2, the interiors of these cyclones are super-stratified. Suction, modeled as a small spherical sink in the simulations, creates an anisotropic flow toward the sink with directional dependence changing with the ratio of the Coriolis parameter to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Around the sink, this flow generates cyclonic vorticity and deflects isopycnals so that the interior of the cyclone becomes super-stratified. The super-stratified region is visualized in the companion experiments that we helped to design and analyze using the synthetic schlieren technique. Once the suction stops, the cyclones decay due to viscous dissipation in the simulations and experiments. The numerical results show that the vertical velocity of viscously decaying cyclones flows away from the cyclone's midplane, while the radial velocity flows toward the cyclone's center. This observation is explained based on the cyclo-geostrophic balance. This vertical velocity mixes the flow inside and outside of cyclone and reduces the super-stratification. We speculate that the predominance of anticyclones in geophysical and astrophysical flows is due to the fact that anticyclones require sub-stratification, which occurs naturally by mixing, while cyclones require super-stratification. In Chapter 4, we show that a previously unknown instability creates space-filling lattices of 3D turbulent baroclinic vortices in linearly-stable, rotating, stratified shear flows. The instability starts from a newly discovered family of easily-excited critical layers. This new family, named the baroclinic critical layer, has singular vertical velocities; the traditional family

  17. Nonlinear evolution of electron shear flow instabilities in the presence of an external guide magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj


    The dissipation mechanism by which the magnetic field reconnects in the presence of an external (guide) magnetic field in the direction of the main current is not well understood. In thin electron current sheets (ECS) (thickness ~ an electron inertial length) formed in collisionless magnetic reconnection, electron shear flow instabilities (ESFI) are potential candidates for providing an anomalous dissipation mechanism which can break the frozen-in condition of the magnetic field affecting the structure and rate of reconnection. We investigate the evolution of ESFI in guide field magnetic reconnection. The properties of the resulting plasma turbulence and their dependence on the strength of the guide field are studied. Utilizing 3-D electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of ECS we show that, unlike the case of ECS self-consistently embedded in anti-parallel magnetic fields, the evolution of thin ECS in the presence of a guide field (equal to the asymptotic value of the reconnecting magnetic field or larger) ...

  18. Curvature Effect in Shear Flow: Slowdown of Turbulent Flame Speeds with Markstein Number (United States)

    Lyu, Jiancheng; Xin, Jack; Yu, Yifeng


    It is well-known in the combustion community that curvature effect in general slows down flame propagation speeds because it smooths out wrinkled flames. However, such a folklore has never been justified rigorously. In this paper, as the first theoretical result in this direction, we prove that the turbulent flame speed (an effective burning velocity) is decreasing with respect to the curvature diffusivity (Markstein number) for shear flows in the well-known G-equation model. Our proof involves several novel and rather sophisticated inequalities arising from the nonlinear structure of the equation. On a related fundamental issue, we solve the selection problem of weak solutions or find the "physical fluctuations" when the Markstein number goes to zero and solutions approach those of the inviscid G-equation model. The limiting solution is given by a closed form analytical formula.

  19. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola


    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  20. Scaling of energy amplification in the weak and strong elastic limits of viscoelastic shear flows (United States)

    Hameduddin, Ismail; Zaki, Tamer; Gayme, Dennice


    We investigate energy amplification in viscoelastic parallel shear flows in terms of the steady-state variance maintained in the velocity and polymer stresses when either quantity is excited with white noise. We derive analytical expressions that show how this amplification scales with both Reynolds (Re) and Weissenberg (Wi) numbers. The analysis focuses on the streamwise-constant fields in the limits of high and low elasticity. By introducing stochastic forcing in both the velocity and the polymer stress dynamics, we show that at low elasticity the scaling retains a form similar to the well-known O(Re3) relationship but with an added elastic correction. At high elasticity, however, the scaling is O(Wi3) with a viscous correction. Our results demonstrate that energy amplification in a viscoelastic flow can be considerable even at low Re, correlating well with recent observations of elastic turbulence in creeping flows. We also note that forcing in the polymer stress dynamics can contribute significantly to the energy amplification.

  1. Experimental evidence of lateral flow in unsaturated homogeneous isotropic sloping soil due to rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinai, G.; Dirksen, C.


    This paper describes laboratory experimental evidence for lateral flow in the top layer of unsaturated sloping soil due to rainfall. Water was applied uniformly on horizontal and V-shaped surfaces of fine sand, at rates about 100 times smaller than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Flow regimes

  2. Quasi-homogeneous Critical Swirling Flows in Expanding pipes, Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, E.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    Time-independent swirling flows in rotationally symmetric pipes of constant and varying diameter are constructed using variational techniques. In Part I, by E. van Groesen, B. W. van de Fliert, and E. Fledderus (J. Math. Anal. Appl.,192(1995), 764-788.) critical flows in pipes of uniform

  3. Quasi-homogeneous critical swirling flows in expanding pipes, part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; van de Fliert, B.W.; Fledderus, E.R.


    Time-independent swirling flows in rotationally symmetric pipes of constant and varying diameter are constructed using variational techniques. Critical flows in pipes of uniform cross section are found by extremizing the cross-sectional energy at constrained value of the cross-sectional helicity and

  4. Near-Wall Turbulence Modelling of Rotating and Curved Shear Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Bjoern Anders


    This thesis deals with verification and refinement of turbulence models within the framework of the Reynolds-averaged approach. It pays special attention to modelling the near-wall region, where the turbulence is strongly non-homogeneous and anisotropic. It also studies in detail the effects associated with an imposed rotation of the reference frame or streamline curvature. The objective with near-wall turbulence closure modelling is to formulate a set of equations governing single point turbulence statistics, which can be solved in the region of the flow which extends to the wall. This is in contrast to the commonly adopted wall-function approach in which the wall-boundary conditions are replaced by matching conditions in the logarithmic region. The near-wall models allow more flexibility by not requiring any such universal behaviour. Assessment of the novel elliptic relaxation approach to model the proximity of a solid boundary reveals an encouraging potential used in conjunction with second-moment and eddy-viscosity closures. The most natural level of closure modelling to predict flows affected by streamline curvatures or an imposed rotation of the reference frame is at the second-moment closure (SMC) level. Although SMCs naturally accounts for the effects of system rotation, the usual application of a scalar dissipation rate equation is shown to require ad hoc corrections in some cases in order to give good results. The elliptic relaxation approach is also used in conjunction with non-linear pressure-strain models and very encouraging results are obtained for rotating flows. Rotational induced secondary motions are vital to predicting the effects of system rotation. Some severe weaknesses of non-linear pressure-strain models are also indicated. Finally, a modelling methodology for anisotropic dissipation in nearly homogeneous turbulence are proposed. 84 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Comparison of multi-sphere and superquadric particle representation for modelling shearing and flow characteristics of granular assemblies (United States)

    Soltanbeigi, Behzad; Podlozhnyuk, Alexander; Ooi, Jin Y.; Kloss, Christoph; Papanicolopulos, Stefanos-Aldo


    In the current study, complex-shaped particles are simulated with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using two different approaches, namely Multi-spheres (MS) and Superquadrics (SQ). Both methods have been used by researchers to represent the shape of real particles. However, despite the growing popularity of utilizing MS and SQ particles in DEM simulations, few insights have been given on the comparison of the macro scale characteristics arising from the two methods. In this respect, initially the characteristics of the two shape representation methods are evaluated in a direct shear test simulation. The results suggest that controlling the sharpness of the edges for SQ particles can lead to a good agreement with the results of MS particles. This way, a set of SQ and MS particles, which are numerically calibrated in the shear tester, are obtained. Furthermore, the macro-scale responses of the numerically calibrated particles are assessed during a slow shearing scenario, which is achieved through simulating quasi-static flow of the particles from a flat-bottom silo. The results for mass discharge, flow profile and wall pressure show a good quantitative agreement. These findings suggest that the numerically calibrated MS and SQ particles in the shear tester can provide similar bulk-scale flow properties. Moreover, the results highlight that surface bumpiness for MS particles and corner sharpness for SQ particles change the characteristics of particles and play a significant role in the shear strength of the material composed of these particles.

  6. Comparison of multi-sphere and superquadric particle representation for modelling shearing and flow characteristics of granular assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltanbeigi Behzad


    Full Text Available In the current study, complex-shaped particles are simulated with the Discrete Element Method (DEM using two different approaches, namely Multi-spheres (MS and Superquadrics (SQ. Both methods have been used by researchers to represent the shape of real particles. However, despite the growing popularity of utilizing MS and SQ particles in DEM simulations, few insights have been given on the comparison of the macro scale characteristics arising from the two methods. In this respect, initially the characteristics of the two shape representation methods are evaluated in a direct shear test simulation. The results suggest that controlling the sharpness of the edges for SQ particles can lead to a good agreement with the results of MS particles. This way, a set of SQ and MS particles, which are numerically calibrated in the shear tester, are obtained. Furthermore, the macro-scale responses of the numerically calibrated particles are assessed during a slow shearing scenario, which is achieved through simulating quasi-static flow of the particles from a flat-bottom silo. The results for mass discharge, flow profile and wall pressure show a good quantitative agreement. These findings suggest that the numerically calibrated MS and SQ particles in the shear tester can provide similar bulk-scale flow properties. Moreover, the results highlight that surface bumpiness for MS particles and corner sharpness for SQ particles change the characteristics of particles and play a significant role in the shear strength of the material composed of these particles.

  7. Low-complexity stochastic modeling of wall-bounded shear flows (United States)

    Zare, Armin

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and they appear in many engineering applications. Transition to turbulence, in general, increases skin-friction drag in air/water vehicles compromising their fuel-efficiency and reduces the efficiency and longevity of wind turbines. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly experiments, their effectiveness can be significantly enhanced by control design based on low-complexity models and optimization. In this dissertation, we develop a theoretical and computational framework for the low-complexity stochastic modeling of wall-bounded shear flows. Part I of the dissertation is devoted to the development of a modeling framework which incorporates data-driven techniques to refine physics-based models. We consider the problem of completing partially known sample statistics in a way that is consistent with underlying stochastically driven linear dynamics. Neither the statistics nor the dynamics are precisely known. Thus, our objective is to reconcile the two in a parsimonious manner. To this end, we formulate optimization problems to identify the dynamics and directionality of input excitation in order to explain and complete available covariance data. For problem sizes that general-purpose solvers cannot handle, we develop customized optimization algorithms based on alternating direction methods. The solution to the optimization problem provides information about critical directions that have maximal effect in bringing model and statistics in agreement. In Part II, we employ our modeling framework to account for statistical signatures of turbulent channel flow using low-complexity stochastic dynamical models. We demonstrate that white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics and develop models for colored-in-time forcing of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. We also examine the efficacy of stochastically forced linearized NS equations and their

  8. Effects of Varied Shear Correction on the Thermal Vibration of Functionally-Graded Material Shells in an Unsteady Supersonic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Chiang Hong


    Full Text Available A model is presented for functionally-graded material (FGM, thick, circular cylindrical shells under an unsteady supersonic flow, following first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT with varied shear correction coefficients. Some interesting vibration results of the dynamics are calculated by using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ method. The varied shear correction coefficients are usually functions of FGM total thickness, power law index, and environment temperature. Two parametric effects of the environmental temperature and FGM power law index on the thermal stress and center deflection are also presented. The novelty of the paper is that the maximum flutter value of the center deflection amplitude can be predicted and occurs at a high frequency of applied heat flux for a supersonic air flow.

  9. Local wall shear stress measurements with a thin plate submerged in the sublayer in wall turbulent flows (United States)

    Hua, Dan; Suzuki, Hiroki; Mochizuki, Shinsuke


    A local wall shear stress measurement technique has been developed using a thin plate, referred to as a sublayer plate which is attached to the wall in the sublayer of a near-wall turbulent flow. The pressure difference between the leading and trailing edges of the plate is correlated to the known wall shear stress obtained in the fully developed turbulent channel flow. The universal calibration curve can be well represented in dimensionless form, and the sensitivity of the proposed method is as high as that of the sublayer fence, even if the sublayer fence is enveloped by the linear sublayer. The results of additional experiments prove that the sublayer plate has fairly good angular resolution in detecting the direction of the local wall shear stress vector.

  10. Analysis of the fluctuations of a single-tethered, quantum-dot labeled DNA molecule in shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laube, K; Guenther, K; Mertig, M, E-mail: [Professur fuer Physikalische Chemie, Mess- und Sensortechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    A novel technique for analyzing the conformational fluctuations of a single, surface-tethered DNA molecule by fluorescence microscopy is reported. Attaching a nanometer-sized fluorescent quantum dot to the free end of a {lambda}-phage DNA molecule allows us to study the fluctuations of a native DNA molecule without the mechanical properties being altered by fluorescent dye staining. We report on the investigation of single-tethered DNA in both the unperturbed and the shear flow induced stretched state. The dependence of the observed fractional extension and the magnitude of fluctuations on the shear rate can be qualitatively interpreted by Brochard's stem-and-flower model. The cyclic dynamics of a DNA molecule is directly observed in the shear flow experiment.

  11. Experimental evidence of coupling between sheared-flow development and an increase in the level of turbulence in the TJ-II stellarator. (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; Pedrosa, M A; García, L; Ware, A


    The link between the development of sheared flows and the structure of turbulence has been investigated in the plasma boundary region of the TJ-II stellarator. The development of the naturally occurring velocity shear layer requires a minimum plasma density. Near this critical density, the level of edge turbulent transport and the turbulent kinetic energy significantly increases in the plasma edge. The resulting shearing rate in the phase velocity of fluctuations is comparable to the one required to trigger a transition to improved confinement regimes with reduction of edge turbulence, suggesting that spontaneous sheared flows and fluctuations keep themselves near marginal stability. These findings provide the experimental evidence of coupling between sheared flows development and increasing in the level of edge turbulence. The experimental results are consistent with the expectations of second-order transition models of turbulence-driven sheared flows.

  12. Self-assembled core-polyethylene glycol-lipid shell nanoparticles demonstrate high stability in shear flow. (United States)

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Huilin; Kröger, Martin; Li, Ying


    A core-polyethylene glycol-lipid shell (CPLS) nanoparticle consists of an inorganic core coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, surrounded by a lipid bilayer shell. It can be self-assembled from a PEGylated core with surface-tethered PEG chains, where all the distal ends are covalently bonded to lipid molecules. Upon adding free lipids, a complete lipid bilayer shell can be formed on the surface driven by the hydrophobic nature of lipid tails, leading to the formation of a CPLS nanoparticle. The stability of CPLS nanoparticles in shear flow has been systematically studied through large scale dissipative particle dynamics simulations. CPLS nanoparticles demonstrate higher stability and less deformation in shear flow, compared with lipid vesicles. Burst leakage of drug molecules inside lipid vesicles and CPLS NPs can be induced by the large pores at their tips. These pores are initiated by the maximum stress in the waist region. It further grows along with the tank-treading motion of vesicles or CPLS NPs in shear flow. However, due to the constraints applied by PEG polymers, CPLS NPs are less deformed than vesicles with comparable size under the same flow conditions. Thus, the less deformed CPLS NPs express a smaller maximum stress at waists, demonstrating higher stability. Pore formation at waists, evolving into large pores on vesicles, leads to the burst leakage of drug molecules and complete rupture of vesicles. In contrast, although similar drug leakage in CPLS nanoparticles can occur at high shear rates, pores initiated at moderate shear rates tend to be short-lived and close due to the constraints mediated by PEG polymers. This kind of 'self-healing' capability can be observed over a wide range of shear rates for CPLS nanoparticles. Our results suggest self-assembled CPLS nanoparticles to exhibit high stability during blood circulation without rapid drug leakage. These features make CPLS nanoparticles candidates for a promising drug delivery platform.

  13. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter


    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...

  14. Mechanistic theory of margination and flow-induced segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions: Simple shear and Poiseuille flows* (United States)

    Henríquez Rivera, Rafael G.; Zhang, Xiao; Graham, Michael D.


    A mechanistic model, derived from kinetic theory, is developed to describe segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions such as blood. It incorporates the two key phenomena arising in these systems at low Reynolds number: hydrodynamic pair collisions and hydrodynamic migration. Two flow profiles are considered: simple shear flow (plane Couette flow) and plane Poiseuille flow. The theory begins by writing the evolution of the number density of each component in the suspension as a master equation with contributions from migration and collisions. By making judicious approximations for the collisions, this system of integrodifferential equations is reduced to a set of drift-diffusion equations. We focus attention on the case of a binary suspension with a deformable primary component that completely dominates the collision dynamics in the system and a trace component that has no effect on the primary. The model captures the phenomena of depletion layer formation and margination observed in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles. The depletion layer thickness of the primary component is predicted to follow a master curve relating it in a specific way to confinement ratio and volume fraction. Results from various sources (experiments, detailed simulations, master equation solutions) with different parameters (flexibility of different components in the suspension, viscosity ratio, confinement, among others) collapse onto the same curve. For sufficiently dilute suspensions the analytical form predicted by the drift-diffusion theory for this curve is in excellent agreement with results from these other sources with only one adjustable parameter. In a binary suspension, several regimes of segregation arise, depending on the value of a "margination parameter" M . Most importantly, in both Couette and Poiseuille flows there is a critical value of M below which a sharp "drainage transition" occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk

  15. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in HED blast-wave-driven shear flow (United States)

    di Stefano, Carlos


    This talk describes work exploring the sensitivity to initial conditions of hydrodynamic mixing-layer growth due to shear flow in the high-energy-density regime. This work features an approach in two parts, experimental and theoretical. First, an experiment, conducted at the OMEGA-60 laser facility, seeks to measure the development of such a mixing layer. This is accomplished by placing a layer of low-density (initially of either 0.05 or 0.1 g/cm3, to vary the system's Atwood number) carbon foam against a layer of higher-density (initially 1.4 g/cm3) polyamide-imide that has been machined to a nominally-flat surface at its interface with the foam. Inherent roughness of this surface's finish is precisely measured and varied from piece to piece. Ten simultaneous OMEGA beams, comprising a 4.5 kJ, 1-ns pulse focused to a roughly 1-mm-diameter spot, irradiate a thin polycarbonate ablator, driving a blast wave into the foam, parallel to its interface with the polyamide-imide. The ablator is framed by a gold washer, such that the blast wave is driven only into the foam, and not into the polyamide-imide. The subsequent forward motion of the shocked foam creates the desired shear effect, and the system is imaged by X-ray radiography 35 ns after the beginning of the driving laser pulse. Second, a simulation is performed, intending to replicate the flow observed in the experiment as closely as possible. Using the resulting simulated flow parameters, an analytical model can be used to predict the evolution of the mixing layer, as well as track the motion of the fluid in the experiment prior to the snapshot seen in the radiograph. The ability of the model to predict growth of the mixing layer under the various conditions observed in the experiment is then examined. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE

  16. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch (United States)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.


    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  17. The effect of geometrical confinement on coalescence efficiency of droplet pairs in shear flow. (United States)

    De Bruyn, Pieter; Cardinaels, Ruth; Moldenaers, Paula


    Droplet coalescence is determined by the combined effect of the collision frequency and the coalescence efficiency of colliding droplets. In the present work, the effect of geometrical confinement on coalescence efficiency in shear flow is experimentally investigated by means of a counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscope. The model system consisted of Newtonian droplets in a Newtonian matrix. The ratio of droplet diameter to plate spacing (2R/H) is varied between 0.06 and 0.42, thus covering bulk as well as confined conditions. Droplet interactions are investigated for the complete range of offsets between the droplet centers in the velocity gradient direction. It is observed that due to confinement, coalescence is possible up to higher initial offsets. On the other hand, confinement also induces a lower boundary for the initial offset, below which the droplets reverse during their interaction, thus rendering coalescence impossible. Numerical simulations in 2D show that the latter phenomenon is caused by recirculation flows at the front and rear of confined droplet pairs. The lower boundary is independent of Ca, but increases with increasing confinement ratio 2R/H and droplet size. The overall coalescence efficiency is significantly larger in confined conditions as compared to bulk conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying the deformation of the red blood cell skeleton in shear flow (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Zhu, Qiang


    To quantitatively predict the response of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in shear flow, we carried out multiphysics simulations by coupling a three-level multiscale approach of RBC membranes with a Boundary Element Method (BEM) for surrounding flows. Our multiscale approach includes a model of spectrins with the domain unfolding feature, a molecular-based model of the junctional complex with detailed protein connectivity and a whole cell Finite Element Method (FEM) model with the bilayer-skeleton friction derived from measured transmembrane protein diffusivity based on the Einstein-Stokes relation. Applying this approach, we investigated the bilayer-skeleton slip and skeleton deformation of healthy RBCs and RBCs with hereditary spherocytosis anemia during tank-treading motion. Compared with healthy cells, cells with hereditary spherocytosis anemia sustain much larger skeleton-bilayer slip and area deformation of the skeleton due to deficiency of transmembrane proteins. This leads to extremely low skeleton density and large bilayer-skeleton interaction force, both of which may cause bilayer loss. This finding suggests a possible mechanism of the development of hereditary spherocytosis anemia.

  19. Effects of Soluble Surfactant on Lateral Migration of a Bubble in a Shear Flow (United States)

    Muradoglu, Metin; Tryggvason, Gretar


    Motivated by the recent experimental study of Takagi et al. (2008), direct numerical simulations are performed to examine effects of soluble surfactant on the lateral migration of a deformable bubble in a pressure-driven channel flow. The interfacial and bulk surfactant concentration evolution equations are solved fully coupled with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-linear equation of state is used to relate interfacial surface tension to surfactant concentration at the interface. A multiscale method is developed to handle the mass exchange between the interface and bulk fluid at high Peclet numbers, using a boundary-layer approximation next to the bubble and a relatively coarse grid for the rest of the flow. It is found that the surfactant induced Marangoni stresses can dominate over the shear-induced lift force and thus alter the behavior of the bubble completely, i.e., the contaminated bubble drifts away from the channel wall and stabilizes at the center of the channel in contrast with the corresponding clean bubble that drifts toward the wall and stabilizes near the wall. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Grant 112M181 and Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUBA).

  20. Yield and flow-induced phase transition in colloidal gels under startup shear (United States)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna


    We study the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding connections to energy storage and phase transition. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in stress, and prior studies of strong, dilute colloidal gels with a stringy microstructure connect this "yield" event to loss of network connectivity. Owing to the importance of Brownian transport in phase separation processes in colloids, here we study a reversible colloidal gel of hard spheres that interact via a short-range attraction of several kT, for which Brownian motion can lead to rapid quiescent coarsening. In the present study, we interrogate the shear stress for a range of imposed flow strengths, monitoring particle-level structure and dynamics, to determine the microscopic picture of gel yield. Our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution and macroscopic response during startup provide insight into the phase behavior during yield. We present a new model of stress development, phase transition, and structural evolution during transient yield in colloidal gels for which ongoing phase separation informs gel phenomenology.

  1. Non-Newtonian flow effects on the coalescence and mixing of initially stationary droplets of shear-thinning fluids. (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Peng; Law, Chung K


    The coalescence of two initially stationary droplets of shear-thinning fluids in a gaseous environment is investigated numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method, with particular interest in non-Newtonian flow effects on the internal mixing subsequent to coalescence. Coalescence of equal-sized droplets, with one being Newtonian while the other is non-Newtonian, leads to the non-Newtonian droplet wrapping around the Newtonian one and hence minimal fine-scale mixing. For unequal-sized droplets, mixing is greatly promoted if both droplets are shear-thinning. When only one of the droplets is shear-thinning, the non-Newtonian effect from the smaller droplet is found to be significantly more effective than that from the larger droplet in facilitating internal jetlike mixing. Parametric study with the Carreau-Yasuda model indicates that the phenomena are universal to a wide range of shear-thinning fluids, given that the extent of shear thinning reaches a certain level, and the internal jet tends to be thicker and develops more rapidly with increasing extent of the shear-thinning effect.

  2. Normalization of flow-mediated dilation to shear stress area under the curve eliminates the impact of variable hyperemic stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickleborough Timothy D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The present study was designed to further examine the efficacy of FMD normalization to shear stress in reducing measurement variability. Methods Five different magnitudes of reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress were applied to 20 healthy, physically active young adults (25.3 ± 0. 6 yrs; 10 men, 10 women by manipulating forearm cuff occlusion duration: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min, in a randomized order. A venous blood draw was performed for determination of baseline whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. The magnitude of occlusion-induced forearm ischemia was quantified by dual-wavelength near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS. Brachial artery diameters and velocities were obtained via high-resolution ultrasound. The SSAUC was individually calculated for the duration of time-to-peak dilation. Results One-way repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated distinct magnitudes of occlusion-induced ischemia (volume and peak, hyperemic shear stress, and peak FMD responses (all p AUC (p = 0.785. Conclusion Our data confirm that normalization of FMD to SSAUC eliminates the influences of variable shear stress and solidifies the utility of FMD:SSAUC ratio as an index of endothelial function.

  3. Effect of bidirectional internal flow on fluid–structure interaction dynamics of conveying marine riser model subject to shear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen


    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward on fluid–structure interaction (FSI dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid–structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.

  4. Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from endothelial cells to peripheral granulocytes in vitro under shear flow conditions. (United States)

    Wang, Jinyong; Dyachenko, Viktor; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Straubinger, Reinhard K


    Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) is a tick-borne pathogen, which can cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. In vivo this obligate intracellular pathogen is primarily located in circulating mature granulocytes, but it also infects endothelial cells. In order to study the interaction between Ap-infected endothelial cells and human granulocytes under conditions similar to those found naturally in the infected host, an in vitro model that mimics physiological flow conditions in the microvasculature was established. Cell-to-cell interactions were then visualized by microscopy, which showed that granulocytes adhered strongly to Ap-infected endothelial cells at a shear stress of 0.5 dyne/cm(2). In addition, Ap-transmission assays under flow conditions showed that the bacteria transferred from infected endothelial cells to circulating granulocytes and were able to establish infection in constantly moving granulocytes. Cell surface analysis showed that Ap induced up-regulation of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on infected endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-8 secretion by endothelial cells indicated that the presence of Ap induced a pro-inflammatory response. In summary, the results of this study suggest that endothelial cells of the microvasculature (1) provide an excellent site for Ap dissemination to peripheral blood granulocytes under flow conditions and therefore may play a crucial role in the development of persistent infection, and (2) are stimulated by Ap to express surface molecules and cytokines that may lead to inflammatory responses at the site of the infection.

  5. Shear stress induced by an interstitial level of slow flow increases the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through TAZ activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Kim

    Full Text Available Shear stress activates cellular signaling involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation under interstitial flow are not fully understood. Here, we show the increased osteogenic differentiation of MSCs under exposure to constant, extremely low shear stress created by osmotic pressure-induced flow in a microfluidic chip. The interstitial level of shear stress in the proposed microfluidic system stimulated nuclear localization of TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, a transcriptional modulator of MSCs, activated TAZ target genes such as CTGF and Cyr61, and induced osteogenic differentiation. TAZ-depleted cells showed defects in shear stress-induced osteogenic differentiation. In shear stress induced cellular signaling, Rho signaling pathway was important forthe nuclear localization of TAZ. Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ is an important mediator of interstitial flow-driven shear stress signaling in osteoblast differentiation of MSCs.

  6. Measurement and analysis of flow wall shear stress in an interior subchannel of triangular array rods. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakori-Monazah, M.R.; Todreas, N.E.


    A simulated model of triangular array rods with pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10 (as a test section) and air as the fluid flow was used to study the LMFBR hydraulic parameters. The wall shear stress distribution around the rod periphery, friction factors, static pressure distributions and turbulence intensity corresponding to various Reynolds numbers ranging from 4140 to 36170 in the central subchannel were measured. Various approaches for measurement of wall shear stress were compared. The measurement was performed using the Preston tube technique with the probe outside diameter equal to 0.014 in.

  7. Effect of ion mass on transition to drift-zonal flow turbulence in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation eXperiment (United States)

    Hong, Rongjie; Thakur, Saikat; Tynan, George


    The Controlled Shear De-correlation eXperiment (CSDX) is a helicon plasma device dedicated to studies of drift wave turbulence, zonal flow interaction and generation of intrinsic rotation in a cylindrical plasma configuration. Previous studies in argon plasma demonstrated existence of a weak turbulence driven azimuthally symmetric, radially sheared plasma flow. More recent studies at higher B field with larger plasma size have shown the coexistence of radially separated multiple instabilities during the transition to strongly developed plasma turbulence. To better understand the underlying mechanism and the role of the drift wave turbulence in the formation of the zonal shear layer and of the spatially separated multiple instabilities, we study the effects of the ion mass to further vary the effective system size via the parameter (Ln /ρs). Using an upgraded RF power source, we have achieved high-density helicon plasmas in gases such as argon, neon, helium, deut erium and hydrogen in CSDX. Therefore, the impact of the ρs and isotope effect on turbulent transport, including the energy transfers and self-organization mechanisms between turbulence and sheared flows, will be addressed. CMTFO - # DE-SC0008378, MIT - #DE-SC0010593.

  8. Layering, melting, and recrystallization of a close-packed micellar crystal under steady and large-amplitude oscillatory shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R., E-mail: [ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown Technology and Engineering Complex, Baytown, Texas 77520 (United States); Wagner, Norman J. [Center for Neutron Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [Institute Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The rheology and three-dimensional microstructure of a concentrated viscoelastic solution of the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 68}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 106} (Pluronic F127) in the protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate are measured by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under flow in three orthogonal planes. This solution's shear-thinning viscosity is due to the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed (HCP) sliding layer structure. Shear-melting of the crystalline structure is observed without disruption of the self-assembled micelles, resulting in a change in flow properties. Spatially resolved measurements in the 1–2 plane reveal that both shear-melting and sliding are not uniform across the Couette gap. Melting and recrystallization of the HCP layers occur cyclically during a single large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) cycle, in agreement with the “stick-slip” flow mechanism proposed by Hamley et al. [Phys. Rev. E 58, 7620–7628 (1998)]. Analysis of 3D “structural” Lissajous curves show that the cyclic melting and sliding are direct functions of the strain rate amplitude and show perfect correlation with the cyclic stress response during LAOS. Both viscosity and structural order obey the Delaware–Rutgers rule. Combining rheology with in situ spatiotemporally resolved SANS is demonstrated to elucidate the structural origins of the nonlinear rheology of complex fluids.

  9. Finite difference solution for a generalized Reynolds equation with homogeneous two-phase flow (United States)

    Braun, M. J.; Wheeler, R. L., III; Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    An attempt is made to relate elements of two-phase flow and kinetic theory to the modified generalized Reynolds equation and to the energy equation, in order to arrive at a unified model simulating the pressure and flows in journal bearings, hydrostatic journal bearings, or squeeze film dampers when a two-phase situation occurs due to sudden fluid depressurization and heat generation. The numerical examples presented furnish a test of the algorithm for constant properties, and give insight into the effect of the shaft fluid heat transfer coefficient on the temperature profiles. The different level of pressures achievable for a given angular velocity depends on whether the bearing is thermal or nonisothermal; upwind differencing is noted to be essential for the derivation of a realistic profile.

  10. Multi-relaxation-time Lattice Boltzman model for uniform-shear flow over a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Hasan


    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.

  11. Flow adjustment inside homogeneous canopies after a leading edge - An analytical approach backed by LES (United States)

    Kröniger, Konstantin; Banerjee, Tirtha; de Roo, Frederik; Mauder, Matthias


    A two-dimensional analytical model for describing the mean flow inside a vegetation canopy after a leading edge in neutral conditions was developed and tested by means of large eddy simulations (LES) employing the LES code PALM. The analytical model is able to predict the mean flow in the region directly after the canopy edge, the adjustment region, where one-dimensional canopy models fail due to the sharp change in roughness. The derivation of the adjustment region model is based on an analytic solution of the two-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equation in neutral conditions for a canopy with constant plant area density (PAD). The main assumptions for solving the governing equations are separability of the velocity components concerning the spatial variables and the neglection of the Reynolds stress tensor gradients. These two assumptions are verified by means of LES. To determine the emerging model parameters, a fitting scheme is simultaneously applied to the velocity and pressure data of a reference LES simulation. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of the adjustment region model, equipped with the previously calculated parameters, is performed varying the three relevant length scales, the canopy height (h), the canopy length and the adjustment length (Lc), in additional LES. Even if the model parameters are, in general, functions of h/Lc, it was found out that the model is capable of predicting the flow quantities in various cases, while using constant parameters. Finally, the adjustment region model is combined with the one-dimensional model of Massman [Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 83(3):407-421, 1997], which is applicable for the interior of the canopy, to attain an analytical model capable of describing the mean flow for the full canopy domain.

  12. The LS-STAG immersed boundary method for non-Newtonian flows in irregular geometries: flow of shear-thinning liquids between eccentric rotating cylinders (United States)

    Botella, Olivier; Ait-Messaoud, Mazigh; Pertat, Adrien; Cheny, Yoann; Rigal, Claire


    This paper presents the extension of a well-established immersed boundary/cut-cell method, the LS-STAG method (Cheny and Botella in J Comput Phys 229:1043-1076, 2010), to non-Newtonian flow computations in 2D irregular geometries. One of the distinguished features of our IB method is to use level-set techniques in the cut-cells near the irregular boundary, where accurate discretization is of paramount importance for stability and accuracy of the computations. For this purpose, we present here an accurate discretization of the velocity gradients and shear rate in the cut-cells that fits elegantly in the framework of the velocity-pressure-stress staggered arrangement and the special quadratures developed previously for viscoelastic flows. After assessing the accuracy of the discretization on a benchmark solution for power-law fluids, the LS-STAG code is applied to the flow of various shear-thinning xanthan solutions in a wide-gap, non-coaxial, Taylor-Couette reactor for which rheological characterization, experimental flow measurements (PIV) and FLUENT simulations have recently been performed in our group. Our numerical investigation will give new insight on the flow patterns (onset, size and position of the recirculation zone) and will firmly correlate them to global flow properties such as shear-thinning index, generalized Reynolds number and torque ratio at the cylinders.

  13. Mechanism of kinetic energy transfer in homogeneous bidisperse gas-solid flow and its implications for segregation (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Subramaniam, Shankar


    Most gas-solid flows encountered in nature and industrial applications are polydisperse, and the segregation or mixing of particle classes in polydisperse gas-solid flows is a phenomenon of great practical importance. A statistically homogeneous gas-solid flow with a bidisperse distribution (in size or density) of particles is a canonical representation of polydisperse flows. A key feature that distinguishes the bidisperse flow from its monodisperse counterpart is the exchange of momentum and kinetic energy between the particle classes due to collisions, which are important for applications outside the very dilute regime. The average exchange of linear momentum between particle classes due to collisions occurs through the particle-particle drag term. The conservation equations for average momentum corresponding to each particle class can be used to deduce the average slip velocity between the particle size and density classes, which is the signature of particle segregation. In this canonical problem, the steady value of particle mean slip velocity results from a balance between three terms, each in turn involving the body force or the mean fluid pressure gradient, the gas-particle drag, and the particle-particle drag. The particle-particle drag depends on the particle velocity fluctuations in each class [Louge, M. Y. et al., "The role of particle collisions in pneumatic transport," J. Fluid Mech. 231, 345-359 (1991)], thereby coupling the mean and second-moment equations. For monodisperse gas-solid flows the transfer of kinetic energy from the mean to second-moment equations was explained by Subramaniam and co-workers who proposed the conservation of interphase turbulent kinetic energy transfer principle [Xu, Y. and Subramaniam, S., "Consistent modeling of interphase turbulent kinetic energy transfer in particle-laden turbulent flows," Phys. Fluids 19(8), 085101 (2007)], and this was subsequently verified by particle-resolved direct numerical simulation [Mehrabadi

  14. Numerical Simulation of Focused Shock Shear Waves in Soft Solids and a Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Homogeneous Model of the Brain. (United States)

    Giammarinaro, B; Coulouvrat, F; Pinton, G


    Shear waves that propagate in soft solids, such as the brain, are strongly nonlinear and can develop into shock waves in less than one wavelength. We hypothesize that these shear shock waves could be responsible for certain types of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and that the spherical geometry of the skull bone could focus shear waves deep in the brain, generating diffuse axonal injuries. Theoretical models and numerical methods that describe nonlinear polarized shear waves in soft solids such as the brain are presented. They include the cubic nonlinearities that are characteristic of soft solids and the specific types of nonclassical attenuation and dispersion observed in soft tissues and the brain. The numerical methods are validated with analytical solutions, where possible, and with self-similar scaling laws where no known solutions exist. Initial conditions based on a human head X-ray microtomography (CT) were used to simulate focused shear shock waves in the brain. Three regimes are investigated with shock wave formation distances of 2.54 m, 0.018 m, and 0.0064 m. We demonstrate that under realistic loading scenarios, with nonlinear properties consistent with measurements in the brain, and when the shock wave propagation distance and focal distance coincide, nonlinear propagation can easily overcome attenuation to generate shear shocks deep inside the brain. Due to these effects, the accelerations in the focal are larger by a factor of 15 compared to acceleration at the skull surface. These results suggest that shock wave focusing could be responsible for diffuse axonal injuries.

  15. Relaxation processes after instantaneous shear rate reversal in a dense granular flow (United States)

    Rojas, Eduardo; Soto, Rodrigo; Clement, Eric; Trulsson, Martin; Andreotti, Bruno


    A numerical model of granular material at different packing fractions and under steady shear is submitted to a sudden shear reversal. We monitor consequences of the strong density and shear rate spatiotemporal heterogeneities, on the constitutive relations. We show that the dynamics can be decomposed into two subsequent regimes spanning a time scale inversely proportional to the shear rate. In the first regime, a nonlocal constitutive relation is satisfied, hence accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of the fluidity parameter. However at later time, we find that the local μ(I) constitutive relation can be applied, in spite of the fact that the fluidity parameter remains heterogeneous.

  16. Modelling and Simulating the Adhesion and Detachment of Chondrocytes in Shear Flow (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Rosenstrauch, Doreen

    Chondrocytes are typically studied in the environment where they normally reside such as the joints in hips, intervertebral disks or the ear. For example, in [SKE+99], the effect of seeding duration on the strength of chondrocyte adhesion to articulate cartilage has been studied in shear flow chamber since such adhesion may play an important role in the repair of articular defects by maintaining cells in positions where their biosynthetic products can contribute to the repair process. However, in this investigation, we focus mainly on the use of auricular chondrocytes in cardiovascular implants. They are abundant, easily and efficiently harvested by a minimally invasive technique. Auricular chondrocytes have ability to produce collagen type-II and other important extracellular matrix constituents; this allows them to adhere strongly to the artificial surfaces. They can be genetically engineered to act like endothelial cells so that the biocompatibility of cardiovascular prothesis can be improved. Actually in [SBBR+02], genetically engineered auricular chondrocytes can be used to line blood-contacting luminal surfaces of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and a chondrocyte-lined LVAD has been planted into the tissue-donor calf and the results in vivo have proved the feasibility of using autologous auricular chondrocytes to improve the biocompatibility of the blood-biomaterial interface in LVADs and cardiovascular prothesis. Therefore, cultured chondrocytes may offer a more efficient and less invasive means of covering artificial surface with a viable and adherent cell layer.

  17. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FUZE Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.


    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and a development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device have demonstrated stable operation for 40 us at 150 kA total discharge current (with 100 kA in the pinch) for pinches that are 1cm in diameter and 100 cm long. Scaling calculations show that achieving stabilization for a pulse of 100 usec, for discharge current 1.5 MA, in a shortened pinch 50 cm, results in a pinch diameter of 200 um and a reactor plant Q 5 for reasonable assumptions of the various system efficiencies. We propose several key intermediate performance levels in order to justify further development. These include achieving operation at pinch currents of 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1 keV, 700 kA where fusion power exceeds pinch input power, and 1 MA where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPAe ALPHA Program and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-697801.

  18. The role of external triggers in flow shear arcs in the dayside aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt


    Full Text Available In case studies we relate dayside auroral transients to IMF By-distorted plasma convection cells based on high-resolution observations from the ground. We selected three days representing positive and negative IMF By conditions when SuperDARN returned reliable dayside convection patterns in the sector of our optical observations from Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (76° MLAT. We combine two perspectives on the dayside aurora, the local and the global. In the first we derive the fine-structure of dayside precipitation/convection as a function of magnetic latitude (MLAT and magnetic local time (MLT, which is necessary to understand the local M-I coupling processes (Birkeland current structure. The larger perspective (quasi-global dayside aurora may be used to shed light on the solar wind-magnetosphere interconnection topology. The auroral morphology consists of brightening events and poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs in the pre- and postnoon sectors longitudinally separated by a band of strongly attenuated aurora near noon. We find that the MLT-dependent spatial structure in the dayside aurora (PMAFs/prenoon – "midday gap aurora" – PMAFs/postnoon which is present during stable IMF conditions is altered by temporal structure during intervals of IMF/solar wind plasma transients. The focus is on the PMAF substructure (so-called "rebrightening forms" which we identify as dynamical plasma flow shear arcs (FSAs in By-distorted dawn- and dusk-centered convection cells in the close vicinity of the cusp.

  19. Comparing Two Implementations of a Micromixing Model. Part I: Wall Shear-Layer Flow (United States)

    Postma, John V.; Wilson, John D.; Yee, Eugene


    A Lagrangian stochastic (LS) micromixing model is used for estimating concentration fluctuations in plumes of a passive, non-reactive tracer dispersing from elevated and ground-level compact sources into a neutral wall shear-layer flow. SPMMM (for sequential particle micromixing model) implements the familiar IECM (interaction by exchange with the conditional mean) micromixing scheme. The parametrization of the scalar micromixing time scale is identical to that proposed in a previously reported LS-IECM model (Cassiani et al., Atmos Environ 39:1457-1469, 2005a). However, while SPMMM is mathematically equivalent to the previously reported model, it differs in its numerical implementation: SPMMM releases N independent particles sequentially, whereas the previously reported model releases N independent particles simultaneously. In both implementations, the trajectories of the N particles are governed by single-point velocity statistics. The sequential particle implementation is computationally efficient, but cannot be applied to the case of reacting species. Results from both implementations are compared to experimental wind-tunnel dispersion data and to each other.

  20. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.


    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Modelling stock order flows with non-homogeneous intensities from high-frequency data (United States)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Zeifman, Alexander I.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Chertok, Andrey V.; Evstafyev, Artem I.; Korchagin, Alexander Yu.


    A micro-scale model is proposed for the evolution of such information system as the limit order book in financial markets. Within this model, the flows of orders (claims) are described by doubly stochastic Poisson processes taking account of the stochastic character of intensities of buy and sell orders that determine the price discovery mechanism. The proposed multiplicative model of stochastic intensities makes it possible to analyze the characteristics of the order flows as well as the instantaneous proportion of the forces of buyers and sellers, that is, the imbalance process, without modelling the external information background. The proposed model gives the opportunity to link the micro-scale (high-frequency) dynamics of the limit order book with the macro-scale models of stock price processes of the form of subordinated Wiener processes by means of limit theorems of probability theory and hence, to use the normal variance-mean mixture models of the corresponding heavy-tailed distributions. The approach can be useful in different areas with similar properties (e.g., in plasma physics).

  2. Producing High-Performance, Stable, Sheared-Flow Z-Pinches in the FuZE project (United States)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.,; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; University of Washington (UW) Collaboration; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Collaboration


    The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment (FuZE) has made significant strides towards generating high-performance, stable Z-pinch plasmas with goals of ne = 1018 cm-3 and T =1 keV. The Z-pinch plasmas are stabilized with a sheared axial flow that is driven by a coaxial accelerator. The new FuZE device has been constructed and reproduces the major scientific achievements the ZaP project at the University of Washington; ne = 1016 cm-3,T = 100 eV, r20 μs. These parameters are measured with an array of magnetic field probes, spectroscopy, and fast framing cameras. The plasma parameters are achieved using a small fraction of the maximum energy storage and gas injection capability of the FuZE device. Higher density, ne = 5×1017 cm-3, and temperature, T = 500 eV, Z-pinch plasmas are formed by increasing the pinch current. At the higher voltages and currents, the ionization rates in the accelerator increase. By modifying the neutral gas profile in the accelerator, the plasma flow from the accelerator is maintained, driving the flow shear. Formation and sustainment of the sheared-flow Z-pinch plasma will be discussed. Experimental data demonstrating high performance plasmas in a stable Z-pinches will be shown. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  3. MHD Stagnation Point Flow of Williamson Fluid over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reaction (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Sagheer, M.; Hussain, S.; Mehmood, Y.


    The present study reveals the effect of homogeneous/hetereogeneous reaction on stagnation point flow of Williamson fluid in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics and heat generation/absorption coefficient over a stretching cylinder. Further the effects of variable thermal conductivity and thermal stratification are also considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformation. The system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations is then solved by shooting technique. MATLAB shooting code is validated by comparison with the previously published work in limiting case. Results are further strengthened when the present results are compared with MATLAB built-in function bvp4c. Effects of prominent parameters are deliberated graphically for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number for the different parameters are investigated with the help of tables.

  4. MHD Convective Flow of Jeffrey Fluid Due to a Curved Stretching Surface with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed


    This paper looks at the flow of Jeffrey fluid due to a curved stretching sheet. Effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions is considered. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field is considered. Convective boundary conditions model the heat transfer analysis. Transformation method reduces the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. Convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly discussed. Characteristics of sundry parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed by plotting graphs. Computations for pressure, skin friction coefficient and surface heat transfer rate are presented and examined. It is noted that fluid velocity and temperature through curvature parameter are enhanced. Increasing values of Biot number correspond to the enhancement in temperature and Nusselt number.

  5. MHD Convective Flow of Jeffrey Fluid Due to a Curved Stretching Surface with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imtiaz

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the flow of Jeffrey fluid due to a curved stretching sheet. Effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions is considered. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field is considered. Convective boundary conditions model the heat transfer analysis. Transformation method reduces the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. Convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly discussed. Characteristics of sundry parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed by plotting graphs. Computations for pressure, skin friction coefficient and surface heat transfer rate are presented and examined. It is noted that fluid velocity and temperature through curvature parameter are enhanced. Increasing values of Biot number correspond to the enhancement in temperature and Nusselt number.

  6. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Marina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS. However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Method In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen. Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS. FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Results Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4, and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4. Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5 and (2/26/4, respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10 and (9/13/10 for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9, corresponding to maximum and minimum

  7. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress. (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin


    Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up) were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months). Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen). Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI) at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS) on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS). FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4). Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5) and (2/26/4), respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10) and (9/13/10) for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9), corresponding to maximum and minimum flow rates. Flow shear stress

  8. Effects of Shear Dependent Viscosity and Variable Thermal Conductivity on the Flow and Heat Transfer in a Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Miao


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on the heat transfer in the pressure-driven fully developed flow of a slurry (suspension between two horizontal flat plates. The fluid is assumed to be described by a constitutive relation for a generalized second grade fluid where the shear viscosity is a function of the shear rate, temperature and concentration. The heat flux vector for the slurry is assumed to follow a generalized form of the Fourier’s equation where the thermal conductivity k depends on the temperature as well as the shear rate. We numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the non-dimensional form and perform a parametric study to see the effects of various dimensionless numbers on the velocity, volume fraction and temperature profiles. The different cases of shear thinning and thickening, and the effect of the exponent in the Reynolds viscosity model, for the temperature variation in viscosity, are also considered. The results indicate that the variable thermal conductivity can play an important role in controlling the temperature variation in the flow.

  9. Migration of gluten under shear flow: influence of process parameters on separation behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Goot, van der A.J.


    The effect of processing conditions on the shear-induced migration of starch and gluten was described. A shearing device was used to induce a separation of wheat dough into a gluten rich fraction and a starch phase. A two-stage mechanism for separation was observed: first local aggregation of

  10. Maximizing protein translation rate in the non-homogeneous ribosome flow model: a convex optimization approach. (United States)

    Poker, Gilad; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir


    Translation is an important stage in gene expression. During this stage, macro-molecules called ribosomes travel along the mRNA strand linking amino acids together in a specific order to create a functioning protein. An important question, related to many biomedical disciplines, is how to maximize protein production. Indeed, translation is known to be one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell, and it is natural to assume that evolution shaped this process so that it maximizes the protein production rate. If this is indeed so then one can estimate various parameters of the translation machinery by solving an appropriate mathematical optimization problem. The same problem also arises in the context of synthetic biology, namely, re-engineer heterologous genes in order to maximize their translation rate in a host organism. We consider the problem of maximizing the protein production rate using a computational model for translation-elongation called the ribosome flow model (RFM). This model describes the flow of the ribosomes along an mRNA chain of length n using a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It also includes n + 1 positive parameters: the ribosomal initiation rate into the mRNA chain, and n elongation rates along the chain sites. We show that the steady-state translation rate in the RFM is a strictly concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of maximizing the translation rate under a suitable constraint always admits a unique solution, and that this solution can be determined using highly efficient algorithms for solving convex optimization problems even for large values of n. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimal translation rate can be computed based only on the optimal initiation rate and the elongation rate of the codons near the beginning of the ORF. We discuss some applications of the theoretical results to synthetic biology, molecular evolution, and functional genomics. © 2014 The

  11. Dynamics and acoustics of a cavitating Venturi flow using a homogeneous air-propylene glycol mixture (United States)

    Navarrete, M.; Naude, J.; Mendez, F.; Godínez, F. A.


    Dynamics and acoustics generated in a cavitating Venturi tube are followed up as a function of the input power of a centrifugal pump. The pump of 5 hp with a modified impeller to produce uniform bubbly flow, pumps 70 liters of propylene glycol in a closed loop (with a water cooling system), in which the Venturi is arranged. The goal was to obtain correlations among acoustical emission, dynamics of the shock waves and the light emission from cavitation bubbles. The instrumentation includes: two piezoelectric transducers, a digital camera, a high-speed video camera, and photomultipliers. As results, we show the cavitation patterns as function of the pump power, and a graphical template of the distribution of the Venturi conditions as a function of the cavitation parameter. Our observations show for the first time the sudden formation of bubble clouds in the straight portion of the pipe after the diverging section of the Venturi. We assume that this is due to pre-existing of nuclei-cloud structures which suddenly grow up by the tensile tails of propagating shock waves (producing a sudden drop in pressure).

  12. The influence of stevia on the flow, shear and compression behavior of sorbitol, a pharmaceutical excipient for direct compression. (United States)

    Hurychová, Hana; Ondrejček, Pavel; Šklubalová, Zdenka; Vraníková, Barbora; Svěrák, Tomáš


    Good flow and compaction properties are necessary for the manipulation of particulate material in the pharmaceutical industry. The influence of the addition of an alternative sweetener, rebaudioside A, in a concentration 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w on the flow, shear and compaction properties of sorbitol for direct compaction, Merisorb® 200, was investigated in this work. Rebaudioside A worsened the flow properties of sorbitol: the Hausner ratio, the compressibility index and the mass flow rate through the aperture of a model hopper. Using a Jenike shear cell revealed a significant increase in cohesion leading to the decrease of the flow function; moreover, the addition of rebaudioside A increased the total energy for compression of tablets and plasticity estimated by the force-displacement method. Finally, the tablets showed a higher tensile strength and needed longer time to disintegrate compared to the tablets made of sorbitol itself. In view of the results for the free-flowable excipient, sorbitol, the effects of stevia even for a 0.2% w/w concentration have to be carefully considered, particularly whenever used in pharmaceutical formulations of poor flow properties.

  13. Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence (United States)

    Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto


    The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.

  14. Effect of shear stress in the flow through the sampling needle on concentration of nanovesicles isolated from blood. (United States)

    Štukelj, Roman; Schara, Karin; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Šuštar, Vid; Pajnič, Manca; Pađen, Ljubiša; Krek, Judita Lea; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Mrvar-Brečko, Anita; Janša, Rado


    During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacuumtubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism. Blood was modeled as a Newtonian fluid. Work of the shear stress was calculated. In experiments, nanovesicles were isolated by repeated centrifugation (up to 17,570×g) and washing, and counted by flow cytometry. It was found that the concentration of nanovesicles in the isolates positively corresponded with the work by the shear forces in the flow of the sample through the needle. We have enhanced the effect of the shear forces by shaking the samples prior to isolation with glass beads. Imaging of isolates by scanning electron microscopy revealed closed globular structures of a similar size and shape as those obtained from unshaken plasma by repetitive centrifugation and washing. Furthermore, the sizes and shapes of NVs obtained by shaking erythrocytes corresponded to those isolated from shaken platelet-rich plasma and from unshaken platelet rich plasma, and not to those induced in erythrocytes by exogenously added amphiphiles. These results are in favor of the hypothesis that a significant pool of nanovesicles in blood isolates is created during their harvesting. The identity, shape, size and composition of NVs in isolates strongly depend on the technology of their harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong


    In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.

  16. Progress on Scaling the Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch: The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment ``FuZE'' (United States)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; Tummel, K. K.


    The sheared-flow-stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch ZaP experiment was constructed based on calculations showing stabilization of the kink and sausage instabilities with sufficient flow shear. ZaP experimentally demonstrated production and sustainment of an SFS Z-pinch for a wide range of plasma parameters, with densities up to n = 5 ×1022 m-3 and a pinch radius of a=1 cm. The follow-on ZaP-HD (high density) experiment demonstrated scaling of the SFS Z-pinch to 2-3x smaller radii and 10x higher densities than ZaP, with up to 1 keV temperatures. Based on the successful results of ZaP and ZaP-HD, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE) project is experimentally and computationally studying scaling the plasma performance toward fusion conditions, with the target of a smaller radius, a=1 mm, and higher density, n = 2 ×1024 m-3. Initial FuZE experimental results show several hundred eV ion temperatures, with pinch currents of 100-200 kA and a few mm radius. 2D kinetic calculations show stabilization of instabilities at moderate sheared flows, and 3D kinetic calculations are in progress. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  17. Phase diagram and breathing dynamics of a single red blood cell and a biconcave capsule in dilute shear flow (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza Z. K.; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    We present phase diagrams of the single red blood cell and biconcave capsule dynamics in dilute suspension using three-dimensional numerical simulations. The computational geometry replicates an in vitro linear shear flow apparatus. Our model includes all essential properties of the cell membrane, namely, the resistance against shear deformation, area dilatation, and bending, as well as the viscosity difference between the cell interior and suspending fluids. By considering a wide range of shear rate and interior-to-exterior fluid viscosity ratio, it is shown that the cell dynamics is often more complex than the well-known tank-treading, tumbling, and swinging motion and is characterized by an extreme variation of the cell shape. As a result, it is often difficult to clearly establish whether the cell is swinging or tumbling. Identifying such complex shape dynamics, termed here as “breathing” dynamics, is the focus of this article. During the breathing motion at moderate bending rigidity, the cell either completely aligns with the flow direction and the membrane folds inward, forming two cusps, or it undergoes large swinging motion while deep, craterlike dimples periodically emerge and disappear. At lower bending rigidity, the breathing motion occurs over a wider range of shear rates, and is often characterized by the emergence of a quad-concave shape. The effect of the breathing dynamics on the tank-treading-to-tumbling transition is illustrated by detailed phase diagrams which appear to be more complex and richer than those of vesicles. In a remarkable departure from the vesicle dynamics, and from the classical theory of nondeformable cells, we find that there exists a critical viscosity ratio below which the transition is independent of the viscosity ratio, and dependent on shear rate only. Further, unlike the reduced-order models, the present simulations do not predict any intermittent dynamics of the red blood cells.

  18. Influence of shear on microbial adhesion to PEO-brushes and glass by convective-diffusion and sedimentation in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, A; Boks, NP; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Norde, W


    Microbial adhesion to surfaces often occurs despite high wall shear rates acting on the adhering microorganisms. In this paper, we compare the wall shear rates needed to prevent microbial adhesion to bare glass and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-brush coated glass in a parallel plate flow chamber.

  19. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng


    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  20. On the predominance of oblique disturbances in the supersonic shear flow instability of the geomagnetic tail boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mishin


    Full Text Available A study is made of the influence of the longitudinal magnetic field and density inhomogeneity on the supersonic shear flow instability at the magnetospheric tail boundary. It is shown that the most unstable are slow oblique (3D disturbances, with a phase velocity approaching at a sufficiently large angle (with respect to the flow direction the magnetosonic velocity. Their growth rate and spectral width are much larger than those of the usually considered longitudinal (2D supersonic disturbances. The magnetic field reduces the compressibility effect and, unlike the subsonic case, has a noticeable destabilizing effect on the excitation of oblique disturbances.

  1. Shear-scaling-based approach for irreversible energy loss estimation in stenotic aortic flow - An in vitro study. (United States)

    Gülan, Utku; Binter, Christian; Kozerke, Sebastian; Holzner, Markus


    Today, the functional and risk assessment of stenosed arteries is mostly based on ultrasound Doppler blood flow velocity measurements or catheter pressure measurements, which rely on several assumptions. Alternatively, blood velocity including turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) may be measured using MRI. The aim of the present study is to validate a TKE-based approach that relies on the fact that turbulence production is dominated by the flow's shear to determine the total irreversible energy loss from MRI scans. Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) simulations were performed in an anatomically accurate, compliant, silicon aortic phantom. We found that measuring only the laminar viscous losses does not reflect the true losses of stenotic flows since the contribution of the turbulent losses to the total loss become more dominant for more severe stenosis types (for example, the laminar loss is 0.0094±0.0015W and the turbulent loss is 0.0361±0.0015W for the Remax=13,800 case, where Remax is the Reynolds number based on the velocity in the vena-contracta). We show that the commonly used simplified and modified Bernoulli's approaches overestimate the total loss, while the new TKE-based method proposed here, referred to as "shear scaling" approach, results in a good agreement between 3D-PTV and simulated PC-MRI (mean error is around 10%). In addition, we validated the shear scaling approach on a geometry with post-stenotic dilatation using numerical data by Casas et al. (2016). The shear scaling-based method may hence be an interesting alternative for irreversible energy loss estimation to replace traditional approaches for clinical use. We expect that our results will evoke further research, in particular patient studies for clinical implementation of the new method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of 3D blood flow patterns and wall shear stress in the normal and dilated thoracic aorta using flow-sensitive 4D CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürk Jonas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate 3D flow patterns and vessel wall parameters in patients with dilated ascending aorta, age-matched subjects, and healthy volunteers. Methods Thoracic time-resolved 3D phase contrast CMR with 3-directional velocity encoding was applied to 33 patients with dilated ascending aorta (diameter ≥40 mm, age=60±16 years, 15 age-matched normal controls (diameter ≤37 mm, age=68±7.5 years and 15 young healthy volunteers (diameter ≤30 mm, age=23±2 years. 3D blood flow was visualized and flow patterns were graded regarding presence of supra-physiologic-helix and vortex flow using a semi-quantitative 3-point grading scale. Blood flow velocities, regional wall shear stress (WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI were quantified. Results Incidence and strength of supra-physiologic-helix and vortex flow in the ascending aorta (AAo was significantly higher in patients with dilated AAo (16/33 and 31/33, grade 0.9±1.0 and 1.5±0.6 than in controls (2/15 and 7/15, grade 0.2 ± 0.6 and 0.6 ± 0.7, PPPPPPPP Conclusions Increase in AAo diameter is significantly correlated with the presence and strength of supra-physiologic-helix and vortex formation in the AAo, as well with decrease in systolic WSS and increase in OSI.

  3. Non-Darcian flow of shear-thinning fluids through packed beads: Experiments and predictions using Forchheimer's law and Ergun's equation (United States)

    Rodríguez de Castro, Antonio; Radilla, Giovanni


    The flow of shear-thinning fluids through unconsolidated porous media is present in a number of important industrial applications such as soil depollution, Enhanced Oil Recovery or filtration of polymeric liquids. Therefore, predicting the pressure drop-flow rate relationship in model porous media has been the scope of major research efforts during the last decades. Although the flow of Newtonian fluids through packs of spherical particles is well understood in most cases, much less is known regarding the flow of shear-thinning fluids as high molecular weight polymer aqueous solutions. In particular, the experimental data for the non-Darcian flow of shear-thinning fluids are scarce and so are the current approaches for their prediction. Given the relevance of non-Darcian shear-thinning flow, the scope of this work is to perform an experimental study to systematically evaluate the effects of fluid shear rheology on the flow rate-pressure drop relationships for the non-Darcian flow through different packs of glass spheres. To do so, xanthan gum aqueous solutions with different polymer concentrations are injected through four packs of glass spheres with uniform size under Darcian and inertial flow regimes. A total of 1560 experimental data are then compared with predictions coming from different methods based on the extension of widely used Ergun's equation and Forchheimer's law to the case of shear thinning fluids, determining the accuracy of these predictions. The use of a proper definition for Reynolds number and a realistic model to represent the rheology of the injected fluids results in the porous media are shown to be key aspects to successfully predict pressure drop-flow rate relationships for the inertial shear-thinning flow in packed beads.

  4. Prediction of transitional boundary layers and fully turbulent free shear flows, using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes models (United States)

    Lopez Varilla, Maurin Alberto

    One of the biggest unsolved problems of modern physics is the turbulence phenomena in fluid flow. The appearance of turbulence in a flow system is regularly determined by velocity and length scales of the system. If those scales are small the motion of the fluid is laminar, but at larger scales, disturbances appear and grow, leading the flow field to transition to a fully turbulent state. The prediction of transitional flow is critical for many complex fluid flow applications, such as aeronautical, aerospace, biomedical, automotive, chemical processing, heating and cooling systems, and meteorology. For example, in some cases the flow may remain laminar throughout a significant portion of a given domain, and fully turbulent simulations may produce results that can lead to inaccurate conclusions or inefficient design, due to an inability to resolve the details of the transition process. This work aims to develop, implement, and test a new model concept for the prediction of transitional flows using a linear eddy-viscosity RANS approach. The effects of transition are included through one additional transport equation for upsilon 2 as an alternative to the Laminar Kinetic Energy (LKE) framework. Here upsilon2 is interpreted as the energy of fully turbulent, three-dimensional velocity fluctuations. The concept is based on a description of the transition process previously discussed by Walters. This dissertation presents two new single-point, physics-based turbulence models based on the transitional methodology mentioned above. The first one uses an existing transitional model as a baseline which is modified to accurately capture the physics of fully turbulent free shear flows. The model formulation was tested over several boundary layer and free shear flow test cases. The simulations show accurate results, qualitatively equal to the baseline model on transitional boundary layer test cases, and substantially improved over the baseline model for free shear flows. The

  5. Determination of the Orthokinetic Coalescence Efficiency of Droplets in Simple Shear Flow Using Mobile, Partially Mobile and Immobile Drainage Models and Trajectory Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousa, H.A.H.; Agterof, W.G.M.; Mellema, J.


    The orthokinetic coalescence efficiency, of two Newtonian droplets submerged in a Newtonian fluid in simple shear flow, was theoretically investigated. The investigation considered three drainage models: immobile, partially mobile and mobile interfaces. The coalescence efficiency was also determined

  6. Reynolds stress and the energy balance of a localized two-dimensional vortex in a uniform shear flow (United States)

    Cummins, Patrick F.


    Consideration is given to the kinetic energy balance of a localized two-dimensional vortex in unbounded space, subject to a uniform background shear flow. For this problem, a quadratic invariant based on the total flow can be constructed that consists of the sum of the vortex self-energy and the energy of interaction with the background flow. It is shown that an energy equation also may be written for the rate of change of vortex self-energy, relating this to the rate of working by the Reynolds stress. The stress integral is demonstrated to converge for a localized vortex of finite circulation, in contrast to the total kinetic energy. The two approaches to the energy balance are shown to be complementary, and the relation between the Reynolds stress and interaction energy is discussed. As an example, the integrated Reynolds stress is evaluated for a uniformly sheared elliptical (Kirchhoff) vortex. The stress integral includes far field contributions, indicating that appreciable exchange of energy with the external flow occurs well beyond the boundary of the vortex.

  7. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of ring polymer melts under shear and elongation flows: A comparison with their linear analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeongha; Kim, Jinseong; Baig, Chunggi, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present detailed results for the structural and rheological properties of unknotted and unconcatenated ring polyethylene (PE) melts under shear and elongation flows via direct atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Short (C{sub 78}H{sub 156}) and long (C{sub 400}H{sub 800}) ring PE melts were subjected to planar Couette flow (PCF) and planar elongational flow (PEF) across a wide range of strain rates from linear to highly nonlinear flow regimes. The results are analyzed in detail through a direct comparison with those of the corresponding linear polymers. We found that, in comparison to their linear analogs, ring melts possess rather compact chain structures at or near the equilibrium state and exhibit a considerably lesser degree of structural deformation with respect to the applied flow strength under both PCF and PEF. The large structural resistance of ring polymers against an external flow field is attributed to the intrinsic closed-loop configuration of the ring and the topological constraint of nonconcatenation between ring chains in the melt. As a result, there appears to be a substantial discrepancy between ring and linear systems in terms of their structural and rheological properties such as chain orientation, the distribution of chain dimensions, viscosity, flow birefringence, hydrostatic pressure, the pair correlation function, and potential interaction energies. The findings and conclusions drawn in this work would be a useful guide in future exploration of the characteristic dynamical and relaxation mechanisms of ring polymers in bulk or confined systems under flowing conditions.

  8. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows (United States)

    Helzel, Christiane; Tzavaras, Athanasios E.


    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  9. A comparison of macroscopic models describing the collective response of sedimenting rod-like particles in shear flows

    KAUST Repository

    Helzel, Christiane


    We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.

  10. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows. (United States)

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A


    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  11. Effects of wall shear stress on unsteady MHD conjugate flow in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature. (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Ulhaq, Sami; Shafie, Sharidan


    This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.

  12. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions (United States)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan


    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun


    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  14. Relativistic Shear Flow between Electron-Ion and Electron-Positron Plasmas and Astrophysical Applications (United States)

    Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Böttcher, Markus


    We present particle-in-cell simulation results of relativistic shear boundary layers between electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas and discuss their potential applications to astrophysics. Specifically, we find that in the case of a fast electron-positron spine surrounded by a slow-moving or stationary electron-ion sheath, lepton acceleration proceeds in a highly anisotropic manner due to electromagnetic fields created at the shear interface. While the highest-energy leptons still produce a beaming pattern (as seen in the quasi-stationary frame of the sheath) of order 1/Γ, where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the spine, for lower-energy particles, the beaming is much less pronounced. This is in stark contrast to the case of pure electron-ion shear layers, in which anisotropic particle acceleration leads to significantly narrower beaming patterns than 1/Γ for the highest-energy particles. In either case, shear-layer acceleration is expected to produce strongly angle-dependent lepton (hence, emanating radiation) spectra, with a significantly harder spectrum in the forward direction than viewed from larger off-axis angles, much beyond the regular Doppler boosting effect from a co-moving isotropic lepton distribution. This may solve the problem of the need for high (and apparently arbitrarily chosen) minimum Lorentz factors of radiating electrons, often plaguing current blazar and GRB jet modeling efforts.

  15. Fragmentation and Erosion of Two-Dimensional Aggregates in Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Nikolina D.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Mellema, J.


    We consider single two-dimensional aggregates containing glass particles trapped at a water/oil or water/air interface. Two modes for aggregate break up are observed: break up by fragmentation into a few parts and break up by erosion of single particles. We have studied the critical shear rate for

  16. Depinning and heterogeneous dynamics of colloidal crystal layers under shear flow (United States)

    Gerloff, Sascha; Klapp, Sabine H. L.


    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and an analytical approach we investigate the shear-induced, nonequilibrium dynamics of dense colloidal suspensions confined to a narrow slit-pore. Focusing on situations where the colloids arrange in well-defined layers with solidlike in-plane structure, the confined films display complex, nonlinear behavior such as collective depinning and local transport via density excitations. These phenomena are reminiscent of colloidal monolayers driven over a periodic substrate potential. In order to deepen this connection, we present an effective model that maps the dynamics of the shear-driven colloidal layers to the motion of a single particle driven over an effective substrate potential. This model allows us to estimate the critical shear rate of the depinning transition based on the equilibrium configuration, revealing the impact of important parameters, such as the slit-pore width and the interaction strength. We then turn to heterogeneous systems where a layer of small colloids is sheared with respect to bottom layers of large particles. For these incommensurate systems we find that the particle transport is dominated by density excitations resembling the so-called "kink" solutions of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. In contrast to the FK model, however, the corresponding "antikinks" do not move.

  17. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben


    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  18. Scale-down of a high-shear pelletisation process : Flow profile and growth kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, JS; Jelgersma, MA; Vonk, P; Kossen, NWF


    For the predictive modelling of the high-shear pelletisation process it is necessary to have a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, pelletisation experiments were carried out with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose in a coffee grinder (small-scale) and in a Gral 10

  19. Flow-thermodynamics interactions in compressible shear-driven turbulence: Linear analysis of possible flow control strategies (United States)

    Bertsch, Rebecca; Kumar, Gaurav; Girimaji, Sharath


    Flow-thermodynamics interaction in turbulent flows can be classified into three categories based on the action of pressure fluctuations. In very high Mach number flows, pressure fluctuations play an insignificant role as momentum far exceeds pressure forces. At very low Mach numbers, pressure is determined by the Poisson equation and flow-thermodynamics interactions are dynamically not very important. However, at intermediate Mach numbers, pressure exhibits wave character leading to critical flow-thermodynamics interactions and concurrent modification in the nature of turbulence. In our previous works, we have established that inhibiting influence of compressibility on turbulence is due to the intermediate Mach number regime. In this work, we use RDT (rapid distortion theory) linear equations to examine some strategies for flow control in the intermediate Mach number regime by exploiting flow-thermodynamic interactions. The results have important implications for inhibiting onset of turbulence in hypersonic external flows and intensifying mixing in internal propulsion flows.

  20. Static pressure and wall shear stress distributions in air flow in a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle


    Fernandez y Fernandez, Elói; Carajilescov, Pedro


    An experimental investigation is performed in a turbulent flow in a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle, mounted in an open air facility. Static pressure distributions are measured on central and peripheral rods. By using a Preston tube, the wall shear stress profiles are experimentally obtained along the perimeter of the rods. The geometric parameters of the test section are P/D=1.20 and H/D=15. The measuring section is located at L/D=40 from the air inlet. It is observed that the dimensionless st...

  1. Rheology and ordering transitions of non-Brownian suspensions in a confined shear flow: effects of external torques. (United States)

    Yeo, Kyongmin; Maxey, Martin R


    We investigate the effect of an external torque, applied in the vorticity direction, to particles in a sheared non-Brownian suspension confined by rigid walls. At volume fractions of ϕ=0.48-0.52 such suspension flows undergo an ordering transition, developing a hexagonal structure of particle strings in the velocity gradient-vorticity plane. The hexagonal structure is disturbed by negative torques, leading to an increase in the shear viscosity. Positive torque has a favorable effect on the ordered state. However, if the magnitude of the positive torque exceeds a certain threshold, the hexagonal order begins to be weakened. Due to the significant changes in suspension microstructures, rheological parameters such as the shear and vortex viscosities exhibit nonlinear responses to the external torques. On the other hand, at lower volume fractions ϕ≤0.40, where ordered structures are not developed, suspension microstructure is not sensitive to an external torque and the apparent viscosity is a linear function of the torque.

  2. Statistical analysis of data on failures of the nuclear plant equipment in conditions of a non-homogeneous flow of events. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Antonov


    Full Text Available There are three stages in the process of operation of technical equipment, each with a specific trend of the failure flow parameter (FFP behavior. During normal operation, the FFP value is approximately constant. In this case, the equipment operation process is presumably time-homogeneous, and the reliability indicators are calculated by classical methods. The FFP decreases with time in the burn-in period and it increases at the stage of aging. This means that the operating times between two successive failures at the burn-in and aging stages are not identically distributed random quantities, and the flow of failures cannot be looked upon as recurrent. Calculation of reliability characteristics shall take into account that the failure flow is time-non-homogeneous. The paper describes a method to estimate the nuclear power plant (NPP equipment reliability indicators that makes it possible to take into account the potential non-homogeneity of the failure flow. Peculiarities of obtained statistical data on failures are identified. Application of a normalizing flow function model to calculate the required reliability indicators is described. A practical example of an analysis of data on the CPS KNK-56 component failures at Bilibino NPP is provided. Presentation of the statistical data analysis procedure described in [1] is continued.

  3. An interfacial shear term evaluation study for adiabatic dispersed air–water two-phase flow with the two-fluid model using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.L., E-mail: [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two

  4. Does arterial shear explain the magnitude of flow-mediated dilation?: a comparison between young and older humans. (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Bullens, Lauren M; van Bemmel, Marieke M; Dawson, Ellen A; Hopkins, Nicola; Tinken, Toni M; Black, Mark A; Hopman, Maria T E; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J


    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) has become a commonly applied approach for the assessment of vascular function and health in humans. Recent studies emphasize the importance of normalizing the magnitude of FMD to its apparent eliciting stimulus, the postdeflation arterial shear. However, the relationship between shear stress and the magnitude of FMD may differ between groups. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the brachial FMD and four different indexes of postdeflation shear rate (SR) in healthy children (n = 51, 10 +/- 1 yr) and young (n = 57, 27 +/- 6 yr) and older (n = 27, 58 +/- 4 yr) adults. SR was calculated from deflation (time 0) until 9 s (peak), 30 s (0-30), 60 s (0-60), or until the time-to-peak diameter in each individual (0-ttp). Edge detection and wall tracking of high resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images were used to calculate the conduit artery diameter. In young adults, the brachial artery FMD demonstrated a significant correlation with the area under the SR curve (SR(AUC)) 0-30 s (r(2) = 0.12, P = 0.009), 0-60 s (r(2) = 0.14, P = 0.005), and 0-ttp (r(2) = 0.14, P = 0.005) but not for the peak SR(AUC) 0-9 s (r(2) = 0.04, P = 0.12). In children and older adults, the magnitude of the brachial artery FMD did not correlate with any of the four SR(AUC) stimuli. These findings suggest that in young subjects, postdeflation SR(AUC) correlates moderately with the magnitude of the FMD response. However, the relationship between FMD and postdeflation shear appears to be age dependent, with less evidence for an association in younger and older subjects. Therefore, we support presenting SR(AUC) stimuli but not normalizing FMD responses for the SR(AUC) when using this technique.

  5. Coalescence in PLA-PBAT blends under shear flow: Effects of blend preparation and PLA molecular weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofar, M. [Center for High Performance Polymer and Composite Systems (CREPEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4, Canada and CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B2 (Canada); Heuzey, M. C.; Carreau, P. J., E-mail: [Center for High Performance Polymer and Composite Systems (CREPEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Kamal, M. R. [CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B2 (Canada); Randall, J. [NatureWorks LLC, 15305 Minnetonka Boulevard, Minnetonka, Minnesota 55345 (United States)


    Blends containing 75 wt. % of an amorphous polylactide (PLA) with two different molecular weights and 25 wt. % of a poly[(butylene adipate)-co-terephthalate] (PBAT) were prepared using either a Brabender batch mixer or a twin-screw extruder. These compounds were selected because blending PLA with PBAT can overcome various drawbacks of PLA such as its brittleness and processability limitations. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying the molecular weight of the PLA matrix and of two different mixing processes on the blend morphology and, further, on droplet coalescence during shearing. The rheological properties of these blends were investigated and the interfacial properties were analyzed using the Palierne emulsion model. Droplet coalescence was investigated by applying shear flows of 0.05 and 0.20 s{sup −1} at a fixed strain of 60. Subsequently, small amplitude oscillatory shear tests were conducted to investigate changes in the viscoelastic properties. The morphology of the blends was also examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. It was observed that the PBAT droplets were much smaller when twin-screw extrusion was used for the blend preparation. Shearing at 0.05 s{sup −1} induced significant droplet coalescence in all blends, but coalescence and changes in the viscoelastic properties were much more pronounced for the PLA-PBAT blend based on a lower molecular weight PLA. The viscoelastic responses were also somehow affected by the thermal degradation of the PLA matrix during the experiments.

  6. On the effect of shear thinning rheology on hemodynamic characteristics in basilar tip aneurysms with implication of two distinct flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Wook [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Intra aneurysmal hemodynamics such as wall shear stress and complex flow structures have been implicated as one of the important factors on the growth and risk of rupture of an aneurysm. In this study, the sensitivity of intra-aneurysmal blood flow dynamics to the shear thinning rheological model is investigated by using the idealized geometries of a basilar tip aneurysm with two representative anterior posterior (AP) tilting angles (2.deg. and 30.deg.). By choice of different rheological models, time averaged hemodynamic factors such as wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index and relative residence time exhibited only minor effects. However, highly unstable flow present in idealized aneurysm model with 2 .deg. AP tilting angle facilitated an evident change in the instantaneous local flow dynamics with a considerable increase in effective viscosity. Nevertheless, the distinct hemodynamic phenotype, which characterizes the gross intraaneurysmal flow pattern, was independent of the choice of rheological model. This result suggests that the shear thinning viscous effect is of secondary importance in the gross hemodynamics in a basilar tip aneurysm but is appreciably enhanced on the instantaneous hemodynamics with unstable complex flow structures.

  7. Effects of Coating Materials and Processing Conditions on Flow Enhancement of Cohesive Acetaminophen Powders by High-Shear Processing With Pharmaceutical Lubricants. (United States)

    Wei, Guoguang; Mangal, Sharad; Denman, John; Gengenbach, Thomas; Lee Bonar, Kevin; Khan, Rubayat I; Qu, Li; Li, Tonglei; Zhou, Qi Tony


    This study has investigated the surface coating efficiency and powder flow improvement of a model cohesive acetaminophen powder by high-shear processing with pharmaceutical lubricants through 2 common equipment, conical comil and high-shear mixer. Effects of coating materials and processing parameters on powder flow and surface coating coverage were evaluated. Both Carr's index and shear cell data indicated that processing with the lubricants using comil or high-shear mixer substantially improved the flow of the cohesive acetaminophen powder. Flow improvement was most pronounced for those processed with 1% wt/wt magnesium stearate, from "cohesive" for the V-blended sample to "easy flowing" for the optimally coated sample. Qualitative and quantitative characterizations demonstrated a greater degree of surface coverage for high-shear mixing compared with comilling; nevertheless, flow properties of the samples at the corresponding optimized conditions were comparable between 2 techniques. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated different coating mechanisms with magnesium stearate or l-leucine (magnesium stearate forms a coating layer and leucine coating increases surface roughness). Furthermore, surface coating with hydrophobic magnesium stearate did not retard the dissolution kinetics of acetaminophen. Future studies are warranted to evaluate tableting behavior of such dry-coated pharmaceutical powders. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular simulation of flow-enhanced nucleation in n-eicosane melts under steady shear and uniaxial extension (United States)

    Nicholson, David A.; Rutledge, Gregory C.


    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used to study crystal nucleation of n-eicosane under planar shear and, for the first time, uniaxial extension. A method of analysis based on the mean first-passage time is applied to the simulation results in order to determine the effect of the applied flow field type and strain rate on the steady-state nucleation rate and a characteristic growth rate, as well as the effects on kinetic parameters associated with nucleation: the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and monomer attachment pre-factor. The onset of flow-enhanced nucleation (FEN) occurs at a smaller critical strain rate in extension as compared to shear. For strain rates larger than the critical rate, a rapid increase in the nucleation rate is accompanied by decreases in the free energy barrier and critical nucleus size, as well as an increase in chain extension. These observations accord with a mechanism in which FEN is caused by an increase in the driving force for crystallization due to flow-induced entropy reduction. At high applied strain rates, the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and degree of stretching saturate, while the monomer attachment pre-factor and degree of orientational order increase steadily. This trend is indicative of a significant diffusive contribution to the nucleation rate under intense flows that is correlated with the degree of global orientational order in a nucleating system. Both flow fields give similar results for all kinetic quantities with respect to the reduced strain rate, which we define as the ratio of the applied strain rate to the critical rate. The characteristic growth rate increases with increasing strain rate, and shows a correspondence with the nucleation rate that does not depend on the type of flow field applied. Additionally, a structural analysis of the crystalline clusters indicates that the flow field suppresses the compaction and crystalline ordering of clusters, leading to the formation of

  9. Molecular simulation of flow-enhanced nucleation in n-eicosane melts under steady shear and uniaxial extension. (United States)

    Nicholson, David A; Rutledge, Gregory C


    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used to study crystal nucleation of n-eicosane under planar shear and, for the first time, uniaxial extension. A method of analysis based on the mean first-passage time is applied to the simulation results in order to determine the effect of the applied flow field type and strain rate on the steady-state nucleation rate and a characteristic growth rate, as well as the effects on kinetic parameters associated with nucleation: the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and monomer attachment pre-factor. The onset of flow-enhanced nucleation (FEN) occurs at a smaller critical strain rate in extension as compared to shear. For strain rates larger than the critical rate, a rapid increase in the nucleation rate is accompanied by decreases in the free energy barrier and critical nucleus size, as well as an increase in chain extension. These observations accord with a mechanism in which FEN is caused by an increase in the driving force for crystallization due to flow-induced entropy reduction. At high applied strain rates, the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and degree of stretching saturate, while the monomer attachment pre-factor and degree of orientational order increase steadily. This trend is indicative of a significant diffusive contribution to the nucleation rate under intense flows that is correlated with the degree of global orientational order in a nucleating system. Both flow fields give similar results for all kinetic quantities with respect to the reduced strain rate, which we define as the ratio of the applied strain rate to the critical rate. The characteristic growth rate increases with increasing strain rate, and shows a correspondence with the nucleation rate that does not depend on the type of flow field applied. Additionally, a structural analysis of the crystalline clusters indicates that the flow field suppresses the compaction and crystalline ordering of clusters, leading to the formation of

  10. Turbulent shear flow downstream of a sphere with and without an o-ring located over a plane boundary (United States)

    Ozgoren, Muammer; Okbaz, Abdulkerim; Dogan, Sercan; Sahin, Besir; Akilli, Huseyin


    Flow-structure interaction of separated shear flow from the sphere and a flat plate was investigated by using dye visualization and the particle image velocimetry technique. Later, a passive control method was applied with 2mm oring located on the sphere surface at 55° from front stagnation point. The experiments were carried out in open water channel for Reynolds number value of Re=5000. Flow characteristics have been examined in terms of the 2-D instantaneous and time-averaged velocity vectors, patterns of vorticity, streamlines, rms of velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress variations and discussed from the point of flow physics, vortex formation, lengths of large-scale Karman Vortex Streets and Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices depending on the sphere locations over the flat plate. It is demonstrated that the gap flow occurring between the sphere bottom point and the flat plate surface has very high scouring effect until h/d=0.25 and then unsymmetrical flow structure of the wake region keeps up to h/D=1.0 for smooth sphere. For the sphere with o-ring, the wake flow structure becomes symmetrical at smaller gap ratios and reattachment point on the flat plate surface occurs earlier. Moreover, o-ring on the sphere diminishes peak magnitudes of the flow characteristics and thus it is expected that the flow-induced forces will be lessened both on the sphere and flat plate surface. Vortex formation lengths and maximum value occurring points become closer locations to the rear surface of the sphere with o-ring.

  11. A multi-axis confocal rheoscope for studying shear flow of structured fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Neil Y. C.


    We present a new design for a confocal rheoscope that enables uniform uniaxial or biaxial shear. The design consists of two precisely positioned parallel plates with a gap that can be adjusted down to 2 ±0.1 μm, allowing for the exploration of confinement effects. By using our shear cell in conjunction with a biaxial force measurement device and a high-speed confocal microscope, we are able to measure the real-time biaxial stress while simultaneously imaging the material three-dimensional structure. We illustrate the importance of the instrument capabilities by discussing the applications of this instrument in current and future research topics in colloidal suspensions. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Causality-violating Lorentzian manifolds admitting a shear-free timelike flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaue, Matthias


    The Goedel spacetime is an important cosmological solution of Einstein's field equations of gravitation. Although it does not offer a viable description of the physical universe, it illustrates the theoretical possibility of time travel. This work investigates world models similar to the Goedel spacetime with particular emphasis on relations between kinematical properties (shear, vorticity, acceleration, expansion) and causality violation, i.e., the formation of closed timelike curves.

  13. Analysis of Blood Flow Through a Viscoelastic Artery using the Cosserat Continuum with the Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedaghatizadeh, N.; Atefi, G.; Fardad, A. A.


    In this investigation, semiempirical and numerical studies of blood flow in a viscoelastic artery were performed using the Cosserat continuum model. The large-amplitude oscillatory shear deformation model was used to quantify the nonlinear viscoelastic response of blood flow. The finite difference...

  14. Influence of blood flow on shear stress responsive genes in the development of cardiac malformations : the involvement of the endothelin-1 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Bianca C.W.


    Ligation of the right lateral vitelline vein in chicken embryos (venous clip) results in changes in the intracardial blood flow patterns, and in functional and morphological cardiovascular defects. This demonstrates that blood flow, of which shear stress is a derivative, plays an important role in

  15. Complex, multilayered azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet: evidence for co-existing channel flow and pure-shear crustal thickening (United States)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei


    Of the two debated, end-member models for the late-Cenozoic thickening of Tibetan crust, one invokes 'channel flow' (rapid viscous flow of the mid-lower crust, driven by topography-induced pressure gradients and transporting crustal rocks eastward) and the other 'pure shear' (faulting and folding in the upper crust, with viscous shortening in the mid-lower crust). Deep-crustal deformation implied by each model is different and would produce different anisotropic rock fabric. Observations of seismic anisotropy can thus offer a discriminant. We use broad-band phase-velocity curves-each a robust average of tens to hundreds of measurements-to determine azimuthal anisotropy in the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range and constrain its amplitude. Inversions of the differential dispersion from path pairs, region-average inversions and phase-velocity tomography yield mutually consistent results, defining two highly anisotropic layers with different fast-propagation directions within each: the middle crust and the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere beneath central and eastern Tibet, anisotropy is 2-4 per cent and has an NNE-SSW fast-propagation azimuth, indicating flow probably driven by the NNE-ward, shallow-angle subduction of India. The distribution and complexity of published shear wave splitting measurements can be accounted for by the different anisotropy in the mid-lower crust and asthenosphere. The estimated splitting times that would be accumulated in the crust alone are 0.25-0.8 s; in the upper mantle-0.5-1.2 s, depending on location. In the middle crust (20-45 km depth) beneath southern and central Tibet, azimuthal anisotropy is 3-5 and 4-6 per cent, respectively, and its E-W fast-propagation directions are parallel to the current extension at the surface. The rate of the extension is relatively low, however, whereas the large radial anisotropy observed in the middle crust requires strong alignment of mica crystals, implying large finite strain and

  16. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra


    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A new highly adaptable design of shear-flow device for orientation of macromolecules for Linear Dichroism (LD) measurement

    KAUST Repository

    Lundahl, P. Johan


    This article presents a new design of flow-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using Linear Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette flow cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Shear thinning in non-Brownian suspensions. (United States)

    Chatté, Guillaume; Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro; Ducouret, Guylaine; Lequeux, François; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Colin, Annie


    We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load. Coupling measurements from those three techniques, we propose that (1) the first shear-thinning regime at low shear rates occurs for a lubricated rheology and can be interpreted as a decrease of the effective volume fraction under increasing particle pressures, due to short-ranged repulsive forces and (2) the second shear thinning regime after the shear-thickening transition occurs for a frictional rheology and can be interpreted as stemming from a decrease of the microscopic friction coefficient at large normal load.

  19. Orientation-dependent microstructure and shear flow behavior of extruded Mg–Li–Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, M.; Mahmudi, R., E-mail:


    The microstructural and textural evolutions together with the orientation dependencies of mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–6Li–1Zn (LZ61), Mg–8Li–1Zn (LZ81) and Mg–12Li–1Zn (LZ121) alloys were investigated. The shear punch testing (SPT) method was employed to evaluate the room- and high-temperature (200–300 °C) mechanical anisotropy of the extruded materials. Microstructural analysis revealed that, despite a great discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) occurred in the extrusion direction (ED) and normal direction (ND), the microstructural anisotropy was observed in all extruded materials, the effect which was more pronounced in the LZ81 alloy by developing banded structure in the ND condition. Textural studies in both hcp LZ61 and LZ81-α phase showed a fiber-type texture with the basal planes being parallel to the ED after extrusion. For the LZ81 alloy, however, the interfering presence of β phase affects the LZ81-α-phase texture by reducing the intensity of the maximum orientations of the basal and prismatic planes. Similar weakened bimodal type texture was formed in the bcc-structured LZ81-β phase, where some <110> poles were located parallel to the ED along with developing some other poles of a fiber-type character. It was also found that the abnormal grain growth might have been encouraged by the strong texture developed in the extruded LZ121 alloy. The SPT results indicated that the texture-dependent hcp LZ61 alloy showed higher shear strength in the ND condition than the ED condition, caused by the texture strengthening effect. As the Li content and deformation temperature increase, the texture dependence of strength properties, and thus, the mechanical anisotropy, decrease so that the LZ121-ND sample showed lower shear strength than the ED specimen due to the greater grain sizes achieved in the ND condition.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Underground Explosions: Effect of Joints Near the Source on Energy Coupling, Shear Motions and Gas Flow (United States)

    Antoun, T.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L. A.


    We have performed 3D high resolution simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The main goal is to understand the nature of the shear motions recorded in the near field at depth. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of shear motions: 1) sliding on the joints, 2) wave conversion at the material boundaries and 3) non sphericity of the source. We suggest yet another mechanism to be responsible for some shear wave generation when the cracks or joints are present in the rock mass containing the source and the explosive products find their way into the cracks. In order to investigate this mechanism, we have conducted several high resolution simulations of the source region using an Eulerian hydrodynamic code GEODYN. We explored the effect of joint orientations, number of family of fracture, energy deposition, joint aperture size, and joint spacing on the overall development of the source itself, sustained damage around the source and shear wave polarization and motions in the vicinity of the source. We have observed that waves interact with the joints and refraction and diffraction of the wave intensify the complexity of the wave field. It is worth noting that the fracture network topology has also dramatically been affected. It is expected that after the pressure has been released and the energy has been dissipated that source cavity may shrink to a different size but will sustain considerable irreversible damage which affect subsequent shots if they were to be conducted in the vicinity or at the same depth. Fracture network connectivity has drastically changed which will affect wave motions and flow of gases. To explore those effects, we have coupled STOTRAN code, which handles flow, mass and heat transport of fluids and gases in fractures and fractured porous media with the GEODYN code. We will present recent 2D and 3D simulations of typical settings for SPE

  1. Ordering transition of non-Brownian suspensions in confined steady shear flow. (United States)

    Yeo, Kyongmin; Maxey, Martin R


    We report on ordering transitions of concentrated non-Brownian suspensions confined by two parallel walls under steady shear. At a volume fraction as low as ϕ=0.48, particles near the wall assemble into strings which are organized as a simple hexagonal array by hydrodynamic interactions. The suspension exhibits a complex phase behavior depending on the ratio of the channel height to the particle radius, Hy/a. In a strongly confined system Hy/aplane changes between hexagonal and rectangular structures depending on Hy/a. It is shown that the relative viscosity is a function of both the volume fraction and the ordered state.

  2. Flow under standing waves Part 1. Shear stress distribution, energy flux and steady streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf


    The conditions for energy flux, momentum flux and the resulting streaming velocity are analysed for standing waves formed in front of a fully reflecting wall. The exchange of energy between the outer wave motion and the near bed oscillatory boundary layer is considered, determining the horizontal...... energy flux inside and outside the boundary layer. The momentum balance, the mean shear stress and the resulting time averaged streaming velocities are determined. For a laminar bed boundary layer the analysis of the wave drift gives results similar to the original work of Longuet-Higgins from 1953...

  3. Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Liu, Xiaofeng; Sumer, B. Mutlu


    Transport of bed sediment inside and beneath the scour protection may cause deformation and sinking of the scour protection for pile foundations. This may reduce the stability of the mono pile and change the natural frequency of the dynamic response of an offshore wind turbine installed...... on it in an unfavourable manner. Using physical models and 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulations, the velocity and bed shear stresses are investigated in complex scour protections around mono piles in steady current. In the physical model the scour protections consisted of an upper cover layer...

  4. Direct numerical simulation of deformable bubbles in wall-bounded shear flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, F.S.; Portela, L.M.; Mudde, R.F.; Mangiavacchi, N.


    We present a method for fully-resolved simulations of bubbly flows using a front-tracking/front-capturing technique. The method is a modification of a marker-and-cell method developed previously for free-surface flows. The basic approach is somehow similar to the front-tracking method of Tryggvason:

  5. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stability of the flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a deformable elastic solid medium is reviewed focusing on the role played by the fluid elasticity on the earlier known instability modes for the Newtonian fluids. In particular, two classes of modes are emphasized: the viscous mode for the creeping flow, and the wall mode for ...

  6. Laminar, turbulent, and inertial shear-thickening regimes in channel flow of neutrally buoyant particle suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashgari, I.; Picano, F.; Breugem, W.P.; Brandt, L.


    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous

  7. Turbulence and sheared flow structures behind the isotopic dependence of the L-H power threshold on DIII-D (United States)

    Yan, Z.; Gohil, P.; McKee, G. R.; Eldon, D.; Grierson, B.; Rhodes, T.; Petty, C. C.


    Measurements of long wavelength ({{k}\\bot }{{ρ }i}   power threshold (P LH) and can help explain the isotopic and density dependence of P LH, and how the P LH difference is reduced at higher density. Understanding and accurately predicting the L-H power threshold is critical to accessing to H-mode, and operating and achieving high confinement in burning plasmas such as ITER. Above about n e ~ 4  ×  1019 m-3, P LH is seen to converge for H and D, and increases for both with higher density. Surprisingly, the P LH increases significantly at low density in H but not in D plasmas. Two distinct frequency bands of density fluctuations are observed in the D plasmas at low density, n e ~ 1.2-1.5  ×  1019 m-3, but not in H plasmas with similar density, which appears to be correlated to the much lower power threshold in D at low density. Consistently, E  ×  B shear in the region of r/a ~ 0.95-1.0 is larger in D plasmas than in H plasmas at low density; as the P LH increases with increasing density, the dual mode structure disappears while E  ×  B shear becomes similar and small for both D and H plasmas at higher density, n e ~ 5  ×  1019 m-3, where P LH is similar for both D and H plasmas. The increased edge fluctuations, increased flow shear, and the dual-band nature of edge turbulence correlating with lower P LH may account for the strong isotope and density dependencies of P LH and support current L-H transition theories but suggest a complex behavior that can inform a more complete model of the L-H transition threshold.

  8. Shear-Induced Heterogeneity in Associating Polymer Gels: Role of Network Structure and Dilatancy (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad K.; Wang, Zhen-Gang


    We study associating polymer gels under steady shear using Brownian dynamics simulation to explore the interplay between the network structure, dynamics, and rheology. For a wide range of flow rates, we observe the formation of shear bands with a pronounced difference in shear rate, concentration, and structure. A striking increase in the polymer pressure in the gradient direction with shear, along with the inherently large compressibility of the gels, is shown to be a crucial factor in destabilizing homogeneous flow through shear-gradient concentration coupling. We find that shear has only a modest influence on the degree of association, but induces marked spatial heterogeneity in the network connectivity. We attribute the increase in the polymer pressure (and polymer mobility) to this structural reorganization.

  9. Shape oscillation and transition from tank-treading to tumbling of a nonspherical capsule in shear flow (United States)

    Kalluri, R. M.; Bagchi, Prosenjit


    Dynamics of a nonspherical capsule in shear flow is studied using a front-tracking method. The capsule is modeled as a liquid drop enclosed by a thin hyperelastic membrane following (i) the strain-softening neo-Hookean law, and (ii) the strain- hardening Skalak law. The undeformed shape of the capsule is an oblate spheroid with aspect ratio α (ratio of the minor- to-major axis) varying from 1 to 0.6. The viscosity ratio λ of the interior to exterior liquid varies from 1 to 20. Unlike for an initially spherical capsule, the Taylor deformation parameter D and the orientation of the nonspherical capsule oscillate in time. We present phase diagrams in terms of dimensionless shear rate (Capillary number, Ca), viscosity ratio λ and the aspect ratio α to describe regimes of various modes of capsule orientation dynamics. At λ 1, a swinging mode is observed in which the orientation oscillates about a mean value. At higher λ, a breathing mode is observed in which the fails to make a complete rotation, and D changes significantly over one cycle. When λ is further increased, the full tumbling motion is established. Numerical results are compared with the theory of Keller and Skalak, JFM (1982), vol. 120, and Skotheim and Secomb, PRL (2007), vol. 98.

  10. Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (United States)

    Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.


    The Oldroyd 8-constant framework for continuum constitutive theory contains a rich diversity of popular special cases for polymeric liquids. In this paper, we use part of our exact solution for shear stress to arrive at unique exact analytical solutions for the normal stress difference responses to large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow. The nonlinearity of the polymeric liquids, triggered by LAOS, causes these responses at even multiples of the test frequency. We call responses at a frequency higher than twice the test frequency higher harmonics. We find the new exact analytical solutions to be compact and intrinsically beautiful. These solutions reduce to those of our previous work on the special case of the corotational Maxwell fluid. Our solutions also agree with our new truncated Goddard integral expansion for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. The limiting behaviors of these exact solutions also yield new explicit expressions. Finally, we use our exact solutions to see how η∞ affects the normal stress differences in LAOS.

  11. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans


    in a meteorological mast at Høvsøre, Denmark, that support Tchen's prediction of a shear production subrange following a distinct power law of degree −1 in the lowest part of the atmospheric surface layer with the form $\\sim {u}_{* }^{2}{k}^{-1},$ where ${u}_{* }$ is the surface friction velocity and $k......-amended spectral model is compared with observations of ensemble-averaged near-neutral spectra selected during a nine-month measurement period from recordings from six sonic anemometers at heights of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 m in the meteorological tower at the test site for large wind turbines in Høvsøre...

  12. A turbulence model for three dimensional turbulent shear flows over curved rotating bodies (United States)

    Galmes, J. M.; Lakshminarayana, B.


    There exists currently considerable interest in the development of numerical procedures for solving the equations governing three-dimensional fluid flows. In particular, improved calculations of viscous flows on rotating bodies such a turbomachinery rotors are of great importance. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the analysis of the effect of rotation on the dissipation rate equation and the Reynolds stress equations. Attention is given to governing equations and modelling, algebraic Reynolds stress equations, a procedure for implementing the turbulence closure scheme, results for a model representative of centrifugal turbomachinery, and results for axial turbomachinery. The proposed turbulence model is valid for three-dimensional, rotating, and curved flows. The model has all the essential physics of turbulence, mean flow, rotation, and the curvature.

  13. Linear stability analysis of thin films in wall bounded shear flow (United States)

    Kaffel, Ahmed; Riaz, Amir


    In this study we examine the stability of core annular flow of two fluids with large density and viscosity ratios to investigate the physical mechanisms associated to thin liquid films flow in microgap channels. Emphasis will be placed on predicting and controlling the growth of interfacial instabilities which can lead to the rupture of the thin liquid films encountered in annular flows. A multi-domain Chebyshev collocation spectral method along with QZ eigenvalue solver are used to solve the Orr-Sommerfeld stability equations in both layers. The algorithm is computationally efficient and accurate in reproducing the whole spectrum of the eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions. The derivation of the asymptotics of these modes shows that the numerical eigenvalues are in agreement with the analytic formula obtained previously by Yih (1967), Orszag (1971), Higgins et al. (1988), Dongarra (1996) and Sahu et al. (2007). The numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to quantify unstable wave patterns with respect to the underlying fluid dynamic mechanism for various flows rates. We consider the case of isothermal, non-adiabatic, parallel flow of liquid and vapor phases. A parametric study is analyzed and the numerical stability results are presented and will be used later as a tool to validate the direct numerical solver and to identify the physical mechanisms in two-phase liquid vapor flows.

  14. Investigation of flow behavior for linear melt blown polypropylenes with different molecular weights in very wide shear rate range (United States)

    Drabek, Jiri; Zatloukal, Martin; Martyn, Mike


    In this work, three different linear polypropylenes, with melt flow rate between 450-1200 g.10min-1, have been characterized by using rotational and twin bore capillary rheometer equipped by novel inert orifice die design as well as by the instrumented injection molding machine. The measured data, that shows first as well as second Newtonian plateau, were consequently fitted by four conventional models (Cross, Carreau, Generalized Quemada and Carreau-Yasuda models) as well as by two novel viscosity models (modified Quemada and Carreau models) suggested here for the first time. It has been found that modified 5-parametric Carreau model has the highest capability to describe the measured shear viscosity data for given polymer melts.

  15. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas (United States)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.


    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  16. E  ×  B flow shear drive of the linear low-n modes of EHO in the QH-mode regime (United States)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, Y. F.; Wu, X. Q.; Chen, Xi; Peng, Y.-K. Martin; Guo, H. Y.; Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Hu, G. H.; Li, Y. L.; Lan, H.; Yang, Q. Q.; Chen, L.; Ye, Y.; Xu, J. C.; Li, J.


    A new model for the edge harmonic oscillations (EHOs) in the quiescent H-mode regime has been developed, which successfully reproduces the recent observations in the DIII-D tokamak. In particular, at high E  ×  B flow shear only a few low-n kink modes remain unstable at the plasma edge, consistent with the EHO behavior, while at low E  ×  B flow shear, the unstable mode spectrum is significantly broadened, consistent with the low-n broadband electromagnetic turbulence behavior. The model is based on a new mechanism for destabilizing low-n kink/peeling modes by the E  ×  B flow shear, which underlies the EHOs, separately from the previously found Kelvin-Helmholtz drive. We find that the differential advection of mode vorticity by sheared E  ×  B flows modifies the 2D pattern of mode electrostatic potential perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, which in turn causes a radial expansion of the mode structure, an increase of field line bending away from the mode rational surface, and a reduction of inertial stabilization. This enhances the kink drive as the parallel wavenumber increases significantly away from the rational surface at the plasma edge where the magnetic shear is also strong. This destabilization is also shown to be independent of the sign of the flow shear, as observed experimentally, and has not been taken into account in previous pedestal linear stability analyses. Verification of the veracity of this EHO mechanism will require analysis of the nonlinear evolution of low-n kink/peeling modes so destabilized in the linear regime.

  17. The relative contribution of processes driving variability in flow, shear, and turbidity over a fringing coral reef: West Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Jaffe, B.E.


    High-frequency measurements of waves, currents and water column properties were made on a fringing coral reef off northwest Maui, Hawaii, for 15 months between 2001 and 2003 to aid in understanding the processes governing flow and turbidity over a range of time scales and their contributions to annual budgets. The summer months were characterized by consistent trade winds and small waves, and under these conditions high-frequency internal bores were commonly observed, there was little net flow or turbidity over the fore reef, and over the reef flat net flow was downwind and turbidity was high. When the trade winds waned or the wind direction deviated from the dominant trade wind orientation, strong alongshore flows occurred into the typically dominant wind direction and lower turbidity was observed across the reef. During the winter, when large storm waves impacted the study area, strong offshore flows and high turbidity occurred on the reef flat and over the fore reef. Over the course of a year, trade wind conditions resulted in the greatest net transport of turbid water due to relatively strong currents, moderate overall turbidity, and their frequent occurrence. Throughout the period of study, near-surface current directions over the fore reef varied on average by more than 41?? from those near the seafloor, and the orientation of the currents over the reef flat differed on average by more than 65?? from those observed over the fore reef. This shear occurred over relatively short vertical (order of meters) and horizontal (order of hundreds of meters) scales, causing material distributed throughout the water column, including the particles in suspension causing the turbidity (e.g. sediment or larvae) and/or dissolved nutrients and contaminants, to be transported in different directions under constant oceanographic and meteorologic forcing.

  18. Stability of quasi-Keplerian Shear Flow in a Laboratory Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartman, Ethan; Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael J.; Goodman, Jeremy


    Subcritical transition to turbulence has been proposed as a source of turbulent viscosity required for the associated angular momentum transport for fast accretion in Keplerian disks. Previously cited laboratory experiments in supporting this hypothesis were performed either in a di erent type of flow than Keplerian or without quantitative measurements of angular momentum transport and mean flow profile, and all of them appear to su er from Ekman e ects, secondary flows induced by nonoptimal axial boundary conditions. Such Ekman e ects are expected to be absent from astronomical disks, which probably have stress-free vertical boundaries unless strongly magnetized. Aims. To quantify angular momentum transport due to subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence, if exists, in a quasi-Keplerian flow with minimized Ekman e ects. Methods.We perform a local measurement of the azimuthal-radial component of the Reynolds stress tensor in a novel laboratory apparatus where Ekman e ects are minimized by flexible control of axial boundary conditions. Results.We find significant Ekman e ects on angular momentum transport due to nonoptimal axial boundary conditions in quasi-Keplerian flows. With the optimal control of Ekman e ects, no statistically meaningful angular momentum transport is detected in such flows at Reynolds number up to two millions. Conclusions. Either a subcritical transition does not occur, or, if a subcritical transition does occur, the associated radial transport of angular momentum in optimized quasi-Keplerian laboratory flows is too small to directly support the hypothesis that subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence is responsible for accretion in astrophysical disks. Possible limitations in applying laboratory results to astrophysical disks due to experimental geometry are discussed.

  19. Dissipative effects on the sustainment of a magnetorotational dynamo in Keplerian shear flow (United States)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Longaretti, P.-Y.


    The magnetorotational (MRI) dynamo has long been considered one of the possible drivers of turbulent angular momentum transport in astrophysical accretion disks. However, various numerical results suggest that this dynamo may be difficult to excite in the astrophysically relevant regime of magnetic Prandtl number (Pm) significantly smaller than unity, for reasons currently not well understood. The aim of this article is to present the first results of an ongoing numerical investigation of the role of both linear and nonlinear dissipative effects in this problem. Combining a parametric exploration and an energy analysis of incompressible nonlinear MRI dynamo cycles representative of the transitional dynamics in large aspect ratio shearing boxes, we find that turbulent magnetic diffusion makes the excitation and sustainment of this dynamo at moderate magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) increasingly difficult for decreasing Pm. This results in an increase in the critical Rm of the dynamo for increasing kinematic Reynolds number (Re), in agreement with earlier numerical results. Given its very generic nature, we argue that turbulent magnetic diffusion could be an important determinant of MRI dynamo excitation in disks, and may also limit the efficiency of angular momentum transport by MRI turbulence in low Pm regimes.

  20. Radiation from accelerated particles in relativistic jets with shocks, shear-flow, and reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikawa K.-I.


    Full Text Available We have investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma for electron-positron and electron-ion plasmas. Strong magnetic fields generated in the trailing jet shock lead to transverse deflection and acceleration of the electrons. We have self-consistently calculated the radiation from the electrons accelerated in the turbulent magnetic fields for different jet Lorentz factors. We find that the synthetic spectra depend on the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet, the jet temperature, and the strength of the magnetic fields generated in the shock. We have investigated the generation of magnetic fields associated with velocity shear between an unmagnetized relativistic (core jet and an unmagnetized sheath plasma. We discuss particle acceleration in collimation shocks for AGN jets formed by relativistic MHD simulations. Our calculated spectra should lead to a better understanding of the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure from gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  1. Mechanical behavior of an individual adherent MLO-Y4 osteocyte under shear flow. (United States)

    Qiu, Jun; Li, Fang-Fang


    Mechanical properties of a single cell and its mechanical response under stimulation play an important role in regulating interactions between cell and extracellular matrix and affecting mechanotransduction. Osteocytes exhibit solid-like viscoelastic behavior in response to the interstitial fluid shear resulting from tissue matrix deformation. This study intends to quantitatively describe the mechanical behavior of osteocytes combining in vitro experiment and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) finite element (FE) model. The cell is configured in the FSI FE model using the observed data from quasi-3D images. Instead of simply assigning the cellular viscoelastic parameters by statistical data, the mechanical parameters are determined by an iterative algorithm comparing the experimental and the computational results from the FE model. The viscoelastic parameters of osteocytes are obtained as: the equilibrium elasticity modulus [Formula: see text], instantaneous elasticity modulus [Formula: see text], viscosity coefficient [Formula: see text]. A novel index to quantify the cell adhesion is also put forward. In addition, an interesting competition phenomenon is revealed on the cell surface concerning stress and strain, i.e., the place with high stress has low strain and that with low stress has high strain. The proposed method provides a novel technique to study the mechanical behavior of individual adherent cell in vitro. It is believed that this quantitative technique not only determines cell mechanical behavior but also helps elucidate the mechanism of mechanotransduction in various types of cells.

  2. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GR), exceeds a certain critical ... the viscous instability is driven by a discontinuity in the strain rate across the fluid–solid inter- face. ...... Kumaran V 1998a Stability of fluid flow through a flexible tube at intermediate Reynolds number. J. Fluid.

  3. A comparison of heterogenous and homogenous models of two-phase transonic compressible CO2 flow through a heat pump ejector (United States)

    Bulinski, Zbigniew; Smolka, Jacek; Fic, Adam; Banasiak, Krzysztof; Nowak, Andrzej J.


    This paper presents mathematical model of a two-phase transonic flow occurring in a CO2 ejector which replaces a throttling valve typically used in heat pump systems. It combines functions of the expander and compressor and it recovers the expansion energy lost by a throttling valve in the classical heat pump cycle. Two modelling approaches were applied for this problem, namely a heterogenous and homogenous. In the heterogenous model an additional differential transport equation for the mass fraction of the gas phase is solved. The evaporation and condensation process in this model is described with use of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. In the homogenous model, phases are traced based on the thermodynamic parameters. Hence the heterogenous model is capable to predict non-equilibrium conditions. Results obtained with both models were compared with the experimental measurements.

  4. The Effect of Thermal History on the Fast Crystallization of Poly(l-Lactide with Soluble-Type Nucleators and Shear Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfeng Shen


    Full Text Available The N1,N1ʹ-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(N2-phenyloxalamide (OXA is a soluble-type nucleator with a dissolving temperature of 230 °C in poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA matrix. The effect of thermal history and shear flow on the crystallization behavior of the PLLA/OXA samples was investigated by rheometry, polarized optical microscopy (POM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The crystallization process of the PLLA/OXA-240 sample (i.e., pre-melted at 240 °C was significantly promoted by applying a shear flow, e.g., the onset crystallization time (tonset of the PLLA at 155 °C was reduced from 1600 to 200 s after shearing at 0.4 rad/s for even as short as 1.0 s, while the crystallinity (Xc was increased to 40%. Moreover, the tonset of the PLLA/OXA-240 sample is 60%–80% lower than that of the PLLA/OXA-200 sample (i.e., pre-melted at 200 °C with a total shear angle of 2 rad, indicating a much higher crystallization rate of the PLLA/OXA-240 sample. A better organization and uniformity of OXA fibrils can be obtained due to a complete pre-dissolution in the PLLA matrix followed by shear and oscillation treatments. The well dispersed OXA fibrils and flow-induced chain orientation are mainly responsible for the fast crystallization of the PLLA/OXA-240 samples. In addition, the shear flow created some disordered α′-form crystals in the PLLA/OXA samples regardless of the thermal history (200 or 240 °C.

  5. Is the ratio of flow-mediated dilation and shear rate a statistically sound approach to normalization in cross-sectional studies on endothelial function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, G.; Batterham, A.M.; Black, M.A.; Cable, N.T.; Hopkins, N.D.; Dawson, E.A.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Jones, H.; Tinken, T.M.; Green, D.J.


    It has been deemed important to normalize flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a marker of endothelial function, for between-subject differences in the eliciting shear rate (SR) stimulus. Conventionally, FMD is divided by the area under the curve of the SR stimulus. In the context of a cross-sectional

  6. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko


    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  7. Laboratory study of biological response of juvenile salmon subjected to turbulent shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Mueller, Robert P.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.


    The objective of this study is to establish correlation metrics between Sensor Fish measurements and live fish injuries through well-controlled laboratory studies, and relate the findings of field studies and computational fluid dynamics modeling to the Sensor Fish measurements in the turbine environment. We exposed juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawythscha) and Sensor Fish devices to a laboratory-generated turbulent shear environment to determine whether observed biological responses could be linked to hydraulic conditions. Since its field trials in 1999, the Sensor Fish device has been an important tool to characterize the exposure conditions that fish experience during turbine, spillway, and other hydraulic environments. The live fish and Sensor Fish were introduced into the top portion of a submerged, 6.35-cm diameter water jet at velocities ranging from 12.2 to 19.8 m-s-1, with a control group released at 3 m.s-1. Injuries typical of simulated turbine-exposures include eye damage, opercle damage, bruising, loss of equilibrium, lethargy, and mortality. Digital video images were captured by two high-speed, high-resolution cameras. Advanced motion analysis was performed to obtain three-dimensional trajectories of Sensor Fish and juvenile salmon, from which time series of the velocity, acceleration, jerk, fish body bending, and force magnitudes were calculated. The motion is then correlated with live fish injury and mortality data and related kinematic/dynamic parameters. This study provides improved understanding of the location and dynamics of conditions deleterious to fish passage, and linkage between laboratory, field studies, and computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  8. Evaluation of Fish-Injury Mechanisms During Exposure to Turbulent Shear Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Guensch, Greg R.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Richmond, Marshall C.


    Motion tracking analysis was performed on high-speed, high-resolution digital videos of juvenile salmonids exposed to a laboratory-generated shear environment to isolate injury mechanisms. Hatchery-reared fall chinook salmon (93-128 mm in length) were introduced into the top portion of a submerged, 6.35-cm diameter water jet at velocities ranging from 12.2 to 19.8 m•s-1, with a control group released at 3 m•s-1. Injuries typical of turbine passed fish, including eye damage, opercle damage, bruising, loss of equilibrium, lethargy, and mortality were observed and recorded. Three-dimensional trajectories were generated for four locations (nose, head, centroid, tail) on each fish released. Time series of velocity, acceleration, force, jerk, and bending angle were computed from the 3-dimensional trajectories of the centroid using finite-difference methods. The onset of minor, major and fatal injuries occurred at nozzle velocities of 12.2 13.7 and 16.8 m•s-1, respectively, corresponding to exposure strain rates of 683, 761, and 933 s-1. Opercle injuries occurred at 12.2 m•s-1 nozzle velocity, while eye injuries, bruising, and loss of equilibrium were common at speeds of 16.8 m•s-1 and above. Of the computed dynamic parameters, acceleration showed the strongest predictive power for eye and opercle injuries and overall injury level, and it may provide the best potential link between laboratory studies of fish injury, field studies designed to collect similar data in situ, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model output.

  9. Sediment suspension in oscillatory flow: measurements of instantaneous concentration at high shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staub, Carsten; Jonsson, Ivar G; Svendsen, Ib A.


    Different syphon type suspended load probes were used together with a specially developed ''carousel'' sampler for measurements of the instantaneous sediment concentration in turbulent oscillatory flow over a sand bed, Shields parameters were well above the ripple/flat bed transition region......, resulting in intense sediment transport over a flat bed, The measurements were performed at different levels in a large oscillating water tunnel. They showed some characteristic features of the temporal concentration variation at fixed levels, including a pronounced effect of the orientation of the suction...... concentration are also presented. The analysis is partly based on Wilson's finding that in sheet flow the equivalent bed roughness is nearly proportional with the Shields parameter, resulting in a roughness/grain diameter ratio much larger than 2.5, the figure often adopted for a flat bed, but without sheet...

  10. On the Nonlinear Stability of Plane Parallel Shear Flow in a Coplanar Magnetic Field (United States)

    Xu, Lanxi; Lan, Wanli


    Lyapunov direct method has been used to study the nonlinear stability of laminar flow between two parallel planes in the presence of a coplanar magnetic field for streamwise perturbations with stress-free boundary planes. Two Lyapunov functions are defined. By means of the first, it is proved that the transverse components of the perturbations decay unconditionally and asymptotically to zero for all Reynolds numbers and magnetic Reynolds numbers. By means of the second, it is showed that the other components of the perturbations decay conditionally and exponentially to zero for all Reynolds numbers and the magnetic Reynolds numbers below π ^2/2M, where M is the maximum of the absolute value of the velocity field of the laminar flow.

  11. Laminar-turbulent patterning in wall-bounded shear flows: a Galerkin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshasayanan, K [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, École Normale Supérieure, F-75005 Paris (France); Manneville, P, E-mail: [Laboratoire d’Hydrodynamique, CNRS UMR7646, École Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau (France)


    On its way to turbulence, plane Couette flow–the flow between counter-translating parallel plates–displays a puzzling steady oblique laminar-turbulent pattern. We approach this problem via Galerkin modelling of the Navier–Stokes equations. The wall-normal dependence of the hydrodynamic field is treated by means of expansions on functional bases fitting the boundary conditions exactly. This yields a set of partial differential equations for spatiotemporal dynamics in the plane of the flow. Truncating this set beyond the lowest nontrivial order is numerically shown to produce the expected pattern, therefore improving over what was obtained at the cruder effective wall-normal resolution. Perspectives opened by this approach are discussed. (paper)

  12. Studies on the steady shear flow behavior and chemical properties of water-soluble polysaccharide from Ziziphus lotus fruit. (United States)

    Adeli, Mostafa; Samavati, Vahid


    The extraction of water-soluble polysaccharide from Ziziphus lotus fruit (WPZL) was performed by ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (ultrasonic power (X1: 70-100 W), extraction time (X2: 10-30 min), extraction temperature (X3: 55-95 °C), and water to raw material ratio (X4: 5-25)) on the extraction yield of APH. The effect of temperature and concentration on flow behavior of gum solution was studied. WPZL solutions exhibited shear-thinning non-Newtonian flow behavior for concentrations above 0.5% (w/v). The viscosity of fully hydrated gum solutions decreased as temperature increase. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the extraction of WPZL. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest extraction of WPZL (13.398 ± 0.019%) were as follows: ultrasonic power, 88.77 W; extraction time, 29.96 min, extraction temperature, 77.73 °C and water to raw material ratio 24.44 mL/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of particle-turbulence interactions on the pressure field near high-speed shear flows (United States)

    Capecelatro, Jesse; Shallcross, Gregory; Buchta, David


    Heavy particles in turbulent flows, such as water droplets in air, are well-known to modify the carrier-phase velocity fluctuations. In high-speed flows, the turbulence provides a mechanism to radiate pressure fluctuations, which are usually considered in the safety and reliability of engineering applications, such as those environments near high-speed jets on aircraft carriers. In this presentation, we analyze the potential for reducing near-field pressure fluctuations via turbulence modulation by a disperse phase. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden mixing layers are conducted for a range of Mach numbers, volume fractions, and Stokes numbers. Different turbulence regimes are identified based on the strength of interphase coupling characterized by the mass loading. The pressure intensity is observed to decrease with a comparable decrease in the turbulent kinetic energy. This reduction is found to be transient as the average volume fraction decreases with shear layer growth. In addition, we derive an evolution equation for the pressure variance in the presence of a disperse phase to quantify the particle-turbulence coupling mechanisms responsible for the observed reduction.

  14. Too big to grow: self-consistent model for nonlinear saturation in open shear flows


    Mantič Lugo, Vladislav


    Open flows, such as wakes, jets, separation bubbles, mixing layers, boundary layers, etc., develop in domains where fluid particles are continuously advected downstream. They are encountered in a wide variety of situations, ranging from nature to technology. Such configurations are characterised by the development of strong instabilities resulting in observable unsteady dynamics. They can be categorised as oscillators which present intrinsic dynamics through self-sustained oscillations, or as...

  15. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow (United States)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''


    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  16. Homogeneous and Stratified Liquid-Liquid Flow Effect of a Viscosity Reducer: I. Comparison in parallel plates for heavy crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Suarez-Dominguez


    Full Text Available Production of heavy crude oil in Mexico, and worldwide, is increasing which has led to the application of different methods to reduce viscosity or to enhance transport through stratified flow to continue using the existing infrastructures. In this context, injecting a viscosity improver that does not mix completely with the crude, establishes a liquid-liquid stratified flow. On the basis of a parallel plates model, comparing the increase of flow that occurs in the one-phase case which assumes a complete mixture between the crude and the viscosity improver against another stratified liquid-liquid (no mixing between the oil and compared improver; it was found that in both cases there is a flow increase for the same pressure drop with a maximum for the case in which the flow improver is between the plates and the crude.

  17. Powder flow in an automated uniaxial tester and an annular shear cell: a study of pharmaceutical excipients and analytical data comparison. (United States)

    Kuentz, Martin; Schirg, Peter


    An automated version of uniaxial powder flow testing has recently been developed and there is a need for experimental data from pharmaceutical powders. To compare the novel testing method with an annular shear cell using different pharmaceutical excipients. A particular aim was to gain an improved understanding of potential differences in the obtained flow results. Nine excipients were studied with both flow testers at different consolidation levels. Unconfined yield strengths were determined at similar major consolidation stresses. Finally, an anisotropic stress factor was calculated and the fractal character of the powders was assessed by means of image analysis in a rotating drum. Data correlated generally well; however, the unconfined yield strength from uniaxial testing resulted mostly in lower values compared to annular shear cell testing. Differences were specific for the given excipients and mannitol demonstrated the highest discrepancy of measured flow parameters. The differences were first discussed by considering wall friction, anisotropy of forces, brittleness as well as the fractal nature of the powder surface. This heterogeneity of the powder as well as the anisotropy of forces was also found to be important for the relative flow index. The automated uniaxial method demonstrated faster and more reproducible flow testing as compared to an annular shear cell. Therefore, the new method has a high potential in pharmaceutics for example in the quality-control of powders.

  18. Unfolding of collapsed polymers in shear flow: effects of colloid banding structures in confining channels. (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo


    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate that confined colloidal suspensions can greatly enhance the unfolding of collapsed single polymers in flow. When colloids come in direct contact with the polymers due to the flow, the collapsed chains become flattened or elongated on the surface of the colloids, increasing the probability of forming large chain protrusions that the flow can pull out to unfold the polymers. This phenomenon may be suppressed if the colloid size is commensurate with the confining channels, where the colloids form well-defined banding structures. Here, we analyze the colloid banding structures in detail and their relation to the chain unfolding. We find that for colloid volume fractions up to 30%, the confined colloids form simple cubic (sc), hexagonal (hex), or a mixture of sc + hex structures. By directly changing the heights of the confining channels, we show that the collapsed polymers unfold the most in the mixed sc + hex structures. The diffuse (not well-defined) bands in the mixed sc + hex structures provide the highest collision probability for the colloids and the polymers, thus enhancing unfolding the most. Without colloidal suspensions, we show that the confining channels alone do not have an observable effect on the unfolding of collapsed polymers. The well-defined colloid bands also suppress the unfolding of noncollapsed polymers. In fact, the average size for noncollapsed chains is even smaller in the well-defined bands than in a channel without any colloids. The appearance of well-defined bands in this case also indicates that lift forces experienced by the polymers in confinement are negligible compared to those exerted by the colloidal band structures. Our results may be important for understanding the dynamics of mixed colloid polymer solutions.

  19. Pair collisions of fluid-filled elastic capsules in shear flow: Effects of membrane properties and polymer additives (United States)

    Pranay, Pratik; Anekal, Samartha G.; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; Graham, Michael D.


    The dynamics and pair collisions of fluid-filled elastic capsules during Couette flow in Newtonian fluids and dilute solutions of high-molecular weight (drag-reducing) polymers are investigated via direct simulation. Capsule membranes are modeled using either a neo-Hookean constitutive model or a model introduced by Skalak et al. ["Strain energy function of red blood-cell membranes," Biophys. J. 13, 245 (1973)], which includes an energy penalty for area changes. This model was developed to capture the elastic properties of red blood cells. Polymer molecules are modeled as bead-spring trimers with finitely extensible nonlinearly elastic springs; parameters were chosen to loosely approximate 4000 kDa poly(ethylene oxide). Simulations are performed with a novel Stokes flow formulation of the immersed boundary method for the capsules, combined with Brownian dynamics for the polymer molecules. The results for isolated capsules in shear indicate that at the very low concentrations considered here, polymers have a little effect on the capsule shape. In the case of pair collisions, the effect of polymer is strongly dependent on the elastic properties of the capsules' membranes. For neo-Hookean capsules or for Skalak capsules with only a small penalty for area change, the net displacement in the gradient direction after collision is virtually unaffected by the polymer. For Skalak capsules with a large penalty for area change, polymers substantially decrease the net displacement when compared to the Newtonian case and the effect is enhanced upon increasing the polymer concentration. The differences between the polymer effects in the various cases are associated with the extensional flow generated in the region between the capsules as they leave the collision. The extension rate is highest when there is a strong resistance to a change in the membrane area and is substantially decreased in the presence of polymer.

  20. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear (United States)

    Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders


    The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

  1. Nonequilibrium Langevin dynamics: A demonstration study of shear flow fluctuations in a simple fluid (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto


    The present paper is based on a recent success of the second-order stochastic fluctuation theory in describing time autocorrelations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems. In particular, it was shown to yield values of the related deterministic parameters of the Langevin equation for a Couette flow in a microscopic molecular dynamics model of a simple fluid. In this paper we find all the remaining constants of the stochastic dynamics, which then is simulated numerically and compared directly with the original physical system. By using these data, we study in detail the accuracy and precision of a second-order Langevin model for nonequilibrium physical systems theoretically and computationally. We find an intriguing relation between an applied external force and cumulants of the resulting flow fluctuations. This is characterized by a linear dependence of an athermal cumulant ratio, an apposite quantity introduced here. In addition, we discuss how the order of a given Langevin dynamics can be raised systematically by introducing colored noise.

  2. A LES Study on Passive Mixing in Supersonic Shear Layer Flows Considering Effects of Baffle Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhao-Xin


    Full Text Available Under the background of dual combustor ramjet (DCR, a numerical investigation of supersonic mixing layer was launched, focused on the mixing enhancement method of applying baffles with different geometric configurations. Large eddy simulation with high order schemes, containing a fifth-order hybrid WENO compact scheme for the convective flux and sixth-order compact one for the viscous flux, was utilized to numerically study the development of the supersonic mixing layer. The supersonic cavity flow was simulated and the cavity configuration could influence the mixing characteristics, since the impingement process of large scale structures formed inside the cavity could raise the vorticity and promote the mixing. The effect of baffle's configurations on the mixing process was analyzed by comparing the flow properties, mixing efficiency, and total pressure loss. The baffle could induce large scale vortexes, promote the mixing layer to lose its stability easily, and then lead to the mixing efficiency enhancement. However, the baffle could increase the total pressure loss. The present investigation could provide guidance for applying new passive mixing enhancement methods for the supersonic mixing.

  3. Dislodging a sessile drop by a high-Reynolds-number shear flow at subfreezing temperatures. (United States)

    Roisman, Ilia V; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, Cameron; Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Amirfazli, Alidad


    The drop, exposed to an air flow parallel to the substrate, starts to dislodge when the air velocity reaches some threshold value, which depends on the substrate wetting properties and drop volume. In this study the critical air velocity is measured for different drop volumes, on substrates of various wettabilities. The substrate initial temperatures varied between the normal room temperature (24.5∘C) and subfreezing temperatures (-5∘C and -1∘C). The physics of the drop did not change at the subfreezing temperatures of the substrates, which clearly indicates that the drop does not freeze and remains liquid for a relatively long time. During this time solidification is not initiated, neither by the air flow nor by mechanical disturbances. An approximate theoretical model is proposed that allows estimation of the aerodynamic forces acting on the sessile drop. The model is valid for the case when the drop height is of the same order as the thickness of the viscous boundary in the airflow, but the inertial effects are still dominant. Such a situation, relevant to many practical applications, was never modeled before. The theoretical predictions for the critical velocity of drop dislodging agree well with the experimental data for both room temperature and lower temperatures of the substrates.

  4. Dislodging a sessile drop by a high-Reynolds-number shear flow at subfreezing temperatures (United States)

    Roisman, Ilia V.; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, Cameron; Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Amirfazli, Alidad


    The drop, exposed to an air flow parallel to the substrate, starts to dislodge when the air velocity reaches some threshold value, which depends on the substrate wetting properties and drop volume. In this study the critical air velocity is measured for different drop volumes, on substrates of various wettabilities. The substrate initial temperatures varied between the normal room temperature (24 .5∘C ) and subfreezing temperatures (-5∘C and -1∘C ). The physics of the drop did not change at the subfreezing temperatures of the substrates, which clearly indicates that the drop does not freeze and remains liquid for a relatively long time. During this time solidification is not initiated, neither by the air flow nor by mechanical disturbances. An approximate theoretical model is proposed that allows estimation of the aerodynamic forces acting on the sessile drop. The model is valid for the case when the drop height is of the same order as the thickness of the viscous boundary in the airflow, but the inertial effects are still dominant. Such a situation, relevant to many practical applications, was never modeled before. The theoretical predictions for the critical velocity of drop dislodging agree well with the experimental data for both room temperature and lower temperatures of the substrates.

  5. Development of core ion temperature gradients and edge sheared flows in a helicon plasma device investigated by laser induced fluorescence measurements (United States)

    Thakur, S. C.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.


    We report experimental observation of ion heating and subsequent development of a prominent ion temperature gradient in the core of a linear magnetized plasma device, and the controlled shear de-correlation experiment. Simultaneously, we also observe the development of strong sheared flows at the edge of the device. Both the ion temperature and the azimuthal velocity profiles are quite flat at low magnetic fields. As the magnetic field is increased, the core ion temperature increases, producing centrally peaked ion temperature profiles and therefore strong radial gradients in the ion temperature. Similarly, we observe the development of large azimuthal flows at the edge, with increasing magnetic field, leading to strong radially sheared plasma flows. The ion velocities and temperatures are derived from laser induced fluorescence measurements of Doppler resolved velocity distribution functions of argon ions. These features are consistent with the previous observations of simultaneously existing radially separated multiple plasma instabilities that exhibit complex plasma dynamics in a very simple plasma system. The ion temperature gradients in the core and the radially sheared azimuthal velocities at the edge point to mechanisms that can drive the multiple plasma instabilities, that were reported earlier.

  6. High shear rate flow in a linear stroke magnetorheological energy absorber (United States)

    Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.; Hiemenz, G. J.; Ngatu, G. T.


    To provide adaptive stroking load in the crew seats of ground vehicles to protect crew from blast or impact loads, a magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) or shock absorber was developed. The MREA provides appropriate levels of controllable stroking load for different occupant weights and peak acceleration because the viscous stroking load generated by the MREA force increases with velocity squared, thereby reducing its controllable range at high piston velocity. Therefore, MREA behavior at high piston velocity is analyzed and validated experimentally in order to investigate the effects of velocity and magnetic field on MREA performance. The analysis used to predict the MREA force as a function of piston velocity squared and applied field is presented. A conical fairing is mounted to the piston head of the MREA in order reduce predicted inlet flow loss by 9% at nominal velocity of 8 m/s, which resulted in a viscous force reduction of nominally 4%. The MREA behavior is experimentally measured using a high speed servo-hydraulic testing system for speeds up to 8 m/s. The measured MREA force is used to validate the analysis, which captures the transient force quite accurately, although the peak force is under-predicted at the peak speed of 8 m/s.

  7. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow (United States)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.


    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  8. Migration of rigid particles in two-phase viscoelastic shear flow (United States)

    Anderson, Patrick; Jaensson, Nick; Hulsen, Martien


    We present simulations of particle migration in two-phase flows, where one of the fluids is viscoelastic, whereas the other is Newtonian. The fluid-fluid interface is assumed to be diffuse, and is described using Cahn-Hilliard theory. The equations are solved using the finite element method on moving meshes that are aligned with the particle boundary. The meshes used are highly refined in the interfacial region between the fluids and near the particle boundary, which allows us to perform simulations with a small interfacial thickness. Four regimes of particle migration are observed. The first regime, migration away from the interface, occurs if normal stresses in the viscoelastic fluid are absent, i.e. a Newtonian fluid. Due to the deformation of the interface, as Laplace pressure is build up, effectively pushing the particle away from the interface. The second regime, halted migration, occurs if the particle migrates toward the interface, but the migration is halted due to the Laplace pressure. In the third regime, interface penetration, the interfacial tension is not large enough to halt the migration, and the particle moves into the Newtonian fluid, encapsulated by a film of viscoelastic fluid. In the final fourth regime the particles are adsorbed at the interface.

  9. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.


    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor e(i), with the vorticity vector omega, is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors vertical bar e(i) . (omega) over cap vertical bar are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e(1), in contrast to the global tendency for omega to be aligned in parallelwith the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008)]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between omega and nonlocal e(1) and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  10. Impact of wall shear stress and ligand avidity on binding of anti-CD146-coated nanoparticles to murine tumor endothelium under flow (United States)

    Ryschich, Eduard


    The endothelial phenotype of tumor blood vessels differs from the liver and forms an important base for endothelium-specific targeting by antibody-coated nanoparticles. Although differences of shear stress and ligand avidity can modulate the nanoparticle binding to endothelium, these mechanisms are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the binding of antibody-coated nanoparticles to tumor and liver endothelium under controlled flow conditions and verified this binding in tumor models in vivo. Binding of anti-CD146-coated nanoparticles, but not of antibody was significantly reduced under increased wall shear stress and the degree of nanoparticle binding correlated with the avidity of the coating. The intravascular wall shear stress favors nanoparticle binding at the site of higher avidity of endothelial epitope which additionally promotes the selectivity to tumor endothelium. After intravenous application in vivo, pegylated self-coated nanoparticles showed specific binding to tumor endothelium, whereas the nanoparticle binding to the liver endothelium was very low. This study provides a rationale that selective binding of mAb-coated nanoparticles to tumor endothelium is achieved by two factors: higher expression of endothelial epitope and higher nanoparticle shearing from liver endothelium. The combination of endothelial marker targeting and the use of shear stress-controlled nanoparticle capture can be used for selective intratumoral drug delivery. PMID:26503468

  11. Particle Acceleration in Mildly Relativistic Shearing Flows: The Interplay of Systematic and Stochastic Effects, and the Origin of the Extended High-energy Emission in AGN Jets (United States)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Rieger, F. M.; Aharonian, F. A.


    The origin of the extended X-ray emission in the large-scale jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) poses challenges to conventional models of acceleration and emission. Although electron synchrotron radiation is considered the most feasible radiation mechanism, the formation of the continuous large-scale X-ray structure remains an open issue. As astrophysical jets are expected to exhibit some turbulence and shearing motion, we here investigate the potential of shearing flows to facilitate an extended acceleration of particles and evaluate its impact on the resultant particle distribution. Our treatment incorporates systematic shear and stochastic second-order Fermi effects. We show that for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration, which always accompanies shear particle acceleration, can play an important role in facilitating the whole process of particle energization. We study the time-dependent evolution of the resultant particle distribution in the presence of second-order Fermi acceleration, shear acceleration, and synchrotron losses using a simple Fokker-Planck approach and provide illustrations for the possible emergence of a complex (multicomponent) particle energy distribution with different spectral branches. We present examples for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, indicating the relevance of the underlying processes for understanding the extended X-ray emission and the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.

  12. Predicting bed shear stress and its role in sediment dynamics and restoration potential of the Everglades and other vegetated flow systems (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson; John P. Crimaldi,


    Entrainment of sediment by flowing water affects topography, habitat suitability, and nutrient cycling in vegetated floodplains and wetlands, impacting ecosystem evolution and the success of restoration projects. Nonetheless, restoration managers lack simple decision-support tools for predicting shear stresses and sediment redistribution potential in different vegetation communities. Using a field-validated numerical model, we developed state-space diagrams that provide these predictions over a range of water-surface slopes, depths, and associated velocities in Everglades ridge and slough vegetation communities. Diminished bed shear stresses and a consequent decrease in bed sediment redistribution are hypothesized causes of a recent reduction in the topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of this ecosystem. Results confirmed the inability of present-day flows to entrain bed sediment. Further, our diagrams showed bed shear stresses to be highly sensitive to emergent vegetation density and water-surface slope but less sensitive to water depth and periphyton or floating vegetation abundance. These findings suggested that instituting a pulsing flow regime could be the most effective means to restore sediment redistribution to the Everglades. However, pulsing flows will not be sufficient to erode sediment from sloughs with abundant spikerush, unless spikerush density first decreases by natural or managed processes. Our methods provide a novel tool for identifying restoration parameters and performance measures in many types of vegetated aquatic environments where sediment erosion and deposition are involved.

  13. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail:


    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  14. Impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in older subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.


    An inverse, dose-dependent relationship between retrograde shear rate and brachial artery endothelial function exists in young subjects. This relationship has not been investigated in older adults, who have been related to lower endothelial function, higher resting retrograde shear rate and higher

  15. Shear-flow driven dissipative instability and investigation of nonlinear drift-vortex modes in dusty plasmas with non-thermal ion population (United States)

    Gul-e-Ali, Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.


    The shear flow in dust dynamics driven waves in combination with the dust-neutral drag is studied in a plasma comprising of ions, electrons, and dust. Non-thermal population of ions is considered, which has been observed by many satellite missions. It is found that the dissipative instability produced by dust sheared flow and dust-neutral drag gets modified by the presence of nonthermal ions. It is found that the dissipative instability enhances for the Cairns distribution, whereas the kappa distribution arrests the growth of this instability. In the nonlinear regime, the formation of vortices in the system is studied. It is found that the nonthermal population of ions significantly alters these structures in comparison with their Maxwellian counterpart. The results obtained in this paper may have relevance in the planetary magnetospheres where the dust particles are present and non-Maxwellian distribution of particles have been observed by Freja and Viking satellites.

  16. On a criterion of incipient motion and entrainment into suspension of a particle from cuttings bed in shear flow of non-Newtonian fluid (United States)

    Ignatenko, Yaroslav; Bocharov, Oleg; May, Roland


    Solids transport is a major issue in high angle wells. Bed-load forms by sediment while transport and accompanied by intermittent contact with stream-bed by rolling, sliding and bouncing. The study presents the results of a numerical simulation of a laminar steady-state flow around a particle at rest and in free motion in a shear flow of Herschel–Bulkley fluid. The simulation was performed using the OpenFOAM open-source CFD package. A criterion for particle incipient motion and entrainment into suspension from cuttings bed (Shields criteria) based on forces and torques balance is discussed. Deflection of the fluid parameters from the ones of Newtonian fluid leads to decreasing of the drag and lift forces and the hydrodynamic moment. Thus, the critical shear stress (Shields parameter) for the considered non-Newtonian fluid must be greater than the one for a Newtonian fluid.

  17. Numerical study of shear rate effect on unsteady flow separation from the surface of the square cylinder using structural bifurcation analysis (United States)

    Ray, Rajendra K.; Kumar, Atendra


    In this paper, an incompressible two-dimensional shear flow past a square cylinder problem is investigated numerically using a higher order compact finite difference scheme. Simulations are presented for three sets of Reynolds numbers, 100, 200, and 500, with various shear parameter (K) values ranging from 0.0 to 0.4. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate the influence of shear rate on the vortex shedding phenomenon behind the square cylinder. The results presented here show that the vortex shedding phenomenon strongly depends on Re as well as K. The strength and size of vortices shed behind the cylinder vary as a function of Re and K. When K is larger than a critical value, the vortex shedding phenomenon has completely disappeared depending on the Reynolds number. Apart from the numerical study, a thorough theoretical investigation has been done by using a topology based structural bifurcation analysis for unsteady flow separations from the walls of the cylinder. Through this analysis, we study the exact locations of the bifurcation points associated with secondary and tertiary vortices with appropriate non-dimensional time of occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time, a topological aspect based structural bifurcation analysis has been done to understand the vortex shedding phenomenon and flow separation for this problem.

  18. Longitudinal dispersion in natural channels: 2. The roles of shear flow dispersion and dead zones in the River Severn, U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Davis


    Full Text Available The classical one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation (ADE gives an inadequate description of tracer cloud evolution in the River Severn, U.K. A solute transport model incorporating the effects of tracer storage in dead zones is presented in which the channel is conceived as being divided into two parallel regions. The bulk flow region occurs in the central part. Its longitudinal dispersive properties are described by the ADE. Adjacent to this, an additional cross-sectional area is defined in which tracer can be stored temporarily in regions of slowly moving water called dead zones. Exchange between the two regions follows a first order rate equation. Applying the model to the River Severn shows that a dispersing cloud’s evolution occurs in two distinct stages with a rapid transitional phase. Initially, shear-dispersion is dominant while the tracer particles mix fully over the bulk flow. Once this has occurred, dead zone storage accounts well for the non-Fickian evolution of the cloud. After the transitional phase the dead zone storage mechanism clearly dominates over shear-dispersion. Overall, the combined shear flow dispersion – dead zone model (D-DZM provides a much better, physically consistent description of the tracer cloud’s evolution than the simple classical ADE approach can do alone. Keywords: Channels; dispersion; dead zones; tracers; River Severn

  19. Rotation profile flattening and toroidal flow shear reversal due to the coupling of magnetic islands in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Chen, M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Muscatello, C. M. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Classen, I. G. J. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Fusion Energy Research, DIFFER, Rhinjuizen (Netherlands); Fitzpatrick, R. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78705 (United States); Olofsson, K. E. J.; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)


    The electromagnetic coupling of helical modes, even those having different toroidal mode numbers, modifies the distribution of toroidal angular momentum in tokamak discharges. This can have deleterious effects on other transport channels as well as on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and disruptivity. At low levels of externally injected momentum, the coupling of core-localized modes initiates a chain of events, whereby flattening of the core rotation profile inside successive rational surfaces leads to the onset of a large m/n = 2/1 tearing mode and locked-mode disruption. With increased torque from neutral beam injection, neoclassical tearing modes in the core may phase-lock to each other without locking to external fields or structures that are stationary in the laboratory frame. The dynamic processes observed in these cases are in general agreement with theory, and detailed diagnosis allows for momentum transport analysis to be performed, revealing a significant torque density that peaks near the 2/1 rational surface. However, as the coupled rational surfaces are brought closer together by reducing q{sub 95}, additional momentum transport in excess of that required to attain a phase-locked state is sometimes observed. Rather than maintaining zero differential rotation (as is predicted to be dynamically stable by single-fluid, resistive MHD theory), these discharges develop hollow toroidal plasma fluid rotation profiles with reversed plasma flow shear in the region between the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 islands. The additional forces expressed in this state are not readily accounted for, and therefore, analysis of these data highlights the impact of mode coupling on torque balance and the challenges associated with predicting the rotation dynamics of a fusion reactor—a key issue for ITER.

  20. Shear flow of dense granular materials near smooth walls. II. Block formation and suppression of slip by rolling friction. (United States)

    Shojaaee, Zahra; Brendel, Lothar; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E


    The role of rotational degrees of freedom and of microscopic contact properties at smooth walls in two dimensional planar shear has been investigated by contact dynamics simulations of round hard frictional particles. Our default system setup consists of smooth frictional walls, giving rise to slip. We show that there exists a critical microscopic friction coefficient at the walls, above which they are able to shear the granular medium. We observe distinctive features at this critical point, which to our knowledge have not been reported before. Activating rolling friction at smooth walls reduces slip, leading to similar shear behavior as for rough walls (with particles glued on their surface). Our simulations with rough walls are in agreement with previous results, provided the roughness is strong enough. In the limit of small roughness amplitude, however, the distinctive features of shearing with smooth walls are confirmed.