Wapenaar, Kees
2017-06-01
A unified scalar wave equation is formulated, which covers three-dimensional (3D) acoustic waves, 2D horizontally-polarised shear waves, 2D transverse-electric EM waves, 2D transverse-magnetic EM waves, 3D quantum-mechanical waves and 2D flexural waves. The homogeneous Green's function of this wave equation is a combination of the causal Green's function and its time-reversal, such that their singularities at the source position cancel each other. A classical representation expresses this homogeneous Green's function as a closed boundary integral. This representation finds applications in holographic imaging, time-reversed wave propagation and Green's function retrieval by cross correlation. The main drawback of the classical representation in those applications is that it requires access to a closed boundary around the medium of interest, whereas in many practical situations the medium can be accessed from one side only. Therefore, a single-sided representation is derived for the homogeneous Green's function of the unified scalar wave equation. Like the classical representation, this single-sided representation fully accounts for multiple scattering. The single-sided representation has the same applications as the classical representation, but unlike the classical representation it is applicable in situations where the medium of interest is accessible from one side only.
Scalar fields nonminimally coupled to pp waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar
2005-01-01
Here, we report pp waves configurations of three-dimensional gravity for which a scalar field nonminimally coupled to them acts as a source. In absence of self-interaction the solutions are gravitational plane waves with a profile fixed in terms of the scalar wave. In the self-interacting case, only power-law potentials parameterized by the nonminimal coupling constant are allowed by the field equations. In contrast with the free case the self-interacting scalar field does not behave like a wave since it depends only on the wave-front coordinate. We address the same problem when gravitation is governed by topologically massive gravity and the source is a free scalar field. From the pp waves derived in this case, we obtain at the zero topological mass limit, new pp waves solutions of conformal gravity for any arbitrary value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Finally, we extend these solutions to the self-interacting case of conformal gravity
Gravitational waves from scalar field accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunez, Dario; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Claudia
2011-01-01
Our aim in this work is to outline some physical consequences of the interaction between black holes and scalar field halos in terms of gravitational waves. In doing so, the black hole is taken as a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source, i.e. the Schwarzschild black hole, and we work within the test field approximation, considering that the scalar field lives in the curved space-time outside the black hole. We focused on the emission of gravitational waves when the black hole is perturbed by the surrounding scalar field matter. The symmetries of the space-time and the simplicity of the matter source allow, by means of a spherical harmonic decomposition, to study the problem by means of a one-dimensional description. Some properties of such gravitational waves are discussed as a function of the parameters of the infalling scalar field, and allow us to make the conjecture that the gravitational waves carry information on the type of matter that generated them.
Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China)
2017-09-15
In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10{sup -21} eV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)
High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.
Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V
2016-07-01
We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 2 . We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω 1 = ω 2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ =(λ 1 λ 2 …λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a ⊙ b is defined to be the vector ( a 1 b 1 , a 2 b 2 ,…, a d b d ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.
The 5D Standing Wave Braneworld with Real Scalar Field
Merab Gogberashvili; Pavle Midodashvili
2013-01-01
We introduce the new 5D braneworld with the real scalar field in the bulk. The model represents the brane which bounds collective oscillations of gravitational and scalar field standing waves. These waves are out of phase; that is, the energy of oscillations passes back and forth between the scalar and gravitational waves. When the amplitude of the standing waves is small, the brane width and the size of the horizon in extra space are of a same order of magnitude, and matter fields are locali...
A structure-based model for the transport of passive scalars in homogeneous turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotou, C.F.; Kassinos, S.C.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) is extended for passive scalar transport. • We develop a structure-based set of scale equations for the scalar field and couple them to the IPRM. • The complete model is evaluated for several cases of homogeneous deformation with good results. • We outline steps for coupling the new scalar scales to the Algebraic Structure-Based Model (ASBM). - Abstract: A structure-based model has been constructed, for the first time, for the study of passive scalar transport in turbulent flows. The scalar variance and the large-scale scalar gradient variance are proposed as the two turbulence scales needed for closure of the scalar equations in the framework of the Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM). The scalar dissipation rate is modeled in terms of the scalar variance and the large-scale enstrophy of the velocity field. Model parameters are defined by matching the decay rates in freely isotropic turbulence. The model is validated for a large number of cases of deformation in both fixed and rotating frames, showing encouraging results. The model shows good agreement with DNS results for the case of pure shear flow in the presence of either transverse or streamwise mean scalar gradient, while it correctly predicts the presence of direct cascade for the passive scalar variance in two dimensional isotropic turbulence.
Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas
2018-06-01
We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.
The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, J.M.; Schmidt, B.G.
1978-09-01
This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild spacetime in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity, which includes parts of future and past null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which accurs in a flat spacetime. (orig.) [de
Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2016-06-01
Kinetic energy and scalar spectra from the measurements in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulent flow are presented. Kinetic energy and concentration (scalar) spectra are obtained from the experiments wherein density difference is created using brine and fresh water and temperature spectra are obtained from the experiments in which heat is used. Scaling of the frequency spectra of lateral and longitudinal velocity near the tube axis is closer to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling, while the scalar spectra show some evidence of dual scaling, Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling followed by Obukhov-Corrsin scaling. These scalings are also observed in the corresponding second order spatial structure functions of velocity and concentration fluctuations.
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chumakov, Sergei
2008-01-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
A priori study of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in isotropic homogeneous turbulence.
Chumakov, Sergei G
2008-09-01
We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a passive scalar that is forced by mean gradient. The DNS data are used to study the properties of subgrid-scale flux of a passive scalar in the framework of large eddy simulation (LES), such as alignment trends between the flux, resolved, and subgrid-scale flow structures. It is shown that the direction of the flux is strongly coupled with the subgrid-scale stress axes rather than the resolved flow quantities such as strain, vorticity, or scalar gradient. We derive an approximate transport equation for the subgrid-scale flux of a scalar and look at the relative importance of the terms in the transport equation. A particular form of LES tensor-viscosity model for the scalar flux is investigated, which includes the subgrid-scale stress. Effect of different models for the subgrid-scale stress on the model for the subgrid-scale flux is studied.
Homogeneous wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Favier, B.; Le Reun, T.; Barker, A.; Le Bars, M.
2017-12-01
When a moon orbits around a planet, the rotation of the induced tidal bulge drives a homogeneous, periodic, large-scale flow. The combination of such an excitation with the rotating motion of the planet has been shown to drive parametric resonance of a pair of inertial waves in a mechanism called the elliptical instability. Geophysical fluid layers can also be stratified: this is the case for instance of the Earth's oceans and, as suggested by several studies, of the upper part of the Earth's liquid Outer Core. We thus investigate the stability of a rotating and stratified layer undergoing tidal distortion in the limit where either rotation or stratification is dominant. We show that the periodic tidal flow drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of inertial (resp. internal) waves in the rotating (resp. stratified) case. The instability saturates into a wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid layer. In such a state, the instability mechanism conveys the tidal energy from the large scale tidal flow to the resonant modes, which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. In the rotating case, we observe a kinetic energy spectrum with a k-2 slope for which the Coriolis force is dominant at all spatial scales. In the stratified case, where the timescale separation is increased between the tidal excitation and the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, the temporal spectrum decays with a ω-2 power law up to the cut-off frequency beyond which waves do not exist. This result is reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans and theoretically described as a manifestation of internal wave turbulence. In addition to revealing an instability driving homogeneous turbulence in geophysical fluid layers, our approach is also an efficient numerical tool to investigate the possibly universal properties of wave turbulence in a geophysical context.
Elastic waves trapped by a homogeneous anisotropic semicylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarov, S A [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2013-11-30
It is established that the problem of elastic oscillations of a homogeneous anisotropic semicylinder (console) with traction-free lateral surface (Neumann boundary condition) has no eigenvalues when the console is clamped at one end (Dirichlet boundary condition). If the end is free, under additional requirements of elastic and geometric symmetry, simple sufficient conditions are found for the existence of an eigenvalue embedded in the continuous spectrum and generating a trapped elastic wave, that is, one which decays at infinity at an exponential rate. The results are obtained by generalizing the methods developed for scalar problems, which however require substantial modification for the vector problem in elasticity theory. Examples are given and open questions are stated. Bibliography: 53 titles.
Paraxial WKB solution of a scalar wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereverzev, G.V.
1993-04-01
An asymptotic method of solving a scalar wave equation in inhomogeneous media is developed. This method is an extension of the WKB method to the multidimensional case. It reduces a general wave equation to a set of ordinary differential equations similar to that of the eikonal approach and includes the latter as a particular case. However, the WKB method makes use of another kind of asymptotic expansion and, unlike the eikonal approach, describes the wave properties, i.e. diffraction and interference. At the same time, the three-dimensional WKB method is more simple for numerical treatment because the number of equations is less than in the eikonal approach. The method developed may be used for a calculation of wave fields in problems of RF heating, current drive and plasma diagnostics with microwave beams. (orig.)
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω GW (f) ∝ f 3 with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη * 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information
WHAMP - waves in homogeneous, anisotropic, multicomponent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roennmark, K.
1982-06-01
In this report, a computer program which solves the dispersion relation of waves in a magnetized plasma is described. The dielectric tensor is derived using the kinetic theory of homogeneous plasmas with Maxwellian velocity distribution. Up to six different plasma components can be included in this version of the program, and each component is specified by its density, temperature, particle mass, anisotropy and drift velocity along the magnetic field. The program is thus applicable to a very wide class of plasmas, and the method should in general be useful whenever a homogeneous magnetized plasma can be approximated by a linear combination of Maxwellian components. The general theory underlying the program is outlined. It is shown that by introducing a Pade approximant for the plasma dispersion function Z, the infinite sums of modified Bessel functions which appear in the dielectric tensor may be reduced to a summable form. The Pade approximant is derived and the accuracy of the approximation is also discussed. The subroutines making up the program are described. (Author)
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) \\propto f^3$ with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer tim...
Low-wave-number statistics of randomly advected passive scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerstein, A.R.; McMurtry, P.A.
1994-01-01
A heuristic analysis of the decay of a passive scalar field subject to statistically steady random advection, predicts two low-wave-number spectral scaling regimes analogous to the similarity states previously identified by Chasnov [Phys. Fluids 6, 1036 (1994)]. Consequences of their predicted coexistence in a single flow are examined. The analysis is limited to the idealized case of narrow band advection. To complement the analysis, and to extend the predictions to physically more realistic advection processes, advection diffusion is simulated using a one-dimensional stochastic model. An experimental test of the predictions is proposed
The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, B.G.; Stewart, J.M.
1979-01-01
This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild space-time in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity which includes parts of future and pass null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which occurs in a flat space-time. In particular fields which have a Bondi-type expansion in powers of 'r(-1)' near past null infinity do not have such an expansion near future null infinity. Further solutions which have physically reasonable Cauchy data probably fail to have Bondi-type expansions near null infinity. (author)
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil
2012-10-01
We study a model of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, with a specific potential energy for the scalar field, and include curvature and radiation as two additional parameters. Our goal is to obtain analytically the complete set of configurations of a homogeneous and isotropic universe as a function of time. This leads to a geodesically complete description of the Universe, including the passage through the cosmological singularities, at the classical level. We give all the solutions analytically without any restrictions on the parameter space of the model or initial values of the fields. We find that for generic solutions the Universe goes through a singular (zero-size) bounce by entering a period of antigravity at each big crunch and exiting from it at the following big bang. This happens cyclically again and again without violating the null-energy condition. There is a special subset of geodesically complete nongeneric solutions which perform zero-size bounces without ever entering the antigravity regime in all cycles. For these, initial values of the fields are synchronized and quantized but the parameters of the model are not restricted. There is also a subset of spatial curvature-induced solutions that have finite-size bounces in the gravity regime and never enter the antigravity phase. These exist only within a small continuous domain of parameter space without fine-tuning the initial conditions. To obtain these results, we identified 25 regions of a 6-parameter space in which the complete set of analytic solutions are explicitly obtained.
Fermions in the 5D Gravity-Scalar Standing Wave Braneworld
Gogberashvili, Merab; Midodashvili, Pavle
2014-01-01
In the article we investigate localization problem for spinor fields within the 5D standing wave braneworld with the bulk real scalar field and show that there exist normalizable fermion field zero modes on the brane.
Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gong Yungui
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.
Travelling waves in expanding spatially homogeneous space–times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, George
2015-01-01
Some classes of the so-called ‘travelling wave’ solutions of Einstein and Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity and of dynamical equations for massless bosonic fields in string gravity in four and higher dimensions are presented. Similarly to the well known plane-fronted waves with parallel rays (pp-waves), these travelling wave solutions may depend on arbitrary functions of a null coordinate which determine the arbitrary profiles and polarizations of the waves. However, in contrast with pp-waves, these waves do not admit the null Killing vector fields and can exist in some curved (expanding and spatially homogeneous) background space–times, where these waves propagate in certain directions without any scattering. Mathematically, some of these classes of solutions arise as the fixed points of Kramer–Neugebauer transformations for hyperbolic integrable reductions of the above mentioned field equations or, in other cases, after imposing the ansatz that these waves do not change the part of the spatial metric transverse to the direction of wave propagation. It is worth noting that the strikingly simple forms of all the solutions presented prospectively make possible the consideration of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with the background curvature and singularities, as well as the collision of such wave pulses with solitons or with each other in the backgrounds where such travelling waves may exist. (paper)
Stochastic Background of Relic Scalar Gravitational Waves tuned by Extended Gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Capozziello, Salvatore
2009-01-01
A stochastic background of relic gravitational waves is achieved by the so called adiabatically-amplified zero-point fluctuations process derived from early inflation. It provides a distinctive spectrum of relic gravitational waves. In the framework of scalar-tensor gravity, we discuss the scalar modes of gravitational waves and the primordial production of this scalar component which is generated beside tensorial one. Then analyze seven different viable f(R)-gravities towards the Solar System tests and stochastic gravitational waves background. It is demonstrated that seven viable f(R)-gravities under consideration not only satisfy the local tests, but additionally, pass the above PPN-and stochastic gravitational waves bounds for large classes of parameters.
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
density are functions of space i.e. non-homogeneous engineering material. .... The Solution of equation Eq. (9) in the form of Eq. (10) can be obtained by taking a phase ..... Viscoelastic Model Applied to a Particular Case .... p m i exp m α α σ σ σ. = −. +. −. (35). The progressive harmonic wave which starts from the end. 0 x =.
Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article concerns certain aspects of four parameter polymer models to study harmonic waves in the non-homogeneous polymer rods of varying density. There are two sections of this paper, in first section, the rheological behaviour of the model is discussed numerically and then it is solved analytically with the help of ...
Propagators for a scalar field in a homogeneous expanding universe, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nariai, Hidekazu; Tanabe, Kenji.
1975-11-01
In view of a recent interest in the quantum field-theoretical creation of particles in a big-bang universe (which, via the problem how their vacuum state should be defined, will be connected with their propagators whose structure depends also on that of the universe), our previous formulae for bi-scalar Green's functions corresponding to a massless scalar field in the radiation- and matter-dominated stages of the Friedmann universe with flat 3-space are extended in a classical level. One is to derive the formulae for a massive scalar field in the same universe, and another lies in deriving the ones applicable to the respective stages of a closed universe with spherical topology. As an application, we discuss a massless scalar field (e.g., photons or gravitons defined suitably) and its physical property in the cases where its source distribution is spatially uniform and where that is of a delta-singularity. It is shown that the energy-momentum tensor in the first case is formally the same as a perfect fluid whose sound velocity relative to the light velocity is unity, while the tensor in the second case leads naturally to Robertson's formula for the apparent luminosity of a receding galaxy. The behavior of photons or gravitons generated from a turbulent medium in an early universe is also dealt with. (auth.)
Conditional dissipation of scalars in homogeneous turbulence: Closure for MMC modelling
Wandel, Andrew P.
2013-08-01
While the mean and unconditional variance are to be predicted well by any reasonable turbulent combustion model, these are generally not sufficient for the accurate modelling of complex phenomena such as extinction/reignition. An additional criterion has been recently introduced: accurate modelling of the dissipation timescales associated with fluctuations of scalars about their conditional mean (conditional dissipation timescales). Analysis of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results for a passive scalar shows that the conditional dissipation timescale is of the order of the integral timescale and smaller than the unconditional dissipation timescale. A model is proposed: the conditional dissipation timescale is proportional to the integral timescale. This model is used in Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) modelling for a passive scalar case and a reactive scalar case, comparing to DNS results for both. The results show that this model improves the accuracy of MMC predictions so as to match the DNS results more closely using a relatively-coarse spatial resolution compared to other turbulent combustion models.
On the stability of solitary waves for classical scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, P.; Stubbe, J.; Vazquez, L.
1986-01-01
We study the stability for the bound states of lowest action of certain nonlinear Klein-Gordon and Schroedinger equations by applying the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We extend the range of application of this formalism by using a recent existence theorem for minimum action solutions to a large class of equations including logarithmic Klein-Gordon equation and logarithmic Schroedinger equation and scalar fields with fractional non-linearities. Furthermore we discuss the relation between different stability criteria considered in the literature. (orig.)
Relativistic n-body wave equations in scalar quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emami-Razavi, Mohsen
2006-01-01
The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations for scalar particles (bosons) interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). Simple Fock-space variational trial states are used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations. The equations are shown to have the Schroedinger non-relativistic limits, with Coulombic interparticle potentials in the case of a massless mediating field and Yukawa interparticle potentials in the case of a massive mediating field. Some examples of approximate ground state solutions of the n-body relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields
SCALAR AND VECTOR NONLINEAR DECAYS OF LOW-FREQUENCY ALFVÉN WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: js_zhao@pmo.ac.cn [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan 3 Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
2015-02-01
We found several efficient nonlinear decays for Alfvén waves in the solar wind conditions. Depending on the wavelength, the dominant decay is controlled by the nonlinearities proportional to either scalar or vector products of wavevectors. The two-mode decays of the pump MHD Alfvén wave into co- and counter-propagating product Alfvén and slow waves are controlled by the scalar nonlinearities at long wavelengths ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}<ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci} (k {sub 0} is wavenumber perpendicular to the background magnetic field, ω{sub 0} is frequency of the pump Alfvén wave, ρ {sub i} is ion gyroradius, and ω {sub ci} is ion-cyclotron frequency). The scalar decays exhibit both local and nonlocal properties and can generate not only MHD-scale but also kinetic-scale Alfvén and slow waves, which can strongly accelerate spectral transport. All waves in the scalar decays propagate in the same plane, hence these decays are two-dimensional. At shorter wavelengths, ρ{sub i}{sup 2}k{sub 0⊥}{sup 2}>ω{sub 0}/ω{sub ci}, three-dimensional vector decays dominate generating out-of-plane product waves. The two-mode decays dominate from MHD up to ion scales ρ {sub i} k {sub 0} ≅ 0.3; at shorter scales the one-mode vector decays become stronger and generate only Alfvén product waves. In the solar wind the two-mode decays have high growth rates >0.1ω{sub 0} and can explain the origin of slow waves observed at kinetic scales.
On scattering of scalar waves in static space-times, particularly Schwarzschild
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beig, R.
1982-01-01
This paper aims at laying foundations of a rigorous scattering theory for scalar waves in a static space-time. The treatment includes geometries which can be thought of as representing the exterior of a black hole. Schwarzschild space-time, as a particular example, is studied in more detail. (Auth.)
Observable tensor-to-scalar ratio and secondary gravitational wave background
Chatterjee, Arindam; Mazumdar, Anupam
2018-03-01
In this paper we will highlight how a simple vacuum energy dominated inflection-point inflation can match the current data from cosmic microwave background radiation, and predict large primordial tensor to scalar ratio, r ˜O (10-3-10-2), with observable second order gravitational wave background, which can be potentially detectable from future experiments, such as DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO), Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), cosmic explorer (CE), and big bang observatory (BBO).
Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Afrough, M; Agarwal, B; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Amato, A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Angelova, S V; Antier, S; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atallah, D V; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; AultONeal, K; Austin, C; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Bae, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Banagiri, S; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barkett, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bawaj, M; Bayley, J C; Bazzan, M; Bécsy, B; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Bero, J J; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Biscoveanu, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bode, N; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonilla, E; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bossie, K; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Canepa, M; Canizares, P; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Carney, M F; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerdá-Durán, P; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chase, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterjee, D; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chia, H; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, A K W; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Ciolfi, R; Cirelli, C E; Cirone, A; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Clearwater, P; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Cohen, D; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L R; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corban, P; Corbitt, T R; Cordero-Carrión, I; Corley, K R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, E; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Dálya, G; Danilishin, S L; 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2018-05-18
The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω_{0}^{T}<5.58×10^{-8}, Ω_{0}^{V}<6.35×10^{-8}, and Ω_{0}^{S}<1.08×10^{-7} at a reference frequency f_{0}=25 Hz.
Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, E.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2018-05-01
The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω0T<5.58 ×10-8 , Ω0V<6.35 ×10-8 , and Ω0S<1.08 ×10-7 at a reference frequency f0=25 Hz .
Negative-energy waves in a magnetized, homogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa-Restrepo, D.; Pfirsch, D.
1991-09-01
The general expression for the second wave energy of a Vlasov-Maxwell system derived by Morrison and Pfirsch is evaluated here for the case of a magnetized, homogeneous plasma. It is again shown that negative-energy waves (which could become nonlinearly unstable and cause anomalous transport) exist for any deviation from monotonicity and/or any (however small) anisotropy in the equilibrium distribution function of any of the particle species. The partly unexpected and particularly interesting feature of the results is that, contrary to the proof of Morrison and Pfirsch, no restricting condition has to be imposed on the perpendicular wave number k perpendicular to of the perturbation (i.e. large k perpendicular to is not required). Finite-gyroradius effects are therefore not expected to improve the situation. Anisotropy alone would, however, impose a restriction on k z , the parallel wave number, relating it to the gyroradius. As far as distribution functions with v z δf v (0) /δv z > 0 in some region of v-space are concerned, however, this result agrees with a result found by Pfirsch and Morrison within the framework of drift-kinetic theory. (orig.)
Self-trapping of scalar and vector dipole solitary waves in Kerr media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj R.; Assanto, Gaetano; Malomed, Boris A.; Huang Tingwen
2011-01-01
We report solutions for expanding dipole-type optical solitary waves in two-dimensional Kerr media with the self-focusing nonlinearity, using exact analytical (Hirota) and numerical methods. Such localized beams carry intrinsic vorticity and exhibit symmetric shapes for both scalar and vector solitary modes. When vector beams are close to the scalar limit, simulations demonstrate their stability over propagation distances exceeding 50 diffraction lengths. In fact, the continuous expansion helps the vortical beams avoid the instability against the splitting, collapse, or decay, making them 'convectively stable' patterns.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marzola, Luca; Racioppi, Antonio; Vaskonen, Ville [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-07-15
Thermal corrections in classically conformal models typically induce a strong first-order electroweak phase transition, thereby resulting in a stochastic gravitational background that could be detectable at gravitational wave observatories. After reviewing the basics of classically conformal scenarios, in this paper we investigate the phase transition dynamics in a thermal environment and the related gravitational wave phenomenology within the framework of scalar conformal extensions of the Standard Model. We find that minimal extensions involving only one additional scalar field struggle to reproduce the correct phase transition dynamics once thermal corrections are accounted for. Next-to-minimal models, instead, yield the desired electroweak symmetry breaking and typically result in a very strong gravitational wave signal. (orig.)
BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas
Porkolab, Miklos
1998-11-01
The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this
Homogeneous internal wave turbulence driven by tidal flows
Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael; Erc Fludyco Team
2017-11-01
We propose a novel investigation of the stability of strongly stratified planetary fluid layers undergoing periodic tidal distortion in the limit where rotational effects are negligible compared to buoyancy. With the help of a local model focusing on a small fluid area compared to the global layer, we find that periodic tidal distortion drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of internal. This instability saturates into an homogeneous internal wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid interior: the energy is injected in the unstable waves which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. As the timescale separation between the forcing and Brunt-Väisälä is increased, the temporal spectrum of this turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans (Garett & Munk 1979). Moreover, in this state consisting of a superposition of waves in weak non-linear interaction, the mixing efficiency is increased compared to classical, Kolmogorov-like stratified turbulence. This study is of wide interest in geophysical fluid dynamics ranging from oceanic turbulence and tidal heating in icy satellites to dynamo action in partially stratified planetary cores as it could be the case in the Earth. We acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG).
A high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary for scalar waves in semi-infinite layered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prempramote, S; Song, Ch; Birk, C
2010-01-01
Wave propagation in semi-infinite layered systems is of interest in earthquake engineering, acoustics, electromagnetism, etc. The numerical modelling of this problem is particularly challenging as evanescent waves exist below the cut-off frequency. Most of the high-order transmitting boundaries are unable to model the evanescent waves. As a result, spurious reflection occurs at late time. In this paper, a high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary is developed for scalar waves propagating in semi-infinite layered systems. It is derived from the equation of dynamic stiffness matrix obtained in the scaled boundary finite-element method in the frequency domain. A continued-fraction solution of the dynamic stiffness matrix is determined recursively by satisfying the scaled boundary finite-element equation at both high- and low-frequency limits. In the time domain, the continued-fraction solution permits the force-displacement relationship to be formulated as a system of first-order ordinary differential equations. Standard time-step schemes in structural dynamics can be directly applied to evaluate the response history. Examples of a semi-infinite homogeneous layer and a semi-infinite two-layered system are investigated herein. The displacement results obtained from the open boundary converge rapidly as the order of continued fractions increases. Accurate results are obtained at early time and late time.
Comultiplication in ABCD algebra and scalar products of Bethe wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailov, A.
1995-01-01
The representation of scalar products of Bethe wave functions in terms of dual fields, plays an important role in the theory of completely integrable models. The proof is based on the explicit expression for the open-quotes seniorclose quotes coefficient, which was guessed in the Izergin paper and then proved to satisfy some recurrent relations, which determine it unambiguously. In this paper we present an alternative proof based on direct computation. It uses the operation of comultiplication in the ABCD-algebra
Gravitational waves from fragmentation of a primordial scalar condensate into Q balls.
Kusenko, Alexander; Mazumdar, Anupam
2008-11-21
A generic consequence of supersymmetry is the formation of a scalar condensate along the flat directions of the potential at the end of cosmological inflation. This condensate is usually unstable, and it can fragment into nontopological solitons, Q balls. The gravitational waves produced by the fragmentation can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, and Big Bang Observer, which can open an important window to the early Universe and the physics at some very high energy scales.
Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: skuro@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)
2016-02-01
We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goolsby-Cole, Cody; Sorbo, Lorenzo, E-mail: cgoolsby@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: sorbo@physics.umass.edu [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States)
2017-08-01
We discuss the possibility of a feature in the spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves sourced by a scalar field χ whose vacuum fluctuations are amplified by a rapidly time dependent mass. Unlike previous work which has focused on the case in which the mass of the field χ vanishes only for an instant before becoming massive again, we study a system where the scalar field becomes and remains massless through the end of inflation. After applying appropriate constraints to our parameters, we find, for future CMB experiments, a small contribution to the tensor-to-scalar ratio which can be at most of the order r ∼ 10{sup −5}. At smaller scales probed by gravitational interferometers, on the other hand, the energy density in the gravitational waves produced this way might be above the projected sensitivity of LISA, Ω{sub GW} h {sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}, in a narrow region of parameter space. If there is more than one χ species, then these amplitudes are enhanced by a factor equal to the number of those species.
JDiffraction: A GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields
Piedrahita-Quintero, Pablo; Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2017-05-01
JDiffraction, a GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields, is presented. Angular spectrum, Fresnel transform, and Fresnel-Bluestein transform are the numerical algorithms implemented in the methods and functions of the library to compute the scalar propagation of the complex wavefield. The functionality of the library is tested with the modeling of easy to forecast numerical experiments and also with the numerical reconstruction of a digitally recorded hologram. The performance of JDiffraction is contrasted with a library written for C++, showing great competitiveness in the apparently less complex environment of JAVA language. JDiffraction also includes JAVA easy-to-use methods and functions that take advantage of the computation power of the graphic processing units to accelerate the processing times of 2048×2048 pixel images up to 74 frames per second.
Radiation tails of the scalar wave equation in a weak gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mankin, R.; Piir, I.
1974-01-01
A class of solutions of the linearized Einstein equations is found making use of the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. These solutions describe a weak retarded gravitational field with an arbitrary multipole structure. The study of the radial propagation of the scalar waves in this gravitational field shows that in the first approximation the tails of the scalar outgoing radiation appear either in the presence of a gravitational mass or in the case of a nonzero linear momentum of the gravitational source. The quadrupole moment and the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field as well as the constant dipole moment and the angular moment of the source do not contribute to the tail
Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2012-03-01
We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Propagation of gravitational waves in the generalized tensor-vector-scalar theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagi, Eva
2010-01-01
Efforts are underway to improve the design and sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors, with the hope that the next generation of these detectors will observe a gravitational wave signal. Such a signal will not only provide information on dynamics in the strong gravity regime that characterizes potential sources of gravitational waves, but will also serve as a decisive test for alternative theories of gravitation that are consistent with all other current experimental observations. We study the linearized theory of the tensor-vector-scalar theory of gravity with generalized vector action, an alternative theory of gravitation designed to explain the apparent deficit of visible matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies without postulating yet-undetected dark matter. We find the polarization states and propagation speeds for gravitational waves in vacuum, and show that in addition to the usual transverse-traceless propagation modes, there are two more mixed longitudinal-transverse modes and two trace modes, of which at least one has longitudinal polarization. Additionally, the propagation speeds are different from the speed of light.
On the second-order homogenization of wave motion in periodic media and the sound of a chessboard
Wautier, Antoine; Guzina, Bojan B.
2015-05-01
The goal of this study is to better understand the mathematical structure and ramifications of the second-order homogenization of low-frequency wave motion in periodic solids. To this end, multiple-scales asymptotic approach is applied to the scalar wave equation (describing anti-plane shear motion) in one and two spatial dimensions. In contrast to previous studies where the second-order homogenization has lead to the introduction of a single fourth-order derivative in the governing equation, present investigation demonstrates that such (asymptotic) approach results in a family of field equations uniting spatial, temporal, and mixed fourth-order derivatives - that jointly control incipient wave dispersion. Given the consequent freedom in selecting the affiliated lengthscale parameters, the notion of an optimal asymptotic model is next considered in a one-dimensional setting via its ability to capture the salient features of wave propagation within the first Brillouin zone, including the onset and magnitude of the phononic band gap. In the context of two-dimensional wave propagation, on the other hand, the asymptotic analysis is first established in a general setting, exposing the constant shear modulus as sufficient condition under which the second-order approximation of a bi-periodic elastic solid is both isotropic and limited to even-order derivatives. On adopting a chessboard-like periodic structure (with contrasts in both modulus and mass density) as a testbed for in-depth analytical treatment, it is next shown that the second-order approximation of germane wave motion is governed by a family fourth-order differential equations that: (i) entail exclusively even-order derivatives and homogenization coefficients that depend explicitly on the contrast in mass density; (ii) describe anisotropic wave dispersion characterized by the "sin4 θ +cos4 θ" term, and (iii) include the asymptotic model for a square lattice of circular inclusions as degenerate case. For
Cooperative scattering of scalar waves by optimized configurations of point scatterers
Schäfer, Frank; Eckert, Felix; Wellens, Thomas
2017-12-01
We investigate multiple scattering of scalar waves by an ensemble of N resonant point scatterers in three dimensions. For up to N = 21 scatterers, we numerically optimize the positions of the individual scatterers, to maximize the total scattering cross section for an incoming plane wave, on the one hand, and to minimize the decay rate associated to a long-lived scattering resonance, on the other. In both cases, the optimum is achieved by configurations where all scatterers are placed on a line parallel to the direction of the incoming plane wave. The associated maximal scattering cross section increases quadratically with the number of scatterers for large N, whereas the minimal decay rate—which is realized by configurations that are not the same as those that maximize the scattering cross section—decreases exponentially as a function of N. Finally, we also analyze the stability of our optimized configurations with respect to small random displacements of the scatterers. These results demonstrate that optimized configurations of scatterers bear a considerable potential for applications such as quantum memories or mirrors consisting of only a few atoms.
Destrade, M.
2010-12-08
We study the propagation of two-dimensional finite-amplitude shear waves in a nonlinear pre-strained incompressible solid, and derive several asymptotic amplitude equations in a simple, consistent and rigorous manner. The scalar Zabolotskaya (Z) equation is shown to be the asymptotic limit of the equations of motion for all elastic generalized neo-Hookean solids (with strain energy depending only on the first principal invariant of Cauchy-Green strain). However, we show that the Z equation cannot be a scalar equation for the propagation of two-dimensional shear waves in general elastic materials (with strain energy depending on the first and second principal invariants of strain). Then, we introduce dispersive and dissipative terms to deduce the scalar Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP), Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov (ZK) and Khokhlov- Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equations of incompressible solid mechanics. © 2010 The Royal Society.
Destrade, M.; Goriely, A.; Saccomandi, G.
2010-01-01
We study the propagation of two-dimensional finite-amplitude shear waves in a nonlinear pre-strained incompressible solid, and derive several asymptotic amplitude equations in a simple, consistent and rigorous manner. The scalar Zabolotskaya (Z) equation is shown to be the asymptotic limit of the equations of motion for all elastic generalized neo-Hookean solids (with strain energy depending only on the first principal invariant of Cauchy-Green strain). However, we show that the Z equation cannot be a scalar equation for the propagation of two-dimensional shear waves in general elastic materials (with strain energy depending on the first and second principal invariants of strain). Then, we introduce dispersive and dissipative terms to deduce the scalar Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP), Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov (ZK) and Khokhlov- Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equations of incompressible solid mechanics. © 2010 The Royal Society.
Balazs, Csaba; Fowlie, Andrew; Mazumdar, Anupam; White, Graham A.
2017-01-01
A new gauge singlet scalar field can undergo a strongly first-order phase transition (PT) leading to gravitational waves (GW) potentially observable at aLIGO and stabilizes the electroweak vacuum at the same time by ensuring that the Higgs quartic coupling remains positive up to at least the grand
Plane wave interaction with a homogeneous warm plasma sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruppin, R.
1975-01-01
A Mie type theory for the scattering and absorption properties of a homogeneous warm plasma sphere is developed. The theory is applied to the calculation of the extinction cross section of plasma spheres, and the effects of Landau damping and collisional damping on the spectra are discussed. The dependence of the main resonance and of the Tonks-Dattner resonances on the physical parameters characterizing the sphere and its surroundings is investigated. The spectrum is shown to be insenitive to the boundary conditions which specify the behaviour of the electrons at the surface of the sphere (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavnov, N.A.
1989-01-01
The Bethe ansatz method is widely used to investigate two-dimensional completely integrable models. In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method it has proved to be possible to construct an algebraic scheme of the Bethe ansatz, and this has been successfully applied to calculation of correlation functions. One of the important questions of the method is that of the scalar products of the wave functions. In particular, knowledge of the properties of the scalar products is necessary for investigating the form factors and correlation function. In the present paper the author considers a generalized model with R matrix of the model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The main formulas and notation are given in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3 he calculates the scalar product of an arbitrary function and an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian. The generalized two-site model is introduced in Sec. 4. In Sec. 5 he calculates the form factor of the particle number operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matsui Toshinori
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2016-10-15
We apply the confluent Heun functions to study the resonant frequencies (quasispectrum), the Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves, in a class of spacetimes, namely, the ones generated by a Kerr–Newman–Kasuya spacetime (dyon black hole) and a Reissner–Nordström black hole surrounded by a magnetic field (Ernst spacetime). In both spacetimes, the solutions for the angular and radial parts of the corresponding Klein–Gordon equations are obtained exactly, for massive and massless fields, respectively. The special cases of Kerr and Schwarzschild black holes are analyzed and the solutions obtained, as well as in the case of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a magnetic field. In all these special situations, the resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering are studied. - Highlights: • Charged massive scalar field in the dyon black hole and massless scalar field in the Ernst spacetime are analyzed. • The confluent Heun functions are applied to obtain the solution of the Klein–Gordon equation. • The resonant frequencies are obtained. • The Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves are examined.
Precise response function for the magnetic component of gravitational waves in scalar-tensor gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corda, Christian
2011-01-01
The important issue of the magnetic component of gravitational waves (GWs) has been considered in various papers in the literature. From such analyses, it has been found that such a magnetic component becomes particularly important in the high-frequency portion of the frequency range of ground based interferometers for GWs which arises from standard general theory of relativity (GTR). Recently, such a magnetic component has been extended to GWs arising from scalar-tensor gravity (STG) too. After a review of some important issues on GWs in STG, in this paper we reanalyze the magnetic component in the framework of STG from a different point of view, by correcting an error in a previous paper and by releasing a more precise response function. In this way, we also show that if one neglects the magnetic contribution considering only the low-frequency approximation of the electric contribution, an important part of the signal could be, in principle, lost. The determination of a more precise response function for the magnetic contribution is important also in the framework of the possibility of distinguishing other gravitational theories from GTR. At the conclusion of this paper, an expansion of the main results is also shown in order to recall the presence of the magnetic component in GTR too.
The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid of P-waves in homogeneous orthorhombic media
Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid describes the diffraction traveltime of a point diffractor in homogeneous media. We have developed an analytic approximation for the P-wave offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid for homogeneous orthorhombic media. In this approximation, a perturbation method and the Shanks transform were implemented to derive the analytic expressions for the horizontal slowness components of P-waves in orthorhombic media. Numerical examples were shown to analyze the proposed traveltime pyramid formula and determined its accuracy and the application in calculating migration isochrones and reflection traveltime. The proposed offset-midpoint traveltime formula is useful for Kirchhoff prestack time migration and migration velocity analysis for orthorhombic media.
The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid of P-waves in homogeneous orthorhombic media
Hao, Qi
2016-07-18
The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid describes the diffraction traveltime of a point diffractor in homogeneous media. We have developed an analytic approximation for the P-wave offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid for homogeneous orthorhombic media. In this approximation, a perturbation method and the Shanks transform were implemented to derive the analytic expressions for the horizontal slowness components of P-waves in orthorhombic media. Numerical examples were shown to analyze the proposed traveltime pyramid formula and determined its accuracy and the application in calculating migration isochrones and reflection traveltime. The proposed offset-midpoint traveltime formula is useful for Kirchhoff prestack time migration and migration velocity analysis for orthorhombic media.
Destrade, Michel; Goriely, Alain; Saccomandi, Giuseppe
2011-01-01
We study the propagation of two-dimensional finite-amplitude shear waves in a nonlinear pre-strained incompressible solid, and derive several asymptotic amplitude equations in a simple, consistent, and rigorous manner. The scalar Zabolotskaya (Z) equation is shown to be the asymptotic limit of the equations of motion for all elastic generalized neo-Hookean solids (with strain energy depending only on the first principal invariant of Cauchy-Green strain). However, we show that the Z equation c...
Non-periodic homogenization of 3-D elastic media for the seismic wave equation
Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann
2018-05-01
Because seismic waves have a limited frequency spectrum, the velocity structure of the Earth that can be extracted from seismic records has a limited resolution. As a consequence, one obtains smooth images from waveform inversion, although the Earth holds discontinuities and small scales of various natures. Within the last decade, the non-periodic homogenization method shed light on how seismic waves interact with small geological heterogeneities and `see' upscaled properties. This theory enables us to compute long-wave equivalent density and elastic coefficients of any media, with no constraint on the size, the shape and the contrast of the heterogeneities. In particular, the homogenization leads to the apparent, structure-induced anisotropy. In this paper, we implement this method in 3-D and show 3-D tests for the very first time. The non-periodic homogenization relies on an asymptotic expansion of the displacement and the stress involved in the elastic wave equation. Limiting ourselves to the order 0, we show that the practical computation of an upscaled elastic tensor basically requires (i) to solve an elastostatic problem and (ii) to low-pass filter the strain and the stress associated with the obtained solution. The elastostatic problem consists in finding the displacements due to local unit strains acting in all directions within the medium to upscale. This is solved using a parallel, highly optimized finite-element code. As for the filtering, we rely on the finite-element quadrature to perform the convolution in the space domain. We end up with an efficient numerical tool that we apply on various 3-D models to test the accuracy and the benefit of the homogenization. In the case of a finely layered model, our method agrees with results derived from Backus. In a more challenging model composed by a million of small cubes, waveforms computed in the homogenized medium fit reference waveforms very well. Both direct phases and complex diffracted waves are
Nonlinear Raman scattering behavior with Langmuir and sound waves coupling in a homogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.; Pellat, R.
1990-01-01
By means of wave-coupling simulations, the typical nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is investigated in a homogeneous sub-quarter-critical plasma for present-day low laser irradiances and kilo-electron-volt electron temperatures. The decrease of the Langmuir energy observed after the SRS growth is found to be basically the result of the electrostatic decay instability (EDI) onset, which generates a high-amplitude ion-acoustic wave. The resulting strong modulation of the plasma density causes a conversion process that transforms the initial one-wave-vector Langmuir wave driven by SRS into a Bloch wave and induces SRS detuning and larger damping. The conditions involved herein have allowed isolation of these processes from the modulational instability; in addition, the Langmuir collapse is found not to occur owing to the high electron temperature
Travelling wave solutions of the homogeneous one-dimensional FREFLO model
Huang, B.; Hong, J. Y.; Jing, G. Q.; Niu, W.; Fang, L.
2018-01-01
Presently there is quite few analytical studies in traffic flows due to the non-linearity of the governing equations. In the present paper we introduce travelling wave solutions for the homogeneous one-dimensional FREFLO model, which are expressed in the form of series and describe the procedure that vehicles/pedestrians move with a negative velocity and decelerate until rest, then accelerate inversely to positive velocities. This method is expect to be extended to more complex situations in the future.
Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Ahmed
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the Stoneley waves in a non-homogeneous orthotropic granular medium under the influence of a gravity field. The frequency equation obtained, in the form of a sixth-order determinantal expression, is in agreement with the corresponding result when both media are elastic. The frequency equation when the gravity field is neglected has been deduced as a particular case.
Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald
2018-03-01
The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.
State equations and stability of shock wave fronts in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romain, Jean-Pierre
1977-01-01
This research thesis in physical sciences reports a theoretical and experimental study of some mechanical and thermodynamic aspects related to a shock wave propagation in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic media: state equations, stability and instability of shock wave fronts. In the first part, the author reports the study of the Grueneisen coefficient for some metallic elements with known static and dynamic compression properties. The second part reports the experimental investigation of dynamic compressibility of some materials (lamellar Al-Cu compounds). The front shock wave propagation has been visualised, and experimental Hugoniot curves are compared with those deduced from a developed numeric model and other models. The bismuth Hugoniot curve is also determined, and the author compares the existence and nature of phase transitions obtained by static and dynamic compression
Head-on collision between positron acoustic waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas
Alam, M. S.; Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain
2018-05-01
The head-on collision between positron acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) as well as the production of rogue waves (RWs) in homogeneous and PASWs in inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma systems are investigated deriving the nonlinear evolution equations. The plasmas are composed of immobile positive ions, mobile cold and hot positrons, and hot electrons, where the hot positrons and hot electrons are assumed to follow the Kappa distributions. The evolution equations are derived using the appropriate coordinate transformation and the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of concentrations, kappa parameters of hot electrons and positrons, and temperature ratios on the characteristics of PASWs and RWs are examined. It is found that the kappa parameters and temperature ratios significantly modify phase shifts after head-on collisions and RWs in homogeneous as well as PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas. The amplitudes of the PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas are diminished with increasing kappa parameters, concentration and temperature ratios. Further, the amplitudes of RWs are reduced with increasing charged particles concentration, while it enhances with increasing kappa- and temperature parameters. Besides, the compressive and rarefactive solitons are produced at critical densities from KdV equation for hot and cold positrons, while the compressive solitons are only produced from mKdV equation for both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas.
Hakoda, Christopher; Rose, Joseph; Shokouhi, Parisa; Lissenden, Clifford
2018-04-01
Dispersion curves are essential to any guided-wave-related project. The Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method has become the conventional way to compute dispersion curves for homogeneous waveguides. However, only recently has a general SAFE formulation for commercial and open-source software become available, meaning that until now SAFE analyses have been variable and more time consuming than desirable. Likewise, the Floquet boundary conditions enable analysis of waveguides with periodicity and have been an integral part of the development of metamaterials. In fact, we have found the use of Floquet boundary conditions to be an extremely powerful tool for homogeneous waveguides, too. The nuances of using periodic boundary conditions for homogeneous waveguides that do not exhibit periodicity are discussed. Comparisons between this method and SAFE are made for selected homogeneous waveguide applications. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for the results shown, but any standard finite element software that can implement Floquet periodicity (user-defined or built-in) should suffice. Finally, we identify a number of complex waveguides for which dispersion curves can be found with relative ease by using the periodicity inherent to the Floquet boundary conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-10
We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsuya Hashino
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.
Spiral waves are stable in discrete element models of two-dimensional homogeneous excitable media
Feldman, A. B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.
1998-01-01
The spontaneous breakup of a single spiral wave of excitation into a turbulent wave pattern has been observed in both discrete element models and continuous reaction-diffusion models of spatially homogeneous 2D excitable media. These results have attracted considerable interest, since spiral breakup is thought to be an important mechanism of transition from the heart rhythm disturbance ventricular tachycardia to the fatal arrhythmia ventricular fibrillation. It is not known whether this process can occur in the absence of disease-induced spatial heterogeneity of the electrical properties of the ventricular tissue. Candidate mechanisms for spiral breakup in uniform 2D media have emerged, but the physical validity of the mechanisms and their applicability to myocardium require further scrutiny. In this letter, we examine the computer simulation results obtained in two discrete element models and show that the instability of each spiral is an artifact resulting from an unphysical dependence of wave speed on wave front curvature in the medium. We conclude that spiral breakup does not occur in these two models at the specified parameter values and that great care must be exercised in the representation of a continuous excitable medium via discrete elements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijing Shao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Pulsar timing and laser-interferometer gravitational-wave (GW detectors are superb laboratories to study gravity theories in the strong-field regime. Here, we combine these tools to test the mono-scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse (DEF, which predicts nonperturbative scalarization phenomena for neutron stars (NSs. First, applying Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques, we use the absence of dipolar radiation in the pulsar-timing observations of five binary systems composed of a NS and a white dwarf, and eleven equations of state (EOSs for NSs, to derive the most stringent constraints on the two free parameters of the DEF scalar-tensor theory. Since the binary-pulsar bounds depend on the NS mass and the EOS, we find that current pulsar-timing observations leave scalarization windows, i.e., regions of parameter space where scalarization can still be prominent. Then, we investigate if these scalarization windows could be closed and if pulsar-timing constraints could be improved by laser-interferometer GW detectors, when spontaneous (or dynamical scalarization sets in during the early (or late stages of a binary NS (BNS evolution. For the early inspiral of a BNS carrying constant scalar charge, we employ a Fisher-matrix analysis to show that Advanced LIGO can improve pulsar-timing constraints for some EOSs, and next-generation detectors, such as the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope, will be able to improve those bounds for all eleven EOSs. Using the late inspiral of a BNS, we estimate that for some of the EOSs under consideration, the onset of dynamical scalarization can happen early enough to improve the constraints on the DEF parameters obtained by combining the five binary pulsars. Thus, in the near future, the complementarity of pulsar timing and direct observations of GWs on the ground will be extremely valuable in probing gravity theories in the strong-field regime.
Cao, Jian; Chen, Jing-Bo; Dai, Meng-Xue
2018-01-01
An efficient finite-difference frequency-domain modeling of seismic wave propagation relies on the discrete schemes and appropriate solving methods. The average-derivative optimal scheme for the scalar wave modeling is advantageous in terms of the storage saving for the system of linear equations and the flexibility for arbitrary directional sampling intervals. However, using a LU-decomposition-based direct solver to solve its resulting system of linear equations is very costly for both memory and computational requirements. To address this issue, we consider establishing a multigrid-preconditioned BI-CGSTAB iterative solver fit for the average-derivative optimal scheme. The choice of preconditioning matrix and its corresponding multigrid components is made with the help of Fourier spectral analysis and local mode analysis, respectively, which is important for the convergence. Furthermore, we find that for the computation with unequal directional sampling interval, the anisotropic smoothing in the multigrid precondition may affect the convergence rate of this iterative solver. Successful numerical applications of this iterative solver for the homogenous and heterogeneous models in 2D and 3D are presented where the significant reduction of computer memory and the improvement of computational efficiency are demonstrated by comparison with the direct solver. In the numerical experiments, we also show that the unequal directional sampling interval will weaken the advantage of this multigrid-preconditioned iterative solver in the computing speed or, even worse, could reduce its accuracy in some cases, which implies the need for a reasonable control of directional sampling interval in the discretization.
Degenerate four-wave mixing in a resonant homogeneously broadened system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, R.C.; Steel, D.G.
1979-01-01
Detailed measurements have been made of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a resonant homogeneously broadened gas. The measurements were performed in SF 6 using a CO 2 laser operated on the 10.4-μm branch. The experimental results were compared to a two-level theory for a resonant saturable absorber developed by Abrams and Lind. The measured value of 7% reflectivity on the P(20) line was in excellent agreement with Abrams and Lind when corrected for thermal motion. A peak reflectivity of 38% was observed for off-resonant operation on the P(8) line. In addition to the usual two-level nonlinear response, discussion and measurement of the coherent three-level nonlinearity is also presented. A two-photon contribution in SF 6 using the P(16) line of CO 2 equals the one-photon response. Initial observations of coherent propagation effects are also presented
Relativistic aspects of scalar fields (on some bases of wave mechanisms)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louis, Gilbert.
1981-01-01
In this work, first we establish the general law of a scalar field transformation (in R or C) when we change of inertial frame, independently of any physical meaning associated to this field. Intuitively, if psi (r vector,t) is a field ''seen'' from the frame (R), we write the expression psi'(r'vector,t') which belong to the same field but ''seen'' from the frame (R') ((R) having the speed v vector in relation to (R')). For that, we use exclusively symmetry axioms of space-time-field. 1) In galilean theory we find the law: psi'(r'vector,t') = psi (r vector,t) exp id(v vector r vector + 1/2 v 2 t) with ral constant. Then, we show that Schroedinger equation, de Broglie formula lambda=h/p and the interpretation α=m/h are natural consequences of this law and of the least action principle. So in a strictly galilean framework we are led to a new vision of some basis of the quantum mechanics. We conclude on the epistemological interest of such a procedure by comparing it with some historical and conceptual aspects of special relativity and electromagnetism. 2) In einsteinian theory we find the law: psi'(r'vector,t') = psi(r vector,t) exp idc [v vector/v.r vector shω+(chω-1)ct]. with ω=argtanh v/c. Then, a similar way to 1) led to an equivalent equation to Klein-Gordon's [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, Sirui; Huang, Lianjie
2014-01-01
For modeling scalar-wave propagation in geophysical problems using finite-difference schemes, optimizing the coefficients of the finite-difference operators can reduce numerical dispersion. Most optimized finite-difference schemes for modeling seismic-wave propagation suppress only spatial but not temporal dispersion errors. We develop a novel optimized finite-difference scheme for numerical scalar-wave modeling to control dispersion errors not only in space but also in time. Our optimized scheme is based on a new stencil that contains a few more grid points than the standard stencil. We design an objective function for minimizing relative errors of phase velocities of waves propagating in all directions within a given range of wavenumbers. Dispersion analysis and numerical examples demonstrate that our optimized finite-difference scheme is computationally up to 2.5 times faster than the optimized schemes using the standard stencil to achieve the similar modeling accuracy for a given 2D or 3D problem. Compared with the high-order finite-difference scheme using the same new stencil, our optimized scheme reduces 50 percent of the computational cost to achieve the similar modeling accuracy. This new optimized finite-difference scheme is particularly useful for large-scale 3D scalar-wave modeling and inversion
Cosmic Tsunamis in Modified Gravity: Disruption of Screening Mechanisms from Scalar Waves.
Hagala, R; Llinares, C; Mota, D F
2017-03-10
Extending general relativity by adding extra degrees of freedom is a popular approach for explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe and to build high energy completions of the theory of gravity. The presence of such new degrees of freedom is, however, tightly constrained from several observations and experiments that aim to test general relativity in a wide range of scales. The viability of a given modified theory of gravity, therefore, strongly depends on the existence of a screening mechanism that suppresses the extra degrees of freedom. We perform simulations, and find that waves propagating in the new degrees of freedom can significantly impact the efficiency of some screening mechanisms, thereby threatening the viability of these modified gravity theories. Specifically, we show that the waves produced in the symmetron model can increase the amplitude of the fifth force and the parametrized post Newtonian parameters by several orders of magnitude.
Hayati, Yazdan; Eskandari-Ghadi, Morteza
2018-02-01
An asymmetric three-dimensional thermoelastodynamic wave propagation with scalar potential functions is presented for an isotropic half-space, in such a way that the wave may be originated from an arbitrary either traction or heat flux applied on a patch at the free surface of the half-space. The displacements, stresses and temperature are presented within the framework of Biot's coupled thermoelasticity formulations. By employing a complete representation for the displacement and temperature fields in terms of two scalar potential functions, the governing equations of coupled thermoelasticity are uncoupled into a sixth- and a second-order partial differential equation in cylindrical coordinate system. By virtue of Fourier expansion and Hankel integral transforms, the angular and radial variables are suppressed respectively, and a 6{th}- and a 2{nd}-order ordinary differential equation in terms of depth are received, which are solved readily, from which the displacement, stresses and temperature fields are derived in transformed space by satisfying both the regularity and boundary conditions. By applying the inverse Hankel integral transforms, the displacements and temperature are numerically evaluated to determine the solutions in the real space. The numerical evaluations are done for three specific cases of vertical and horizontal time-harmonic patch traction and a constant heat flux passing through a circular disc on the surface of the half-space. It has been previously proved that the potential functions used in this paper are applicable from elastostatics to thermoelastodynamics. Thus, the analytical solutions presented in this paper are verified by comparing the results of this study with two specific problems reported in the literature, which are an elastodynamic problem and an axisymmetric quasi-static thermoelastic problem. To show the accuracy of numerical results, the solution of this study is also compared with the solution for elastodynamics exists in
Karavashkin, S B
2002-01-01
We analyse the exact analytical solutions for 1D elastic lumped lines under action of an external force inclined to the line axis. We show that in this case an inclined wave being described by an implicit function propagates along the line. We extend this conclusion both to free vibrations and to distributed lines. We prove that the presented solution in the form of implicit function is a generalizing for the wave equation. When taken into consideration exactly, the dynamical processes pattern leads to the conclusion that the divergence of a vector in dynamical fields is not zero but proportional to the scalar product of the partial derivative of the given vector with respect to time into the wave propagation direction vector.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehayias, John; Profumo, Stefano
2010-01-01
Upcoming gravitational wave (GW) detectors might detect a stochastic background of GWs potentially arising from many possible sources, including bubble collisions from a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. We investigate whether it is possible to connect, via a semi-analytical approximation to the tunneling rate of scalar fields with quartic potentials, the GW signal through detonations with the parameters entering the potential that drives the electroweak phase transition. To this end, we consider a finite temperature effective potential similar in form to the Higgs potential in the Standard Model (SM). In the context of a semi-analytic approximation to the three dimensional Euclidean action, we derive a general approximate form for the tunneling temperature and the relevant GW parameters. We explore the GW signal across the parameter space describing the potential which drives the phase transition. We comment on the potential detectability of a GW signal with future experiments, and physical relevance of the associated potential parameters in the context of theories which have effective potentials similar in form to that of the SM. In particular we consider singlet, triplet, higher dimensional operators, and top-flavor extensions to the Higgs sector of the SM. We find that the addition of a temperature independent cubic term in the potential, arising from a gauge singlet for instance, can greatly enhance the GW power. The other parameters have milder, but potentially noticeable, effects
Scalar potentials and the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergerhoff, B.; Soff, G.
1994-01-01
The Dirac equation is solved for various types of scalar potentials. Energy eigenvalues and normalized bound-state wave functions are calculated analytically for a scalar 1/r-potential as well as for a mixed scalar and Coulomb 1/r-potential. Also continuum wave functions for positive and negative energies are derived. Similarly, we investigate the solutions of the Dirac equation for a scalar square-well potential. Relativistic wave functions for scalar Yukawa and exponential potentials are determined numerically. Finally, we also discuss solutions of the Dirac equation for scalar linear and quadratic potentials which are frequently used to simulate quark confinement. (orig.)
Musielak, Zdzislaw E.
1987-01-01
The radiative damping of acoustic and MHD waves that propagate through white dwarf photospheric layers is studied, and other damping processes that may be important for the propagation of the MHD waves are calculated. The amount of energy remaining after the damping processes have occurred in different types of waves is estimated. The results show that lower acoustic fluxes should be expected in layered DA and homogeneous DB white dwarfs than had previously been estimated. Acoustic emission manifests itself in an enhancement of the quadrupole term, but this term may become comparable to or even lower than the dipole term for cool white dwarfs. Energy carried by the acoustic waves is significantly dissipated in deep photospheric layers, mainly because of radiative damping. Acoustically heated corona cannot exist around DA and DB white dwarfs in a range T(eff) = 10,000-30,000 K and for log g = 7 and 8. However, relatively hot and massive white dwarfs could be exceptions.
Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region
Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.
2003-01-01
We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.
Wave propagation phenomena in structured materials and problems of metamaterials homogenization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei
2011-01-01
One of the most convenient ways to describe metamaterials (MM) is to homogenize structured composites and assign them with effective parameters (EPs), provided that they can be introduced. The most common way to determine EPs in literature is to derive them from the refection/transmission spectra......-processing to retrieve EPs. We demonstrate our approach on several characteristic examples and formulate constrains on the MMs homogenization....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, G.S.; Cho, B.H.
1981-01-01
As to the backscatter instability which is one of nonlinear three-wave resonant interactions, the reflectivity(r) in the case of homogeneous-slab medium is calculated, assuming all the three wavepackets negligible damping caused by medium. The expression has turned out such that r = tanh 2 KAsub(p)L, where K, Asub(p), and L are the constant coupling coefficient, the constant pump-wave amplitude, and the thickness of the medium engaged in the interaction each. When this result is interpreted in terms of the stimulated Brillouin back-scattering in a so-called underdense plasma in controlled fusion, we find the reflectivity twice as large as that by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, and unfitting to former experiments in the independence on the incident laser-light intensity. We see the incompatibility rise chiefly from neglecting the damping of pump-wave in the plasma. In contrast to the former results by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, our result might be regarded as that for cases of negligible pump-wave damping, in general stimulated back-scattering phenomena. (author)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Every, AG
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Non-axisymmetric waves in a free homogeneous piezoelectric cylinder of transversely isotropic material with axial polarization are investigated on the basis of the linear theory of elasticity and linear electromechanical coupling. The solution...
Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.
2017-01-01
On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. Incorporating this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave model is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a model exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave model. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new model is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new model can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new model can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave model, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave model can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changwei Zhou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, the analytical homogenization method of periodic discrete media (HPDM and the numerical condensed wave finite element method (CWFEM are employed to study the longitudinal and transverse vibrations of framed structures. The valid frequency range of the HPDM is re-evaluated using the wave propagation feature identified by the CWFEM. The relative error of the wavenumber by the HPDM compared to that by the CWFEM is illustrated in functions of frequency and scale ratio. A parametric study on the thickness of the structure is carried out where the dispersion relation and the relative error are given for three different thicknesses. The dynamics of a finite structure such as natural frequency and forced response are also investigated using the HPDM and the CWFEM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiu-Jiu Chen
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.
Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M
2018-01-01
In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Weak-anisotropy moveout approximations for P-waves in homogeneous TOR layers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan
2017-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 4 (2017), WA23-WA32 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : anisotropic media * velocity * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016
Weak-anisotropy moveout approximations for P waves in homogeneous TTI layers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pšenčík, Ivan; Farra, V.
2016-01-01
Roč. 26 (2016), s. 61-80 ISSN 2336-3827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * anisotropic media * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pšenčík, Ivan; Farra, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 5 (2017), C175-C185 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : VTI media * velocity * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016
Seismic wave propagation in non-homogeneous elastic media by boundary elements
Manolis, George D; Rangelov, Tsviatko V; Wuttke, Frank
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Thanh Long
2005-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the nonlinear wave equation problem $$displaylines{ u_{tt}-Big(|u|_0^2,|u_{r}|_0^2ig(u_{rr}+frac{1}{r}u_{r} =f(r,t,u,u_{r},quad 0less than r less than 1,; 0 less than t less than T, ig|lim_{ro 0^+}sqrt{r}u_{r}(r,tig| less than infty, u_{r}(1,t+hu(1,t=0, u(r,0=widetilde{u}_0(r, u_{t}(r,0=widetilde{u}_1(r. }$$ To this problem, we associate a linear recursive scheme for which the existence of a local and unique weak solution is proved, in weighted Sobolev using standard compactness arguments. In the latter part, we give sufficient conditions for quadratic convergence to the solution of the original problem, for an autonomous right-hand side independent on $u_{r}$ and a coefficient function $B$ of the form $B=B(|u|_0^2=b_0+|u|_0^2$ with $b_0$ greater than 0.
On Scalar Energy: Mathematical Formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hathout, A.M.
2011-01-01
A new kind of electromagnetic waves (EMW), which exists only in vacuum of the empty space, will be discussed and mathematically formulated in this paper. The mathematical existence of this energy was first proposed in a series of groundbreaking equations by Scottish Mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell, in the mid of 1800 and 39;s. This energy is called scalar energy. It is characterized by both particle and wave like. The waves of this energy are called longitudinal EMW to distinguish them from transverse EM, the kind we are familiar with in our daily life. Teslas name of this energy is scalar energy or zero point energy. It is aimed at this paper to explain more details and to verify the scalar EM concept in vacuum.
Quantum aspects of photon propagation in transparent infinite homogeneous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nistor, Rudolf Emil
2008-01-01
The energy balance photon - medium, during the light travelling, through a specific continuous interaction between a single photon and a homogeneous, infinite medium (fully ionized plasma or a transparent dielectric), was studied. We obtained a wave equation for the interacting photon. To explain the interaction in quantum terms, we assume a certain photon - medium interaction energy, macroscopically materialized by the existence of the refractive index. It turns out that the interaction is of a scalar type, for vanishing rest mass and of spin 1 particle submitted both to scalar and vectorial fields. We found out an expression of the propagation equation of the photon through a non-dissipative medium, using a coupling between the photon spin S vector and the scalar interaction field ( E S vector,H S vector). (authors)
Flapping model of scalar mixing in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerstein, A.R.
1991-01-01
Motivated by the fluctuating plume model of turbulent mixing downstream of a point source, a flapping model is formulated for application to other configurations. For the scalar mixing layer, simple expressions for single-point scalar fluctuation statistics are obtained that agree with measurements. For a spatially homogeneous scalar mixing field, the family of probability density functions previously derived using mapping closure is reproduced. It is inferred that single-point scalar statistics may depend primarily on large-scale flapping motions in many cases of interest, and thus that multipoint statistics may be the principal indicators of finer-scale mixing effects
Sethi, M.; Sharma, A.; Vasishth, A.
2017-05-01
The present paper deals with the mathematical modeling of the propagation of torsional surface waves in a non-homogeneous transverse isotropic elastic half-space under a rigid layer. Both rigidities and density of the half-space are assumed to vary inversely linearly with depth. Separation of variable method has been used to get the analytical solutions for the dispersion equation of the torsional surface waves. Also, the effects of nonhomogeneities on the phase velocity of torsional surface waves have been shown graphically. Also, dispersion equations have been derived for some particular cases, which are in complete agreement with some classical results.
Scalar particle creation in an anisotropic universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, B.K.
1975-01-01
The problem of quantized scalar field creation in an anisotropic spatially homogeneous background universe is reexamined from a Schroedinger-picture point of view. For each mode a complete set of orthonormal wave functions, psi/subN/, is obtained using the method of Salusti and Zirilli. These wave functions are valid at all times even if there is an initial cosmological singularity and depend only on the solution of the classical equation of motion. The wave functions are fixed completely by requiring the classical solution to have positive-frequency WKB form when the universe reaches the stage of adiabatic expansion. These wave functions are eigenfunctions of a conserved number operator which has the usual particle interpretation in the adiabatic regime. An intitial state near the singularity is chosen as a superposition of the wave functions, psi/subN/, and the particle number in the adiabatic regime is calculated. For plane-wave initial states, which follow the classical behavior near the singularity, the final particle number depends only on the parameters of the initial wave packet. For an initial state which instantaneously diagonalizes the Hamiltonian, an (arbitrary) initial time must be chosen. If the mode in question is in the adiabatic regime at that time almost no particle creation occurs. If it is not adiabatic, creation occurs and becomes infinite if the initial time is taken to be that of the singularity. This creation is a consequence of the failure of particle number to be well defined in this regime. Comparisons with other particle-creation studies are made
Chen, Jiangwei; Dai, Yuyao; Yan, Lin; Zhao, Huimin
2018-04-01
In this paper, we shall demonstrate theoretically that steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate can arise in an infinite homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector, which is partly attributed to that, here, nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector is not involved with energy losses or gain. Altering value of real-part-of-impedance of the metamaterial, the bound electromagnetic eigenstate may become to be a progressive wave. Our work may be useful to further understand energy conversion and conservation properties of electromagnetic wave in the dispersive and absorptive medium and provides a feasible route to stop, store and release electromagnetic wave (light) conveniently by using metamaterial with near-zero-real-part-of-impedance.
Scalar resonances as two-quark states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabalin, E.P.
1984-01-01
On the base of the theory with U(3)xU(3) symmetric chiral Lagrangian the properties of the two-quark scalar mesons are considered. It is shown, that the scalar resonances delta (980) and K(1240) may be treated as the p-wave states of anti qq system. The properties of the isovector and strange scalar mesons, obtained as a propetrties of the two-quark states, turn out to be very close to the properties of the isovector scalar resonance delta (980) and strange resonance K(1240)
Planková, Barbora; Vinš, Václav; Hrubý, Jan
2017-10-28
Homogeneous droplet nucleation has been studied for almost a century but has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we used the density gradient theory (DGT) and considered the influence of capillary waves (CWs) on the predicted size-dependent surface tensions and nucleation rates for selected n-alkanes. The DGT model was completed by an equation of state (EoS) based on the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and compared to the classical nucleation theory and the Peng-Robinson EoS. It was found that the critical clusters are practically free of CWs because they are so small that even the smallest wavelengths of CWs do not fit into their finite dimensions. The CWs contribute to the entropy of the system and thus decrease the surface tension. A correction for the effect of CWs on the surface tension is presented. The effect of the different EoSs is relatively small because by a fortuitous coincidence their predictions are similar in the relevant range of critical cluster sizes. The difference of the DGT predictions to the classical nucleation theory computations is important but not decisive. Of the effects investigated, the most pronounced is the suppression of CWs which causes a sizable decrease of the predicted nucleation rates. The major difference between experimental nucleation rate data and theoretical predictions remains in the temperature dependence. For normal alkanes, this discrepancy is much stronger than observed, e.g., for water. Theoretical corrections developed here have a minor influence on the temperature dependency. We provide empirical equations correcting the predicted nucleation rates to values comparable with experiments.
Planková, Barbora; Vinš, Václav; Hrubý, Jan
2017-10-01
Homogeneous droplet nucleation has been studied for almost a century but has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we used the density gradient theory (DGT) and considered the influence of capillary waves (CWs) on the predicted size-dependent surface tensions and nucleation rates for selected n-alkanes. The DGT model was completed by an equation of state (EoS) based on the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory and compared to the classical nucleation theory and the Peng-Robinson EoS. It was found that the critical clusters are practically free of CWs because they are so small that even the smallest wavelengths of CWs do not fit into their finite dimensions. The CWs contribute to the entropy of the system and thus decrease the surface tension. A correction for the effect of CWs on the surface tension is presented. The effect of the different EoSs is relatively small because by a fortuitous coincidence their predictions are similar in the relevant range of critical cluster sizes. The difference of the DGT predictions to the classical nucleation theory computations is important but not decisive. Of the effects investigated, the most pronounced is the suppression of CWs which causes a sizable decrease of the predicted nucleation rates. The major difference between experimental nucleation rate data and theoretical predictions remains in the temperature dependence. For normal alkanes, this discrepancy is much stronger than observed, e.g., for water. Theoretical corrections developed here have a minor influence on the temperature dependency. We provide empirical equations correcting the predicted nucleation rates to values comparable with experiments.
The Rainich problem for coupled gravitational and scalar meson fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyde, J.M.
1975-01-01
The equations of the coupled gravitational and scalar meson fields in general relativity are considered. It is shown that the wave equation for the scalar meson field which is usually specified explicitly in addition to the Einstein field equations is implied by Einstein's equations. Using this result it is then shown how the scalar field may be eliminated explicitly from the field equations, thus solving the Rainich problem for the coupled gravitational and scalar meson fields. (author) [fr
Li, Bohua; Shapiro, Paul R.; Rindler-Daller, Tanja
2017-09-01
We consider an alternative to weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) cold dark matter (CDM)—ultralight bosonic dark matter (m ≳10-22 eV /c2) described by a complex scalar field (SFDM) with a global U (1 ) symmetry—for which the comoving particle number density or charge density is conserved after particle production during standard reheating. We allow for a repulsive self-interaction. In a Λ SFDM universe, SFDM starts out relativistic, evolving from stiff (w =1 ) to radiation-like (w =1 /3 ), before becoming nonrelativistic at late times (w =0 ). Thus, before the familiar radiation-dominated era, there is an earlier era of stiff-SFDM domination. During both the stiff-SFDM-dominated and radiation-dominated eras, the expansion rate is higher than in Λ CDM . The SFDM particle mass m and quartic self-interaction coupling strength λ are therefore constrained by cosmological observables, particularly Neff, the effective number of neutrino species during big bang nucleosynthesis, and zeq, the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) from inflation is amplified during the stiff-SFDM-dominated era, it can contribute a radiation-like component large enough to affect these observables by further boosting the expansion rate after the stiff era ends. Remarkably, this same amplification makes detection of the SGWB possible at high frequencies by current laser interferometer experiments, e.g., aLIGO/Virgo and LISA. For SFDM particle parameters that satisfy these cosmological constraints, the amplified SGWB is detectable by LIGO for a broad range of reheat temperatures Treheat, for values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r currently allowed by cosmic microwave background polarization measurements. For a given r and λ /(m c2)2, the marginally allowed Λ SFDM model for each Treheat has the smallest m that satisfies the cosmological constraints, and maximizes the present SGWB energy density for that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Krasemann, H.
1979-08-01
We investigate the Dalitz plot population and thrust angular distribution for the Orthoquarkonium decay Q anti Q → 3 scalar gluons. The Dalitz plot for scalar gluons is populated in corners where events are 2 jet like and this disagrees with existing Upsilon data. The scalar gluon thrust angular distribution is also in striking disagreement with the UPSILON data and so scalar gluons are completely ruled out. (orig.)
Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2010-01-01
Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.; Weingarten, D.
1996-01-01
We evaluate the valence approximation to the mass of scalar quarkonium for a range of different parameters. Our results strongly suggest that the infinite volume continuum limit of the mass of ss scalar quarkonium lies well below the mass of f J (1710). The resonance f 0 (1500) appears to the best candidate for ss scalar quarkonium. (orig.)
An improved mixing model providing joint statistics of scalar and scalar dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Daniel W. [Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Jenny, Patrick [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
2008-11-15
For the calculation of nonpremixed turbulent flames with thin reaction zones the joint probability density function (PDF) of the mixture fraction and its dissipation rate plays an important role. The corresponding PDF transport equation involves a mixing model for the closure of the molecular mixing term. Here, the parameterized scalar profile (PSP) mixing model is extended to provide the required joint statistics. Model predictions are validated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a passive scalar mixing in a statistically homogeneous turbulent flow. Comparisons between the DNS and the model predictions are provided, which involve different initial scalar-field lengthscales. (author)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, MY
2009-01-01
Full Text Available ). The main disadvantage of this approach is that the roots of characteristic arguments ( ( )0, 1, , 4k kξ = = … ) are also displayed on the surface plots as obvious artefacts. An elaborate discussion of these artefacts is given in Yenwong-Fai (2008...-matrix interface by guided waves: Axisymmetric case. J. Acoust. Soc. Am 89 (6), 2573-2583. Yenwong-Fai, A., 2008. Wave propagation in a piezoelectric solid cylinder of transversely isotropic material. Master’s thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan; Jílek, P.
2016-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 2 (2016), C39-C59 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : anisotropy * P-wave * travel time * moveout Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016
A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juneja, A.; Pope, S.B.
1996-01-01
We employ direct numerical simulations to study the mixing of two passive scalars in stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The present work is a direct extension of that of Eswaran and Pope from one scalar to two scalars and the focus is on examining the evolution states of the scalar joint probability density function (jpdf) and the conditional expectation of the scalar diffusion to motivate better models for multi-scalar mixing. The initial scalar fields are chosen to conform closely to a open-quote open-quote triple-delta function close-quote close-quote jpdf corresponding to blobs of fluid in three distinct states. The effect of the initial length scales and diffusivity of the scalars on the evolution of the jpdf and the conditional diffusion is investigated in detail as the scalars decay from their prescribed initial state. Also examined is the issue of self-similarity of the scalar jpdf at large times and the rate of decay of the scalar variance and dissipation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Marcelo; Martinez del Rio, David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Apdo. Postal 70-543 Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is analyzed in the physical (Jordan) frame using a 3+1 decomposition of spacetime. A first order strongly hyperbolic system is obtained for which the well posedness of the Cauchy problem can be established. We provide two simple applications of the 3+1 system of equations: one for static and spherically symmetric spacetimes which allows the construction of unstable initial data (compact objects) for which a further black hole formation and scalar gravitational wave emission can be analyzed, and another application is for homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes that permits to study the dynamics of the Universe in the framework of STT.
Semin, Adrien; Schmidt, Kersten
2018-02-01
The direct numerical simulation of the acoustic wave propagation in multiperforated absorbers with hundreds or thousands of tiny openings would result in a huge number of basis functions to resolve the microstructure. One is, however, primarily interested in effective and so homogenized transmission and absorption properties and how they are influenced by microstructure and its endpoints. For this, we introduce the surface homogenization that asymptotically decomposes the solution in a macroscopic part, a boundary layer corrector close to the interface and a near-field part close to its ends. The effective transmission and absorption properties are expressed by transmission conditions for the macroscopic solution on an infinitely thin interface and corner conditions at its endpoints to ensure the correct singular behaviour, which are intrinsic to the microstructure. We study and give details on the computation of the effective parameters for an inviscid and a viscous model and show their dependence on geometrical properties of the microstructure for the example of Helmholtz equation. Numerical experiments indicate that with the obtained macroscopic solution representation one can achieve an high accuracy for low and high porosities as well as for viscous boundary conditions while using only a small number of basis functions.
Experiments on scalar mixing and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warhaft, Z.
1993-01-01
The author provides an overview of his recent work on passive (temperature) scalar mixing in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows. He shows that for homogeneous grid generated turbulence, in the presence of a linear temperature profile, the probability density function (pdf) of the temperature fluctuations has broad exponential tails, while the pdf of velocity is Gaussian. However, in the absence of a scalar gradient the pdf of temperature is Gaussian. This new result sheds insight into the fundamentals of turbulent mixing as well as to the nature of the velocity field. It is also shown that the spectrum of the temperature fluctuations has a scaling region that is consistent with Kolmogorov scaling although a similar scaling region is absent for the velocity field in this low Reynolds number flow. Finally, results concerning the mixing and dispersion of scalars in a jet are shown. Although initially the scalar mixing is strongly dependent on input conditions, the mixing is shown to be rapid and the correlation coefficient asymptotes to unity by x/D ∼ 20
TWO FERROMAGNETIC SPHERES IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yury A. Krasnitsky
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of two spherical conductors is studied quite in detail with bispherical coordinates usage and has numerous appendices in an electrostatics. The boundary-value problem about two ferromagnetic spheres enclosed on homogeneous and infinite environment in which the lack of spheres exists like homogeneous magnetic field is considered. The solution of Laplace's equation in the bispherical system of coordinates allows us to find the potential and field distribution in all spaces, including area between spheres. The boundary conditions in potential continuity and in ordinary density constituent of spheres surfaces induction flux are used. It is supposed that spheres are identical, and magnetic permeability of their material is expressed in >> 0. The problem about falling of electromagnetic plane wave on the system of two spheres, which possesses electrically small sizes, can be considered as quasistationary. The scalar potentials received as a result of Laplace's equation solution are represented by the series containing Legendre polynomials. The concept of two spheres system effective permeability is introduced. It is equal to the advantage in magnitude of magnetic induction flux vector through a certain system’s section arising due to its magnetic properties. Necessary ratios for the effective permeability referred to the central system’s section are obtained. Particularly, the results can be used during the analysis of ferroxcube core clearance, which influences on the magnetic antenna properties.
Cosmology or Catastrophe? A non-minimally coupled scalar in an inhomogeneous universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caputa, Paweł; Haque, Sheikh Shajidul; Olson, Joseph; Underwood, Bret
2013-01-01
A non-minimally coupled scalar field can have, in principle, a negative effective Planck mass squared which depends on the scalar field. Surprisingly, an isotropic and homogeneous cosmological universe with a non-minimally coupled scalar field is perfectly smooth as the rolling scalar field causes the effective Planck mass to change sign and pass through zero. However, we show that any small deviations from homogeneity diverge as the effective Planck mass vanishes, with catastrophic consequences for the cosmology. The physical origin of the divergence is due to the presence of non-zero scalar anisotropic stress from the non-minimally coupled scalar field. Thus, while the homogeneous and isotropic cosmology appears surprisingly sensible when the effective Planck mass vanishes, inhomogeneities tell a different story. (paper)
Stability of a Noncanonical Scalar Field Model during Cosmological Date
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ossoulian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using the noncanonical model of scalar field, the cosmological consequences of a pervasive, self-interacting, homogeneous, and rolling scalar field are studied. In this model, the scalar field potential is “nonlinear” and decreases in magnitude with increasing the value of the scalar field. A special solution of the nonlinear field equations of ϕ that has time dependency as fixed point is obtained. The fixed point relies on the noncanonical term of action and γ-parameter; this parameter appeared in energy density of scalar field redshift. By means of such fixed point the different eigenvalues of the equation of motion will be obtained. In different epochs in the evolution of the Universe for different values of q and n, the potentials as a function of scalar field are attained. The behavior of baryonic perturbations in linear perturbation scenario as a considerable amount of energy density of scalar field at low redshifts prevents the growth of perturbations in the ordinary matter fluid. The energy density in the scalar field is not appreciably perturbed by nonrelativistic gravitational fields, in either the radiation or matter dominant or scalar field dominated epoch.
Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2010-01-01
Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S.
2004-01-01
The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P 0 transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP N core calculations. (Author)
Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimcik, C.
1988-01-01
A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-01-10
The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2016-01-22
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Spectra of turbulently advected scalars that have small Schmidt number
Hill, Reginald J.
2017-09-01
Exact statistical equations are derived for turbulent advection of a passive scalar having diffusivity much larger than the kinematic viscosity, i.e., small Schmidt number. The equations contain all terms needed for precise direct numerical simulation (DNS) quantification. In the appropriate limit, the equations reduce to the classical theory for which the scalar spectrum is proportional to the energy spectrum multiplied by k-4, which, in turn, results in the inertial-diffusive range power law, k-17 /3. The classical theory was derived for the case of isotropic velocity and scalar fields. The exact equations are simplified for less restrictive cases: (1) locally isotropic scalar fluctuations at dissipation scales with no restriction on symmetry of the velocity field, (2) isotropic velocity field with averaging over all wave-vector directions with no restriction on the symmetry of the scalar, motivated by that average being used for DNS, and (3) isotropic velocity field with axisymmetric scalar fluctuations, motivated by the mean-scalar-gradient-source case. The equations are applied to recently published DNSs of passive scalars for the cases of a freely decaying scalar and a mean-scalar-gradient source. New terms in the exact equations are estimated for those cases and are found to be significant; those terms cause the deviations from the classical theory found by the DNS studies. A new formula for the mean-scalar-gradient case explains the variation of the scalar spectra for the DNS of the smallest Schmidt-number cases. Expansion in Legendre polynomials reveals the effect of axisymmetry. Inertial-diffusive-range formulas for both the zero- and second-order Legendre contributions are given. Exact statistical equations reveal what must be quantified using DNS to determine what causes deviations from asymptotic relationships.
Scalar formalism for quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hostler, L.C.
1985-01-01
A set of Feynman rules, similar to the rules of scalar electrodynamics, is derived for a full quantum electrodynamics based on the relativistic Klein--Gordon--type wave equation ]Pi/sub μ/Pi/sub μ/+m 2 +ie sigma x (E +iB)]phi = 0, Pi/sub μ/ equivalent-i partial/sub μ/-eA/sub μ/, for spin- 1/2 particles [J. Math. Phys. 23, 1179 (1982); J. Math. Phys. 24, 2366 (1983)]. In this equation, phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor and sigma/sub a/, a = 1,2,3, are the usual 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. The irreducible self-energy parts are compared to those of conventional quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail: richard.sanchez@cea.fr
2004-07-01
The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)
Absorption of massive scalar field by a charged black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sato, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Fundamental Physics
1976-04-12
Absorption and reflection of charged, massive scalar field by the Reisner-Nordstrom black hole are investigated through a numerical computation. The absorption is suppressed when (Schwarzschild radius)<(Compton wave length) and the amplification of the wave occurs when the level crossing condition is satisfied.
Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Yong Zhang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We examine the stability of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.
Bianchi type-I model with conformally invariant scalar and electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.
1983-01-01
A Bianchi type-I exact solution of the Einstein theory representing the homogeneous anisotropic models with the electromagnetic field and the conformally invariant scalar field is studied. The solution contains Kasner model, pure electromagnetic and pure scalar models as special cases. It is found that the models evolve from an initial Kasner type to a final open Friedmann type universe. (Author) [pt
Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-09-01
Scalar-tensor theories of gravity modify general relativity by introducing a scalar field that couples nonminimally to the metric tensor, while satisfying the weak-equivalence principle. These theories are interesting because they have the potential to simultaneously suppress modifications to Einstein's theory on Solar System scales, while introducing large deviations in the strong field of neutron stars. Scalar-tensor theories can be classified through the choice of conformal factor, a scalar that regulates the coupling between matter and the metric in the Einstein frame. The class defined by a Gaussian conformal factor with a negative exponent has been studied the most because it leads to spontaneous scalarization (i.e. the sudden activation of the scalar field in neutron stars), which consequently leads to large deviations from general relativity in the strong field. This class, however, has recently been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study whether this remains the case when the exponent of the conformal factor is positive, as well as in another class of theories defined by a hyperbolic conformal factor. We find that in both of these scalar-tensor theories, Solar System tests are passed only in a very small subset of coupling parameter space, for a large set of initial conditions compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis. However, while we find that it is possible for neutron stars to scalarize, one must carefully select the coupling parameter to do so, and even then, the scalar charge is typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the negative-exponent case. Our study suggests that future work on scalar-tensor gravity, for example in the context of tests of general relativity with gravitational waves from neutron star binaries, should be carried out within the positive coupling parameter class.
Scalar Potential Model progress
Hodge, John
2007-04-01
Because observations of galaxies and clusters have been found inconsistent with General Relativity (GR), the focus of effort in developing a Scalar Potential Model (SPM) has been on the examination of galaxies and clusters. The SPM has been found to be consistent with cluster cellular structure, the flow of IGM from spiral galaxies to elliptical galaxies, intergalactic redshift without an expanding universe, discrete redshift, rotation curve (RC) data without dark matter, asymmetric RCs, galaxy central mass, galaxy central velocity dispersion, and the Pioneer Anomaly. In addition, the SPM suggests a model of past expansion, past contraction, and current expansion of the universe. GR corresponds to the SPM in the limit in which a flat and static scalar potential field replaces the Sources and Sinks such as between clusters and on the solar system scale which is small relative to the distance to a Source. The papers may be viewed at http://web.infoave.net/˜scjh/ .
Exploring extra dimensions with scalar fields
Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Verostek, Mike
2018-05-01
This paper provides a pedagogical introduction to the physics of extra dimensions by examining the behavior of scalar fields in three landmark models: the ADD, Randall-Sundrum, and DGP spacetimes. Results of this analysis provide qualitative insights into the corresponding behavior of gravitational fields and elementary particles in each of these models. In these "brane world" models, the familiar four dimensional spacetime of everyday experience is called the brane and is a slice through a higher dimensional spacetime called the bulk. The particles and fields of the standard model are assumed to be confined to the brane, while gravitational fields are assumed to propagate in the bulk. For all three spacetimes, we calculate the spectrum of propagating scalar wave modes and the scalar field produced by a static point source located on the brane. For the ADD and Randall-Sundrum models, at large distances, the field looks like that of a point source in four spacetime dimensions, but at short distances, it crosses over to a form appropriate to the higher dimensional spacetime. For the DGP model, the field has the higher dimensional form at long distances rather than short. The behavior of these scalar fields, derived using only undergraduate level mathematics, closely mirror the results that one would obtain by performing the far more difficult task of analyzing the behavior of gravitational fields in these spacetimes.
Spinning Kerr black holes with stationary massive scalar clouds: the large-coupling regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [Marine sciences, The Ruppin Academic Center,Ruppin, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); Biotechnology, The Hadassah Academic College,37 Hanevi’im St., Jerusalem 9101001 (Israel)
2017-01-09
We study analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for stationary massive scalar fields linearly coupled to spinning Kerr black holes. In particular, using the WKB approximation, we derive a compact formula for the discrete spectrum of scalar field masses which characterize the stationary composed Kerr-black-hole-massive-scalar-field configurations in the large-coupling regime Mμ≫1 (here M and μ are respectively the mass of the central black hole and the proper mass of the scalar field). We confirm our analytically derived formula for the Kerr-scalar-field mass spectrum with numerical data that recently appeared in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egorov, A I; Kashargin, P E; Sushkov, Sergey V
2016-01-01
In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of general relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach–Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of N wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as ‘struts’ and ‘membranes’, that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spacetime has a complicated topological structure. Namely, in the spacetime there exist 2 N asymptotically flat regions connected by throats. (paper)
Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslanka, K.
1983-01-01
The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)
Local structure of scalar flux in turbulent passive scalar mixing
Konduri, Aditya; Donzis, Diego
2012-11-01
Understanding the properties of scalar flux is important in the study of turbulent mixing. Classical theories suggest that it mainly depends on the large scale structures in the flow. Recent studies suggest that the mean scalar flux reaches an asymptotic value at high Peclet numbers, independent of molecular transport properties of the fluid. A large DNS database of isotropic turbulence with passive scalars forced with a mean scalar gradient with resolution up to 40963, is used to explore the structure of scalar flux based on the local topology of the flow. It is found that regions of small velocity gradients, where dissipation and enstrophy are small, constitute the main contribution to scalar flux. On the other hand, regions of very small scalar gradient (and scalar dissipation) become less important to the scalar flux at high Reynolds numbers. The scaling of the scalar flux spectra is also investigated. The k - 7 / 3 scaling proposed by Lumley (1964) is observed at high Reynolds numbers, but collapse is not complete. A spectral bump similar to that in the velocity spectrum is observed close to dissipative scales. A number of features, including the height of the bump, appear to reach an asymptotic value at high Schmidt number.
Search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2002-01-01
Searches for a scalar top quark and a scalar bottom quark have been performed using a data sample of 438 pb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 192 - 209 GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for a signal was found. The 95% confidence level lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 97.6 GeV if the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left- and right-handed states of the top quark is zero. When the scalar top quark decouples from the Z0 boson, the lower limit is 95.7 GeV. These limits were obtained assuming that the scalar top quark decays into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino, and that the mass difference between the scalar top quark and the lightest neutralino is larger than 10 GeV. The complementary decay mode of the scalar top quark decaying into a bottom quark, a charged lepton and a scalar neutrino has also been studied. The lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 93.0 GeV for this decay mode, if the mass difference between the scalar top quark a...
Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C
2012-04-01
In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Metamaterials for light rays: ray optics without wave-optical analog in the ray-optics limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes
2009-01-01
Volumes of sub-wavelength electromagnetic elements can act like homogeneous materials: metamaterials. In analogy, sheets of optical elements such as prisms can act ray-optically like homogeneous sheet materials. In this sense, such sheets can be considered to be metamaterials for light rays (METATOYs). METATOYs realize new and unusual transformations of the directions of transmitted light rays. We study here, in the ray-optics and scalar-wave limits, the wave-optical analog of such transformations, and we show that such an analog does not always exist. Perhaps, this is the reason why many of the ray-optical possibilities offered by METATOYs have never before been considered.
The light scalar mesons as tetraquarks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gernot Eichmann
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical solution of the four-quark Bethe–Salpeter equation for ground-state scalar tetraquarks with JPC=0++. We find that the four-body equation dynamically generates pseudoscalar-meson poles in the Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. The resulting tetraquarks are genuine four-quark states that are dominated by pseudoscalar meson–meson correlations. Diquark–antidiquark contributions are subleading because of their larger mass scale. In the light quark sector, the sensitivity of the tetraquark wave function to the pion poles leads to an isoscalar tetraquark mass Mσ∼350 MeV which is comparable to that of the σ/f0(500. The masses of its multiplet partners κ and a0/f0 follow a similar pattern. This provides support for a tetraquark interpretation of the light scalar meson nonet in terms of ‘meson molecules’.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel
Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael
2018-04-01
Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennington, M.R.
1989-01-01
The search for I = 0 0 ++ mesons is described. The crucial role played by the states in the 1 GeV region is highlighted. An analysis program that with unimpeachable data would produce definitive results on these is outlined and shown with present data to provide prima facie evidence for dynamics beyond that of the quark model. The authors briefly speculate on the current status of the lowest mass scalar mesons and discuss how experiment can resolve the unanswered issues. 30 references, 6 figures, 1 table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.
2017-01-01
An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes. (paper)
EDQNM model of a passive scalar with a uniform mean gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herr, S.; Wang, L.; Collins, L.R.
1996-01-01
Dynamic equations for the scalar autocorrelation and scalar-velocity cross correlation spectra have been derived for a passive scalar with a uniform mean gradient using the Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian (EDQNM) theory. The presence of a mean gradient in the scalar field makes all correlations involving the scalar axisymmetric with respect to the axis pointing in the direction of the mean gradient. Equivalently, all scalar spectra will be functions of the wave number k and the cosine of the azimuthal angle designated as μ. In spite of this complication, it is shown that the cross correlation vector can be completely characterized by a single scalar function Q(k). The scalar autocorrelation spectrum, in contrast, has an unknown dependence on μ. However, this dependency can be expressed as an infinite sum of Legendre polynomials of μ, as first suggested by Herring [Phys. Fluids 17, 859 (1974)]. Furthermore, since the scalar field is initially zero, terms beyond the second order of the Legendre expansion are shown to be exactly zero. The energy, scalar autocorrelation, and scalar-velocity cross correlation were solved numerically from the EDQNM equations and compared to results from direct numerical simulations. The results show that the EDQNM theory is effective in describing single-point and spectral statistics of a passive scalar in the presence of a mean gradient. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Hydrodynamic fluctuations from a weakly coupled scalar field
Jackson, G.; Laine, M.
2018-04-01
Studies of non-equilibrium dynamics of first-order cosmological phase transitions may involve a scalar field interacting weakly with the energy-momentum tensor of a thermal plasma. At late times, when the scalar field is approaching equilibrium, it experiences both damping and thermal fluctuations. We show that thermal fluctuations induce a shear viscosity and a gravitational wave production rate, and propose that including this tunable contribution may help in calibrating the measurement of the gravitational wave production rate in hydrodynamic simulations. Furthermore it may enrich their physical scope, permitting in particular for a study of the instability of growing bubbles.
To the theory of quantum processes in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.
1975-01-01
The operator diagram technique, developed earlier for considering phenomena in a homogeneous external field, is applied to processes occurring in a plane electromagnetic wave field. Calculations are carried out on the basis of a specific technique of ''entangling'' of operator expressions. The mass operator of scalar and spinor particles determined by a double integral is found in the field of an elliptically polarized wave of a general type. Imaginary part of the operator presents a new concept of the full probability of a particle emission in a wave field. Polarization effects are analyzed for spinor particles
Fermion-scalar conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-04-13
We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.
A nonlinear dynamics for the scalar field in Randers spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, J.E.G. [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Instituto de formação de professores, Rua Olegário Emídio de Araújo, Brejo Santo, CE, 63.260.000 (Brazil); Maluf, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE, C.P. 6030, 60455-760 (Brazil)
2017-03-10
We investigate the properties of a real scalar field in the Finslerian Randers spacetime, where the local Lorentz violation is driven by a geometrical background vector. We propose a dynamics for the scalar field by a minimal coupling of the scalar field and the Finsler metric. The coupling is intrinsically defined on the Randers spacetime, and it leads to a non-canonical kinetic term for the scalar field. The nonlinear dynamics can be split into a linear and nonlinear regimes, which depend perturbatively on the even and odd powers of the Lorentz-violating parameter, respectively. We analyze the plane-waves solutions and the modified dispersion relations, and it turns out that the spectrum is free of tachyons up to second-order.
Fluctuations of a passive scalar in a turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2013-09-19
The turbulent flow originating downstream of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a mixing layer has great relevance in many applications, ranging from atmospheric physics to combustion in technical devices. The mixing of a substance by the turbulent velocity field is usually involved. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis of fluctuations of a passive scalar in the fully developed region of a turbulent mixing layer from a direct numerical simulation is presented. Passive scalar spectra show inertial ranges characterized by scaling exponents −4/3 and −3/2 in the streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with a recent theoretical analysis of passive scalar scaling in shear flows [Celani et al., J. Fluid Mech. 523, 99 (2005)]. Scaling exponents of high-order structure functions in the streamwise direction show saturation of intermittency with an asymptotic exponent ζ∞=0.4 at large orders. Saturation of intermittency is confirmed by the self-similarity of the tails of the probability density functions of the scalar increments at different scales r with the scaling factor r−ζ∞ and by the analysis of the cumulative probability of large fluctuations. Conversely, intermittency saturation is not observed for the spanwise increments and the relative scaling exponents agree with recent results for homogeneous isotropic turbulence with mean scalar gradient. Probability density functions of the scalar increments in the three directions are compared to assess anisotropy.
Scalar Statistics along Inertial Particle Trajectory in Isotropic Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Ming, Liu; Zhao-Hui, Liu; Hai-Feng, Han; Jing, Li; Han-Feng, Wang; Chu-Guang, Zheng
2009-01-01
The statistics of a passive scalar along inertial particle trajectory in homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a mean scalar gradient is investigated by using direct numerical simulation. We are interested in the influence of particle inertia on such statistics, which is crucial for further understanding and development of models in non-isothermal gas-particle flows. The results show that the scalar variance along particle trajectory decreases with the increasing particle inertia firstly; when the particle's Stokes number S t is less than 1.0, it reaches the minimal value when S t is around 1.0, then it increases if S t increases further. However, the scalar dissipation rate along the particle trajectory shows completely contrasting behavior in comparison with the scalar variance. The mechanical-to-thermal time scale ratios averaged along particle, p , are approximately two times smaller than that computed in the Eulerian frame r, and stay at nearly 1.77 with a weak dependence on particle inertia. In addition, the correlations between scalar dissipation and now structure characteristics along particle trajectories, such as strain and vorticity, are also computed, and they reach their maximum and minimum, 0.31 and 0.25, respectively, when S t is around 1.0. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Fluctuations of a passive scalar in a turbulent mixing layer
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2013-01-01
The turbulent flow originating downstream of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a mixing layer has great relevance in many applications, ranging from atmospheric physics to combustion in technical devices. The mixing of a substance by the turbulent velocity field is usually involved. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis of fluctuations of a passive scalar in the fully developed region of a turbulent mixing layer from a direct numerical simulation is presented. Passive scalar spectra show inertial ranges characterized by scaling exponents −4/3 and −3/2 in the streamwise and spanwise directions, in agreement with a recent theoretical analysis of passive scalar scaling in shear flows [Celani et al., J. Fluid Mech. 523, 99 (2005)]. Scaling exponents of high-order structure functions in the streamwise direction show saturation of intermittency with an asymptotic exponent ζ∞=0.4 at large orders. Saturation of intermittency is confirmed by the self-similarity of the tails of the probability density functions of the scalar increments at different scales r with the scaling factor r−ζ∞ and by the analysis of the cumulative probability of large fluctuations. Conversely, intermittency saturation is not observed for the spanwise increments and the relative scaling exponents agree with recent results for homogeneous isotropic turbulence with mean scalar gradient. Probability density functions of the scalar increments in the three directions are compared to assess anisotropy.
An axion-like scalar field environment effect on binary black hole merger
Yang, Qing; Ji, Li-Wei; Hu, Bin; Cao, Zhou-Jian; Cai, Rong-Gen
2018-06-01
The environment, such as an accretion disk, could modify the signal of the gravitational wave from astrophysical black hole binaries. In this article, we model the matter field around intermediate-mass binary black holes by means of an axion-like scalar field and investigate their joint evolution. In detail, we consider equal mass binary black holes surrounded by a shell of axion-like scalar field both in spherically symmetric and non-spherically symmetric cases, and with different strengths of the scalar field. Our result shows that the environmental scalar field could essentially modify the dynamics. Firstly, in the spherically symmetric case, with increase of the scalar field strength, the number of circular orbits for the binary black hole is reduced. This means that the scalar field could significantly accelerate the merger process. Secondly, once the scalar field strength exceeds a certain critical value, the scalar field could collapse into a third black hole with its mass being larger than that of the binary. Consequently, the new black hole that collapses from the environmental scalar field could accrete the binary promptly and the binary collides head-on with each other. In this process, there is almost no quadrupole signal produced, and, consequently, the gravitational wave is greatly suppressed. Thirdly, when the scalar field strength is relatively smaller than the critical value, the black hole orbit could develop eccentricity through accretion of the scalar field. Fourthly, during the initial stage of the inspiral, the gravitational attractive force from the axion-like scalar field could induce a sudden turn in the binary orbits, hence resulting in a transient wiggle in the gravitational waveform. Finally, in the non-spherical case, the scalar field could gravitationally attract the binary moving toward the center of mass for the scalar field and slow down the merger process.
In a search for scalar gluonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.
1979-01-01
The problem of a scalar meson coupled strongly to gluons is discussed. Radiative decays of the J/psi are taken as a source of gluons. The aim of the paper is to calculate the GITA(J/psi→σγ) decay width where σ is the presumed scalar luonium. QCD sum rules was used to find both , (where Gsub(μν)sup(a) is the gluon field strength tensor and αsub(s) is the quark-gluon coupling constant) and GITA(J/psi→σγ) in terms of . The final prediction for the width is expected to be valid within a factor of two and gives GITA(J/psi→σγ→ two pions in S wave + γ) approximately equal to 25 eV for Msub(σ)=700 MeV. Nonperturbative QCD naturally explains the observed asymmetry between scalar and pseudoscalar states in the radiative decays of the J/psi. Some general remarks on gluonium in QCD are made
Modeling the subfilter scalar variance for large eddy simulation in forced isotropic turbulence
Cheminet, Adam; Blanquart, Guillaume
2011-11-01
Static and dynamic model for the subfilter scalar variance in homogeneous isotropic turbulence are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a lineary forced passive scalar field. First, we introduce a new scalar forcing technique conditioned only on the scalar field which allows the fluctuating scalar field to reach a statistically stationary state. Statistical properties, including 2nd and 3rd statistical moments, spectra, and probability density functions of the scalar field have been analyzed. Using this technique, we performed constant density and variable density DNS of scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence. The results are used in an a-priori study of scalar variance models. Emphasis is placed on further studying the dynamic model introduced by G. Balarac, H. Pitsch and V. Raman [Phys. Fluids 20, (2008)]. Scalar variance models based on Bedford and Yeo's expansion are accurate for small filter width but errors arise in the inertial subrange. Results suggest that a constant coefficient computed from an assumed Kolmogorov spectrum is often sufficient to predict the subfilter scalar variance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G. t'; Isidori, G.; Maiani, L.; Polosa, A.D.; Riquer, V.
2008-01-01
We discuss the effect of the instanton induced, six-fermion effective Lagrangian on the decays of the lightest scalar mesons in the diquark-antidiquark picture. This addition allows for a remarkably good description of light scalar meson decays. The same effective Lagrangian produces a mixing of the lightest scalars with the positive parity qq-bar states. Comparing with previous work where the qq-bar mesons are identified with the nonet at 1200-1700 MeV, we find that the mixing required to fit the mass spectrum is in good agreement with the instanton coupling obtained from light scalar decays. A coherent picture of scalar mesons as a mixture of tetraquark states (dominating in the lightest mesons) and heavy qq-bar states (dominating in the heavier mesons) emerges
Scalar-metric and scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldersley, S.J.
1977-01-01
The techniques of dimensional analysis and of the theory of tensorial concomitants are employed to study field equations in gravitational theories which incorporate scalar fields of the Brans-Dicke type. Within the context of scalar-metric gravitational theories, a uniqueness theorem for the geometric (or gravitational) part of the field equations is proven and a Lagrangian is determined which is uniquely specified by dimensional analysis. Within the context of scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories a uniqueness theorem for field Lagrangians is presented and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are given. Finally, an example of a scalar-metric-torsion theory is presented which is similar in many respects to the Brans-Dicke theory and the Einstein-Cartan theory
Scalar cosmological perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John
2012-01-01
Scalar perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies can be analyzed in a variety of ways using Einstein's field equations, the Ricci and Bianchi identities, or the conservation equations for the stress-energy tensor, and possibly introducing a timelike reference congruence. The common ground is the use of gauge invariants derived from the metric tensor, the stress-energy tensor, or from vectors associated with a reference congruence, as basic variables. Although there is a complication in that there is no unique choice of gauge invariants, we will show that this can be used to advantage. With this in mind our first goal is to present an efficient way of constructing dimensionless gauge invariants associated with the tensors that are involved, and of determining their inter-relationships. Our second goal is to give a unified treatment of the various ways of writing the governing equations in dimensionless form using gauge-invariant variables, showing how simplicity can be achieved by a suitable choice of variables and normalization factors. Our third goal is to elucidate the connection between the metric-based approach and the so-called 1 + 3 gauge-invariant approach to cosmological perturbations. We restrict our considerations to linear perturbations, but our intent is to set the stage for the extension to second-order perturbations. (paper)
Duffley, Patrick; Larrivée, Pierre
2010-01-01
This paper examines the status of scalarity in the analysis of the meaning of the English determiner any. The latter’s position as a prime exemplar of the category of polarity-sensitive items has led it to be generally assumed to have scalar meaning. Scalar effects are absent however from a number of common uses of this word. This suggests that any does not involve scales as part of its core meaning, but produces them as a derived interpretative property. The role of three factors in the deri...
Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.
1993-01-01
A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7
Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.
2008-01-01
If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision
Stochastic scalar mixing models accounting for turbulent frequency multiscale fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soulard, Olivier; Sabel'nikov, Vladimir; Gorokhovski, Michael
2004-01-01
Two new scalar micromixing models accounting for a turbulent frequency scale distribution are investigated. These models were derived by Sabel'nikov and Gorokhovski [Second International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear FLow Phenomena, Royal Institute of technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, June 27-29, 2001] using a multiscale extension of the classical interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) and Langevin models. They are, respectively, called Extended IEM (EIEM) and Extended Langevin (ELM) models. The EIEM and ELM models are tested against DNS results in the case of the decay of a homogeneous scalar field in homogeneous turbulence. This comparison leads to a reformulation of the law governing the mixing frequency distribution. Finally, the asymptotic behaviour of the modeled PDF is discussed
Late time solution for interacting scalar in accelerating spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Spinoza Institute and EMME$\\Phi$, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, Utrecht, 3508 TD The Netherlands (Netherlands)
2015-11-01
We consider stochastic inflation in an interacting scalar field in spatially homogeneous accelerating space-times with a constant principal slow roll parameter ε. We show that, if the scalar potential is scale invariant (which is the case when scalar contains quartic self-interaction and couples non-minimally to gravity), the late-time solution on accelerating FLRW spaces can be described by a probability distribution function (PDF) ρ which is a function of φ/H only, where φ=φ( x-vector ) is the scalar field and H=H(t) denotes the Hubble parameter. We give explicit late-time solutions for ρarrow ρ{sub ∞}(φ/H), and thereby find the order ε corrections to the Starobinsky-Yokoyama result. This PDF can then be used to calculate e.g. various n-point functions of the (self-interacting) scalar field, which are valid at late times in arbitrary accelerating space-times with ε= constant.
Arbitrary scalar-field and quintessence cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Mak, M.K.
2014-01-01
The mechanism of the initial inflationary scenario of the Universe and of its late-time acceleration can be described by assuming the existence of some gravitationally coupled scalar fields φ, with the inflaton field generating inflation and the quintessence field being responsible for the late accelerated expansion. Various inflationary and late-time accelerated scenarios are distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential V(φ), which simulates a temporarily non-vanishing cosmological term. In this work, we present a new formalism for the analysis of scalar fields in flat isotropic and homogeneous cosmological models. The basic evolution equation of the models can be reduced to a first-order non-linear differential equation. Approximate solutions of this equation can be constructed in the limiting cases of the scalar-field kinetic energy and potential energy dominance, respectively, as well as in the intermediate regime. Moreover, we present several new accelerating and decelerating exact cosmological solutions, based on the exact integration of the basic evolution equation for scalar-field cosmologies. More specifically, exact solutions are obtained for exponential, generalized cosine hyperbolic, and power-law potentials, respectively. Cosmological models with power-law scalar field potentials are also analyzed in detail. (orig.)
Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivica Smolić
2015-01-01
Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)
Spherically symmetric scalar field collapse
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-03-01
Mar 1, 2013 ... The very recent interest in scalar field collapse stems from a cosmological ... The objective of the present investigation is to explore the collapsing modes of a simple ..... The authors thank the BRNS (DAE) for financial support.
Inflation and the Higgs Scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2014-12-05
This note makes a self-contained exposition of the basic facts of big bang cosmology as they relate to inflation. The fundamental problems with that model are then explored. A simple scalar model of inflation is evaluated which provides the solution of those problems and makes predictions which will soon be definitively tested. The possibility that the recently discovered fundamental Higgs scalar field drives inflation is explored.
Properties of the scalar glueball
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanik, J.
1984-01-01
A detailed analysis of an effective Lagrangian model for cupling between a scalar glueball and pseudoscalar mesons is given. This coupling is shown to satisfy the SU(2)xSU(2) rule. The model is consistent with the glueball assignment for the scalar gsub(s)(1240) particle. Moreover, the SU(2)xSU(2) coupling rule explained also the existing experimental data for decays of the tensor glueball candidate THETA(1640) into pseudoscalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fré, P.; Sorin, A.S.; Trigiante, M.
2014-01-01
The question whether the integrable one-field cosmologies classified in a previous paper by Fré, Sagnotti and Sorin can be embedded as consistent one-field truncations into Extended Gauged Supergravity or in N=1 supergravity gauged by a superpotential without the use of D-terms is addressed in this paper. The answer is that such an embedding is very difficult and rare but not impossible. Indeed, we were able to find two examples of integrable models embedded in supergravity in this way. Both examples are fitted into N=1 supergravity by means of a very specific and interesting choice of the superpotential W(z). The question whether there are examples of such an embedding in Extended Gauged Supergravity remains open. In the present paper, relying on the embedding tensor formalism we classified all gaugings of the N=2 STU model, confirming, in the absence on hypermultiplets, the uniqueness of the stable de Sitter vacuum found several years ago by Fré, Trigiante and Van Proeyen and excluding the embedding of any integrable cosmological model. A detailed analysis of the space of exact solutions of the first supergravity-embedded integrable cosmological model revealed several new features worth an in-depth consideration. When the scalar potential has an extremum at a negative value, the Universe necessarily collapses into a Big Crunch notwithstanding its spatial flatness. The causal structure of these Universes is quite different from that of the closed, positive curved, Universe: indeed, in this case the particle and event horizons do not coincide and develop complicated patterns. The cosmological consequences of this unexpected mechanism deserve careful consideration
Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?
Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-04-01
In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.
Nonminimally coupled scalar fields may not curve spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo; Zanelli, Jorge
2005-01-01
It is shown that flat spacetime can be dressed with a real scalar field that satisfies the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation without curving spacetime. Surprisingly, this possibility arises from the nonminimal coupling of the scalar field with the curvature, since a footprint of the coupling remains in the energy-momentum tensor even when gravity is switched off. Requiring the existence of solutions with vanishing energy-momentum tensor fixes the self-interaction potential as a local function of the scalar field depending on two coupling constants. The solutions describe shock waves and, in the Euclidean continuation, instanton configurations in any dimension. As a consequence of this effect, the tachyonic solutions of the free massive Klein-Gordon equation become part of the vacuum
Pulsar timing signal from ultralight scalar dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Rubakov, Valery
2014-01-01
An ultralight free scalar field with mass around 10 −23 −10 −22 eV is a viable dark mater candidate, which can help to resolve some of the issues of the cold dark matter on sub-galactic scales. We consider the gravitational field of the galactic halo composed out of such dark matter. The scalar field has oscillating in time pressure, which induces oscillations of gravitational potential with amplitude of the order of 10 −15 and frequency in the nanohertz range. This frequency is in the range of pulsar timing array observations. We estimate the magnitude of the pulse arrival time residuals induced by the oscillating gravitational potential. We find that for a range of dark matter masses, the scalar field dark matter signal is comparable to the stochastic gravitational wave signal and can be detected by the planned SKA pulsar timing array experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sweet, F.; Bearden, T.E.
1991-01-01
Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904 papers which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly engineering the ambient potential of the vacuum has been developed and realized experimentally. Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to classical electromagnetic, quantum mechanics, and general relativity produces supersets of each discipline. These supersets are joined by the common Whittaker subset, producing a unified field theory that is engineerable and tested. By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, several working model energy units have been produced which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local virtual photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish coherent self-oscillations between the local excited vacuum and the affected nuclei, utilized the self-oscillating standing wave for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load circuit a powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate replica wave at 60 Hertz frequency and nominal 120 volt sine wave power. Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts early on to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed battery-less systems with damped positive feedback and open loop systems with battery-powered input have been successfully built. Open loop power gains of from 5 x 10 4 to 1.5 x 10 6 have been achieved. Antigravity experiments have also been successfully conducted where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an output of 1 kilowatt. The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and experimental results presented
Homogenization and isotropization of an inflationary cosmological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.; Groen, Oe.; Oslo Univ.
1986-01-01
A member of the class of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models constructed by Wainwright and Goode is investigated. It is shown to describe a universe containing a scalar field which is minimally coupled to gravitation and a positive cosmological constant. It is shown that this cosmological model evolves exponentially rapidly towards the homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter universe model. (orig.)
Homogeneous axisymmetric model with a limitting stiff equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korkina, M.P.; Martynenko, V.G.
1976-01-01
A solution is obtained for Einstein's equations in which all metric coefficients are time functions for a limiting stiff equation of the substance state. Thr solution describes a homogeneous cosmological model with cylindrical symmetry. It is shown that the same metrics can be induced by a massless scalar only time-dependent field. Analysis of this solution is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2007-08-01
After a brief summary of some basic properties of ideal gases of bosons and of fermions, two many-body Hamiltonians are cited for which ground-state wave functions allow the generation of excited states. But because of the complexity of ground-state many-body wave functions, we then consider properties of reduced density matrices, and in particular, the diagonal element of the second-order density matrix. For both the homogeneous correlated electron liquid and for an assembly of charged bosons, the ground-state pair correlation function g(r) has fingerprints of the zero-point energy of the plasmon modes. These affect crucially the static structure factor S(k), in the long wavelength limit. This is best understood by means of the Ornstein-Zernike direct correlation function c(r), which plays an important role throughout this article. Turning from such charged liquids, both boson and fermion, to superfluid 4 He, the elevated temperature (T) structure factor S(k, T) is related, albeit approximately, to its zero-temperature counterpart, via the velocity of sound, reflecting the collective phonon excitations, and the superfluid density. Finally some future directions are pointed. (author)
Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capdebosq, Y.
1999-09-01
In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vavryčuk, Václav
2006-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 2 (2006), s. 128-136 ISSN 0165-2125 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic waves * transversely isotropic media * ray theory Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2006
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Classical and quantum treatments of the diffraction problem in the case of non-homogeneous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datzeff, A.B.
1978-02-01
The diffraction of waves by an aperture is usually studied in the case of a homogeneous medium. In this paper, a method is proposed for the solution of the same problem in a medium of variable parameters (refractive index, external fields). It is successfully applied to diffraction of a classical scalar wave as well as of an electromagnetic vector wave and a Schroedinger wave, within the framework of this method, the scattering of particles may be considered as a particular case of the diffraction problem. Furthermore, the method is extended to cover the case of diffraction of dense electron beams. This has been achieved by means of a non-linear integro-differential equation, proposed by the author as a generalization of the well-known linear Schroedinger equation. A decisive experiment could be made which, besides showing whether the solution thus obtained is true, would also speak in favour of one of the two equations mentioned above. The latter is pertinent to the discussion of the physical essence of Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindner, J.
1992-09-01
In this thesis in the framework of our model of the field-strength dependent coupling the properties of infinitely extended, homogeneous, static, spin- and isospin-saturated nuclear matter are studied. Thereby we use the Hartree-Mean-Field and the Hartree-Fock approximation, whereby the influence of the antiparticle states in the Fermi sea is neglected. In chapter 2 the Lagrangian density basing to our model is fixed. Starting from the Walecka model we modify in the Lagrangian density the Linear coupling of the scalar field to the scalar density as follows g S φanti ψψ→g S f(φ) anti ψψ. In chapter 3 we fix three different functions f(φ). For these three cases and for the Walecka model with f(φ)=φ nuclear-matter calculations are performed. In chapter 4 for the Hartree-Fock calculations, but also very especially regarding the molecular-dynamics calculations, the properties of the Dirac spinors in the plane-wave representation are intensively studied. (orig.)
Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz
2000-01-01
The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...
Event horizon and scalar potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duruisseau, J.P.; Tonnelat, M.A.
1977-01-01
The introduction of a scalar potential with a more general scheme than General Relativity eliminates the event horizon. Among possible solutions, the Schwarzschild one represents a singular case. A study of the geodesic properties of the matching with an approximated interior solution are given. A new definition of the gravitational mass and chi function is deduced. (author)
Scalar particles in superstring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1989-01-01
The role played by scalar fields in superstring models is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments. The case of the dilaton and moduli fields is discussed in connection with the issues of spacetime duality and supersymmetry breaking. Constraints on the Higgs sector are reviewed in the different classes of models
Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V.
2016-01-01
The $S$-matrix of a quantum field theory is unchanged by field redefinitions, and so only depends on geometric quantities such as the curvature of field space. Whether the Higgs multiplet transforms linearly or non-linearly under electroweak symmetry is a subtle question since one can make a coordinate change to convert a field that transforms linearly into one that transforms non-linearly. Renormalizability of the Standard Model (SM) does not depend on the choice of scalar fields or whether the scalar fields transform linearly or non-linearly under the gauge group, but only on the geometric requirement that the scalar field manifold ${\\mathcal M}$ is flat. We explicitly compute the one-loop correction to scalar scattering in the SM written in non-linear Callan-Coleman-Wess-Zumino (CCWZ) form, where it has an infinite series of higher dimensional operators, and show that the $S$-matrix is finite. Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) have curved ${\\mathcal M}$, ...
Manifolds of positive scalar curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stolz, S [Department of Mathematics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)
2002-08-15
This lecture gives an survey on the problem of finding a positive scalar curvature metric on a closed manifold. The Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture and its relation to the Baum-Connes conjecture are discussed and the problem of finding a positive Ricci curvature metric on a closed manifold is explained.
Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhattacharya Yajnavalkya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.
Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations
Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2012-05-01
We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.
Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow
Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.
1988-01-01
Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.
The trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gianotti, Maurizio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, {open_square}T{sup {mu}{nu}}J{sup {alpha}}J{sup {beta}}, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m{yields}0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J{sup {alpha}} and J{sup {beta}}, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to {delta}(k{sup 2}) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.
Right handed neutrinos in scalar leptonic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleury, N.; Barroso, M.; Magalhaes, M.E.; Martins Simoes, J.A.
1985-01-01
In this note we propose that right handed neutrinos can behave as singlets. Their interaction properties could be revealed through scalar couplings. Signatures and branching ratios for this hypothesis are discussed. In particular we discuss angular asymmetries in ν μ e #-> # ν e μ due to scalar exchange and z 0 decay in two scalars
Search for Scalar Leptons and Scalar Quarks at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2004-01-01
Scalar partners of quarks and leptons, predicted in supersymmetric models, are searched for in e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 192GeV and 209GeV at LEP. No evidence for any such particle is found in a data sample of 450 pb^-1. Upper limits on their production cross sections are set and lower limits on their masses are derived in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)
2017-05-10
We study analytically the characteristic resonance spectrum of charged massive scalar fields linearly coupled to a spherically symmetric charged reflecting shell. In particular, we use analytical techniques in order to solve the Klein–Gordon wave equation for the composed charged-shell–charged-massive-scalar-field system. Interestingly, it is proved that the resonant oscillation frequencies of this composed physical system are determined by the characteristic zeroes of the confluent hypergeometric function. Following this observation, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the marginally-bound charged massive scalar field configurations. The analytically derived resonance spectrum is confirmed by numerical computations.
Absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from charged BTZ black hole
Huang, Lu; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu
2018-06-01
In this paper we investigate the absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from the charged BTZ black hole. We find the analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient, the absorption cross section and the decay rate in strong coupling case. We find that the reflection coefficient is directly governed by Hawking temperature TH, scalar wave frequency ω , Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_{BH}, angular momentum m and coupling constant ξ.
Hypersurface Homogeneous Cosmological Model in Modified Theory of Gravitation
Katore, S. D.; Hatkar, S. P.; Baxi, R. J.
2016-12-01
We study a hypersurface homogeneous space-time in the framework of the f (R, T) theory of gravitation in the presence of a perfect fluid. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained for exponential and power law volumetric expansions. We also solve the field equations by assuming the proportionality relation between the shear scalar (σ ) and the expansion scalar (θ ). It is observed that in the exponential model, the universe approaches isotropy at large time (late universe). The investigated model is notably accelerating and expanding. The physical and geometrical properties of the investigated model are also discussed.
CP violating scalar Dark Matter
Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.
2016-12-01
We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.
Partial twisting for scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki
2014-01-01
The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given
Scalar-tensor linear inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Racioppi, Antonio, E-mail: Michal.Artymowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: Antonio.Racioppi@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)
2017-04-01
We investigate two approaches to non-minimally coupled gravity theories which present linear inflation as attractor solution: a) the scalar-tensor theory approach, where we look for a scalar-tensor theory that would restore results of linear inflation in the strong coupling limit for a non-minimal coupling to gravity of the form of f (φ) R /2; b) the particle physics approach, where we motivate the form of the Jordan frame potential by loop corrections to the inflaton field. In both cases the Jordan frame potentials are modifications of the induced gravity inflationary scenario, but instead of the Starobinsky attractor they lead to linear inflation in the strong coupling limit.
The phenomenology of scalar colour octets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnikov, N.V.
1995-01-01
The phenomenology of color scalar octet particles is discussed. Namely, the discovery potential of scalar octets at LEP, FNAL and LHC is discussed. It appears that new hadrons composed from scalar colour octets are rather longlived (Γ≤O(10) keV). The current experimental data don't contradict to the existence of light (M∼O(1) GeV) scalar octets. Light scalar colour octets give additional contribution to the QCD β-function and allow to improve agreement between deep inelastic and LEP data. 10 refs.; 2 figs
Scalar field cosmology in three-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Neto, G.
2001-01-01
We study an analytical solution to the Einstein's equations in 2 + 1-dimensions. The space-time is dynamical and has a line symmetry. The matter content is a minimally coupled, massless, scalar field. Depending on the value of certain parameters, this solution represents three distinct space-times. The first one is at space-time. Then, we have a big bang model with a negative curvature scalar and a real scalar field. The last case is a big bang model with event horizons where the curvature scalar vanishes and the scalar field changes from real to purely imaginary. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.; Zuparic, M.
2009-01-01
Using a Jacobi-Trudi-type identity, we show that the scalar product of a general state and a Bethe eigenstate in a finite-length XXZ spin-1/2 chain is (a restriction of) a KP τ function. This leads to a correspondence between the eigenstates and points on Sato's Grassmannian. Each of these points is a function of the rapidities of the corresponding eigenstate, the inhomogeneity variables of the spin chain and the crossing parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: foda@ms.unimelb.edu.au; Wheeler, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: mwheeler@ms.unimelb.edu.au; Zuparic, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: mzup@ms.unimelb.edu.au
2009-10-21
Using a Jacobi-Trudi-type identity, we show that the scalar product of a general state and a Bethe eigenstate in a finite-length XXZ spin-1/2 chain is (a restriction of) a KP {tau} function. This leads to a correspondence between the eigenstates and points on Sato's Grassmannian. Each of these points is a function of the rapidities of the corresponding eigenstate, the inhomogeneity variables of the spin chain and the crossing parameter.
Random scalar fields and hyperuniformity
Ma, Zheng; Torquato, Salvatore
2017-06-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystals and liquids. Hyperuniform systems have attracted recent attention because they are endowed with novel transport and optical properties. Recently, the hyperuniformity concept has been generalized to characterize two-phase media, scalar fields, and random vector fields. In this paper, we devise methods to explicitly construct hyperuniform scalar fields. Specifically, we analyze spatial patterns generated from Gaussian random fields, which have been used to model the microwave background radiation and heterogeneous materials, the Cahn-Hilliard equation for spinodal decomposition, and Swift-Hohenberg equations that have been used to model emergent pattern formation, including Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We show that the Gaussian random scalar fields can be constructed to be hyperuniform. We also numerically study the time evolution of spinodal decomposition patterns and demonstrate that they are hyperuniform in the scaling regime. Moreover, we find that labyrinth-like patterns generated by the Swift-Hohenberg equation are effectively hyperuniform. We show that thresholding (level-cutting) a hyperuniform Gaussian random field to produce a two-phase random medium tends to destroy the hyperuniformity of the progenitor scalar field. We then propose guidelines to achieve effectively hyperuniform two-phase media derived from thresholded non-Gaussian fields. Our investigation paves the way for new research directions to characterize the large-structure spatial patterns that arise in physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology. Moreover, our theoretical results are expected to guide experimentalists to synthesize new classes of hyperuniform materials with novel physical properties via coarsening processes and using state-of-the-art techniques, such as stereolithography and 3D printing.
Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.C.; Tossa, J.
1995-11-01
The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs
Symmetry breaking and scalar bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gildener, E.; Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
There are reasons to suspect that the spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetries of the observed weak and electromagnetic interactions may be produced by the vacuum expectation values of massless weakly coupled elementary scalar fields. A method is described for finding the broken-symmetry solutions of such theories even when they contain arbitrary numbers of scalar fields with unconstrained couplings. In any such theory, there should exist a number of heavy Higgs bosons, with masses comparable to the intermediate vector bosons, plus one light Higgs boson, or ''scalon'' with mass of order αG/sub F/sub 1/2/. The mass and couplings of the scalon are calculable in terms of other masses, even without knowing all the details of the theory. For an SU(2) direct-product U(1) model with arbitrary numbers of scalar isodoublets, the scalon mass is greater than 5.26 GeV; a likely value is 7--10 GeV. The production and decay of the scalon are briefly considered. Some comments are offered on the relation between the mass scales associated with the weak and strong interactions
Plane waves in linear homogeneous media. III
Graaf, de J.; Broer, L.J.F.
1972-01-01
In this third paper the program outlined in the introduction of the first paper is carried out for the second order propagation equation. We discuss successively a representation of the solution of the initial value problem, mode decomposition, quadratic conservation laws and their classification,
Plane waves in linear homogeneous media. II
Graaf, de J.; Broer, L.J.F.
1972-01-01
In this second paper the program outlined in the introduction of the first paper is carried out for the first order propagation equation. We discuss successively a representation of the solution of the initial value problem, mode decomposition, quadratic conservation laws and their classification,
Mechanical Homogenization Increases Bacterial Homogeneity in Sputum
Stokell, Joshua R.; Khan, Ammad
2014-01-01
Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710
On particle creation by a time-dependent scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.; Kirilova, D.P.
1989-01-01
The probability of particles creation by a homogeneous scalar field Χ (t) is calculated. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained in two limiting cases in the quasiclassical approximation and in the framework of perturbation theory. In the case when the mass of the created particles is defined by the time-dependent field Χ (t) according to the expression g Χ (t) Ψ-barΨ, where Χ (t) =Χ 0 cos (ωt), it is shown that the creation probability is suppresed not exponentially, but as ω 1/2 . Some cosmological consequences of the results are discussed. 13 refs
Production of particles by a variable scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.; Kirilova, D.P.
1990-01-01
The probability of particle production by a spatially homogeneous scalar field χ(t) is calculated. Explicit analytic expressions are obtained in two opposite limiting cases: in perturbation theory and in the quasiclassical approximation. It is shown that if the mass of the produced particles is determined by the field χ(t) is accordance with the expression gχ(t) anti ψψ, then for an oscillatory field χ(t) = χ 0 cos(ωt) the production probability in the limit of small ω is suppressed not exponentially, but only as ω 1/2 . Cosmological applications of these results are discussed
Scattering of Ricci scalar perturbations from Schwarzschild black holes in modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sibandze, Dan B.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Nzioki, Anne Marie [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa); Dunsby, Peter K.S. [University of Cape Town, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics and ACGC, Cape Town (South Africa)
2017-06-15
It has already been shown that the gravitational waves emitted from a Schwarzschild black hole in f(R) gravity have no signatures of the modification of gravity from General Relativity, as the Regge-Wheeler equation remains invariant. In this paper we consider the perturbations of Ricci scalar in a vacuum Schwarzschild spacetime, which is unique to higher order theories of gravity and is absent in General Relativity. We show that the equation that governs these perturbations can be reduced to a Volterra integral equation. We explicitly calculate the reflection coefficients for the Ricci scalar perturbations, when they are scattered by the black hole potential barrier. Our analysis shows that a larger fraction of these Ricci scalar waves are reflected compared to the gravitational waves. This may provide a novel observational signature for fourth order gravity. (orig.)
Functionality and homogeneity.
2011-01-01
Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,
Homogenization of Mammalian Cells.
de Araújo, Mariana E G; Lamberti, Giorgia; Huber, Lukas A
2015-11-02
Homogenization is the name given to the methodological steps necessary for releasing organelles and other cellular constituents as a free suspension of intact individual components. Most homogenization procedures used for mammalian cells (e.g., cavitation pump and Dounce homogenizer) rely on mechanical force to break the plasma membrane and may be supplemented with osmotic or temperature alterations to facilitate membrane disruption. In this protocol, we describe a syringe-based homogenization method that does not require specialized equipment, is easy to handle, and gives reproducible results. The method may be adapted for cells that require hypotonic shock before homogenization. We routinely use it as part of our workflow to isolate endocytic organelles from mammalian cells. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Scalar perturbations on Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zibin, J. P.
2008-01-01
In recent years there has been growing interest in verifying the horizon-scale homogeneity of the Universe that follows from applying the Copernican principle to the observed isotropy. This program has been stimulated by the discovery that a very large void, centered near us, can explain supernova luminosity distance measurements without dark energy. It is crucial to confront such models with as wide a variety of data as possible. With this application in mind, we develop the relativistic theory of linear scalar perturbations on spherically symmetric dust (Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi) spacetimes, using the covariant 1+1+2 formalism. We show that the evolution of perturbations is determined by a small set of new linear transfer functions. If decaying modes are ignored (to be consistent with the standard inflationary paradigm), the standard techniques of perturbation theory on homogeneous backgrounds, such as harmonic expansion, can be applied, and results closely paralleling those of familiar cosmological perturbation theory can be obtained.
Quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force: Geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottewill, Adrian C.; Wardell, Barry
2008-01-01
We consider a scalar charge travelling in a curved background space-time. We calculate the quasilocal contribution to the scalar self-force experienced by such a particle following a geodesic in a general space-time. We also show that if we assume a massless field and a vacuum background space-time, the expression for the self-force simplifies significantly. We consider some specific cases whose gravitational analogs are of immediate physical interest for the calculation of radiation-reaction corrected orbits of binary black hole systems. These systems are expected to be detectable by the LISA space based gravitational wave observatory. We also investigate how alternate techniques may be employed in some specific cases and use these as a check on our own results
Goldstone pion and other mesons using a scalar confining interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.; Milana, J.
1994-01-01
A covariant wave equation for q bar q interactions with an interaction kernel composed of the sum of constant vector and linear scalar confining interactions is solved for states with two quarks with identical mass. The model includes an NJL-like mechanism which links the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry to the spontaneous generation of quark mass and the appearance of a low mass Goldstone pion. A novel feature of this approach is that it automatically explains the small mass of the pion even though the linear potential is a scalar interaction in Dirac space, and hence breaks chiral symmetry. Solutions for mesons composed of light quarks (π,ρ, and low lying excited states) and heavy quarks (ρ c , J/Ψ, and low lying excited states) are presented and discussed
New charged black holes with conformal scalar hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anabalon, Andres; Maeda, Hideki
2010-01-01
A new class of four-dimensional, hairy, stationary solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-Λ system with a conformally coupled scalar field is obtained. The metric belongs to the Plebanski-Demianski family and hence its static limit has the form of the charged (A)dS C metric. It is shown that, in the static case, a new family of hairy black holes arises. They turn out to be cohomogeneity-two, with horizons that are neither Einstein nor homogenous manifolds. The conical singularities in the C metric can be removed due to the backreaction of the scalar field providing a new kind of regular, radiative spacetime. The scalar field carries a continuous parameter proportional to the usual acceleration present in the C metric. In the zero-acceleration limit, the static solution reduces to the dyonic Bocharova-Bronnikov-Melnikov-Bekenstein solution or the dyonic extension of the Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, depending on the value of the cosmological constant.
Homogeneous nucleation of water in synthetic air
Fransen, M.A.L.J.; Sachteleben, E.; Hruby, J.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; DeMott, P.J.; O'Dowd, C.D.
2013-01-01
Homogeneous nucleation rates for water vapor in synthetic air are measured by means of a Pulse-Expansion Wave Tube (PEWT). A comparison of the experimental nucleation rates with the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) shows that a more elaborated model is necessary to describe supercooled water
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel
2015-01-01
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)
2015-01-13
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennington, M.R.
1988-09-01
The search of I = 0 0 ++ mesons is described. We highlight the crucial role played by the states in the 1 GeV region. An analysis program that with unimpeachable data would produce definitive results on these is outlined and shown with present data to provide prima facie evidence for dynamics beyond that of the quark model. We briefly speculate on the current status of the lowest mass scalar mesons and discuss how experiment can resolve the unanswered issues. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods
Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas
2006-07-01
The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.
The SPH homogeneization method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kavenoky, Alain
1978-01-01
The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4
Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf
2011-01-01
Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...
Scalar-tetrad theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, J.
1981-01-01
A general theory of gravitation is constructed using a tetrad and a scalar field. The resulting theory, called a scalar-tetrad theory, does not contain Einstein's or the Brans-Dicke theories as special cases. However, there is a range of scalar-tetrad theories with the same post-Newtonian limit as Einstein's theory. Two particular models are interesting because of their simplicity. (author)
Scalar field mass in generalized gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraoni, Valerio
2009-01-01
The notions of mass and range of a Brans-Dicke-like scalar field in scalar-tensor and f(R) gravity are subject to an ambiguity that hides a potential trap. We spell out this ambiguity and identify a physically meaningful and practical definition for these quantities. This is relevant when giving a mass to this scalar in order to circumvent experimental limits on the PPN parameters coming from solar system experiments.
Quark-gluon mixing in scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremyan, Sh.S.; Nazaryan, A.E.
1986-01-01
Scalar mesons are considered within the quark-gluon mixing model. It is shown that there exists decouplet of scalar particles consisting of S* (975), ε (1400), S*' (1700), δ (980) and κ (1350) resonances. It has turned out that the long ago known S* (975)-resonance is a nearly pure glouball. A good description of all available experimental data on scalar meson decays is obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Censor, Dan
2010-01-01
Identifying invariance properties helps in simplifying calculations and consolidating concepts. Presently the Special Relativistic invariance of dispersion relations and their associated scalar wave operators is investigated for general dispersive homogeneous linear media. Invariance properties of the four-dimensional Fourier-transform integrals is demonstrated, from which the invariance of the scalar Green-function is inferred. Dispersion relations and the associated group velocities feature in Hamiltonian ray tracing theory. The derivation of group velocities for moving media from the dispersion relation for these media at rest is discussed. It is verified that the group velocity concept satisfies the relativistic velocity-addition formula. In this respect it is considered to be 'real', i.e., substantial, physically measurable, and not merely a mathematical artifact. Conversely, if we assume the group velocity to be substantial, it follows that the dispersion relation must be a relativistic invariant. (orig.)
On scalar condensate baryogenesis model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiriloval, D.P.; Valchanov, T.V.
2004-09-01
We discuss the scalar field condensate baryogenesis model, which is among the baryogenesis scenarios preferred today, compatible with inflation. According to that model a complex scalar field φ, carrying baryon charge B≠0 is generated at inflation. The baryon excess in the Universe results from the φ decay at later stages of Universe evolution (T 15 GeV). We updated the model's parameters range according to the current observational cosmological constraints and analyzed numerically φ evolution after the inflationary stage till its decay φ → qq-barlγ. During that period oscillated with a decreasing amplitude due to Universe expansion and particle production processes due to the coupling of the field to fermions gφf 1 f 2 . It was shown that particle creation processes play an essential role for evolution and its final value. It may lead to a considerable decrease of the field's amplitude for large g and/or large H values, which reflects finally into strong damping of the baryon charge carried by the condensate. The analysis suggests that for a natural range of the model's parameters the observed value of the baryon asymmetry can be obtained and the model can serve as a successful baryogenesis model, compatible with inflation. (author)
Charged composite scalar dark matter
Balkin, Reuven; Ruhdorfer, Maximilian; Salvioni, Ennio; Weiler, Andreas
2017-11-01
We consider a composite model where both the Higgs and a complex scalar χ, which is the dark matter (DM) candidate, arise as light pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) from a strongly coupled sector with TeV scale confinement. The global symmetry structure is SO(7)/SO(6), and the DM is charged under an exact U(1)DM ⊂ SO(6) that ensures its stability. Depending on whether the χ shift symmetry is respected or broken by the coupling of the top quark to the strong sector, the DM can be much lighter than the Higgs or have a weak-scale mass. Here we focus primarily on the latter possibility. We introduce the lowest-lying composite resonances and impose calculability of the scalar potential via generalized Weinberg sum rules. Compared to previous analyses of pNGB DM, the computation of the relic density is improved by fully accounting for the effects of the fermionic top partners. This plays a crucial role in relaxing the tension with the current DM direct detection constraints. The spectrum of resonances contains exotic top partners charged under the U(1)DM, whose LHC phenomenology is analyzed. We identify a region of parameters with f = 1.4 TeV and 200 GeV ≲ m χ ≲ 400 GeV that satisfies all existing bounds. This DM candidate will be tested by XENON1T in the near future.
Nonlinear metric perturbation enhancement of primordial gravitational waves.
Bastero-Gil, M; Macias-Pérez, J; Santos, D
2010-08-20
We present the evolution of the full set of Einstein equations during preheating after inflation. We study a generic supersymmetric model of hybrid inflation, integrating fields and metric fluctuations in a 3-dimensional lattice. We take initial conditions consistent with Einstein's constraint equations. The induced preheating of the metric fluctuations is not large enough to backreact onto the fields, but preheating of the scalar modes does affect the evolution of vector and tensor modes. In particular, they do enhance the induced stochastic background of gravitational waves during preheating, giving an energy density in general an order of magnitude larger than that obtained by evolving the tensor fluctuations in an homogeneous background metric. This enhancement can improve the expectations for detection by planned gravitational wave observatories.
Time dependent black holes and scalar hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth
2014-01-01
We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)
Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajfer Svjetlana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Greybody factor of scalar fields from black strings
Ahmed, Jamil; Saifullah, K.
2017-12-01
The greybody factor of massless, uncharged scalar fields is studied in the background of cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, in the low-energy approximation. We discuss two cases. In the first case we derive analytical expression for the absorption probability when the spacetime is kinetically coupled with the Einstein tensor. In the second case we do the analysis in the absence of the coupling constant. For this purpose we analyze the wave equation which is obtained from Klein-Gordon equation. The radial part of the wave equation is solved in the form of the hypergeometric function in the near horizon region, whereas in the far region the solution is of the form of Bessel's function. Finally, considering continuity of the wave function we smoothly match the two solutions in the low-energy approximation to get the formula for the absorption probability.
Greybody factor of scalar fields from black strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Jamil [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Mathematics, Islamabad (Pakistan); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Saifullah, K. [Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of Mathematics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Harvard University, Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Cambridge, MA (United States)
2017-12-15
The greybody factor of massless, uncharged scalar fields is studied in the background of cylindrically symmetric spacetimes, in the low-energy approximation. We discuss two cases. In the first case we derive analytical expression for the absorption probability when the spacetime is kinetically coupled with the Einstein tensor. In the second case we do the analysis in the absence of the coupling constant. For this purpose we analyze the wave equation which is obtained from Klein-Gordon equation. The radial part of the wave equation is solved in the form of the hypergeometric function in the near horizon region, whereas in the far region the solution is of the form of Bessel's function. Finally, considering continuity of the wave function we smoothly match the two solutions in the low-energy approximation to get the formula for the absorption probability. (orig.)
The open XXX spin chain in the SoV framework: scalar product of separate states
Kitanine, N.; Maillet, J. M.; Niccoli, G.; Terras, V.
2017-06-01
We consider the XXX open spin-1/2 chain with the most general non-diagonal boundary terms, that we solve by means of the quantum separation of variables (SoV) approach. We compute the scalar products of separate states, a class of states which notably contains all the eigenstates of the model. As usual for models solved by SoV, these scalar products can be expressed as some determinants with a non-trivial dependance in terms of the inhomogeneity parameters that have to be introduced for the method to be applicable. We show that these determinants can be transformed into alternative ones in which the homogeneous limit can easily be taken. These new representations can be considered as generalizations of the well-known determinant representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states of the periodic chain. In the particular case where a constraint is applied on the boundary parameters, such that the transfer matrix spectrum and eigenstates can be characterized in terms of polynomial solutions of a usual T-Q equation, the scalar product that we compute here corresponds to the scalar product between two off-shell Bethe-type states. If in addition one of the states is an eigenstate, the determinant representation can be simplified, hence leading in this boundary case to direct analogues of algebraic Bethe ansatz determinant representations of the scalar products for the periodic chain.
The open XXX spin chain in the SoV framework: scalar product of separate states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitanine, N; Maillet, J M; Niccoli, G; Terras, V
2017-01-01
We consider the XXX open spin-1/2 chain with the most general non-diagonal boundary terms, that we solve by means of the quantum separation of variables (SoV) approach. We compute the scalar products of separate states, a class of states which notably contains all the eigenstates of the model. As usual for models solved by SoV, these scalar products can be expressed as some determinants with a non-trivial dependance in terms of the inhomogeneity parameters that have to be introduced for the method to be applicable. We show that these determinants can be transformed into alternative ones in which the homogeneous limit can easily be taken. These new representations can be considered as generalizations of the well-known determinant representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states of the periodic chain. In the particular case where a constraint is applied on the boundary parameters, such that the transfer matrix spectrum and eigenstates can be characterized in terms of polynomial solutions of a usual T - Q equation, the scalar product that we compute here corresponds to the scalar product between two off-shell Bethe-type states. If in addition one of the states is an eigenstate, the determinant representation can be simplified, hence leading in this boundary case to direct analogues of algebraic Bethe ansatz determinant representations of the scalar products for the periodic chain. (paper)
Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms
Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.
2011-08-01
The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data
Numerical simulations of stellar collapse in scalar-tensor theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerosa, Davide; Sperhake, Ulrich; Ott, Christian D
2016-01-01
We present numerical-relativity simulations of spherically symmetric core collapse and compact-object formation in scalar-tensor theories of gravity. The additional scalar degree of freedom introduces a propagating monopole gravitational-wave mode. Detection of monopole scalar waves with current and future gravitational-wave experiments may constitute smoking gun evidence for strong-field modifications of general relativity. We collapse both polytropic and more realistic pre-supernova profiles using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme and an approximate prescription for the nuclear equation of state. The most promising sources of scalar radiation are protoneutron stars collapsing to black holes. In case of a galactic core collapse event forming a black hole, Advanced LIGO may be able to place independent constraints on the parameters of the theory at a level comparable to current solar-system and binary-pulsar measurements. In the region of the parameter space admitting spontaneously scalarised stars, transition to configurations with prominent scalar hair before black-hole formation further enhances the emitted signal. Although a more realistic treatment of the microphysics is necessary to fully investigate the occurrence of spontaneous scalarisation of neutron star remnants, we speculate that formation of such objects could constrain the parameters of the theory beyond the current bounds obtained with solar-system and binary-pulsar experiments. (paper)
Quantum scalar-metric cosmology with Chaplygin gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumder, Barun
2011-01-01
A spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model with generalized Chaplygin gas is studied in the context of scalar-metric formulation of cosmology. Schutz's mechanism for the perfect fluid is applied with generalized Chaplygin gas and the classical and quantum dynamics for this model is studied. It is found that the only surviving matter degree of freedom played the role of cosmic time. For the quantum mechanical description it is possible to find the wave packet which resulted from the linear superposition of the wave functions of the Schroedinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation, which is a consequence of the above formalism. The wave packets show two distinct dominant peaks and propagate in the direction of increasing scale factor. It may happen that our present universe originated from one of those peaks. The many-world and ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to investigate about the behavior of the scale factor and the scalar field (considered for this model). In both the cases the scale factor avoids singularity and a bouncing non-singular universe is found.
Anomalous coupling of scalars to gauge fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique; Burrage, Clare [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Davis, Anne-Christine [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Seery, David [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Weltman, Amanda [Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Astronomy, Cosmology and Gravity Centre
2010-10-15
We study the transformation properties of a scalar-tensor theory, coupled to fermions, under the Weyl rescaling associated with a transition from the Jordan to the Einstein frame. We give a simple derivation of the corresponding modification to the gauge couplings. After changing frames, this gives rise to a direct coupling between the scalar and the gauge fields. (orig.)
Anomalous coupling of scalars to gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Seery, David; Weltman, Amanda
2010-10-01
We study the transformation properties of a scalar-tensor theory, coupled to fermions, under the Weyl rescaling associated with a transition from the Jordan to the Einstein frame. We give a simple derivation of the corresponding modification to the gauge couplings. After changing frames, this gives rise to a direct coupling between the scalar and the gauge fields. (orig.)
Scalar field dark matter in hybrid approach
Friedrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Tomislav
2017-01-01
We develop a hybrid formalism suitable for modeling scalar field dark matter, in which the phase-space distribution associated to the real scalar field is modeled by statistical equal-time two-point functions and gravity is treated by two stochastic gravitational fields in the longitudinal gauge (in
Scalar Quantum Electrodynamics: Perturbation Theory and Beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.
2006-01-01
In this article, we calculate scalar propagator in arbitrary dimensions and gauge and the three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary dimensions and Feynman gauge, both at the one loop level. We also discuss constraints on their non perturbative structure imposed by requirements of gauge invariance and perturbation theory
A note on perfect scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sriramkumar, L.
2010-01-01
We derive a condition on the Lagrangian density describing a generic, single, noncanonical scalar field, by demanding that the intrinsic, nonadiabatic pressure perturbation associated with the scalar field vanishes identically. Based on the analogy with perfect fluids, we refer to such fields as perfect scalar fields. It is common knowledge that models that depend only on the kinetic energy of the scalar field (often referred to as pure kinetic models) possess no nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. While we are able to construct models that seemingly depend on the scalar field and also do not contain any nonadiabatic pressure perturbation, we find that all such models that we construct allow a redefinition of the field under which they reduce to pure kinetic models. We show that, if a perfect scalar field drives inflation, then, in such situations, the first slow roll parameter will always be a monotonically decreasing function of time. We point out that this behavior implies that these scalar fields cannot lead to features in the inflationary, scalar perturbation spectrum.
Phenomenology of supersymmetry with scalar sequestering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Gilad; Roy, Tuhin S.; Schmaltz, Martin
2009-01-01
The defining feature of scalar sequestering is that the minimal supersymmetric standard model squark and slepton masses as well as all entries of the scalar Higgs mass matrix vanish at some high scale. This ultraviolet boundary condition--scalar masses vanish while gaugino and Higgsino masses are unsuppressed--is independent of the supersymmetry breaking mediation mechanism. It is the result of renormalization group scaling from approximately conformal strong dynamics in the hidden sector. We review the mechanism of scalar sequestering and prove that the same dynamics which suppresses scalar soft masses and the B μ term also drives the Higgs soft masses to -|μ| 2 . Thus the supersymmetric contribution to the Higgs mass matrix from the μ term is exactly canceled by the soft masses. Scalar sequestering has two tell-tale predictions for the superpartner spectrum in addition to the usual gaugino mediation predictions: Higgsinos are much heavier (μ > or approx. TeV) than scalar Higgses (m A ∼few hundred GeV), and third generation scalar masses are enhanced because of new positive contributions from Higgs loops.
Uncertainty principles for inverse source problems for electromagnetic and elastic waves
Griesmaier, Roland; Sylvester, John
2018-06-01
In isotropic homogeneous media, far fields of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves radiated by compactly supported volume currents, and elastic waves radiated by compactly supported body force densities can be modelled in very similar fashions. Both are projected restricted Fourier transforms of vector-valued source terms. In this work we generalize two types of uncertainty principles recently developed for far fields of scalar-valued time-harmonic waves in Griesmaier and Sylvester (2017 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 77 154–80) to this vector-valued setting. These uncertainty principles yield stability criteria and algorithms for splitting far fields radiated by collections of well-separated sources into the far fields radiated by individual source components, and for the restoration of missing data segments. We discuss proper regularization strategies for these inverse problems, provide stability estimates based on the new uncertainty principles, and comment on reconstruction schemes. A numerical example illustrates our theoretical findings.
Gravitational self-interactions of a degenerate quantum scalar field
Chakrabarty, Sankha S.; Enomoto, Seishi; Han, Yaqi; Sikivie, Pierre; Todarello, Elisa M.
2018-02-01
We develop a formalism to help calculate in quantum field theory the departures from the description of a system by classical field equations. We apply the formalism to a homogeneous condensate with attractive contact interactions and to a homogeneous self-gravitating condensate in critical expansion. In their classical descriptions, such condensates persist forever. We show that in their quantum description, parametric resonance causes quanta to jump in pairs out of the condensate into all modes with wave vector less than some critical value. We calculate, in each case, the time scale over which the homogeneous condensate is depleted and after which a classical description is invalid. We argue that the duration of classicality of inhomogeneous condensates is shorter than that of homogeneous condensates.
Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials
Yang, Min
2014-02-26
We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.
Evolution of scalar and velocity dynamics in planar shock-turbulence interaction
Boukharfane, R.; Bouali, Z.; Mura, A.
2018-01-01
Due to the short residence time of air in supersonic combustors, achieving efficient mixing in compressible turbulent reactive flows is crucial for the design of supersonic ramjet (Scramjet) engines. In this respect, improving the understanding of shock-scalar mixing interactions is of fundamental importance for such supersonic combustion applications. In these compressible flows, the interaction between the turbulence and the shock wave is reciprocal, and the coupling between them is very strong. A basic understanding of the physics of such complex interactions has already been obtained through the analysis of relevant simplified flow configurations, including propagation of the shock wave in density-stratified media, shock-wave-mixing-layer interaction, and shock-wave-vortex interaction. Amplification of velocity fluctuations and substantial changes in turbulence characteristic length scales are the most well-known outcomes of shock-turbulence interaction, which may also deeply influence scalar mixing between fuel and oxidizer. The effects of the shock wave on the turbulence have been widely characterized through the use of so-called amplification factors, and similar quantities are introduced herein to characterize the influence of the shock wave on scalar mixing. One of the primary goals of the present study is indeed to extend previous analyses to the case of shock-scalar mixing interaction, which is directly relevant to supersonic combustion applications. It is expected that the shock wave will affect the scalar dissipation rate (SDR) dynamics. Special emphasis is placed on the modification of the so-called turbulence-scalar interaction as a leading-order contribution to the production of mean SDR, i.e., a quantity that defines the mixing rate and efficiency. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this issue has never been addressed in detail in the literature, and the objective of the present study is to scrutinize this influence. The turbulent mixing of a
Homogenization approach in engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babuska, I.
1975-10-01
Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table
Anisotropic Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Model in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. K. Reddy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, and tilted Bianchi type-VI0 model is investigated in a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986 when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. Exact solution of the highly nonlinear field equations is obtained using the following plausible physical conditions: (i scalar expansion of the space-time which is proportional to the shear scalar, (ii the barotropic equations of state for pressure and energy density, and (iii a special law of variation for Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman (1983. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
A mapping closure for turbulent scalar mixing using a time-evolving reference field
Girimaji, Sharath S.
1992-01-01
A general mapping-closure approach for modeling scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence is developed. This approach is different from the previous methods in that the reference field also evolves according to the same equations as the physical scalar field. The use of a time-evolving Gaussian reference field results in a model that is similar to the mapping closure model of Pope (1991), which is based on the methodology of Chen et al. (1989). Both models yield identical relationships between the scalar variance and higher-order moments, which are in good agreement with heat conduction simulation data and can be consistent with any type of epsilon(phi) evolution. The present methodology can be extended to any reference field whose behavior is known. The possibility of a beta-pdf reference field is explored. The shortcomings of the mapping closure methods are discussed, and the limit at which the mapping becomes invalid is identified.
Analysis of wave equation in electromagnetic field by Proca equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pamungkas, Oky Rio; Soeparmi; Cari
2017-01-01
This research is aimed to analyze wave equation for the electric and magnetic field, vector and scalar potential, and continuity equation using Proca equation. Then, also analyze comparison of the solution on Maxwell and Proca equation for scalar potential and electric field, both as a function of distance and constant wave number. (paper)
Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2015-01-01
The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...
Homogeneous bilateral block shifts
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.
Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS
Homogeneous Poisson structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.
1993-09-01
We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs
Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases
Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning
2018-02-01
We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.
Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.
2013-01-01
: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation
Vector and scalar charmonium resonances with lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa
2015-01-01
We perform an exploratory lattice QCD simulation of DD¯ scattering, aimed at determining the masses as well as the decay widths of charmonium resonances above open charm threshold. Neglecting coupling to other channels, the resulting phase shift for DD¯ scattering in p-wave yields the well-known vector resonance ψ(3770). For m π = 156 MeV, the extracted resonance mass and the decay width agree with experiment within large statistical uncertainty. The scalar charmonium resonances present a puzzle, since only the ground state χ c0 (1P) is well understood, while there is no commonly accepted candidate for its first excitation. We simulate DD¯ scattering in s-wave in order to shed light on this puzzle. The resulting phase shift supports the existence of a yet-unobserved narrow resonance with a mass slightly below 4 GeV. A scenario with this narrow resonance and a pole at χ c0 (1P) agrees with the energy-dependence of our phase shift. In addition, further lattice QCD simulations and experimental efforts are needed to resolve the puzzle of the excited scalar charmonia
Scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hostler, L.C.
1986-01-01
The gauge field theory of an N-dimensional multiplet of spin- 1/2 particles is investigated using the Klein--Gordon-type wave equation ]Pi x (1+isigma) x Pi+m 2 ]Phi = 0, Pi/sub μ/equivalentpartial/partialix/sub μ/-eA/sub μ/, investigated before by a number of authors, to describe the fermions. Here Phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor, and sigma repesents a Lorentz spin tensor whose components sigma/sub μ//sub ν/ are ordinary 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. Feynman rules for the scalar formalism for non-Abelian gauge theory are derived starting from the conventional field theory of the multiplet and converting it to the new description. The equivalence of the new and the old formalism for arbitrary radiative processes is thereby established. The conversion to the scalar formalism is accomplished in a novel way by working in terms of the path integral representation of the generating functional of the vacuum tau-functions, tau(2,1, xxx 3 xxx)equivalent , where Psi/sub in/ is a Heisenberg operator belonging to a 4N x 1 Dirac wave function of the multiplet. The Feynman rules obtained generalize earlier results for the Abelian case of quantum electrodynamics
Light-Like Shockwaves in Scalar-Tensor Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bence Racskó
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Both electromagnetic shock-waves and gravitational waves propagate with the speed of light. If they carry significant energy-momentum, this will change the properties of the space-time they propagate through. This can be described in terms of the junction conditions between space-time regions separated by a singular, null hypersurface. We derived generic junction conditions for Brans-Dicke theory in the Jordan frame, exploring a formalism based on a transverse vector, rather than normal, which can be applied to any type of hypersurfaces. In the particular case of a non-null hypersurface we obtain a generalised Lanczos equation, in which the jump of the extrinsic curvature is sourced by both the distributional energy-momentum tensor and by the jump in the transverse derivative of the scalar. In the case of null hypersurfaces, the distributional source is decomposed into surface density, current and pressure. The latter, however, ought to vanish by virtue of the scalar junction condition.
Tensor harmonic analysis on homogenous space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wrobel, G.
1997-01-01
The Hilbert space of tensor functions on a homogenous space with the compact stability group is considered. The functions are decomposed onto a sum of tensor plane waves (defined in the text), components of which are transformed by irreducible representations of the appropriate transformation group. The orthogonality relation and the completeness relation for tensor plane waves are found. The decomposition constitutes a unitary transformation, which allows to obtain the Parseval equality. The Fourier components can be calculated by means of the Fourier transformation, the form of which is given explicitly. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolomeitsev, E.E. [Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The spectrum of bosonic scalar-mode excitations in a normal Fermi liquid with local scalar interaction is investigated for various values and momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter f{sub 0} in the particle-hole channel. For f{sub 0} > 0 the conditions are found when the phase velocity on the spectrum of zero sound acquires a minimum at non-zero momentum. For -1 < f{sub 0} < 0 there are only damped excitations, and for f{sub 0} < -1 the spectrum becomes unstable against the growth of scalar-mode excitations. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar excitation modes is derived after performing a bosonization procedure. We demonstrate that the instability may be tamed by the formation of a static Bose condensate of the scalar modes. The condensation may occur in a homogeneous or inhomogeneous state relying on the momentum dependence of the scalar Landau parameter. We show that in the isospin-symmetric nuclear matter there may appear a metastable state at subsaturation nuclear density owing to the condensate. Then we consider a possibility of the condensation of the zero-sound-like excitations in a state with a non-zero momentum in Fermi liquids moving with overcritical velocities, provided an appropriate momentum dependence of the Landau parameter f{sub 0}(k) > 0. We also argue that in peripheral heavy-ion collisions the Pomeranchuk instability may occur already for f{sub 0} > -1. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklaryan, Leva A
2011-01-01
A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.
DNA Dynamics Studied Using the Homogeneous Balance Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayed, E. M. E.; Arnous, A. H.
2012-01-01
We employ the homogeneous balance method to construct the traveling waves of the nonlinear vibrational dynamics modeling of DNA. Some new explicit forms of traveling waves are given. It is shown that this method provides us with a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. Strengths and weaknesses of the proposed method are discussed. (general)
Particle production in a gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Singleton, Douglas
2017-03-01
We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons, i.e., g +g →γ +γ . Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a nonzero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a nonzero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless field is being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the time-dependent Schwinger effect, but with the electric field replaced by the gravitational wave background and the electron/positron field quanta replaced by massless scalar "photons." Since the produced scalar quanta are massless there is no exponential suppression, as occurs in the Schwinger effect due to the electron mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, A.J.D.
1979-01-01
A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)
Homogeneous group, research, institution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Natascia Vasta
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
Homogen Mur - et udviklingsprojekt
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Torben; Beim, Anne; Sørensen, Peter
1997-01-01
Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk.......Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk....
Quantum fluctuations of some gravitational waves
Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Kaya, R.; Ozdemir, N.; Ulker, K.; Yapiskan, B.
1998-01-01
We review our previous work on the the calculation of the stress-energy tensor for a scalar particle in the background metric of different types of spherical impulsive, spherical shock and plane impulsive gravitational waves.
Quantum Fluctuations for Gravitational Impulsive Waves
Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Ozdemir, N.
1998-01-01
Quantum fluctuations for a massless scalar field in the background metric of spherical impulsive gravitational waves through Minkowski and de Sitter spaces are investigated. It is shown that there exist finite fluctuations for de Sitter space.
Adaptive scalarization methods in multiobjective optimization
Eichfelder, Gabriele
2008-01-01
This book presents adaptive solution methods for multiobjective optimization problems based on parameter dependent scalarization approaches. Readers will benefit from the new adaptive methods and ideas for solving multiobjective optimization.
Exotic Material as Interactions Between Scalar Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robertson G. A.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Many theoretical papers refer to the need to create exotic materials with average negative energies for the formation of space propulsion anomalies such as “wormholes” and “warp drives”. However, little hope is given for the existence of such material to resolve its creation for such use. From the standpoint that non-minimally coupled scalar fields to gravity appear to be the current direction mathematically. It is proposed that exotic material is really scalar field interactions. Within this paper the Ginzburg- Landau (GL scalar fields associated with superconductor junctions is investigated as a source for negative vacuum energy fluctuations, which could be used to study the interactions among energy fluctuations, cosmological scalar (i. e., Higgs fields, and gravity.
Exotic Material as Interactions Between Scalar Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robertson G. A.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Many theoretical papers refer to the need to create exotic materials with average negative energies for the formation of space propulsion anomalies such as "wormholes" and "warp drives". However, little hope is given for the existence of such material to resolve its creation for such use. From the standpoint that non-minimally coupled scalar fields to gravity appear to be the current direction mathematically. It is proposed that exotic material is really scalar field interactions. Within this paper the Ginzburg-Landau (GL scalar fields associated with superconductor junctions isinvestigated as a source for negative vacuum energy fluctuations, which could be used to study the interactions among energyfluctuations, cosmological scalar (i.e., Higgs fields, and gravity.
Oscillating scalar fields in extended quintessence
Li, Dan; Pi, Shi; Scherrer, Robert J.
2018-01-01
We study a rapidly oscillating scalar field with potential V (ϕ )=k |ϕ |n nonminimally coupled to the Ricci scalar R via a term of the form (1 -8 π G0ξ ϕ2)R in the action. In the weak coupling limit, we calculate the effect of the nonminimal coupling on the time-averaged equation of state parameter γ =(p +ρ )/ρ . The change in ⟨γ ⟩ is always negative for n ≥2 and always positive for n change to be infinitesimally small at the present time whenever the scalar field dominates the expansion, but constraints in the early universe are not as stringent. The rapid oscillation induced in G also produces an additional contribution to the Friedman equation that behaves like an effective energy density with a stiff equation of state, but we show that, under reasonable assumptions, this effective energy density is always smaller than the density of the scalar field itself.
Scalar mesons and radiative vector meson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokalp, A.; Ylmaz, O
2002-01-01
The light scalar mesons with vacuum quantum numbers J p =0 ++ have fundamental importance in understanding low energy QCD phenomenology and the symmetry breaking mechanisms in QCD. The nature and quark substructure of the best known scalar mesons, isoscalar σ(500), f0(980) and isovector a0(980) have been a subject of continuous controversy. The radioactive decay of neutral vector mesons ρ, w and φ into a single photon and a pair of neutral pseudoscalar mesons have been studied in order to obtain information on the nature of these scalar mesons. For such studies, it is essential that a reliable understanding of the mechanisms for these decays should be at hand. In this work, we investigate the particularly interesting mechanism of the exchange of scalar mesons for the radiative vector meson decays by analysing the experimental results such as measured decay rates and invariant mass spectra and compare them with the theoretical prediction of different reaction mechanisms
Covariant formulation of scalar-torsion gravity
Hohmann, Manuel; Järv, Laur; Ualikhanova, Ulbossyn
2018-05-01
We consider a generalized teleparallel theory of gravitation, where the action contains an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar and a scalar field, f (T ,ϕ ) , thus encompassing the cases of f (T ) gravity and a nonminimally coupled scalar field as subclasses. The action is manifestly Lorentz invariant when besides the tetrad one allows for a flat but nontrivial spin connection. We derive the field equations and demonstrate how the antisymmetric part of the tetrad equations is automatically satisfied when the spin connection equation holds. The spin connection equation is a vital part of the covariant formulation, since it determines the spin connection associated with a given tetrad. We discuss how the spin connection equation can be solved in general and provide the cosmological and spherically symmetric examples. Finally, we generalize the theory to an arbitrary number of scalar fields.
Cosmic inflation constrains scalar dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tommi Tenkanen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In a theory containing scalar fields, a generic consequence is a formation of scalar condensates during cosmic inflation. The displacement of scalar fields out from their vacuum values sets specific initial conditions for post-inflationary dynamics and may lead to significant observational ramifications. In this work, we investigate how these initial conditions affect the generation of dark matter in the class of portal scenarios where the standard model fields feel new physics only through Higgs-mediated couplings. As a representative example, we will consider a $ Z_2 $ symmetric scalar singlet $ s $ coupled to Higgs via $ \\lambda \\Phi ^\\dagger \\Phi s^2 $. This simple extension has interesting consequences as the singlet constitutes a dark matter candidate originating from non-thermal production of singlet particles out from a singlet condensate, leading to a novel interplay between inflationary dynamics and dark matter properties.
Coupled scalar fields in a flat FRW universe. Renormalisation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baacke, Juergen [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Fakultaet Physik; Covi, Laura [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kevlishvili, Nina [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, Tbilisi (Georgia)
2010-06-15
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a system of coupled scalar fields in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We consider the evolution of spatially homogeneous ''classical'' fields and of their quantum fluctuations including the quantum backreaction in the one-loop approximation. We discuss in particular the dimensional regularisation of the coupled system and a special subtraction procedure in order to obtain the renormalised equations of motion and the renormalised energy-momentum tensor and ensure that the energy is well-defined and covariantly conserved. These results represent at the same time a theoretical analysis and a viable scheme for stable numerical simulations. As an example for an application of the general formalism, we present simulations for a hybrid inflationary model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara
2016-01-01
Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)
2016-01-25
Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.
Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponglertsakul, Supakchai, E-mail: supakchai.p@gmail.com; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: E.Winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk
2017-01-10
We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.
Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar
Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto
2017-11-01
We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.
μ- conversion via doubly charged Higgs scalar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.
1982-10-01
A new mechanism is used to calculate μ - → e + conversion in nuclei, based on the existence of a doubly charged Higgs scalar. The scalar is part of a triplet which generates the spontaneous breakdown of B-L symmetry in an extension of the standard model, as proposed by Gelmini and Roncadelli. We find a limit for conversion rates which is comparable to those of earlier calculations
Leading quantum gravitational corrections to scalar QED
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.
2002-01-01
We consider the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the non-relativistic scattering amplitude of charged scalars in the combined theory of general relativity and scalar QED. The combined theory is treated as an effective field theory. This allows for a consistent quantization of the gravitational field. The appropriate vertex rules are extracted from the action, and the non-analytic contributions to the 1-loop scattering matrix are calculated in the non-relativistic limit. The n...
Leptonic Dark Matter with Scalar Dilepton Mediator
Ma, Ernest
2018-01-01
A simple and elegant mechanism is proposed to resolve the problem of having a light scalar mediator for self-interacting dark matter and the resulting disruption to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at late times by the former's enhanced Sommerfeld production and decay. The crucial idea is to have Dirac neutrinos with the conservation of U(1) lepton number extended to the dark sector. The simplest scenario consists of scalar or fermion dark matter with unit lepton number accompanied by a ...
Symmetries of noncommutative scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Goursac, Axel; Wallet, Jean-Christophe
2011-01-01
We investigate symmetries of the scalar field theory with a harmonic term on the Moyal space with the Euclidean scalar product and general symplectic form. The classical action is invariant under the orthogonal group if this group acts also on the symplectic structure. We find that the invariance under the orthogonal group can also be restored at the quantum level by restricting the symplectic structures to a particular orbit.
Quantization of scalar-spinor instanton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inagaki, H.
1977-04-01
A systematic quantization to the scalar-spinor instanton is given in a canonical formalism of Euclidean space. A basic idea is in the repair of the symmetries of the 0(5) covariant system in the presence of the instanton. The quantization of the fermion is carried through in such a way that the fermion number should be conserved. Our quantization enables us to get well-defined propagators for both the scalar and the fermion, which are free from unphysical poles
Nature of the light scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijande, J.; Valcarce, A.; Fernandez, F.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
2005-01-01
Despite the apparent simplicity of meson spectroscopy, light scalar mesons cannot be accommodated in the usual qq structure. We study the description of the scalar mesons below 2 GeV in terms of the mixing of a chiral nonet of tetraquarks with conventional qq states. A strong diquark-antidiquark component is found for several states. The consideration of a glueball as dictated by quenched lattice QCD drives a coherent picture of the isoscalar mesons
Experimental status of scalar and tensor mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Dombrowski, S.
1997-01-01
The recent discoveries of a 0 (1450) and f 0 (1370)/f 0 (1500) in antiproton-proton annihilation at rest shed new light on the interpretation of light scalar mesons. The properties of f 0 (1500) match the expectations of a scalar glueball mixed with nearby qq states. New decay modes of the ξ(2230) are reported in radiative J/Ψ decays, pointing also towards a (tensor) glueball nature of this state. Results from different experiments are discussed and compared. (orig.)
Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)
2017-10-15
We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)
Self-gravitating black hole scalar wigs
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2017-07-01
It has long been known that no static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat Klein-Gordon scalar field configuration surrounding a nonrotating black hole can exist in general relativity. In a series of previous papers, we proved that, at the effective level, this no-hair theorem can be circumvented by relaxing the staticity assumption: for appropriate model parameters, there are quasibound scalar field configurations living on a fixed Schwarzschild background which, although not being strictly static, have a larger lifetime than the age of the universe. This situation arises when the mass of the scalar field distribution is much smaller than the black hole mass, and following the analogies with the hair in the literature we dubbed these long-lived field configurations wigs. Here we extend our previous work to include the gravitational backreaction produced by the scalar wigs. We derive new approximate solutions of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon system which represent self-gravitating scalar wigs surrounding black holes. These configurations interpolate between boson star configurations and Schwarzschild black holes dressed with the long-lived scalar test field distributions discussed in previous papers. Nonlinear numerical evolutions of initial data sets extracted from our approximate solutions support the validity of our approach. Arbitrarily large lifetimes are still possible, although for the parameter space that we analyze in this paper they seem to decay faster than the quasibound states. Finally, we speculate about the possibility that these configurations could describe the innermost regions of dark matter halos.
Scalar electron production in e+e- annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, S.; Ishikawa, K.
1983-05-01
The single scalar electron production process e + e - -> esup(+-) + Photino + scalar electron (scalar electron -> esup(-+) + Photino), with the detection of e + as well as e - , provides a clean method to detect scalar electrons when their masses are not lighter than the beam energy. We made a complete calculation of the process and evaluated the production cross sections. (orig.)
Scalar production in models with 1 and 2 Higgs doublets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos Carvalho, F.L. de.
1991-03-01
A standard electroweak interaction model is studied based on the introduction of an additional scalar doublet which rises two neutral scalars, one pseudoscalar and two charged scalars. The doublet introduction gives the possibility to implement constraints issued by the supersymmetry, restricting therefore those scalar masses. (L.C.J.A.)
Stability of a collapsed scalar field and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, S.
1988-01-01
The static and asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-massless-scalar model with spherical symmetry describes the spacetime with a naked singularity when it has a nonvanishing scalar charge. We show that such a solution is unstable against the spherical scalar monopole perturbation. This suggests the validity of the cosmic censorship hypothesis in the spherical collapse of the scalar field
Meister, Ch.; Keim, C.; Irizar, J.; Bauer, M.
2017-09-01
Sentinel-5/UVNS 1 is an Earth observation spectrometer system that is operating in nadir looking push broom mode from a low Earth orbit. While having a wide across-track field of view (≈ 2700 km) it covers approximately 7 km at nadir in flight direction during one dwell. However a high contrast in the scene in along track may lead to disturbance of the Instrument Spectral Response Function (ISRF) and with this a variation of measured spectrum. In order to reduce the effect of scene contrast along track, instead of a spectrometer slit two mirrors are introduced, in between which the light path is extended such as a one dimensional wave guide. The entrance length across track however is wide enough to let light pass unchanged. This new concept is called Slit Homogenizer (SH) within theSentinel-5 project. The entrance of the SH is placed on the image plane of the preceding op- tics. The exit of the SH represents the object plane of the subsequent spectrometer in the along track (spectral) direction. This article proposes a simulation model of a SH together with a preced- ing generic optics based on scalar diffraction theory. The model is used to evaluate quantitatively the homogenizing ability of the device. Some parameters in the discussed examples are taken from Sentinel-5/UVNS instrument but the model and its application is not limited to that mission.
Passive scalar transport mediated by laminar vortex rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernández, R H; Rodríguez, G, E-mail: rohernan@ing.uchile.cl [LEAF-NL, Depto. Ingeniería Civil Mecánica, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile)
2017-04-15
Numerical simulations were used to study the dynamics of a passive conserved scalar quantity entrained by a self-propelling viscous vortex ring. The transport and mixing process of the passive scalar variable were studied considering two initial scalar distributions: (i) The scalar substance was introduced into the ring during its formation, further focusing in the shedding into the wake of the ring; (ii) A disk-like scalar layer was placed in the ring’s path where the entrainment of the scalar substance into the ring bubble was studied as a function of the ring strength. In both cases, the scalar concentration inside the vortex bubble exhibits a steady decay with time. In the second case, it was shown that the entrained scalar mass grows with both the Reynolds number of the ring and the thickness of the scalar layer in the propagation direction. The ring can be viewed as a mechanism for scalar transportation along important distances. (paper)
HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR
King, L.D.P.
1959-09-01
A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.
Deng, Shaoqiang
2012-01-01
"Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc
Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.
1987-01-01
One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy
Observation of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect by neutron interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allman, B.E.; Cimmino, A.; Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.; Kaiser, H.; Werner, S.A.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO
1993-01-01
A phase shift for de Broglie waves due to the action of a scalar potential in an otherwise field-free (i.e. force-free) region of space is known as the scalar Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. Unlike the more familiar AB effect due to the magnetic vector potential, the scalar effect has hitherto remained unverified due, presumably, to technical difficulties in electron interferometry. An analogous interferometric experiment was performed with thermal neutrons subject to pulsed magnetic fields. The observations were carried out at the University of Missouri Research Reactor, using a skew-symmetric perfect silicon crystal neutron interferometer. The expected phase shifts have been observed to a high degree of accuracy. A detailed description of the experiment and its interpretation is given in this paper. 26 refs., 11 figs
Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R [Department of Physics, PO Box 118440, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2005-08-07
The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations.
Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R
2005-01-01
The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations
Excursion probabilities of non-homogeneous Gaussian scalar fields based on maxima considerations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Rackwitz, R.
1988-01-01
Many uncertain natural or technical phenomena are most realistically described by random fields. A typical example of a random field is the load effect in a floor slab which is loaded by a spatially distributed gravity load. Other examples of random fields include the sea-level around off-shore p...
The scalar-scalar-tensor inflationary three-point function in the axion monodromy model
Chowdhury, Debika; Sreenath, V.; Sriramkumar, L.
2016-11-01
The axion monodromy model involves a canonical scalar field that is governed by a linear potential with superimposed modulations. The modulations in the potential are responsible for a resonant behavior which gives rise to persisting oscillations in the scalar and, to a smaller extent, in the tensor power spectra. Interestingly, such spectra have been shown to lead to an improved fit to the cosmological data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, primordial power spectra. The scalar bi-spectrum in the model too exhibits continued modulations and the resonance is known to boost the amplitude of the scalar non-Gaussianity parameter to rather large values. An analytical expression for the scalar bi-spectrum had been arrived at earlier which, in fact, has been used to compare the model with the cosmic microwave background anisotropies at the level of three-point functions involving scalars. In this work, with future applications in mind, we arrive at a similar analytical template for the scalar-scalar-tensor cross-correlation. We also analytically establish the consistency relation (in the squeezed limit) for this three-point function. We conclude with a summary of the main results obtained.
The scalar-scalar-tensor inflationary three-point function in the axion monodromy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdhury, Debika; Sriramkumar, L.; Sreenath, V.
2016-01-01
The axion monodromy model involves a canonical scalar field that is governed by a linear potential with superimposed modulations. The modulations in the potential are responsible for a resonant behavior which gives rise to persisting oscillations in the scalar and, to a smaller extent, in the tensor power spectra. Interestingly, such spectra have been shown to lead to an improved fit to the cosmological data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, primordial power spectra. The scalar bi-spectrum in the model too exhibits continued modulations and the resonance is known to boost the amplitude of the scalar non-Gaussianity parameter to rather large values. An analytical expression for the scalar bi-spectrum had been arrived at earlier which, in fact, has been used to compare the model with the cosmic microwave background anisotropies at the level of three-point functions involving scalars. In this work, with future applications in mind, we arrive at a similar analytical template for the scalar-scalar-tensor cross-correlation. We also analytically establish the consistency relation (in the squeezed limit) for this three-point function. We conclude with a summary of the main results obtained.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Passive Scalar Mixing in Shock Turbulence Interaction
Gao, Xiangyu; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Larsson, Johan
2017-11-01
Passive scalar mixing in the canonical shock-turbulence interaction configuration is investigated through shock-capturing Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Scalar fields with different Schmidt numbers are transported by an initially isotropic turbulent flow field passing across a nominally planar shock wave. A solution-adaptive hybrid numerical scheme on Cartesian structured grids is used, that combines a fifth-order WENO scheme near shocks and a sixth-order central-difference scheme away from shocks. The simulations target variations in the shock Mach number, M (from 1.5 to 3), turbulent Mach number, Mt (from 0.1 to 0.4, including wrinkled- and broken-shock regimes), and scalar Schmidt numbers, Sc (from 0.5 to 2), while keeping the Taylor microscale Reynolds number constant (Reλ 40). The effects on passive scalar statistics are investigated, including the streamwise evolution of scalar variance budgets, pdfs and spectra, in comparison with their temporal evolution in decaying isotropic turbulence.
Fundamental and composite scalars from extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranda, Alfredo; Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Hernandez-Sanchez, J.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.
2007-01-01
We discuss a scenario consisting of an effective 4D theory containing fundamental and composite fields. The strong dynamics sector responsible for the compositeness is assumed to be of extra dimensional origin. In the 4D effective theory the SM fermion and gauge fields are taken as fundamental fields. The scalar sector of the theory resembles a bosonic topcolor in the sense there are two scalar Higgs fields, a composite scalar field and a fundamental gauge-Higgs unification scalar. A detailed analysis of the scalar spectrum is presented in order to explore the parameter space consistent with experiment. It is found that, under the model assumptions, the acceptable parameter space is quite constrained. As a part of our phenomenological study of the model, we evaluate the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson and find that our model predicts a large FCNC mode h→tc, which can be as large as O(10 -3 ). Similarly, a large BR for the top FCNC decay is obtained, namely BR(t→c+H)≅10 -4
Can dark matter be a scalar field?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jesus, J.F.; Malatrasi, J.L.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Campus Experimental de Itapeva—R. Geraldo Alckmin, 519, Itapeva, SP (Brazil); Pereira, S.H. [Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Departamento de Física e Química, Campus de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, 12516-410—Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Andrade-Oliveira, F., E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br, E-mail: shpereira@gmail.com, E-mail: malatrasi440@gmail.com, E-mail: felipe.oliveira@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)
2016-08-01
In this paper we study a real scalar field as a possible candidate to explain the dark matter in the universe. In the context of a free scalar field with quadratic potential, we have used Union 2.1 SN Ia observational data jointly with a Planck prior over the dark matter density parameter to set a lower limit on the dark matter mass as m ≥0.12 H {sub 0}{sup -1} eV ( c = h-bar =1). For the recent value of the Hubble constant indicated by the Hubble Space Telescope, namely H {sub 0}=73±1.8 km s{sup -1}Mpc{sup -1}, this leads to m ≥1.56×10{sup -33} eV at 99.7% c.l. Such value is much smaller than m ∼ 10{sup -22} eV previously estimated for some models. Nevertheless, it is still in agreement with them once we have not found evidences for a upper limit on the scalar field dark matter mass from SN Ia analysis. In practice, it confirms free real scalar field as a viable candidate for dark matter in agreement with previous studies in the context of density perturbations, which include scalar field self interaction.
Planar isotropy of passive scalar turbulent mixing with a mean perpendicular gradient.
Danaila, L; Dusek, J; Le Gal, P; Anselmet, F; Brun, C; Pumir, A
1999-08-01
A recently proposed evolution equation [Vaienti et al., Physica D 85, 405 (1994)] for the probability density functions (PDF's) of turbulent passive scalar increments obtained under the assumptions of fully three-dimensional homogeneity and isotropy is submitted to validation using direct numerical simulation (DNS) results of the mixing of a passive scalar with a nonzero mean gradient by a homogeneous and isotropic turbulent velocity field. It is shown that this approach leads to a quantitatively correct balance between the different terms of the equation, in a plane perpendicular to the mean gradient, at small scales and at large Péclet number. A weaker assumption of homogeneity and isotropy restricted to the plane normal to the mean gradient is then considered to derive an equation describing the evolution of the PDF's as a function of the spatial scale and the scalar increments. A very good agreement between the theory and the DNS data is obtained at all scales. As a particular case of the theory, we derive a generalized form for the well-known Yaglom equation (the isotropic relation between the second-order moments for temperature increments and the third-order velocity-temperature mixed moments). This approach allows us to determine quantitatively how the integral scale properties influence the properties of mixing throughout the whole range of scales. In the simple configuration considered here, the PDF's of the scalar increments perpendicular to the mean gradient can be theoretically described once the sources of inhomogeneity and anisotropy at large scales are correctly taken into account.
Parametric dependence of two-plasmon decay in homogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrijevic, Dejan R
2010-01-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-plasmon decay in a homogeneous plasma slab near the quarter-critical density is constructed in order to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of the daughter electron plasma waves in plasma in the course of the instability. The scaling of the amplitudes of the participating waves with laser and plasma parameters is investigated. The secondary coupling of two daughter electron plasma waves with an ion-acoustic wave is assumed to be the principal mechanism of saturation of the instability. The impact of the inherently nonresonant nature of this secondary coupling on the development of two-plasmon decay is researched and it is shown to significantly influence the electron plasma wave dynamics. Its inclusion leads to nonuniformity of the spatial profile of the instability and causes the burst-like pattern of the instability development, which should result in the burst-like hot-electron production in homogeneous plasma.
Scalar Contribution to the Graviton Self-Energy During Inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sohyun [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2012-01-01
We use dimensional regularization to evaluate the one loop contribution to the graviton self-energy from a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a locally de Sitter background. For noncoincident points our result agrees with the stress tensor correlators obtained recently by Perez-Nadal, Roura and Verdaguer. We absorb the ultraviolet divergences using the R^{2} and C^{2} counterterms first derived by ’t Hooft and Veltman, and we take the D = 4 limit of the finite remainder. The renormalized result is expressed as the sum of two transverse, 4th order differential operators acting on nonlocal, de Sitter invariant structure functions. In this form it can be used to quantum-correct the linearized Einstein equations so that one can study how the inflationary production of infrared scalars affects the propagation of dynamical gravitons and the force of gravity. We have seen that they have no effect on the propagation of dynamical gravitons. Our computation motivates a conjecture for the first correction to the vacuum state wave functional of gravitons. We comment as well on performing the same analysis for the more interesting contribution from inflationary gravitons, and on inferring one loop corrections to the force of gravity.
Homogeneous instantons in bigravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han
2015-01-01
We study homogeneous gravitational instantons, conventionally called the Hawking-Moss (HM) instantons, in bigravity theory. The HM instantons describe the amplitude of quantum tunneling from a false vacuum to the true vacuum. Corrections to General Relativity (GR) are found in a closed form. Using the result, we discuss the following two issues: reduction to the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity and the possibility of preference for a large e-folding number in the context of the Hartle-Hawking (HH) no-boundary proposal. In particular, concerning the dRGT limit, it is found that the tunneling through the so-called self-accelerating branch is exponentially suppressed relative to the normal branch, and the probability becomes zero in the dRGT limit. As far as HM instantons are concerned, this could imply that the reduction from bigravity to the dRGT massive gravity is ill-defined.
Long-lived quintessential scalar hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldwell, Robert R; Yu Pengpeng
2006-01-01
We investigate static configurations of a vacuumless scalar field as 'hair' on a black hole. The vacuumless field has run-away behaviour, meaning the scalar potential vanishes only at infinite field strength, and is also responsible for a cosmic acceleration horizon. The classic no-hair theorems do not prevent the existence of static configurations, in the form of a spherical domain wall, trapped between the two horizons. We study the properties of such configurations and show that, although the configurations are ultimately unstable, long-lived solutions are possible. We make a perturbation study to estimate the instability time scale, which can be as large as 6 x 10 7 times the black hole crossing time. We identify classes of observers who can never observe the scalar field become unstable, because they pass beyond the cosmological event horizon in a time interval shorter than the instability time scale
Leading quantum gravitational corrections to scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.
2002-01-01
We consider the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the non-relativistic scattering amplitude of charged scalars in the combined theory of general relativity and scalar QED. The combined theory is treated as an effective field theory. This allows for a consistent quantization of the gravitational field. The appropriate vertex rules are extracted from the action, and the non-analytic contributions to the 1-loop scattering matrix are calculated in the non-relativistic limit. The non-analytical parts of the scattering amplitude, which are known to give the long range, low energy, leading quantum corrections, are used to construct the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the two-particle non-relativistic scattering matrix potential for two charged scalars. The result is discussed in relation to experimental verifications
Scalar one-loop integrals for QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, R. Keith; Zanderighi, Giulia
2008-01-01
We construct a basis set of infra-red and/or collinearly divergent scalar one-loop integrals and give analytic formulas, for tadpole, bubble, triangle and box integrals, regulating the divergences (ultra-violet, infra-red or collinear) by regularization in D = 4-2ε dimensions. For scalar triangle integrals we give results for our basis set containing 6 divergent integrals. For scalar box integrals we give results for our basis set containing 16 divergent integrals. We provide analytic results for the 5 divergent box integrals in the basis set which are missing in the literature. Building on the work of van Oldenborgh, a general, publicly available code has been constructed, which calculates both finite and divergent one-loop integrals. The code returns the coefficients of 1/ε 2 ,1/ε 1 and 1/ε 0 as complex numbers for an arbitrary tadpole, bubble, triangle or box integral
Transient accelerating scalar models with exponential potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui Wen-Ping; Zhang Yang; Fu Zheng-Wen
2013-01-01
We study a known class of scalar dark energy models in which the potential has an exponential term and the current accelerating era is transient. We find that, although a decelerating era will return in the future, when extrapolating the model back to earlier stages (z ≳ 4), scalar dark energy becomes dominant over matter. So these models do not have the desired tracking behavior, and the predicted transient period of acceleration cannot be adopted into the standard scenario of the Big Bang cosmology. When couplings between the scalar field and matter are introduced, the models still have the same problem; only the time when deceleration returns will be varied. To achieve re-deceleration, one has to turn to alternative models that are consistent with the standard Big Bang scenario.
SU(2) with fundamental fermions and scalars
Hansen, Martin; Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio; Toniato, Arianna
2018-03-01
We present preliminary results on the lattice simulation of an SU(2) gauge theory with two fermion flavors and one strongly interacting scalar field, all in the fundamental representation of SU(2). The motivation for this study comes from the recent proposal of "fundamental" partial compositeness models featuring strongly interacting scalar fields in addition to fermions. Here we describe the lattice setup for our study of this class of models and a first exploration of the lattice phase diagram. In particular we then investigate how the presence of a strongly coupled scalar field affects the properties of light meson resonances previously obtained for the SU(2) model. Preprint: CP3-Origins-2017-047 DNRF90
Anisotropic scalar field with cosmological time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleber, A.; Teixeira, A.F.F.
1978-04-01
A static, nonsingular, plane-symmetric scalar field of long range is considered under the general relativity, and a one-parametric class of exact solutions with cosmological time is obtained, in harmonic coordinates. In the absence of any material source, the gravitation originated by the pure scalar field can be studied in detail. A velocity-dependent acceleration field is found, acting attractively on the component of the velocity normal to the plane of symmetry, and repulsively on the component parallel to that plane. Particles at rest are insensitive to the gravitation, although the time component of the energy momentum tensor is point dependent and positive definite
Scalar dark matter: real vs complex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Hongyan; Zheng, Sibo [Department of Physics, Chongqing University,Chongqing 401331 (China)
2017-03-27
We update the parameter spaces for both a real and complex scalar dark matter via the Higgs portal. In the light of constraints arising from the LUX 2016 data, the latest Higgs invisible decay and the gamma ray spectrum, the dark matter resonant mass region is further restricted to a narrow window between 54.9−62.3 GeV in both cases, and its large mass region is excluded until 834 GeV and 3473 GeV for the real and complex scalar, respectively.
Scalar dark matter: real vs complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Hongyan; Zheng, Sibo
2017-01-01
We update the parameter spaces for both a real and complex scalar dark matter via the Higgs portal. In the light of constraints arising from the LUX 2016 data, the latest Higgs invisible decay and the gamma ray spectrum, the dark matter resonant mass region is further restricted to a narrow window between 54.9−62.3 GeV in both cases, and its large mass region is excluded until 834 GeV and 3473 GeV for the real and complex scalar, respectively.
Astrophysical constraints on scalar field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-01-01
We use stellar structure dynamics arguments to extract bounds on the relevant parameters of two scalar field models: the putative scalar field mediator of a fifth force with a Yukawa potential and the new variable mass particle models. We also analyze the impact of a constant solar inbound acceleration, such as the one reported by the Pioneer anomaly, on stellar astrophysics. We consider the polytropic gas model to estimate the effect of these models on the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and fundamental quantities such as the central temperature. The current bound on the solar luminosity is used to constrain the relevant parameters of each model
Scalar fields: at the threshold of astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzman, F S [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 2-82, 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)
2007-11-15
In this manuscript the potential existence of self-gravitating complex scalar field configurations is explored. Stable boson stars are presented as potential black hole candidates, and the strengths and weaknesses of such idea are described. On the other hand, Newtonian boson systems are also studied because they are the bricks of the structure within the scalar field dark matter model or the Bose condensate dark matter; the collapse of density fluctuations is described; also the interaction between two structures is shown to allow solitonic behavior, which in turn allows the formation of ripples of dark matter. The processes related to potential observations are also discussed.
Dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon
Hoferichter, M.; Ditsche, C.; Kubis, B.; Meißner, U.-G.
2012-06-01
Based on the recently proposed Roy-Steiner equations for pion-nucleon ( πN) scattering [1], we derive a system of coupled integral equations for the π π to overline N N and overline K K to overline N N S-waves. These equations take the form of a two-channel Muskhelishvili-Omnès problem, whose solution in the presence of a finite matching point is discussed. We use these results to update the dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon fully including overline K K intermediate states. In particular, we determine the correction {Δ_{σ }} = σ ( {2M_{π }^2} ) - {σ_{{π N}}} , which is needed for the extraction of the pion-nucleon σ term from πN scattering, as a function of pion-nucleon subthreshold parameters and the πN coupling constant.
Black-hole solutions with scalar hair in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theories
Antoniou, G.; Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.
2018-04-01
In the context of the Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet theory, with a general coupling function between the scalar field and the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term, we investigate the existence of regular black-hole solutions with scalar hair. Based on a previous theoretical analysis, which studied the evasion of the old and novel no-hair theorems, we consider a variety of forms for the coupling function (exponential, even and odd polynomial, inverse polynomial, and logarithmic) that, in conjunction with the profile of the scalar field, satisfy a basic constraint. Our numerical analysis then always leads to families of regular, asymptotically flat black-hole solutions with nontrivial scalar hair. The solution for the scalar field and the profile of the corresponding energy-momentum tensor, depending on the value of the coupling constant, may exhibit a nonmonotonic behavior, an unusual feature that highlights the limitations of the existing no-hair theorems. We also determine and study in detail the scalar charge, horizon area, and entropy of our solutions.
The relationship between continuum homogeneity and statistical homogeneity in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeger, W.R.; Ellis, G.F.R.; Hellaby, C.
1987-01-01
Although the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe models are based on the concept that the Universe is spatially homogeneous, up to the present time no definition of this concept has been proposed that could in principle be tested by observation. Such a definition is here proposed, based on a simple spatial averaging procedure, which relates observable properties of the Universe to the continuum homogeneity idea that underlies the FLRW models. It turns out that the statistical homogeneity often used to describe the distribution of matter on a large scale does not imply spatial homogeneity according to this definition, and so cannot be simply related to a FLRW Universe model. Values are proposed for the homogeneity parameter and length scale of homogeneity of the Universe. (author)
Self-accelerating universe in scalar-tensor theories after GW170817
Crisostomi, Marco; Koyama, Kazuya
2018-04-01
The recent simultaneous detection of gravitational waves and a gamma-ray burst from a neutron star merger significantly shrank the space of viable scalar-tensor theories by demanding that the speed of gravity is equal to that of light. The survived theories belong to the class of degenerate higher order scalar-tensor theories. We study whether these theories are suitable as dark energy candidates. We find scaling solutions in the matter dominated universe that lead to de Sitter solutions at late times without the cosmological constant, realizing self-acceleration. We evaluate quasistatic perturbations around self-accelerating solutions and show that the stringent constraints coming from astrophysical objects and gravitational waves can be satisfied, leaving interesting possibilities to test these theories by cosmological observations.
Dark energy in scalar-tensor theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, J.
2007-12-15
We investigate several aspects of dynamical dark energy in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We provide a classification of scalar-tensor coupling functions admitting cosmological scaling solutions. In particular, we recover that Brans-Dicke theory with inverse power-law potential allows for a sequence of background dominated scaling regime and scalar field dominated, accelerated expansion. Furthermore, we compare minimally and non-minimally coupled models, with respect to the small redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state. We discuss the possibility to discriminate between different models by a reconstruction of the equation-of-state parameter from available observational data. The non-minimal coupling characterizing scalar-tensor models can - in specific cases - alleviate fine tuning problems, which appear if (minimally coupled) quintessence is required to mimic a cosmological constant. Finally, we perform a phase-space analysis of a family of biscalar-tensor models characterized by a specific type of {sigma}-model metric, including two examples from recent literature. In particular, we generalize an axion-dilaton model of Sonner and Townsend, incorporating a perfect fluid background consisting of (dark) matter and radiation. (orig.)
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-03
Jan 3, 2017 ... So far, a large class of scalar field dark energy mod- els have been ... gains a lot of interest, under the light of the recently announced Planck Probe ...... Figure 1. wm vs. t for c2 = 1, V0 = 1 and some values of λ and α. Figure 2.
Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2017-06-15
We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations. (orig.)
Free massless scalar fields in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiivanov, L.K.
1980-01-01
A common Fock space for two free massless scalar fields, nonlocal with respect to each other, is constructed. The operators corresponding to the two formal charges are correctly defined and it is shown that they generate translationally invariant states from the vacuum
Reconstructing bidimensional scalar field theory models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flores, Gabriel H.; Svaiter, N.F.
2001-07-01
In this paper we review how to reconstruct scalar field theories in two dimensional spacetime starting from solvable Scrodinger equations. Theree different Schrodinger potentials are analyzed. We obtained two new models starting from the Morse and Scarf II hyperbolic potencials, the U (θ) θ 2 In 2 (θ 2 ) model and U (θ) = θ 2 cos 2 (In(θ 2 )) model respectively. (author)
Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2014-06-06
We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions.
Update on scalar singlet dark matter
Cline, J.M.; Scott, P.; Kainulainen, K.; Weniger, C.
2013-01-01
One of the simplest models of dark matter is where a scalar singlet field S comprises some or all of the dark matter and interacts with the standard model through an vertical bar H vertical bar S-2(2) coupling to the Higgs boson. We update the present limits on the model from LHC searches for
Dark energy in scalar-tensor theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, J.
2007-12-01
We investigate several aspects of dynamical dark energy in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We provide a classification of scalar-tensor coupling functions admitting cosmological scaling solutions. In particular, we recover that Brans-Dicke theory with inverse power-law potential allows for a sequence of background dominated scaling regime and scalar field dominated, accelerated expansion. Furthermore, we compare minimally and non-minimally coupled models, with respect to the small redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state. We discuss the possibility to discriminate between different models by a reconstruction of the equation-of-state parameter from available observational data. The non-minimal coupling characterizing scalar-tensor models can - in specific cases - alleviate fine tuning problems, which appear if (minimally coupled) quintessence is required to mimic a cosmological constant. Finally, we perform a phase-space analysis of a family of biscalar-tensor models characterized by a specific type of σ-model metric, including two examples from recent literature. In particular, we generalize an axion-dilaton model of Sonner and Townsend, incorporating a perfect fluid background consisting of (dark) matter and radiation. (orig.)
Gravitational peculiarities of a scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleber, A.; Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da
1979-11-01
The zero-adjoint of a time-static Ricci-flat solution to Einstein's field equations is investigated. It represents a spacetime curved solely by a massless scalar field. The cylindrical symmetry is assumed to permit both planar and non-planar geodetic motions. Unusual, velocity-dependent gravitational features are encountered from these geodesics. (Author) [pt
Vast Antimatter Regions and Scalar Condensate Baryogenesis
Kirilova, D.; Panayotova, M.; Valchanov, T.
2002-01-01
The possibility of natural and abundant creation of antimatter in the Universe in a SUSY-baryogenesis model with a scalar field condensate is described. This scenario predicts vast quantities of antimatter, corresponding to galaxy and galaxy cluster scales today, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. Theoretical and observational constraints on such antimatter regions are discussed.
Scalar Condensation of Holographic Superconductors using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We study holographic superconductors analytically by using the Ginzburg–Landau action with the γ-quartic term | |4. Our results show that γ-term plays a role in the scalar condensation. It is found that the system displays two kinds of critical temperatures. One is independent of γ. But the other increases with ...
Scalar Implicatures: The psychological reality of scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex de Carvalho
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Scalar implicatures, the phenomena where a sentence like The pianist played some Mozart sonatas is interpreted as The pianist did not play all Mozart sonatas have been given two different analyses. Neo-Griceans claim that this interpretation is based on lexical scales (e.g. , where the stronger term (e.g. all implies the weaker term (e.g. some, but the weaker term (e.g., some implicates the negation of the stronger term (i.e., some = not all. Post-Griceans deny that this is the case and offer a context-based inferential account for scalar implicatures. While scalar implicatures have been extensively investigated, with results apparently in favor of post-Gricean accounts, the psychological reality of lexical scales has not been put to the test. This is what we have done in the present experiment, with a lexical decision task using lexical scales in a masked priming paradigm. While Post-Gricean accounts do not attribute any role for lexical scales in the computation of scalar implicatures, Neo-Gricean accounts suggest that lexical scales are the core mechanism behind the computation of scalar implicatures, and predict that weaker terms in a scale should prime stronger terms more than the reverse because stronger words are necessary to the interpretation of weaker words, while stronger words can be interpreted independently of weaker words. Our results provided evidence in favor of the psychological existence of scales, leading to the first clear experimental support for the Neo-Gricean account.
Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert
2008-01-01
Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.
Brane solutions sourced by a scalar with vanishing potential and classification of scalar branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadoni, Mariano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy); Franzin, Edgardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cagliari (Italy); CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Serra, Matteo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Sapienza Università di Roma,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2016-01-20
We derive exact brane solutions of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity in d+2 dimensions with a vanishing scalar potential and we show that these solutions are conformal to the Lifshitz spacetime whose dual QFT is characterized by hyperscaling violation. These solutions, together with the AdS brane and the domain wall sourced by an exponential potential, give the complete list of scalar branes sourced by a generic potential having simple (scale-covariant) scaling symmetries not involving Galilean boosts. This allows us to give a classification of both simple and interpolating brane solution of minimally coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar gravity having no Schrödinger isometries, which may be very useful for holographic applications.
Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals
Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.
Modeling of pseudoacoustic P-waves in orthorhombic media with a low-rank approximation
Song, Xiaolei; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
Wavefield extrapolation in pseudoacoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We use the dispersion relation for scalar wave propagation in pseudoacoustic orthorhombic
Minimal extension of the standard model scalar sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Connell, Donal; Wise, Mark B.; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.
2007-01-01
The minimal extension of the scalar sector of the standard model contains an additional real scalar field with no gauge quantum numbers. Such a field does not couple to the quarks and leptons directly but rather through its mixing with the standard model Higgs field. We examine the phenomenology of this model focusing on the region of parameter space where the new scalar particle is significantly lighter than the usual Higgs scalar and has small mixing with it. In this region of parameter space most of the properties of the additional scalar particle are independent of the details of the scalar potential. Furthermore the properties of the scalar that is mostly the standard model Higgs can be drastically modified since its dominant branching ratio may be to a pair of the new lighter scalars
Salehi, Morteza; Jafari, S A
2017-08-15
We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ 5 , in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance. Furthermore, Josephson current of the Δ 5 |m|Δ 5 junction in the presence of anomalous Andreev reflection is fractional with 4π period. Our finding suggests another search area for condensed matter realization of Majorana fermions which are beyond the vortex-core of p-wave superconductors. The required Δ 5 pairing can be extrinsically induced by a conventional s-wave superconductor into a three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM).
Simulations of relativistic quantum plasmas using real-time lattice scalar QED
Shi, Yuan; Xiao, Jianyuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2018-05-01
Real-time lattice quantum electrodynamics (QED) provides a unique tool for simulating plasmas in the strong-field regime, where collective plasma scales are not well separated from relativistic-quantum scales. As a toy model, we study scalar QED, which describes self-consistent interactions between charged bosons and electromagnetic fields. To solve this model on a computer, we first discretize the scalar-QED action on a lattice, in a way that respects geometric structures of exterior calculus and U(1)-gauge symmetry. The lattice scalar QED can then be solved, in the classical-statistics regime, by advancing an ensemble of statistically equivalent initial conditions in time, using classical field equations obtained by extremizing the discrete action. To demonstrate the capability of our numerical scheme, we apply it to two example problems. The first example is the propagation of linear waves, where we recover analytic wave dispersion relations using numerical spectrum. The second example is an intense laser interacting with a one-dimensional plasma slab, where we demonstrate natural transition from wakefield acceleration to pair production when the wave amplitude exceeds the Schwinger threshold. Our real-time lattice scheme is fully explicit and respects local conservation laws, making it reliable for long-time dynamics. The algorithm is readily parallelized using domain decomposition, and the ensemble may be computed using quantum parallelism in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Changyuan; Sun Dongsheng; Lu Falin
2004-01-01
Properties of scattering states of the Klein-Gordon equation with Coulomb-like scalar plus vector potentials are investigated in an arbitrary dimension. Exact results of normalized wave functions of scattering states in the 'k/2π scale' and formula of phase shifts are presented
Coarse-mesh discretized low-order quasi-diffusion equations for subregion averaged scalar fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anistratov, D. Y.
2004-01-01
In this paper we develop homogenization procedure and discretization for the low-order quasi-diffusion equations on coarse grids for core-level reactor calculations. The system of discretized equations of the proposed method is formulated in terms of the subregion averaged group scalar fluxes. The coarse-mesh solution is consistent with a given fine-mesh discretization of the transport equation in the sense that it preserves a set of average values of the fine-mesh transport scalar flux over subregions of coarse-mesh cells as well as the surface currents, and eigenvalue. The developed method generates numerical solution that mimics the large-scale behavior of the transport solution within assemblies. (authors)
Future evolution in a backreaction model and the analogous scalar field cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Amna; Majumdar, A.S., E-mail: amnaalig@gmail.com, E-mail: archan@bose.res.in [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700106 (India)
2017-01-01
We investigate the future evolution of the universe using the Buchert framework for averaged backreaction in the context of a two-domain partition of the universe. We show that this approach allows for the possibility of the global acceleration vanishing at a finite future time, provided that none of the subdomains accelerate individually. The model at large scales is analogously described in terms of a homogeneous scalar field emerging with a potential that is fixed and free from phenomenological parametrization. The dynamics of this scalar field is explored in the analogous FLRW cosmology. We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, and Cosmic Microwave Background to constrain the parameters of the model for a viable cosmology, providing the corresponding likelihood contours.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J; Malico, I
2009-01-01
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J [Mechanical Engineering Department, IDMEC/LAETA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malico, I [Physics Department, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)], E-mail: carlos.silva@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: imbm@uevora.pt, E-mail: pedro.coelho@ist.utl.pt
2009-09-15
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Electromagnetic illusion with isotropic and homogeneous materials through scattering manipulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
A new isotropic and homogeneous illusion device for electromagnetic waves is proposed. This single-shelled device can change the fingerprint of the covered object into another one by manipulating the scattering of the composite structure. We show that an electrically small sphere can be disguised as another small one with different electromagnetic parameters. The device can even make a dielectric sphere (electrically small) behave like a conducting one. Full-wave simulations confirm the performance of proposed illusion device. (paper)
Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-09-13
We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories.
A Riemannian scalar measure for diffusion tensor images
Astola, L.J.; Fuster, A.; Florack, L.M.J.
2010-01-01
We study a well-known scalar quantity in Riemannian geometry, the Ricci scalar, in the context of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), which is an emerging non-invasive medical imaging modality. We derive a physical interpretation for the Ricci scalar and explore experimentally its significance in DTI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikova, Elena I.; Novikov, Igor D.
2010-01-01
We analyze analytically and numerically the origin of the singularity in the course of the collapse of a wormhole with the exotic scalar field Ψ with negative energy density, and with this field Ψ together with the ordered magnetic field H. We do this under the simplifying assumptions of the spherical symmetry and that in the vicinity of the singularity the solution of the Einstein equations depends only on one coordinate (the homogeneous approximation). In the framework of these assumptions we found the principal difference between the case of the collapse of the ordinary scalar field Φ with the positive energy density together with an ordered magnetic field H and the collapse of the exotic scalar field Ψ together with the magnetic field H. The later case is important for the possible astrophysical manifestation of the wormholes.
Homogeneous versus heterogeneous zeolite nucleation
Dokter, W.H.; Garderen, van H.F.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Bras, W.
1995-01-01
Aggregates of fractal dimension were found in the intermediate gel phases that organize prior to nucleation and crystallization (shown right) of silicalite from a homogeneous reaction mixture. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies prove that for zeolites nucleation may be homogeneous or
Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.
Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P
2017-11-15
The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.
Homogenization theory in reactor lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoist, P.
1986-02-01
The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr
Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines
Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.
2012-01-01
When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…
Sagunski, Laura; Zhang, Jun; Johnson, Matthew C.; Lehner, Luis; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Liebling, Steven L.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Neilsen, David
2018-03-01
Observations of gravitational radiation from compact binary systems provide an unprecedented opportunity to test general relativity in the strong field dynamical regime. In this paper, we investigate how future observations of gravitational radiation from binary neutron star mergers might provide constraints on finite-range forces from a universally coupled massive scalar field. Such scalar degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) are a characteristic feature of many extensions of general relativity. For concreteness, we work in the context of metric f (R ) gravity, which is equivalent to general relativity and a universally coupled scalar field with a nonlinear potential whose form is fixed by the choice of f (R ). In theories where neutron stars (or other compact objects) obtain a significant scalar charge, the resulting attractive finite-range scalar force has implications for both the inspiral and merger phases of binary systems. We first present an analysis of the inspiral dynamics in Newtonian limit, and forecast the constraints on the mass of the scalar and charge of the compact objects for the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave observatory. We then perform a comparative study of binary neutron star mergers in general relativity with those of a one-parameter model of f (R ) gravity using fully relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. These simulations elucidate the effects of the scalar on the merger and postmerger dynamics. We comment on the utility of the full waveform (inspiral, merger, postmerger) to probe different regions of parameter space for both the particular model of f (R ) gravity studied here and for finite-range scalar forces more generally.
Anisotropic inflation from charged scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Movahed, S.M. Sadegh; Zarei, Moslem
2011-01-01
We consider models of inflation with U(1) gauge fields and charged scalar fields including symmetry breaking potential, chaotic inflation and hybrid inflation. We show that there exist attractor solutions where the anisotropies produced during inflation becomes comparable to the slow-roll parameters. In the models where the inflaton field is a charged scalar field the gauge field becomes highly oscillatory at the end of inflation ending inflation quickly. Furthermore, in charged hybrid inflation the onset of waterfall phase transition at the end of inflation is affected significantly by the evolution of the background gauge field. Rapid oscillations of the gauge field and its coupling to inflaton can have interesting effects on preheating and non-Gaussianities
Scalar geons in Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afonso, V.I. [Unidade Acadêmica de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia—CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: viafonso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@uv.es, E-mail: drgarcia@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C8, Campo Grande, P-1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-08-01
The existence of static, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating scalar field solutions in the context of Born-Infeld gravity is explored. Upon a combination of analytical approximations and numerical methods, the equations for a free scalar field (without a potential term) are solved, verifying that the solutions recover the predictions of General Relativity far from the center but finding important new effects in the central regions. We find two classes of objects depending on the ratio between the Schwarzschild radius and a length scale associated to the Born-Infeld theory: massive solutions have a wormhole structure, with their throat at r ≈ 2 M , while for the lighter configurations the topology is Euclidean. The total energy density of these solutions exhibits a solitonic profile with a maximum peaked away from the center, and located at the throat whenever a wormhole exists. The geodesic structure and curvature invariants are analyzed for the various configurations considered.
Scalar fields in black hole spacetimes
Thuestad, Izak; Khanna, Gaurav; Price, Richard H.
2017-07-01
The time evolution of matter fields in black hole exterior spacetimes is a well-studied subject, spanning several decades of research. However, the behavior of fields in the black hole interior spacetime has only relatively recently begun receiving some attention from the research community. In this paper, we numerically study the late-time evolution of scalar fields in both Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes, including the black hole interior. We recover the expected late-time power-law "tails" on the exterior (null infinity, timelike infinity, and the horizon). In the interior region, we find an interesting oscillatory behavior that is characterized by the multipole index ℓ of the scalar field. In addition, we also study the extremal Kerr case and find strong indications of an instability developing at the horizon.
Euclidean wormholes with minimally coupled scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruz, Soumendranath; Modak, Bijan; Debnath, Subhra; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar
2013-01-01
A detailed study of quantum and semiclassical Euclidean wormholes for Einstein's theory with a minimally coupled scalar field has been performed for a class of potentials. Massless, constant, massive (quadratic in the scalar field) and inverse (linear) potentials admit the Hawking and Page wormhole boundary condition both in the classically forbidden and allowed regions. An inverse quartic potential has been found to exhibit a semiclassical wormhole configuration. Classical wormholes under a suitable back-reaction leading to a finite radius of the throat, where the strong energy condition is satisfied, have been found for the zero, constant, quadratic and exponential potentials. Treating such classical Euclidean wormholes as an initial condition, a late stage of cosmological evolution has been found to remain unaltered from standard Friedmann cosmology, except for the constant potential which under the back-reaction produces a term like a negative cosmological constant. (paper)
Search for scalar electrons at PEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, R.J.
1983-08-01
Experimental results from e + e - reactions at the Positron Electron Project (PEP) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) are presented. Events with two electrons, and no other charged particles, in the final state are studied. Limits are given for the production of scalar-electrons predicted by models based on supersymmetry. In particular the pair production of such particles through s-channel single photon annihilation and t-channel inelastic scattering is considered. The data are well described by quantum electrodynamics (QED) but we observe one event which is also consistent with a supersymmetric model. Using this single event we find that the mass, M/sub se/, of these scalar-electrons es excluded, to 95% CL, in the range 1.8 less than or equal to M/sub se/ less than or equal to 14.2 GeV/c 2 . A description of the HRS detector is given with particular emphasis on the electronic trigger system
Charged black holes with scalar hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Zhong-Ying; Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2015-09-10
We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstrøm (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS{sub 2}×Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black p-branes with scalar hair.
Atomic precision tests and light scalar couplings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique; Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique
2010-10-15
We calculate the shift in the atomic energy levels induced by the presence of a scalar field which couples to matter and photons. We find that a combination of atomic measurements can be used to probe both these couplings independently. A new and stringent bound on the matter coupling springs from the precise measurement of the 1s to 2s energy level difference in the hydrogen atom, while the coupling to photons is essentially constrained by the Lamb shift. Combining these constraints with current particle physics bounds we find that the contribution of a scalar field to the recently claimed discrepancy in the proton radius measured using electronic and muonic atoms is negligible. (orig.)
Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H. [Université de Tours, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 7350, 37200 Tours (France); Polarski, D., E-mail: bruno.boisseau@lmpt.univ-tours.fr, E-mail: hector.giacomini@lmpt.univ-tours.fr, E-mail: david.polarski@umontpellier.fr [Université Montpellier and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France)
2015-10-01
Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF.
On Climbing Scalars in String Theory
Dudas, E; Sagnotti, A
2010-01-01
In string models with "brane supersymmetry breaking" exponential potentials emerge at (closed-string) tree level but are not accompanied by tachyons. Potentials of this type have long been a source of embarrassment in flat space, but can have interesting implications for Cosmology. For instance, in ten dimensions the logarithmic slope |V'/V| lies precisely at a "critical" value where the Lucchin--Matarrese attractor disappears while the scalar field is \\emph{forced} to climb up the potential when it emerges from the Big Bang. This type of behavior is in principle perturbative in the string coupling, persists after compactification, could have trapped scalar fields inside potential wells as a result of the cosmological evolution and could have also injected the inflationary phase of our Universe.
Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H.; Polarski, D.
2015-01-01
Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)
Light Scalar Mesons in Central Production at COMPASS
Austregesilo, A.
2016-01-01
COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS that studies the spectrum of light-quark hadrons. In 2009, it collected a large dataset using a $190\\,$GeV$/c$ positive hadron beam impinging on a liquid-hydrogen target in order to measure the central exclusive production of light scalar mesons. One of the goals is the search for so-called glueballs, which are hypothetical meson-like objects without valence-quark content. We study the decay of neutral resonances by selecting centrally produced pion pairs from the COMPASS dataset. The angular distributions of the two pseudoscalar mesons are decomposed in terms of partial waves, where particular attention is paid to the inherent mathematical ambiguities. The large dataset allows us to perform a detailed analysis in bins of the two squared four-momentum transfers carried by the exchange particles in the reaction. Possible parameterisations of the mass dependence of the partial-wave amplitudes in terms of resonances are also discussed.
The influence of non-homogenous dielectric material in the waveguide propagation modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion VONCILA
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to indicate the equations of electromagnetic wave in homogenous and non-homogenous dielectric material, estabilising the bundary conditions and solves by FEM the equations of the electromagnetic wave in the rectangular cavity. By numeric simulation of the waveguide in the cavity there have been studied the modifications of both the ways of propagation and the field’s distribution. The non-homogenous mediums afectes the field’s amplitude, obtaining a non-homogenous distribution. Poyting vector of the wave’s transmision, indicates the energetic flux’s concentration in the air besides the dielectric material.
SU (2) with fundamental fermions and scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin; Janowski, Tadeusz; Pica, Claudio
2018-01-01
We present preliminary results on the lattice simulation of an SU(2) gauge theory with two fermion flavors and one strongly interacting scalar field, all in the fundamental representation of SU(2). The motivation for this study comes from the recent proposal of "fundamental" partial compositeness...... the properties of light meson resonances previously obtained for the SU(2) model. Preprint: CP3-Origins-2017-047 DNRF90...
Primordial perturbations in multi-scalar inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abedi, Habib; Abbassi, Amir M., E-mail: h.abedi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Kargar Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
Multiple field models of inflation exhibit new features than single field models. In this work, we study the hierarchy of parameters based on Hubble expansion rate in curved field space and derive the system of flow equations that describe their evolutions. Then we focus on obtaining derivatives of number of e-folds with respect to scalar fields during inflation and at hypersurface of the end of inflation.
Scalar contribution to the BFKL kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerasimov, R. E.; Fadin, V. S.
2010-01-01
The contribution of scalar particles to the kernel of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation is calculated. A great cancellation between the virtual and real parts of this contribution, analogous to the cancellation in the quark contribution in QCD, is observed. The reason of this cancellation is discovered. This reason has a common nature for particles with any spin. Understanding of this reason permits to obtain the total contribution without the complicated calculations, which are necessary for finding separate pieces.
The Effective Hamiltonian in the Scalar Electrodynamics
Dineykhan, M D; Zhaugasheva, S A; Sakhyev, S K
2002-01-01
On the basis of an investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop for the scalar particles in the external electromagnetic field the relativistic corrections to the Hamiltonian are determined. The constituent mass of the particles in the bound state is analytically derived. It is shown that the constituent mass of the particles differs from the mass of the particles in the free state. The corrections connected with the Thomas precession have been calculated.
Scalar and pseudoscalar susceptibilities in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, Magda; Chanfray, Guy; Chanfray, Guy
2003-01-01
We study the two QCD susceptibilities of the nuclear medium in the linear σ model. The magnitude of the scalar one increases due to the mixing with the softer modes of the nucleon-hole excitations. The pseudoscalar susceptibility, follows the density evolution of the quark condensate and thus decreases in magnitude. At normal nuclear matter density the two susceptibilities become much close than in the vacuum, a consequence of the partial chiral symmetry restoration. (author)
Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali
2017-04-01
We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ~ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.
Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali, E-mail: mark.hertzberg@tufts.edu, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2017-04-01
We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ∼ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.
Scalar mesons in φ radiative decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.; Isgur, N.; Kumano, S.
1992-06-01
Existing predictions for the branching ratio for φ → KK γ via φ → S γ (where S denotes one of the scalar mesons f o (975) and a o (980)) vary by several orders of magnitude. Given the importance of these processes for both hadron spectroscopy and charge-parity-violation studies at φ factories (where φ→ K o K-bar o γ poses a possible background problem), this state of affairs is very undesirable. We show that the variety of predictions is due in part to errors and in part to differences in modelling. The latter variation leads us to argue that the radiative decays of these scalar states are interesting in their own right and may offer unique insights into the nature of the scalar mesons. As a byproduct we find that the branching ratio for φ → K o K-bar o γ is approx. -7 ) and will pose no significant background to proposed studies of CP-violation. (Author)
Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berlin, Joshua
2017-01-01
The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a 0 (980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J P =0 + ). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a 0 (980) and f 0 (980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a 0 (980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.
Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berlin, Joshua
2017-07-01
The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a{sub 0}(980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J{sup P}=0{sup +}). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a{sub 0}(980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.
Scalar field Green functions on causal sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomaan Ahmed, S; Surya, Sumati; Dowker, Fay
2017-01-01
We examine the validity and scope of Johnston’s models for scalar field retarded Green functions on causal sets in 2 and 4 dimensions. As in the continuum, the massive Green function can be obtained from the massless one, and hence the key task in causal set theory is to first identify the massless Green function. We propose that the 2d model provides a Green function for the massive scalar field on causal sets approximated by any topologically trivial 2-dimensional spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that this is indeed the case in a Riemann normal neighbourhood. In 4d the model can again be used to provide a Green function for the massive scalar field in a Riemann normal neighbourhood which we compare to Bunch and Parker’s continuum Green function. We find that the same prescription can also be used for de Sitter spacetime and the conformally flat patch of anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our analysis then allows us to suggest a generalisation of Johnston’s model for the Green function for a causal set approximated by 3-dimensional flat spacetime. (paper)
Experimental estimation of fluctuating velocity and scalar gradients in turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hearst, R.J.; Lavoie, P. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buxton, O.R.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Center for Aeromechanics Research, Austin, TX (United States); Ganapathisubramani, B. [University of Southampton, Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom)
2012-10-15
The effect of numerical differentiation is investigated in the context of evaluating fluctuating velocity and scalar quantities in turbulent flows. In particular, 2-point forward-difference and 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-point centred-difference schemes are investigated. The spectral technique introduced by Wyngaard (in J Sci Instr 1(2):1105-1108, 1968) for homogeneous turbulence is used to quantify the effects of the schemes. Numerical differentiation is shown to attenuate gradient spectra over a range of wavenumbers. The spectral attenuation, which varies with the order of the scheme, results in a reduction in the measured mean-squared gradients. High-order schemes (e.g. 7- or 9-point) are shown to significantly decrease the attenuation at all wavenumbers and as a result produce more accurate gradients. Hot-wire measurements and direct numerical simulations of decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the analysis, which suggests that high-order schemes can be used to improve empirical gradient estimates. The shape of the probability density functions is also found to be sensitive to the choice of numerical differentiation scheme. The effect of numerical differentiation is also discussed with respect to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of a nominally two-dimensional planar mixing layer. It is found that the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio inherent in typical PIV measurements necessitates the use of low-order schemes to prevent excessive noise amplification, which increases with the order of the scheme. The results of the present work demonstrate that high-order numerical differentiation schemes can be employed to more accurately resolve gradients measured at a given resolution provided the measurements have an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.)
Searches for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP2
Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Hühn, T; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Morawitz, P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Tilquin, A; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Serin, L; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Foss, J; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G
1997-01-01
Searches for scalar top and bottom quarks have been performed with data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The data sample consists of 21.7 pb^-1 taken at sqrt{s} = 161, 170, and 172~GeV and 5.7 pb^-1 taken at sqrt{s} = 130 and 136~GeV. No evidence for scalar top quarks or scalar bottom quarks was found in the channels stop --> c chi, stop --> b l snu, and sbottom --> b chi. For the channel stop --> c chi a limit of 67 GeV/c^2 has been set on the scalar top quark mass, independent of the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left and right-handed states of the top quark. This limit assumes a mass difference between the stop and the chi of at least 10 GeV/c^2. For the channel stop --> b l snu the mixing-angle independent scalar top limit is 70 GeV/c^2, assuming a mass difference between the stop and the snu of at least 10 GeV/c^2. For the channel sbottom --> b chi, a limit of 73 GeV/c^2 has been set on the mass of the supersymmetric partner of the left-handed state of the bottom quark. T...
Searches for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP2
ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J. C.; Machefert, F.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Huehn, T.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Morawitz, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Foss, J.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R. W.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.
1997-11-01
Searches for scalar top and bottom quarks have been performed with data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP. The data sample consists of 21.7 pb-1 taken at sqrt(s) = 161, 170, and 172 GeV and 5.7 pb-1 taken at sqrt(s) = 130 and 136 GeV. No evidence for scalar top quarks or scalar bottom quarks was found in the channels t~-->cχ, t~-->blν~, and b~-->bχ. For the channel t~-->cχ a limit of 67 GeV/c2has been set on the scalar top quark mass, independent of the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left and right-handed states of the top quark. This limit assumes a mass difference between the t~ and the χ of at least 10 GeV/c2. For the channel t~-->blν~ the mixing-angle independent scalar top limit is 70 GeV/c2, assuming a mass difference between the t~ and the ν~ of at least 10 GeV/c2. For the channel b~-->bχ, a limit of 73 GeV/c2has been set on the mass of the supersymmetric partner of the left-handed state of the bottom quark. This limit is valid if the mass difference between the b~ and the χ is at least 10 GeV/c2.
Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings
Timashev, DA
2011-01-01
Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em
The scalar-photon 3-point vertex in massless quenched scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Concha-Sánchez, Y; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Fernández-Rangel, L A
2016-01-01
Non perturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) require their infinite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the scalar-photon three point vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, longitudinal and transverse. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green- Takahashi identity (WFGTI), while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we propose the transverse part of the non perturbative scalar-photon vertex. (paper)
Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.
1980-01-01
The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt
A second stage homogenization method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makai, M.
1981-01-01
A second homogenization is needed before the diffusion calculation of the core of large reactors. Such a second stage homogenization is outlined here. Our starting point is the Floquet theorem for it states that the diffusion equation for a periodic core always has a particular solution of the form esup(j)sup(B)sup(x) u (x). It is pointed out that the perturbation series expansion of function u can be derived by solving eigenvalue problems and the eigenvalues serve to define homogenized cross sections. With the help of these eigenvalues a homogenized diffusion equation can be derived the solution of which is cos Bx, the macroflux. It is shown that the flux can be expressed as a series of buckling. The leading term in this series is the well known Wigner-Seitz formula. Finally three examples are given: periodic absorption, a cell with an absorber pin in the cell centre, and a cell of three regions. (orig.)
Homogenization methods for heterogeneous assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, M.R.
1980-01-01
The third session of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting is concerned with the problem of homogenization of heterogeneous assemblies. Six papers will be presented on the theory of homogenization and on practical procedures for deriving homogenized group cross sections and diffusion coefficients. That the problem of finding so-called ''equivalent'' diffusion theory parameters for the use in global reactor calculations is of great practical importance. In spite of this, it is fair to say that the present state of the theory of second homogenization is far from being satisfactory. In fact, there is not even a uniquely accepted approach to the problem of deriving equivalent group diffusion parameters. Common agreement exists only about the fact that the conventional flux-weighting technique provides only a first approximation, which might lead to acceptable results in certain cases, but certainly does not guarantee the basic requirement of conservation of reaction rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booker, H.G.
1984-01-01
The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)
Parametric decay instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, weakly anisotropic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandal, B.
1976-01-01
The parametric decay of a transverse electromagnetic (em) wave with a frequency close to, but larger than, the electron plasma frequency is investigated for an infinite, homogeneous, weakly magnetoactive plasma. A two-component fluid description is employed, and the damping of the linear plasma waves is introduced phenomenologically to include both Landau and collisional damping. The transverse em wave will decay into a longitudinal electron plasma wave and an em ion-acoustic wave. Only the latter wave is assumed to be affected by the weak, constant magnetic field. The threshold expression for growth of electron plasma waves is equal to that of the isotropic plasma when the em ion-acoustic wave's direction of propagation lies inside a wide double cone, whose axis is along the constant magnetic field. When the em ion-acoustic wave propagates outside this double cone, an additional factor, which depends directly upon the magnetic field, appears in the threshold expression. This factor can, under certain conditions, reduce the threshold for growth of electron plasma waves below that of the isotropic plasma
Spinor structures on homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyakhovskii, V.D.; Mudrov, A.I.
1993-01-01
For multidimensional models of the interaction of elementary particles, the problem of constructing and classifying spinor fields on homogeneous spaces is exceptionally important. An algebraic criterion for the existence of spinor structures on homogeneous spaces used in multidimensional models is developed. A method of explicit construction of spinor structures is proposed, and its effectiveness is demonstrated in examples. The results are of particular importance for harmonic decomposition of spinor fields
A personal view on homogenization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tartar, L.
1987-02-01
The evolution of some ideas is first described. Under the name homogenization are collected all the mathematical results who help understanding the relations between the microstructure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Homogenization results are given through a critically detailed bibliography. The mathematical models given are systems of partial differential equations, supposed to describe some properties at a scale ε and we want to understand what will happen to the solutions if ε tends to 0
Thermal inflation with a thermal waterfall scalar field coupled to a light spectator scalar field
Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Lyth, David H.; Rumsey, Arron
2017-05-01
A new model of thermal inflation is introduced, in which the mass of the thermal waterfall field is dependent on a light spectator scalar field. Using the δ N formalism, the "end of inflation" scenario is investigated in order to ascertain whether this model is able to produce the dominant contribution to the primordial curvature perturbation. A multitude of constraints are considered so as to explore the parameter space, with particular emphasis on key observational signatures. For natural values of the parameters, the model is found to yield a sharp prediction for the scalar spectral index and its running, well within the current observational bounds.
On the power law of passive scalars in turbulence
Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi
2015-11-01
It has long been considered that the moments of the scalar increment with separation distance r obey power law with scaling exponents in the inertial convective range and the exponents are insensitive to variation of pumping of scalar fluctuations at large scales, thus the scaling exponents are universal. We examine the scaling behavior of the moments of increments of passive scalars 1 and 2 by using DNS up to the grid points of 40963. They are simultaneously convected by the same isotropic steady turbulence atRλ = 805 , but excited by two different methods. Scalar 1 is excited by the random scalar injection which is isotropic, Gaussian and white in time at law wavenumber band, while Scalar 2 is excited by the uniform mean scalar gradient. It is found that the local scaling exponents of the scalar 1 has a logarithmic correction, meaning that the moments of the scalar 1 do not obey simple power law. On the other hand, the moments of the scalar 2 is found to obey the well developed power law with exponents consistent with those in the literature. Physical reasons for the difference are explored. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 15H02218 and 26420106, NIFS14KNSS050, HPCI project hp150088 and hp140024, JHPCN project jh150012.
Some advance on the comprehension of SR analysis for estimating the flux of a scalar
Castellví, Dr
2009-04-01
the scalar time trace to estimate scalar surface fluxes (Paw U et al., 1995). The analysis consists on determination of the mean ramp-pattern dimensions observed in the trace measured at one height. SR analysis is a simple transilient theory that is Lagrangian in nature and based on the scalar conservation equation. Here, it is shown (indirectly) that for a steady, incompressible and horizontally homogeneous flow, the production term in the budget equation of the mean turbulent variance of a scalar can be expressed in terms of the mean ramp dimensions observed in the trace. Therefore, the budget equation provides a link between the contrasting DM and SR analysis methods for estimating scalar surface fluxes. The dissipation method is based on the finest turbulence scales, whereas the SR analysis is based on canopy-scale coherent structures. By normalizing the budget equation, and invoking similarity, it is shown that DM and SR analysis are closely related (details were given in Castellvi and Snyder, 2008). However, SR analysis avoids the disadvantages of DM and it also overcomes potential problems related with the EC method (such as perfect alignment, rotation of the wind field, sensor separation, shadowing, etc.) because the velocity field (i.e., the sonic anemometer) is not required in SR analysis. The relation between SR analysis and DM allows to better interpret a crucial parameter (originally, denoted as ) involved in SR analysis. The parameter was implemented to account for three assumptions made to solve the scalar flux conservation equation coupled with the Lagrangian scalar mass conservation equation. Considering an air parcel that suddenly moves down to the surface which volume covers all the vertical extend of the surface sources (sinks), the assumptions made are the following; (1) The air parcel remains in contact with the sources (sinks) for a period during which it has been enriched (depleted) of scalar, (2) During the enrichment phase there is not
Primordial black holes from scalar field evolution in the early universe
Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander
2017-11-01
Scalar condensates with large expectation values can form in the early universe, for example, in theories with supersymmetry. The condensate can undergo fragmentation into Q-balls before decaying. If the Q-balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, statistical fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 1 023 g . For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over a much broader mass range, including the black holes with masses of 1-100 solar masses, which is relevant for LIGO observations of gravitational waves. Topological defects can lead to formation of PBH in a similar fashion.
Constraints from conformal symmetry on the three point scalar correlator in inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kundu, Nilay; Shukla, Ashish; Trivedi, Sandip P.
2015-01-01
Using symmetry considerations, we derive Ward identities which relate the three point function of scalar perturbations produced during inflation to the scalar four point function, in a particular limit. The derivation assumes approximate conformal invariance, and the conditions for the slow roll approximation, but is otherwise model independent. The Ward identities allow us to deduce that the three point function must be suppressed in general, being of the same order of magnitude as in the slow roll model. They also fix the three point function in terms of the four point function, upto one constant which we argue is generically suppressed. Our approach is based on analyzing the wave function of the universe, and the Ward identities arise by imposing the requirements of spatial and time reparametrization invariance on it.
Floating and sinking: the imprint of massive scalars around rotating black holes.
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-09
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into "floating orbits" for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole's rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity.
Relaxation and kinetics in scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Lawrie, I.D.; Lee, D.
1996-01-01
A new approach to the dynamics of relaxation and kinetics of thermalization in a scalar field theory is presented that incorporates the relevant time scales through the resummation of hard thermal loops. An alternative derivation of the kinetic equations for the open-quote open-quote quasiparticle close-quote close-quote distribution functions is obtained that allows a clear understanding of the different open-quote open-quote coarse-graining close-quote close-quote approximations usually involved in a kinetic description. This method leads to a systematic perturbative expansion to obtain the kinetic equations including hard thermal loop resummation and to an improvement including renormalization, off-shell effects, and contributions that change chemical equilibrium on short time scales. As a by-product of these methods we establish the equivalence between the relaxation time scale in the linearized equation of motion of the quasiparticles and the thermalization time scale of the quasiparticle distribution function in the open-quote open-quote relaxation time approximation close-quote close-quote including hard thermal loop effects. Hard thermal loop resummation dramatically modifies the scattering rate for long wavelength modes as compared to the usual (semi)classical estimate. Relaxation and kinetics are studied both in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of the theory. The broken symmetry phase also provides the setting to obtain the contribution to the kinetic equations from processes that involve decay of a heavy scalar into light scalar particles in the medium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Gaussian processes and constructive scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benfatto, G.; Nicolo, F.
1981-01-01
The last years have seen a very deep progress of constructive euclidean field theory, with many implications in the area of the random fields theory. The authors discuss an approach to super-renormalizable scalar field theories, which puts in particular evidence the connections with the theory of the Gaussian processes associated to the elliptic operators. The paper consists of two parts. Part I treats some problems in the theory of Gaussian processes which arise in the approach to the PHI 3 4 theory. Part II is devoted to the discussion of the ultraviolet stability in the PHI 3 4 theory. (Auth.)
Renormalization group study of scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.
1986-01-01
An approximate RG equation is derived and studied in scalar quantum field theories in d dimensions. The approximation allows for an infinite number of different couplings in the potential, but excludes interactions containing derivatives. The resulting non-linear partial differential equation can be studied by simple means. Both the gaussian and the non-gaussian fixed points are described qualitatively correctly by the equation. The RG flows in d=4 and the problem of defining an ''effective'' field theory are discussed in detail. (orig.)
Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields
Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Marek
2008-11-01
We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain.
Force field refinement from NMR scalar couplings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2012-03-02
Graphical abstract: We show that two classes of H-bonds are sufficient to quantitatively describe scalar NMR coupling constants in small proteins. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present force field refinements based on explicit MD simulations using scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This leads to {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.03 Hz at best compared to experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A classification of H-bonds according to secondary structure is not sufficiently robust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grouping H-bonds into two classes and reparametrization yields an RMSD of 0.07 Hz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is an improvement of 50. - Abstract: NMR observables contain valuable information about the protein dynamics sampling a high-dimensional potential energy surface. Depending on the observable, the dynamics is sensitive to different time-windows. Scalar coupling constants {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} reflect the pico- to nanosecond motions associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bond network. Including an explicit H-bond in the molecular mechanics with proton transfer (MMPT) potential allows us to reproduce experimentally determined {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings to within 0.02 Hz at best for ubiquitin and protein G. This is based on taking account of the chemically changing environment by grouping the H-bonds into up to seven classes. However, grouping them into two classes already reduces the RMSD between computed and observed {sup h3}J{sub NC{sup }{sup P}{sup r}{sup i}{sup m}{sup e}} couplings by almost 50%. Thus, using ensemble-averaged data with two classes of H-bonds leads to substantially improved scalar couplings from simulations with accurate force fields.
Pre-inflation physics and scalar perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirai, Shiro
2005-01-01
The effect of pre-inflation physics on the power spectrum of scalar perturbations is investigated. Considering various pre-inflation models with radiation-dominated or matter-dominated periods before inflation, the power spectra of curvature perturbations for large scales are calculated, and the spectral index and running spectral index are derived. It is shown that pre-inflation models in which the length of inflation is near 60 e-folds may reproduce some key properties implied by the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data
Mesons, PANDA and the scalar glueball
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parganlija, Denis
2014-01-01
The non-perturbative nature of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies has prompted the expectation that the gauge-bosons of QCD – gluons – might give rise to compound objects denoted as glueballs. Experimental signals for glueballs have represented a matter of research for various collaborations in the last decades; future research in this direction is a main endeavour planned by the PANDA Collaboration at FAIR. Hence in this article I review some of the outstanding issues in the glueball search, particularly with regard to the ground state – the scalar glueball, and discuss the relevance for PANDA at FAIR.
Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek
2008-01-01
We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain
7 CFR 58.920 - Homogenization.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homogenization. 58.920 Section 58.920 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.920 Homogenization. Where applicable concentrated products shall be homogenized for the... homogenization and the pressure at which homogenization is accomplished will be that which accomplishes the most...
Search for Scalar Top and Scalar Bottom Quarks at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 189 GeV at LEP
Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hoch, M.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1999-01-01
Searches for a scalar top quark and a scalar bottom quark have been performed using a data sample of 182 pb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for a signal was found. The 95% confidence level lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 90.3 GeV if the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left- and right-handed states of the top quark is zero. In the worst case, when the scalar top quark decouples from the Z boson, the lower limit is 87.2 GeV. These limits were obtained assuming that the scalar top quark decays into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino, and that the mass difference between the scalar top quark and the lightest neutralino is larger than 10 GeV. The complementary decay mode of the scalar top quark decaying into a bottom quark, a charged lepton and a scalar neutrino has also been studied. From a search for the scalar bottom quark, a mass limit of 88.6 GeV was obtained if the mass difference between the scalar bottom...
Passive scalar transport in peripheral regions of random flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernykh, A.; Lebedev, V.
2011-01-01
We investigate statistical properties of the passive scalar mixing in random (turbulent) flows assuming its diffusion to be weak. Then at advanced stages of the passive scalar decay, its unmixed residue is primarily concentrated in a narrow diffusive layer near the wall and its transport to the bulk goes through the peripheral region (laminar sublayer of the flow). We conducted Lagrangian numerical simulations of the process for different space dimensions d and revealed structures responsible for the transport, which are passive scalar tongues pulled from the diffusive boundary layer to the bulk. We investigated statistical properties of the passive scalar and of the passive scalar integrated along the wall. Moments of both objects demonstrate scaling behavior outside the diffusive boundary layer. We propose an analytic scheme for the passive scalar statistics, explaining the features observed numerically.
Anomalous scaling of passive scalars in rotating flows.
Rodriguez Imazio, P; Mininni, P D
2011-06-01
We present results of direct numerical simulations of passive scalar advection and diffusion in turbulent rotating flows. Scaling laws and the development of anisotropy are studied in spectral space, and in real space using an axisymmetric decomposition of velocity and passive scalar structure functions. The passive scalar is more anisotropic than the velocity field, and its power spectrum follows a spectral law consistent with ~ k[Please see text](-3/2). This scaling is explained with phenomenological arguments that consider the effect of rotation. Intermittency is characterized using scaling exponents and probability density functions of velocity and passive scalar increments. In the presence of rotation, intermittency in the velocity field decreases more noticeably than in the passive scalar. The scaling exponents show good agreement with Kraichnan's prediction for passive scalar intermittency in two dimensions, after correcting for the observed scaling of the second-order exponent.
Expressions for optical scalars and deflection angle at second order in terms of curvature scalars
Crisnejo, Gabriel; Gallo, Emanuel
2018-04-01
We present formal expressions for the optical scalars in terms of the curvature scalars in the weak gravitational lensing regime at second order in perturbations of a flat background without mentioning the extension of the lens or their shape. Also, by considering the thin lens approximation for static and axially symmetric configurations we obtain an expression for the second-order deflection angle which generalizes our previous result presented by Gallo and Moreschi [Phys. Rev. D 83, 083007 (2011)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.083007]. As applications of these formulas we compute the optical scalars for some known family of metrics, and we recover expressions for the deflection angle. In contrast to other works in the subject, our formalism allows a straightforward identification of how the different components of the curvature tensor contribute to the optical scalars and deflection angle. We also discuss in what sense the Schwarzschild solution can be thought as a true thin lens at second order.
On conditional scalar increment and joint velocity-scalar increment statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hengbin; Wang Danhong; Tong Chenning
2004-01-01
Conditional velocity and scalar increment statistics are usually studied in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses and are considered universal (quasi-Gaussian) for inertial-range separations. In such analyses the locally averaged energy and scalar dissipation rates are used as conditioning variables. Recent studies have shown that certain local turbulence structures can be captured when the local scalar variance (φ 2 ) r and the local kinetic energy k r are used as the conditioning variables. We study the conditional increments using these conditioning variables, which also provide the local turbulence scales. Experimental data obtained in the fully developed region of an axisymmetric turbulent jet are used to compute the statistics. The conditional scalar increment probability density function (PDF) conditional on (φ 2 ) r is found to be close to Gaussian for (φ 2 ) r small compared with its mean and is sub-Gaussian and bimodal for large (φ 2 ) r , and therefore is not universal. We find that the different shapes of the conditional PDFs are related to the instantaneous degree of non-equilibrium (production larger than dissipation) of the local scalar. There is further evidence of this from the conditional PDF conditional on both (φ 2 ) r and χ r , which is largely a function of (φ 2 ) r /χ r , a measure of the degree of non-equilibrium. The velocity-scalar increment joint PDF is close to joint Gaussian and quad-modal for equilibrium and non-equilibrium local velocity and scalar, respectively. The latter shape is associated with a combination of the ramp-cliff and plane strain structures. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses also predict a dependence of the conditional PDF on the degree of non-equilibrium. Therefore, the quasi-Gaussian (joint) PDF, previously observed in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses, is only one of the conditional PDF shapes of inertial range turbulence. The present study suggests that
Black hole accretion discs and screened scalar hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2016-10-01
We present a novel way to investigate scalar field profiles around black holes with an accretion disc for a range of models where the Compton wavelength of the scalar is large compared to other length scales. By analysing the problem in ''Weyl' coordinates, we are able to calculate the scalar profiles for accretion discs in the static Schwarzschild, as well as rotating Kerr, black holes. We comment on observational effects.
Scalar Hairy Black Holes in Four Dimensions are Unstable
Ganchev, Bogdan; Santos, Jorge E.
2018-04-01
We present a numerical analysis of the stability properties of the black holes with scalar hair constructed by Herdeiro and Radu. We prove the existence of a novel gauge where the scalar field perturbations decouple from the metric perturbations, and analyze the resulting quasinormal mode spectrum. We find unstable modes with characteristic growth rates which for uniformly small hair are almost identical to those of a massive scalar field on a fixed Kerr background.
Scalar Hairy Black Holes in Four Dimensions are Unstable.
Ganchev, Bogdan; Santos, Jorge E
2018-04-27
We present a numerical analysis of the stability properties of the black holes with scalar hair constructed by Herdeiro and Radu. We prove the existence of a novel gauge where the scalar field perturbations decouple from the metric perturbations, and analyze the resulting quasinormal mode spectrum. We find unstable modes with characteristic growth rates which for uniformly small hair are almost identical to those of a massive scalar field on a fixed Kerr background.
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
Boundaries immersed in a scalar quantum field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Actor, A.A.; Bender, I.
1996-01-01
We study the interaction between a scalar quantum field φ(x), and many different boundary configurations constructed from (parallel and orthogonal) thin planar surfaces on which φ(x) is constrained to vanish, or to satisfy Neumann conditions. For most of these boundaries the Casimir problem has not previously been investigated. We calculate the canonical and improved vacuum stress tensors left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle of φ(x) for each example. From these we obtain the local Casimir forces on all boundary planes. For massless fields, both vacuum stress tensors yield identical attractive local Casimir forces in all Dirichlet examples considered. This desirable outcome is not a priori obvious, given the quite different features of left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle. For Neumann conditions, left angle T μv (x) right angle and left angle direct difference μv (x) right angle lead to attractive Casimir stresses which are not always the same. We also consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundaries immersed in a common scalar quantum field, and find that these repel. The extensive catalogue of worked examples presented here belongs to a large class of completely solvable Casimir problems. Casimir forces previously unknown are predicted, among them ones which might be measurable. (orig.)
Bern-Kosower rule for scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daikouji, K.; Shino, M.; Sumino, Y.
1996-01-01
We derive a full Bern-Kosower-type rule for scalar QED starting from quantum field theory: we derive a set of rules for calculating S-matrix elements for any processes at any order of the coupling constant. A gauge-invariant set of diagrams in general is first written in the world line path-integral expression. Then we integrate over x(τ), and the resulting expression is given in terms of a correlation function on the world line left-angle x(τ)x(τ ' )right-angle. Simple rules to decompose the correlation function into basic elements are obtained. A gauge transformation known as the integration by parts technique can be used to reduce the number of independent terms before integration over proper-time variables. The surface terms can be omitted provided the external scalars are on shell. Also, we clarify correspondence to the conventional Feynman rule, which enabled us to avoid any ambiguity coming from the infinite dimensionality of the path-integral approach. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Toward a Strongly Interacting Scalar Higgs Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalaby, Abouzeid M.; El-Houssieny, M.
2008-01-01
We calculate the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory. Rather than the corresponding Hermitian theory and due to the asymptotic freedom property of the theory, the vacuum energy does not blow up for large energy scales which is a good sign to solve the hierarchy problem when using this model to break the U(1)xSU(2) symmetry in the standard model. The theory is strongly interacting and in fact, all the dimensionful parameters in the theory like mass and energy are finite even for very high energy scales. Moreover, relative to the vacuum energy for the Hermitian φ 4 theory, the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 theory is tiny, which is a good sign toward the solution of the cosmological constant problem. Remarkably, these features of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory make it very plausible to be employed as a Higgs mechanism in the standard model instead of the problematic Hermitian Higgs mechanism
Decoding the hologram: Scalar fields interacting with gravity
Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad
2014-03-01
We construct smeared conformal field theory (CFT) operators which represent a scalar field in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space interacting with gravity. The guiding principle is microcausality: scalar fields should commute with themselves at spacelike separation. To O(1/N) we show that a correct and convenient criterion for constructing the appropriate CFT operators is to demand microcausality in a three-point function with a boundary Weyl tensor and another boundary scalar. The resulting bulk observables transform in the correct way under AdS isometries and commute with boundary scalar operators at spacelike separation, even in the presence of metric perturbations.
Scalar self-interactions loosen constraints from fifth force searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubser, Steven S.; Khoury, Justin
2004-01-01
The mass of a scalar field mediating a fifth force is tightly constrained by experiments. We show, however, that adding a quartic self-interaction for such a scalar makes most tests much less constraining: the nonlinear equation of motion masks the coupling of the scalar to matter through the chameleon mechanism. We discuss consequences for fifth force experiments. In particular, we find that, with quartic coupling of order unity, a gravitational strength interaction with matter is allowed by current constraints. We show that our chameleon scalar field results in experimental signatures that could be detected through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups
Light Higgs from Scalar See-Saw in Technicolor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal
2012-01-01
We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models......We consider a TeV scale see-saw mechanism leading to light scalar resonances in models with otherwise intrinsically heavy scalars. The mechanism can provide a 125 GeV technicolor Higgs in e.g. two-scale TC models...
Scalar field collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Banerjee, Narayan; Paul, Tanmoy
2018-02-01
We consider a "scalar-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet" theory in four dimension, where the scalar field couples non-minimally with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. This coupling with the scalar field ensures the non-topological character of the GB term. In this scenario, we examine the possibility for collapsing of the scalar field. Our result reveals that such a collapse is possible in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet gravity for suitable choices of parametric regions. The singularity formed as a result of the collapse is found to be a curvature singularity which is hidden from the exterior by an apparent horizon.
Scalar field collapse in Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Paul, Tanmoy [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2018-02-15
We consider a ''scalar-Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet'' theory in four dimension, where the scalar field couples non-minimally with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) term. This coupling with the scalar field ensures the non-topological character of the GB term. In this scenario, we examine the possibility for collapsing of the scalar field. Our result reveals that such a collapse is possible in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet gravity for suitable choices of parametric regions. The singularity formed as a result of the collapse is found to be a curvature singularity which is hidden from the exterior by an apparent horizon. (orig.)
Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Tobola
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.
Gravitational waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamazaki, Takashi
2008-01-01
We present the LWL formula which represents the long wavelength limit of the solutions of evolution equations of cosmological perturbations in terms of the exactly homogeneous solutions in the most general case where multiple scalar fields and multiple perfect fluids coexist. We find the conserved quantity which has origin in the adiabatic decaying mode, and by regarding this quantity as the source term we determine the correction term which corrects the discrepancy between the exactly homogeneous perturbations and the k→0 limit of the evolutions of cosmological perturbations. This LWL formula is useful for investigating the evolutions of cosmological perturbations in the early stage of our universe such as reheating after inflation and the curvaton decay in the curvaton scenario. When we extract the long wavelength limits of evolutions of cosmological perturbations from the exactly homogeneous perturbations by the LWL formula, it is more convenient to describe the corresponding exactly homogeneous system with not the cosmological time but the scale factor as the evolution parameter. By applying the LWL formula to the reheating model and the curvaton model with multiple scalar fields and multiple radiation fluids, we obtain the S formula representing the final amplitude of the Bardeen parameter in terms of the initial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations
Quasiperiodical orbits in the scalar classical lambdaphi4 field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belova, T.I.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.
1985-01-01
New numerical and theoretical results of resonance kink-antikink (Kanti K) interactions in the classical one-dimentional space Higgs theory are presented. Earlier studies of these interactions revealed nine initial relative velocity-intervals with two-bounce Kanti K-collisions followed by the escape of kinks to infinite separations, the breathing solution was formed outside those intervals. Two-bounce Kanti K-interactions with the number of small oscillations between Kanti K-bounces up to 35 in the initial kink velocity interval 0.18 <= Vsub(infinite) <= 0.26 were found. Several examples for n-bounces Kanti K-interaction (n <= 6) are also found. The observed phenomenon can be explaned by the existence of quasi-two-periodical solutions of the nonlinear wave equation. The simple Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom is studied. This model supplies quantitative descrtiptions of all numerical results for the field theory considered above. The considered phenomenon may be called ''autoquantization'' of a nonlinear classical scalar selfinteracting field
Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.
Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès
2016-07-01
A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles.
Detecting Lorentz Violations with Gravitational Waves From Black Hole Binaries
Sotiriou, Thomas P.
2018-01-01
Gravitational wave observations have been used to test Lorentz symmetry by looking for dispersive effects that are caused by higher order corrections to the dispersion relation. In this Letter I argue on general grounds that, when such corrections are present, there will also be a scalar excitation. Hence, a smoking-gun observation of Lorentz symmetry breaking would be the direct detection of scalar waves that travel at a speed other than the speed of the standard gravitational wave polarizations or the speed of light. Interestingly, in known Lorentz-breaking gravity theories the difference between the speeds of scalar and tensor waves is virtually unconstrained, whereas the difference between the latter and the speed of light is already severely constrained by the coincident detection of gravitational waves and gamma rays from a binary neutron star merger.
Braman, Kalen; Raman, Venkat
2011-11-01
A novel direct numerical simulation (DNS) based a posteriori technique has been developed to investigate scalar transport modeling error. The methodology is used to test Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulent scalar flux models for compressible boundary layer flows. Time-averaged DNS velocity and turbulence fields provide the information necessary to evolve the time-averaged scalar transport equation without requiring the use of turbulence modeling. With this technique, passive dispersion of a scalar from a boundary layer surface in a supersonic flow is studied with scalar flux modeling error isolated from any flowfield modeling errors. Several different scalar flux models are used. It is seen that the simple gradient diffusion model overpredicts scalar dispersion, while anisotropic scalar flux models underpredict dispersion. Further, the use of more complex models does not necessarily guarantee an increase in predictive accuracy, indicating that key physics is missing from existing models. Using comparisons of both a priori and a posteriori scalar flux evaluations with DNS data, the main modeling shortcomings are identified. Results will be presented for different boundary layer conditions.
The Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibanez, J
2003-01-01
Since the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation was proposed almost 50 years ago, it has recently become a robust alternative theory to Einstein's general relativity due to the fact that it appears to represent the lower level of a more fundamental theory and can serve both as a phenomenological theory to explain the recently observed acceleration of the universe, and to solve the cosmological constant problem. To my knowledge The Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation by Y Fujii and K Maeda is the first book to develop a modern view on this topic and is one of the latest titles in the well-presented Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics series. This book is an excellent readable introduction and up-to-date review of the subject. The discussion is well organized; after a comprehensible introduction to the Brans-Dicke theory and the important role played by conformal transformations, the authors review cosmologies with the cosmological constant and how the scalar-tensor theory can serve to explain the accelerating universe, including discussions on dark energy, quintessence and braneworld cosmologies. The book ends with a chapter devoted to quantum effects. To make easy the lectures of the book, each chapter starts with a summary of the subject to be dealt with. As the book proceeds, important issues like conformal frames and the weak equivalence principle are fully discussed. As the authors warn in the preface, the book is not encyclopedic (from my point of view the list of references is fairly short, for example, but this is a minor drawback) and the choice of included topics corresponds to the authors' interests. Nevertheless, the book seems to cover a broad range of the most essential aspects of the subject. Long and 'boring' mathematical derivations are left to appendices so as not to interrupt the flow of the reasoning, allowing the reader to focus on the physical aspects of each subject. These appendices are a valuable help in entering into the mathematical
Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourao, J.M.
1988-01-01
The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations
Scalar modes of the relic gravitons
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
In conformally flat background geometries the long wavelength gravitons can be described in the fluid approximation and they induce scalar fluctuations both during inflation and in the subsequent radiation-dominated epoch. While this effect is minute and suppressed for a de Sitter stage of expansion, the fluctuations of the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of the graviton fluid lead to curvature perturbations that increase with time all along the post-inflationary evolution. An explicit calculation of these effects is presented for a standard thermal history and it is shown that the growth of the curvature perturbations caused by the long wavelength modes is approximately compensated by the slope of the power spectra of the energy density, pressure and anisotropic stress of the relic gravitons.
Abelian scalar theory at large global charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loukas, Orestis [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland)
2017-09-15
We elaborate on Abelian complex scalar models, which are dictated by natural actions (all couplings are of order one), at fixed and large global U(1) charge in an arbitrary number of dimensions. The ground state vertical stroke v right angle is coherently constructed by the zero modes and the appearance of a centrifugal potential is quantum mechanically verified. Using the path integral formulation we systematically analyze the quantum fluctuations around vertical stroke v right angle in order to derive an effective action for the Goldstone mode, which becomes perturbatively meaningful when the charge is large. In this regime we explicitly show, by computing the first few loop corrections, that the whole construction is stable against quantum effects, in the sense that any higher derivative couplings to Goldstone's tree-level action are suppressed by appropriate powers of the large charge. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.
1988-01-01
We consider the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be obtained from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/). .AE
Scalar dark matter with type II seesaw
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnab Dasgupta
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We study the possibility of generating tiny neutrino mass through a combination of type I and type II seesaw mechanism within the framework of an abelian extension of standard model. The model also provides a naturally stable dark matter candidate in terms of the lightest neutral component of a scalar doublet. We compute the relic abundance of such a dark matter candidate and also point out how the strength of type II seesaw term can affect the relic abundance of dark matter. Such a model which connects neutrino mass and dark matter abundance has the potential of being verified or ruled out in the ongoing neutrino, dark matter, as well as accelerator experiments.
Duality property for a hermitian scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisognano, J.J.
1975-01-01
A general hermitian scalar Wightman field is considered. On the Hilbert space of physical states ''natural'' domains for certain complex Lorentz transformations are constructed, and a theorem relating these transformations to the TCP symmetry is stated and proved. Under the additional assumption that the field is ''locally'' essentially self-adjoint, duality is considered for the algebras generated by spectral projections of smeared fields. For a class of unbounded regions duality is proved, and for certain bounded regions ''local'' extensions of the algebras are constructed which satisfy duality. The relationship of the arguments presented to the Tomita--Takesaki theory of modular Hilbert algebras is discussed. A separate analysis for the free field is also given. (auth)
Vacuum instability in scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKane, A.J.
1978-09-01
Scalar field theories with an interaction of the form gphisup(N) have no stable vacuum state for some range of values of their coupling constant, g. This thesis reports calculations of vacuum instability in such theories. Using the idea that the tunnelling out of the vacuum state is described by the instanton solutions of the theory, the imaginary part of the vertex functions is calculated for the massless theory in the one-loop approximation, near the dimension dsub(c) = 2N/N-2, where the theory is just renormalisable. The calculation differs from previous treatments in that dimensional regularisation is used to control the ultra-violet divergences of the theory. In this way previous analytic calculations in conformally invariant field theories are extended to the case where the theory is almost conformally invariant, since it is now defined in dsub(c) - epsilon dimensions (epsilon > 0). (author)
Observability of inert scalars at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashemi, Majid [Shiraz University, Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najjari, Saereh [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland)
2017-09-15
In this work we investigate the observability of inert doublet model scalars at the LHC operating at the center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The signal production process is pp → AH{sup ±} → ZHW{sup ±}H leading to two different final states of l{sup +}l{sup -}HjjH and l{sup +}l{sup -}Hl{sup ±}νH based on the hadronic and leptonic decay channels of the W boson. All the relevant background processes are considered and an event selection is designed to distinguish the signal from the large Standard Model background. We found that signals of the selected search channels are well observable at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 300 fb{sup -1}. (orig.)
Scalar Dark Matter From Theory Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.
2003-12-26
The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass {Omicron}(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than {Omicron}(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle).
The BEH mechanism and its scalar bosons
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
In the beginning of the 1960’s, the long range interactions within our universe were well understood from the laws of classical general relativity, Einstein’s generalisation of Newtonian gravity, and of quantum electrodynamics, the quantum version of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. But there was no hints of how to formulate consistent fundamental theories of short range interactions. A solution to this problem was proposed by Robert Brout and me, and independently by Peter Higgs. I shall explain our motivations for constructing this BEH mechanism and discuss its content. I will comment on how the magnificent ATLAS and CMS discovery at CERN of the scalar boson predicted by the mechanism confirms its validity and may have implications on structures at yet unexplored energies.
Grassmann scalar fields and asymptotic freedom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palumbo, F [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)
1996-03-01
The authors extend previous results about scalar fields whose Fourier components are even elements of a Grassmann algebra with given index of nilpotency. Their main interest in particle physics is related to the possibility that they describe fermionic composites analogous to the Copper pairs of superconductivity. The authors evaluate the free propagators for arbitrary index of nilpotency and they investigate a {phi}{sup 4} model to one loop. Due to the nature of the integral over even Grassmann fields such as a model exists for repulsive as well as attractive self interaction. In the first case the {beta}-function is equal to that of the ordinary theory, while in the second one the model is asymptotically free. The bare mass has a peculiar dependence on the cutoff, being quadratically decreasing/increasing for attractive/repulsive self interaction.
Massive scalar field evolution in de Sitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markkanen, Tommi [Department of Physics, King’s College London,Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Rajantie, Arttu [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-01-30
The behaviour of a massive, non-interacting and non-minimally coupled quantised scalar field in an expanding de Sitter background is investigated by solving the field evolution for an arbitrary initial state. In this approach there is no need to choose a vacuum in order to provide a definition for particle states, nor to introduce an explicit ultraviolet regularization. We conclude that the expanding de Sitter space is a stable equilibrium configuration under small perturbations of the initial conditions. Depending on the initial state, the energy density can approach its asymptotic value from above or below, the latter of which implies a violation of the weak energy condition. The backreaction of the quantum corrections can therefore lead to a phase of super-acceleration also in the non-interacting massive case.
Scalar dark matter from theory space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.
2004-01-01
The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass O(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than O(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible weakly interacting massive particle
Deformations of vector-scalar models
Barnich, Glenn; Boulanger, Nicolas; Henneaux, Marc; Julia, Bernard; Lekeu, Victor; Ranjbar, Arash
2018-02-01
Abelian vector fields non-minimally coupled to uncharged scalar fields arise in many contexts. We investigate here through algebraic methods their consistent deformations ("gaugings"), i.e., the deformations that preserve the number (but not necessarily the form or the algebra) of the gauge symmetries. Infinitesimal consistent deformations are given by the BRST cohomology classes at ghost number zero. We parametrize explicitly these classes in terms of various types of global symmetries and corresponding Noether currents through the characteristic cohomology related to antifields and equations of motion. The analysis applies to all ghost numbers and not just ghost number zero. We also provide a systematic discussion of the linear and quadratic constraints on these parameters that follow from higher-order consistency. Our work is relevant to the gaugings of extended supergravities.
An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin
2009-01-01
A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.
Dimensional reduction of the Standard Model coupled to a new singlet scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, Tomáš [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Tenkanen, Tuomas V.I. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Tranberg, Anders [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Weir, David J. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2017-03-01
We derive an effective dimensionally reduced theory for the Standard Model augmented by a real singlet scalar. We treat the singlet as a superheavy field and integrate it out, leaving an effective theory involving only the Higgs and SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} gauge fields, identical to the one studied previously for the Standard Model. This opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the order and strength of the electroweak phase transition, numerically and nonperturbatively, in this extension of the Standard Model. Understanding the phase diagram is crucial for models of electroweak baryogenesis and for studying the production of gravitational waves at thermal phase transitions.
Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC
Di Luzio, Luca; Nardecchia, Marco
2017-01-01
We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics models explaining the LHC di-photon excess at 750 GeV. We argue that the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single scalar resonance breaks down at scales of few tens of TeV, where perturbative unitarity is violated due to the large cross-section required in order to fit the $\\gamma\\gamma$ signal. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the EFT description. We finally discuss under which conditions the data can be accommodated within weakly-coupled models.
Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Luzio, Luca [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Kamenik, Jernej F. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nardecchia, Marco [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)
2017-01-15
We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics in the form of spin-zero di-boson resonances at LHC. We derive the scale where the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single resonance is expected to break down depending on the resonance mass and signal cross section. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the effective description. We finally discuss under which conditions scalar di-boson resonance signals can be accommodated within weakly coupled models. (orig.)
On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.
2000-08-01
Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)
2017-05-15
The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)
Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang B. J.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.
Higgs scalar in heavy-vector-meson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frampton, P.H.; Wada, W.W.
1979-01-01
For both UPSILON (9.5,b-barb) and T (t-bart), the decay into Higgs scalar plus photon is calculated, employing a triangle-diagram estimate for the dependence of this decay matrix element on the Higgs-scalar mass. This mass dependence gives a significant supression, but the decay should still be readily observable, if energetically allowed
A Numerical Algorithm to find All Scalar Feedback Nash Equilibria
Engwerda, J.C.
2013-01-01
Abstract: In this note we generalize a numerical algorithm presented in [9] to calculate all solutions of the scalar algebraic Riccati equations that play an important role in finding feedback Nash equilibria of the scalar N-player linear affine-quadratic differential game. The algorithm is based on
Regular and Chaotic Regimes in Scalar Field Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey V. Toporensky
2006-03-01
Full Text Available A transient chaos in a closed FRW cosmological model with a scalar field is studied. We describe two different chaotic regimes and show that the type of chaos in this model depends on the scalar field potential. We have found also that for sufficiently steep potentials or for potentials with large cosmological constant the chaotic behavior disappears.
Asymptotically safe and free chiral theories with and without scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mølgaard, E.; Sannino, Francesco
2017-01-01
We unveil the dynamics of four-dimensional chiral gauge-Yukawa theories featuring several scalar degrees of freedom transforming according to distinct representations of the underlying gauge group. We consider generalized Georgi-Glashow and Bars-Yankielowicz theories. We determine, to the maximum...... of chiral gauge theories with scalars....
Extending Chiral Perturbation Theory with an Isosinglet Scalar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin; Langaeble, Kasper; Sannino, Francesco
2017-01-01
We augment the chiral Lagrangian by an isosinglet scalar and compute the one-loop radiative corrections to the pion mass and decay constant, as well as the scalar mass. The calculations are carried out for different patterns of chiral symmetry breaking of immediate relevance for phenomenology...
The scalar curvature problem on the four dimensional half sphere
Ben-Ayed, M; El-Mehdi, K
2003-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of prescribing the scalar curvature under minimal boundary conditions on the standard four dimensional half sphere. We provide an Euler-Hopf type criterion for a given function to be a scalar curvature for some metric conformal to the standard one. Our proof involves the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem.
Scalar field dark matter: behavior around black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Guzmán, F. Siddhartha; Lora-Clavijo, Fabio D., E-mail: alejandro@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: fadulora@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)
2011-06-01
We present the numerical evolution of a massive test scalar fields around a Schwarzschild space-time. We proceed by using hyperboloidal slices that approach future null infinity, which is the boundary of scalar fields, and also demand the slices to penetrate the event horizon of the black hole. This approach allows the scalar field to be accreted by the black hole and to escape toward future null infinity. We track the evolution of the energy density of the scalar field, which determines the rate at which the scalar field is being diluted. We find polynomial decay of the energy density of the scalar field, and use it to estimate the rate of dilution of the field in time. Our findings imply that the energy density of the scalar field decreases even five orders of magnitude in time scales smaller than a year. This implies that if a supermassive black hole is the Schwarzschild solution, then scalar field dark matter would be diluted extremely fast.
Scalar field dark matter: behavior around black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Guzmán, F. Siddhartha; Lora-Clavijo, Fabio D.
2011-01-01
We present the numerical evolution of a massive test scalar fields around a Schwarzschild space-time. We proceed by using hyperboloidal slices that approach future null infinity, which is the boundary of scalar fields, and also demand the slices to penetrate the event horizon of the black hole. This approach allows the scalar field to be accreted by the black hole and to escape toward future null infinity. We track the evolution of the energy density of the scalar field, which determines the rate at which the scalar field is being diluted. We find polynomial decay of the energy density of the scalar field, and use it to estimate the rate of dilution of the field in time. Our findings imply that the energy density of the scalar field decreases even five orders of magnitude in time scales smaller than a year. This implies that if a supermassive black hole is the Schwarzschild solution, then scalar field dark matter would be diluted extremely fast
Exact spinor-scalar bound states in a quantum field theory with scalar interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shpytko, Volodymyr; Darewych, Jurij
2001-01-01
We study two-particle systems in a model quantum field theory in which scalar particles and spinor particles interact via a mediating scalar field. The Lagrangian of the model is reformulated by using covariant Green's functions to solve for the mediating field in terms of the particle fields. This results in a Hamiltonian in which the mediating-field propagator appears directly in the interaction term. It is shown that exact two-particle eigenstates of the Hamiltonian can be determined. The resulting relativistic fermion-boson equation is shown to have Dirac and Klein-Gordon one-particle limits. Analytical solutions for the bound state energy spectrum are obtained for the case of massless mediating fields
Search for the first generation scalar leptoquarks with D0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cothenet, A.
2004-05-01
This work was dedicated to the search for pairs of first generation scalar leptoquarks one decaying into ej and the other into νj. The experimental data used (175,6 pb -1 ) is that collected during the run-II of the D0 experiment at Tevatron. The production cross-sections of scalar leptoquark pairs has been assessed at a 95% confidence level for different values of the mass. The comparison of these values with theoretical values has led us to state that for a branching ratio β = 0.5 the existence of scalar leptoquarks with a mass lower than 194 GeV is not possible. For a branching ratio β = 1, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 238 GeV may be excluded while for β = 0.5, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 213 GeV are excluded
On symmetry inheritance of nonminimally coupled scalar fields
Barjašić, Irena; Smolić, Ivica
2018-04-01
We present the first symmetry inheritance analysis of fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. In this work we are focused on the real scalar field ϕ with nonminimal coupling of the form ξφ2 R . Possible cases of symmetry noninheriting fields are constrained by the properties of the Ricci tensor and the scalar potential. Examples of such spacetimes can be found among those which are ‘dressed’ with the stealth scalar field, a nontrivial scalar field configuration with the vanishing energy–momentum tensor. We classify the scalar field potentials which allow symmetry noninheriting stealth field configurations on top of the exact solutions of the Einstein’s gravitational field equation with the cosmological constant.
Scalar hairy black holes and solitons in asymptotically flat spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo
2003-01-01
A numerical analysis shows that the Einstein field equations allow static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions with scalar-field hair in asymptotically flat spacetimes. When regularity at the origin is imposed (i.e., in the absence of a horizon) globally regular scalar solitons are found. The asymptotically flat solutions are obtained provided that the scalar potential V(φ) of the theory is not positive semidefinite and such that its local minimum is also a zero of the potential, the scalar field settling asymptotically at that minimum. The configurations, although unstable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations, are regular and thus can serve as counterexamples to the no-scalar-hair conjecture
Phenomenology of a pseudo-scalar inflaton: naturally large nongaussianity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnaby, Neil; Namba, Ryo; Peloso, Marco
2011-01-01
Many controlled realizations of chaotic inflation employ pseudo-scalar axions. Pseudo-scalars φ are naturally coupled to gauge fields through cφF F-tilde . In the presence of this coupling, gauge field quanta are copiously produced by the rolling inflaton. The produced gauge quanta, in turn, source inflaton fluctuations via inverse decay. These new cosmological perturbations add incoherently with the ''vacuum'' perturbations, and are highly nongaussian. This provides a natural mechanism to generate large nongaussianity in single or multi field slow-roll inflation. The resulting phenomenological signatures are highly distinctive: large nongaussianity of (nearly) equilateral shape, in addition to detectably large values of both the scalar spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio (both being typical of large field inflation). The WMAP bound on nongaussianity implies that the coupling c of the pseudo-scalar inflaton to any gauge field must be smaller than about 10 2 M p −1
Cosmological bound from the neutron star merger GW170817 in scalar-tensor and F(R) gravity theories
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2018-04-01
We consider the evolution of cosmological gravitational waves in scalar-tensor theory and F (R) gravity theory as typical models of the modified gravity. Although the propagation speed is not changed from the speed of light, the propagation phase changes when we compare the propagation in these modified gravity theories with the propagation in the ΛCDM model. The phase change might be detected in future observations.
Electro-magnetostatic homogenization of bianisotropic metamaterials
Fietz, Chris
2012-01-01
We apply the method of asymptotic homogenization to metamaterials with microscopically bianisotropic inclusions to calculate a full set of constitutive parameters in the long wavelength limit. Two different implementations of electromagnetic asymptotic homogenization are presented. We test the homogenization procedure on two different metamaterial examples. Finally, the analytical solution for long wavelength homogenization of a one dimensional metamaterial with microscopically bi-isotropic i...
Scalar and joint velocity-scalar PDF modelling of near-wall turbulent heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozorski, Jacek; Waclawczyk, Marta; Minier, Jean-Pierre
2004-01-01
The temperature field in a heated turbulent flow is considered as a dynamically passive scalar. The probability density function (PDF) method with down to the wall integration is explored and new modelling proposals are put forward, including the explicit account for the molecular transport terms. Two variants of the approach are considered: first, the scalar PDF method with the use of externally-provided turbulence statistics; and second, the joint (stand-alone) velocity-scalar PDF method where a near-wall model for dynamical variables is coupled with a model for temperature. The closure proposals are formulated in the Lagrangian setting and resulting stochastic evolution equations are solved with a Monte Carlo method. The near-wall region of a heated channel flow is taken as a validation case; the second-order thermal statistics are of a particular interest. The PDF computation results agree reasonably with available DNS data. The sensitivity of results to the molecular Prandtl number and to the thermal wall boundary condition is accounted for
Matter waves from localized sources in homogeneous force fields
Kramer, Tobias
2010-01-01
We derive a scattering theory in constant potentials based on the energy-dependent Green function. This approach enables us to formulate modern experiments in terms of Green function. One application discussed is the photodetachment of electrons in external electromagnetic fields. In this case an intricate currentdensity distributions exists, that can be explained in terms of interfering classical trajectories. We also derive analytically the two-dimensional Green function in perpendicular el...
Doneva, Daniela D; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S
2018-03-30
In the present Letter, we consider a class of extended scalar-tensor-Gauss-Bonnet (ESTGB) theories for which the scalar degree of freedom is excited only in the extreme curvature regime. We show that in the mentioned class of ESTGB theories there exist new black-hole solutions that are formed by spontaneous scalarization of the Schwarzschild black holes in the extreme curvature regime. In this regime, below certain mass, the Schwarzschild solution becomes unstable and a new branch of solutions with a nontrivial scalar field bifurcates from the Schwarzschild one. As a matter of fact, more than one branch with a nontrivial scalar field can bifurcate at different masses, but only the first one is supposed to be stable. This effect is quite similar to the spontaneous scalarization of neutron stars. In contrast to the standard spontaneous scalarization of neutron stars, which is induced by the presence of matter, in our case, the scalarization is induced by the curvature of the spacetime.
Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations
Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert
2016-06-01
In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.
Observational homogeneity of the Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnor, W.B.; Ellis, G.F.R.
1986-01-01
A new approach to observational homogeneity is presented. The observation that stars and galaxies in distant regions appear similar to those nearby may be taken to imply that matter has had a similar thermodynamic history in widely separated parts of the Universe (the Postulate of Uniform Thermal Histories, or PUTH). The supposition is now made that similar thermodynamic histories imply similar dynamical histories. Then the distant apparent similarity is evidence for spatial homogeneity of the Universe. General Relativity is used to test this idea, taking a perfect fluid model and implementing PUTH by the condition that the density and entropy per baryon shall be the same function of the proper time along all galaxy world-lines. (author)
Selle, L. C.; Bellan, Josette
2006-01-01
Transitional databases from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of three-dimensional mixing layers for single-phase flows and two-phase flows with evaporation are analyzed and used to examine the typical hypothesis that the scalar dissipation Probability Distribution Function (PDF) may be modeled as a Gaussian. The databases encompass a single-component fuel and four multicomponent fuels, two initial Reynolds numbers (Re), two mass loadings for two-phase flows and two free-stream gas temperatures. Using the DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF, it is shown, consistent with existing experimental information on single-phase flows, that the Gaussian is a modest approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly poor in the range of the high scalar-dissipation values, which are significant for turbulent reaction rate modeling in non-premixed flows using flamelet models. With the same DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF and making a change of variables, a model of this PDF is proposed in the form of the (beta)-PDF which is shown to approximate much better the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly in the regime of the high scalar-dissipation values. Several types of statistical measures are calculated over the ensemble of the fourteen databases. For each statistical measure, the proposed (beta)-PDF model is shown to be much superior to the Gaussian in approximating the DNS-extracted PDF. Additionally, the agreement between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF even improves when the comparison is performed for higher initial Re layers, whereas the comparison with the Gaussian is independent of the initial Re values. For two-phase flows, the comparison between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF also improves with increasing free-stream gas temperature and mass loading. The higher fidelity approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF by the (beta)-PDF with increasing Re, gas temperature and mass loading bodes well for turbulent reaction rate
Conclusions about homogeneity and devitrification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larche, F.
1997-01-01
A lot of experimental data concerning homogeneity and devitrification of R7T7 glass have been published. It appears that: - the crystallization process is very limited, - the interfaces due to bubbles and the container wall favor crystallization locally but the ratio of crystallized volume remains always below a few per cents, and - crystallization has no damaging long-term effects as far as leaching tests can be trusted. (A.C.)
Is charity a homogeneous good?
Backus, Peter
2010-01-01
In this paper I estimate income and price elasticities of donations to six different charitable causes to test the assumption that charity is a homogeneous good. In the US, charitable donations can be deducted from taxable income. This has long been recognized as producing a price, or taxprice, of giving equal to one minus the marginal tax rate faced by the donor. A substantial portion of the economic literature on giving has focused on estimating price and income elasticities of giving as th...
Holographic magnetisation density waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-10-10
We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.
Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballai, I
2006-01-01
Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas
Mandal, Birendra Nath
2015-01-01
The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous
Conformally compactified homogeneous spaces (Possible Observable Consequences)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinich, P.
1995-01-01
Some arguments based on the possible spontaneous violation of the Cosmological Principles (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), the Cartan-geometry of simple spinors and on the Fock-formulation of hydrogen-atom wave-equation in momentum-space, are presented in favour of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum-space should be both conformally compactified and represented by the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformal group, both isomorphic to (S 3 X S 1 )/Z 2 and correlated by conformal inversion. Within this framework, the possible common origin for the S0(4) symmetry underlying the geometrical structure of the Universe, of Kepler orbits and of the H-atom is discussed. On of the consequences of the proposed hypothesis could be that any quantum field theory should be naturally free from both infrared and ultraviolet divergences. But then physical spaces defined as those where physical phenomena may be best described, could be different from those homogeneous spaces. A simple, exactly soluble, toy model, valid for a two-dimensional space-time is presented where the conjecture conformally compactified space-time and momentum-space are both isomorphic to (S 1 X S 1 )/Z 2 , while the physical spaces are two finite lattice which are dual since Fourier transforms, represented by finite, discrete, sums may be well defined on them. Furthermore, a q-deformed SU q (1,1) may be represented on them if q is a root of unity. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi
2002-01-01
In this study, investigation on effects of high frequency fluctuations on DNS of turbulent open-channel flows with high Pr passive scalar transport was conducted. As the results, although significant differences of energy spectra behaviors in temperature fields, are caused at high wave number region where insignificant area for velocity components, large difference dose not caused in mean and statistic behaviors in temperature component. But, if the buoyancy were considered, this temperature high-frequency fluctuations would be greatly changed mean and statistics behaviors from the difference of the accuracy and resolution at high wave number region. (author)
Reaction enhancement of initially distant scalars by Lagrangian coherent structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, Kenneth R.; Crimaldi, John P.; Meiss, James D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent fluid flows have long been recognized as a superior means of diluting initial concentrations of scalars due to rapid stirring. Conversely, experiments have shown that the structures responsible for this rapid dilution can also aggregate initially distant reactive scalars and thereby greatly enhance reaction rates. Indeed, chaotic flows not only enhance dilution by shearing and stretching but also organize initially distant scalars along transiently attracting regions in the flow. To show the robustness of this phenomenon, a hierarchical set of three numerical flows is used: the periodic wake downstream of a stationary cylinder, a chaotic double gyre flow, and a chaotic, aperiodic flow consisting of interacting Taylor vortices. We demonstrate that Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), as identified by ridges in finite time Lyapunov exponents, are directly responsible for this coalescence of reactive scalar filaments. When highly concentrated filaments coalesce, reaction rates can be orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted in a well-mixed system. This is further supported by an idealized, analytical model that was developed to quantify the competing effects of scalar dilution and coalescence. Chaotic flows, known for their ability to efficiently dilute scalars, therefore have the competing effect of organizing initially distant scalars along the LCS at timescales shorter than that required for dilution, resulting in reaction enhancement
Are there hidden scalars in LHC Higgs results?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arhrib, A.; Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, Rui
2014-01-01
The Higgs boson recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider has shown to have couplings to the remaining particles well within what is predicted by the Standard Model. The search for other new heavy scalar states has so far revealed to be fruitless, imposing constraints on the existence of new scalar particles. However, it is still possible that any existing heavy scalars would preferentially decay to final states involving the light Higgs boson thus evading the current LHC bounds on heavy scalar states. Moreover, decays of the heavy scalars could increase the number of light Higgs bosons being produced. Since the number of light Higgs bosons decaying to Standard Model particles is within the predicted range, this could mean that part of the light Higgs bosons could have their origin in heavy scalar decays. This situation would occur if the light Higgs couplings to Standard Model particles were reduced by a concomitant amount. Using a very simple extension of the SM — the two-Higgs doublet model — we show that in fact we could already be observing the effect of the heavy scalar states even if all results related to the Higgs are in excellent agreement with the Standard Model predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratra, B.
1991-01-01
Estimates for the baryon-dominated epoch form of the large-scale adiabatic energy-density irregularities generated during an early scalar-field-dominated inflation epoch, in simple inflation-modified hot-big-bang models, are compared to the widely used approximate general expression, which is proportional to the large-scale, gauge-invariant part of H 2 left-angle φφ * right-angle/(Φ b ) 2 evaluated at the first Hubble radius crossing (here Φ b and φ are the spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts of the scalar field, H is the Hubble parameter, and an overdot represents a derivative with respect to time). In the de Sitter inflation limit, if the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor,'' or if there is sufficient inflation before the scale of interest leaves the Hubble radius, the approximate general expression identically reproduces what we have found. It is also less than an order of magnitude away from our expression in a large fraction of the parameter space of the inflation model we study and is within 2 orders of magnitude of our result in almost all of parameter space. We also show that the more accurate general expression (which the above formula is an approximation of) identically reproduces our results in the simple models studied, provided the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor'' or if there is sufficient inflation. The approximate general formula is used to restudy energy-density inhomogeneities in the quartic-potential scalar-field de Sitter inflation model; the difference between the standard result in this model and our result in related models is traced to a difference in the form of the part of the potential used to model ''reheating'' and the end of inflation
Im, Hong G.; Pal, Pinaki; Wooldridge, Margaret S.; Mansfield, Andrew B.
2015-01-01
A theoretical scaling analysis is conducted to propose a diagram to predict weak and strong ignition regimes for a compositionally homogeneous reactant mixture with turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations. The diagram provides guidance on expected ignition behavior based on the thermo-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow/scalar field conditions. The analysis is an extension of the original Zeldovich’s analysis by combining the turbulent flow and scalar characteristics in terms of the characteristic Damköhler and Reynolds numbers of the system, thereby providing unified and comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling ignition characteristics. Estimated parameters for existing experimental measurements in a rapid compression facility show that the regime diagram predicts the observed ignition characteristics with good fidelity.