WorldWideScience

Sample records for homogeneous plasma

  1. WHAMP - waves in homogeneous, anisotropic, multicomponent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennmark, K.

    1982-06-01

    In this report, a computer program which solves the dispersion relation of waves in a magnetized plasma is described. The dielectric tensor is derived using the kinetic theory of homogeneous plasmas with Maxwellian velocity distribution. Up to six different plasma components can be included in this version of the program, and each component is specified by its density, temperature, particle mass, anisotropy and drift velocity along the magnetic field. The program is thus applicable to a very wide class of plasmas, and the method should in general be useful whenever a homogeneous magnetized plasma can be approximated by a linear combination of Maxwellian components. The general theory underlying the program is outlined. It is shown that by introducing a Pade approximant for the plasma dispersion function Z, the infinite sums of modified Bessel functions which appear in the dielectric tensor may be reduced to a summable form. The Pade approximant is derived and the accuracy of the approximation is also discussed. The subroutines making up the program are described. (Author)

  2. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  3. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  4. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    1998-11-01

    The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this

  6. Parametric dependence of two-plasmon decay in homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Dejan R

    2010-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of two-plasmon decay in a homogeneous plasma slab near the quarter-critical density is constructed in order to improve our understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of the daughter electron plasma waves in plasma in the course of the instability. The scaling of the amplitudes of the participating waves with laser and plasma parameters is investigated. The secondary coupling of two daughter electron plasma waves with an ion-acoustic wave is assumed to be the principal mechanism of saturation of the instability. The impact of the inherently nonresonant nature of this secondary coupling on the development of two-plasmon decay is researched and it is shown to significantly influence the electron plasma wave dynamics. Its inclusion leads to nonuniformity of the spatial profile of the instability and causes the burst-like pattern of the instability development, which should result in the burst-like hot-electron production in homogeneous plasma.

  7. Parametric decay instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, weakly anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandal, B.

    1976-01-01

    The parametric decay of a transverse electromagnetic (em) wave with a frequency close to, but larger than, the electron plasma frequency is investigated for an infinite, homogeneous, weakly magnetoactive plasma. A two-component fluid description is employed, and the damping of the linear plasma waves is introduced phenomenologically to include both Landau and collisional damping. The transverse em wave will decay into a longitudinal electron plasma wave and an em ion-acoustic wave. Only the latter wave is assumed to be affected by the weak, constant magnetic field. The threshold expression for growth of electron plasma waves is equal to that of the isotropic plasma when the em ion-acoustic wave's direction of propagation lies inside a wide double cone, whose axis is along the constant magnetic field. When the em ion-acoustic wave propagates outside this double cone, an additional factor, which depends directly upon the magnetic field, appears in the threshold expression. This factor can, under certain conditions, reduce the threshold for growth of electron plasma waves below that of the isotropic plasma

  8. Plane wave interaction with a homogeneous warm plasma sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppin, R.

    1975-01-01

    A Mie type theory for the scattering and absorption properties of a homogeneous warm plasma sphere is developed. The theory is applied to the calculation of the extinction cross section of plasma spheres, and the effects of Landau damping and collisional damping on the spectra are discussed. The dependence of the main resonance and of the Tonks-Dattner resonances on the physical parameters characterizing the sphere and its surroundings is investigated. The spectrum is shown to be insenitive to the boundary conditions which specify the behaviour of the electrons at the surface of the sphere (author)

  9. Negative-energy waves in a magnetized, homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Restrepo, D.; Pfirsch, D.

    1991-09-01

    The general expression for the second wave energy of a Vlasov-Maxwell system derived by Morrison and Pfirsch is evaluated here for the case of a magnetized, homogeneous plasma. It is again shown that negative-energy waves (which could become nonlinearly unstable and cause anomalous transport) exist for any deviation from monotonicity and/or any (however small) anisotropy in the equilibrium distribution function of any of the particle species. The partly unexpected and particularly interesting feature of the results is that, contrary to the proof of Morrison and Pfirsch, no restricting condition has to be imposed on the perpendicular wave number k perpendicular to of the perturbation (i.e. large k perpendicular to is not required). Finite-gyroradius effects are therefore not expected to improve the situation. Anisotropy alone would, however, impose a restriction on k z , the parallel wave number, relating it to the gyroradius. As far as distribution functions with v z δf v (0) /δv z > 0 in some region of v-space are concerned, however, this result agrees with a result found by Pfirsch and Morrison within the framework of drift-kinetic theory. (orig.)

  10. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  11. Head-on collision between positron acoustic waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain

    2018-05-01

    The head-on collision between positron acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) as well as the production of rogue waves (RWs) in homogeneous and PASWs in inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma systems are investigated deriving the nonlinear evolution equations. The plasmas are composed of immobile positive ions, mobile cold and hot positrons, and hot electrons, where the hot positrons and hot electrons are assumed to follow the Kappa distributions. The evolution equations are derived using the appropriate coordinate transformation and the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of concentrations, kappa parameters of hot electrons and positrons, and temperature ratios on the characteristics of PASWs and RWs are examined. It is found that the kappa parameters and temperature ratios significantly modify phase shifts after head-on collisions and RWs in homogeneous as well as PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas. The amplitudes of the PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas are diminished with increasing kappa parameters, concentration and temperature ratios. Further, the amplitudes of RWs are reduced with increasing charged particles concentration, while it enhances with increasing kappa- and temperature parameters. Besides, the compressive and rarefactive solitons are produced at critical densities from KdV equation for hot and cold positrons, while the compressive solitons are only produced from mKdV equation for both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas.

  12. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  13. Line photon transport in a non-homogeneous plasma using radiative coupling coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, R.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Florido, R.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a steady-state collisional-radiative model for the calculation of level populations in non-homogeneous plasmas with planar geometry. The line photon transport is taken into account following an angle- and frequency-averaged escape probability model. Several models where the same approach has been used can be found in the literature, but the main difference between our model and those ones is that the details of geometry are exactly treated in the definition of coupling coefficients and a local profile is taken into account in each plasma cell. (authors)

  14. Nonlinear electrostatic structures in homogeneous and inhomogeneous pair-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Ur-Rehman, H.; Shah, A.; Haque, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear electrostatic structures such as solitons, shocks were studied in homogeneous, unmagnetized pair-ion plasma. The dissipation in the system was taken through kinematic viscosities of both pair-ion species. The one dimensional (Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers) KdVB equation was derived using reductive perturbation method. The analytical solution of KdVB equation was obtained using tanh method. It was found that solitons and monotonic shocks structures were formed in such type of plasmas depending on the value of dissipation in the system. Both compressive and refractive structures of solitons and monotonic shocks were obtained depending on the temperatures of negative and positive ions. The oscillatory shock structures in pair-ion plasmas were also obtained and its necessary conditions of formation were discussed. The acoustic solitons were also investigated in inhomogeneous unmagnetized pair-ion plasmas. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) like equation with an additional term due to density gradients was obtained by employing the reductive perturbation technique. It was found that amplitude of both compressive and refractive solitons was found to be enhanced as the density gradient parameter was increased. The Landau damping rates of electrostatic ion waves were studied for non-Maxwellian or Lorentzian pair-ion plasmas. The Val sov equation was solved analytically for weak damping effects in pair-ion plasma. It was found that Landau damping rate of ion plasma wave was increased in Lorentzian case in comparison with Maxwellian pair-ion plasmas. The numerical results were obtained by taking into account the parameters of pair-ion plasmas produced in laboratory experiments in Japan. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Extreme degree of ionization in homogenous micro-capillary plasma columns heated by ultrafast current pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaria, G; Grisham, M; Li, J; Tomasel, F G; Shlyaptsev, V N; Busquet, M; Woolston, M; Rocca, J J

    2015-03-06

    Homogeneous plasma columns with ionization levels typical of megaampere discharges are created by rapidly heating gas-filled 520-μm-diameter channels with nanosecond rise time current pulses of 40 kA. Current densities of up to 0.3  GA cm^{-2} greatly increase Joule heating with respect to conventional capillary discharge Z pinches, reaching unprecedented degrees of ionization for a high-Z plasma column heated by a current pulse of remarkably low amplitude. Dense xenon plasmas are ionized to Xe^{28+}, while xenon impurities in hydrogen discharges reach Xe^{30+}. The unique characteristics of these hot, ∼300:1 length-to-diameter aspect ratio plasmas allow the observation of unexpected spectroscopic phenomena. Axial spectra show the unusual dominance of the intercombination line over the resonance line of He-like Al by nearly an order of magnitude, caused by differences in opacities in the axial and radial directions. These plasma columns could enable the development of sub-10-nm x-ray lasers.

  16. Nonlinear Raman scattering behavior with Langmuir and sound waves coupling in a homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.; Pellat, R.

    1990-01-01

    By means of wave-coupling simulations, the typical nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is investigated in a homogeneous sub-quarter-critical plasma for present-day low laser irradiances and kilo-electron-volt electron temperatures. The decrease of the Langmuir energy observed after the SRS growth is found to be basically the result of the electrostatic decay instability (EDI) onset, which generates a high-amplitude ion-acoustic wave. The resulting strong modulation of the plasma density causes a conversion process that transforms the initial one-wave-vector Langmuir wave driven by SRS into a Bloch wave and induces SRS detuning and larger damping. The conditions involved herein have allowed isolation of these processes from the modulational instability; in addition, the Langmuir collapse is found not to occur owing to the high electron temperature

  17. Nonlinear saturation of stimulated Raman scattering in a collisional homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.

    1985-11-01

    Using multiple scale analysis, the nonlinear saturation of the stimulated Raman scattering instability is examined in a collisional homogeneous plasma. The first problem considered is the temporal problem in an infinite plasma, with a ubiquitous driver and arbitrary damping for each wave. The second problem considered is the absolute Raman instability in a finite plasma. The incident wave amplitude exceeds the absolute instability threshold by the fractional amount Δ. In the marginally unstable regime, the complete time dependence and spatial variation of each wave amplitude is obtained. An expression for the reflected light intensity is determined analytically, and is proportional to Δ. The conditions under which the steady-state results can be extended to the moderately unstable regime are discussed. The reflected light intensity is compared to values predicted for the convective instability, for the same incident intensity. In ''short'' plasmas, i.e., ones which extend over only a few linear convective gain lengths, the reflected intensity is found to be much higher when the absolute instability is excited

  18. Renormalization theory of stationary homogeneous strong turbulence in a collisionless plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.

    1984-01-01

    A renormalization procedure for the perturbation expansion of the Vlasov-Poisson equation is presented to describe stationary homogeneous turbulence. By using the diagramatic scheme the theory is shown to be renormalizable to any order. The expressions for the renormalized propagator, the renormalized dielectric function, and the intrinsically incoherent source are given. The renormalization leads to a complete separation of the fluctuating distribution function f/sub k/ into two parts, the coherent part, which is proved to represent the dielectric effect of the medium, and the intrinsically incoherent part, which represents the effect of nonlinear source. The turbulent collisional operator in the transport equation is proved equal to GAMMA 0 , the frequency broadening when k = 0

  19. Cold Plasma: simple tool for convenient utilitarian chemistry in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tomi Nath; Dey, Ghasi Ram

    2015-07-01

    Cold Plasma based experimental facilities have been commissioned (XI-XII Plan periods) in Radiation and Photochemistry Division, BARC to carry out free radical and excited state-induced chemistry in single- and mixed-phase milieu. In any reaction medium, Dielectric Barrier assisted Electric Discharge generates in situ non-equilibrium plasma constituting of electrons and photons (< 10 eV each) and chemically reactive ions, excited species and free radical transients near room temperature and pressure. Choice of reactants and nature of other added ingredient(s), type of interacting surface(s) and the dielectric characteristics, the rate and amount of electric energy dissipated within etc. control various reactions’ propensities and the natures of final products, following either routine or novel, atypical chemistry. A selection of results obtained from our laboratory highlight the development and the potential use of this technology. Constant improvements in Cold Plasma reactor types, and design, fabrication and assembly of a real-time measurement system, aiming to probe mechanistic chemistry, are also underway. (author)

  20. Filling the vacuum chamber of a technological system with homogeneous plasma using a stationary glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metel, A. S.; Grigoriev, S. N.; Melnik, Yu. A.; Panin, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental study of a glow discharge with electrostatic confinement of electrons is carried out in the vacuum chamber volume V ∼ 0.12 m 3 of a technological system 'Bulat-6' in argon pressure range 0.005-5 Pa. The chamber is used as a hollow cathode of the discharge with the inner surface area S ∼ 1.5 m 2 . It is equipped with two feedthroughs, which make it possible to immerse in the discharge plasma interchangeable anodes with surface area S a ranging from ∼0.001 to ∼0.1 m 2 , as well as floating electrodes isolated from both the chamber and the anode. Dependences of the cathode fall U c = 0.4-3 kV on the pressure p at a constant discharge current in the range I = 0.2-2 A proved that aperture of the electron escape out of the electrostatic trap is equal to the sum S o = S a + S f of the anode surface S a and the floating electrode surface S f . The sum S o defines the lower limit p o of the pressure range, in which U c is independent of p. At p o the cathode fall U c grows up dramatically, when the pressure decreases, and the pressure p tends to the limit p ex , which is in fact the discharge extinction pressure. At p ∼ p ex electrons emitted by the cathode and the first generation of fast electrons produced in the cathode sheath spend almost all their energy up to 3 keV on heating the anode and the floating electrode up to 600-800 o C and higher. In this case the gas in the chamber is being ionized by the next generations of electrons produced in the cathode sheath, their energy being one order of magnitude lower. When S a 1/2 S, where m is the electron mass and M is the ion mass, the anode may be additionally heated by plasma electrons accelerated by the anode fall of potential U a up to 0.5 kV.

  1. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  3. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  4. Curative effect of spleen homogenate against radiation injury to serum glucose, liver glycogen and plasma protein fractions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.; Edrees, G.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the spleen homogenate injection as a curative substance against gamma irradiation effects has been investigated in male albino rats. The parameters tested were, life span, serum glucose level, liver glycogen content, serum protein fractions and A/G ratio. The results obtained are as follows: Irradiated group showed 100% mortality over 22 days, this percentage dropped to 60% over 30 days for irradiated group received spleen homogenate treatment. Irradiated animals, recorded initial hyperglycaemia which diminished by time, whereas the liver glycogen concentration showed first to initially increase then to decrease abruptly. Treatment with spleen homogenate after irradiation ameliorated the magnitude of radiation induced hyperglycaemia and liver glycogen depletion. The serum Albumin/Globulin ratio decreased by irradiation due to the decrease in the serum albumin accompanied by an increase in the serum globulin content. This ratio could be restored towards its normal level in irradiated animals received spleen homogenate treatment. The data obtained suggests the possibility of using spleen homogenate for the treatment of accidental radiation syndrome

  5. Framework of the parametric instabilities in the presence of space-time fluctuations in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasma. II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the formalism developed in another paper [Phys. Fluids 31, 3362 (1988)], three analytical results are obtained relating to (1) a WKB type of equation in inhomogeneous plasma, (2) the Raman process at (1/4) n/sub c/, and (3) two plasma decay processes at (1/4) n/sub c/. Interesting scaling results are found

  6. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, F.

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f oi = 1 / (2*π*α p e i *α p a i ) * λ(ν p e - α p e i ) * e -(v p a 2 /α p a i 2 ) . The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy (τ) and electron temperature (T e ). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [fr

  7. A procedure for estimating the electron temperature and the departure of the LTE condition in a time-dependent, spatially homogeneous, optically thin plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, La Plata (Argentina); Borges, F.O., E-mail: borges@if.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Lab. de Plasma e Espectroscopia; Di Rocco, H.O. [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco (IFAS), Universidad Nacional del Centro, Tandil (Argentina); Mercado, R.S. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica de Emision y Laser (GEOEL), Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Villagran-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofisica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Palleschi, V. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    We present a method to estimate the temperature of transient plasmas and their degree of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Our method is based on application of the Saha–Boltzmann equations on the temporal variation of the intensity of the spectral lines of the plasma, under the assumption that the plasmas at the different times when the spectra were obtained are in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The method requires no knowledge of the spectral efficiency of the spectrometer/detector, transition probabilities of the considered lines, or degeneracies of the upper and lower levels. Provided that the conditions of optically thin, homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium are satisfied, the accuracy of the procedure is limited only by the precision with which the line intensities and densities can be determined at two different temperatures. The procedure generates an equation describing the temporal evolution of the electron number density of transient plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The method is applied to the analysis of two laser-induced breakdown spectra of cadmium at different temperatures. (author)

  8. A procedure for estimating the electron temperature and the departure of the LTE condition in a time-dependent, spatially homogeneous, optically thin plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredice, F.; Borges, F.O.; Mercado, R.S.; Villagran-Muniz, M.; Palleschi, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to estimate the temperature of transient plasmas and their degree of departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Our method is based on application of the Saha–Boltzmann equations on the temporal variation of the intensity of the spectral lines of the plasma, under the assumption that the plasmas at the different times when the spectra were obtained are in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The method requires no knowledge of the spectral efficiency of the spectrometer/detector, transition probabilities of the considered lines, or degeneracies of the upper and lower levels. Provided that the conditions of optically thin, homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium are satisfied, the accuracy of the procedure is limited only by the precision with which the line intensities and densities can be determined at two different temperatures. The procedure generates an equation describing the temporal evolution of the electron number density of transient plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The method is applied to the analysis of two laser-induced breakdown spectra of cadmium at different temperatures. (author)

  9. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma; Etude des microinstabilities liees a l'anisotropie de la fonction de distribution des vitesses des particules d'un plasma homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennion, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}). The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy ({tau}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [French] L'etude est faite en choisissant une fonction de distribution des ions de la forme f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}) et en supposant une conductivite infinie sur les limites du plasma de dimensions finies. L'etude theorique et numerique de la stabilite marginale determine les domaines de stabilite qui sont etudies en fonction de plusieurs parametres: longueur du plasma, anisotropie des ions ({tau}), temperature electronique (T{sub e}). Il apparait une longueur limite du plasma au-dessous de laquelle le plasma est stable, independemment de la densite. L'application faite avec les valeurs des parametres de l'experience d'injection M.M.I.I, a Fontenay-aux-Roses permet de conclure a la non existence dans cet appareil du type d'instabilite etudie ici. (auteur)

  10. Homogenization of Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Mariana E G; Lamberti, Giorgia; Huber, Lukas A

    2015-11-02

    Homogenization is the name given to the methodological steps necessary for releasing organelles and other cellular constituents as a free suspension of intact individual components. Most homogenization procedures used for mammalian cells (e.g., cavitation pump and Dounce homogenizer) rely on mechanical force to break the plasma membrane and may be supplemented with osmotic or temperature alterations to facilitate membrane disruption. In this protocol, we describe a syringe-based homogenization method that does not require specialized equipment, is easy to handle, and gives reproducible results. The method may be adapted for cells that require hypotonic shock before homogenization. We routinely use it as part of our workflow to isolate endocytic organelles from mammalian cells. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Reflector homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P 0 transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP N core calculations. (Author)

  12. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail: richard.sanchez@cea.fr

    2004-07-01

    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  13. OH kinetic in high-pressure plasmas of atmospheric gases containing C2H6 studied by absolute measurement of the radical density in a pulsed homogeneous discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L; Pasquiers, S; Gadonna, K; Jeanney, P; Blin-Simiand, N; Jorand, F; Postel, C

    2009-01-01

    The absolute value of the hydroxyl radical was measured in the afterglow of an homogeneous photo-triggered discharge generated in N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O/C 2 H 6 mixtures, using a UV absorption diagnostic synchronized with the discharge current pulse. Measurements show that OH is efficiently produced even in the absence of water vapour in the mixture, and that the radical production is closely linked to the degradation kinetic of the hydrocarbon. Experimental results for dry mixtures, both for OH and for the removal of ethane in the discharge volume, are compared with predictions of a self-consistent 0D discharge and the kinetic model. It appears that the oxidation reaction of the ethane molecule by O( 3 P) atoms plays a minor role. Dissociation of the hydrocarbon through quenching collisions of the nitrogen metastable states are of great importance for a low oxygen concentration value. Also, the oxidation of ethane by O( 1 D) cannot be neglected at high oxygen concentration. The most probable exit channel for N 2 states quenching collisions by ethane is the production of ethene and hydrogen molecules. Afterwards C 2 H 4 should be dissociated to produce H and H 2 . As previously suggested from the study of the OH density time evolution in relative value, the recombination of H and O atoms appears as a main process for the production of OH in transient low temperature plasmas generated in atmospheric gases at high pressure. Another important reaction is the reduction of the HO 2 radical by O, this radical coming from the addition of H on the oxygen molecule. H atoms come from numerous kinetic processes, amongst which is the dissociation of ethene.

  14. Motion model for a charged particle in a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)

  15. Model of the motion of a charged particle into a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)

  16. Isolation of Highly Purified Fractions of Plasma Membrane and Tonoplast from the Same Homogenate of Soybean Hypocotyls by Free-Flow Electrophoresis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelius, Anna Stina; Penel, Claude; Auderset, Guy; Brightman, Andrew; Millard, Merle; Morré, D. James

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby highly purified fractions of plasma membrane and tonoplast were isolated from hypocotyls of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. var Wayne) by the technique of preparative free-flow electrophoresis. Fractions migrating the slowest toward the anode were enriched in thick (10 nanometers) membranes identified as plasma membranes based on ability to bind N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), glucan synthetase-II, and K+-stimulated, vanadate-inhibited Mg2+ ATPase, reaction with phosphotungstic acid at low pH on electron microscope sections, and morphological evaluations. Fractions migrating farthest toward the anode (farthest from the point of sample injection) were enriched in membrane vesicles with thick (7-9 nanometers) membranes that did not stain with phosphotungstic acid at low pH, contained a nitrate-inhibited, Cl-stimulated ATPase and had the in situ morphological characteristics of tonoplast including the presence of flocculent contents. These vesicles neither bound NPA nor contained levels of glucan synthetase II above background. Other membranous cell components such as dictyosomes (fucosyltransferase, latent nucleosidediphosphate phosphatase), endoplasmic reticulum vesicles (NADH- and NADPH- cytochrome c reductase), mitochondria (succinate-2(p-indophenyl)-3-p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium-reductase and cytochrome oxidase) and plastids (carotenoids and monogalactosyl diglyceride synthetase) were identified on the basis of appropriate marker constituents and, except for plastid thylakoids, had thin (marker activities. From electron microscope morphometry (using both membrane measurements and staining with phosphotungstic acid at low pH) and analysis of marker enzymes, both plasma membrane and tonoplast fractions were estimated to be about 90% pure. Neither fraction appeared to be contaminated by the other by more than 3%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:16664771

  17. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  18. Determination of NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, in human and mouse plasma and in mouse tissue homogenates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; de Gooijer, Mark C; Beijnen, Jos H; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2012-07-15

    NVP-BEZ235 is a novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR and currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors. We developed a sensitive and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay with fluorometric detection for quantification of NVP-BEZ235 in biological matrices. Liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was used for sample pre-treatment, yielding a recovery of >84%. Chromatographic separation of NVP-BEZ235 and the internal standard (IS) NVP-BBD130 was achieved on a GraceSmart C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase which consisted of acetonitrile, methanol, and milliQ water adjusted with acetic acid to pH 3.7 (20:36:44, v/v/v). Fluorescence detection using excitation and emission wavelengths of 270 and 425 nm, respectively, provided a selectivity and sensitivity allowing quantification down to 1 ng/ml in human plasma and linear calibration curves within a range of 1-1000 ng/ml. The assay was validated for human plasma, mouse plasma and a range of tissues. The accuracy, within-day and between-day precision for all matrices, was within the generally accepted 15% range. NVP-BEZ235 was stable for 72 h in pretreated samples in reconstitution mixture (acetonitrile-water (30:70, v/v)), but unstable in mouse tissue homogenates upon repeated freeze-thaw cycles or long term storage (≥24 h) at room temperature. A pilot pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated the applicability of this method for pharmacokinetic purposes. Overall, this assay is suitable for the pharmacokinetic studies of NVP-BEZ235 in mice and in human plasma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Model of the motion of a charged particle into a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, A.P. 2-139, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)

  20. Motion model for a charged particle in a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, Facultad de Ciencias, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)

  1. A strategy for extending the applicability of a validated plasma calibration curve to quantitative measurements in multiple tissue homogenate samples: a case study from a rat tissue distribution study of JI-101, a triple kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Sandip Dhondiram; Jeniffer, Sherine; Punde, Ravindra; Gilibili, Ravindranath Reddy; Giri, Sanjeev; Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2012-04-01

    A general practice in bioanalysis is that, whatever the biological matrix the analyte is being quantified in, the validation is performed in the same matrix as per regulatory guidelines. In this paper, we are presenting the applicability of a validated LC-MS/MS method in rat plasma for JI-101, to estimate the concentrations of JI-101 in various tissues that were harvested in a rat tissue distribution study. A simple protein precipitation technique was used to extract JI-101 and internal standard from the tissue homogenates. The recovery of JI-101 in all the matrices was found to be >70%. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (acetonitrile) and B (0.2% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min on a Prodigy ODS column with a total run time of 4.0 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 466.1 → 265 for JI-101 and 180.1 → 110.1 for internal standard. The linearity range was 5.02-4017 ng/mL. The JI-101 levels were quantifiable in the various tissue samples harvested in this study. Therefore, the use of a previously validated JI-101 assay in plasma circumvented the tedious process of method development/validation in various tissue matrices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mechanical Homogenization Increases Bacterial Homogeneity in Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokell, Joshua R.; Khan, Ammad

    2014-01-01

    Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710

  3. Functionality and homogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,

  4. The SPH homogeneization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, Alain

    1978-01-01

    The homogeneization of a uniform lattice is a rather well understood topic while difficult problems arise if the lattice becomes irregular. The SPH homogeneization method is an attempt to generate homogeneized cross sections for an irregular lattice. Section 1 summarizes the treatment of an isolated cylindrical cell with an entering surface current (in one velocity theory); Section 2 is devoted to the extension of the SPH method to assembly problems. Finally Section 3 presents the generalisation to general multigroup problems. Numerical results are obtained for a PXR rod bundle assembly in Section 4

  5. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...

  6. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of A1050 aluminium alloy in homogeneous silicate-alkaline electrolytes with edta{sup 4−} complexes of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La and Ba under alternating polarization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogov, A.B., E-mail: alex-lab@bk.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, 3, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Scientific and Technical Centre “Pokrytie-A” (OOO), 15, Dzerzhinskogo Ave., Novosibirsk, 630015 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-01

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of coatings containing a number of transition elements by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminium A1050 alloy. The paper discusses PEO coatings obtained in silicate-alkaline electrolytes containing complexes of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La and Ba with ethylenediaminetetraacetic anion edta{sup 4−}. It is also focused on the chemical basis of the electrolyte components choice and their role in the process of PEO. Possible mechanism of coating formation process is also discussed. Alternating current mode (symmetrical sinusoidal current pulses, initial average current density - 100 mA cm{sup −2}) was used to produce the coatings. The PEO process was characterized by behaviours of the anodic and cathodic peak voltage curves. Coating surfaces and cross sections are studied by optical dark field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and energy dispersive analysis. - Highlights: • Alkaline homogeneous electrolyte with transition metal-edta{sup 4-} complexes. • Coatings contain Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La, Ba elements in alumina-silica matrix. • Alternating symmetric sinusoidal current of 100 mA cm{sup −2} was applied. • Borax buffer solution and silicate passivating agent were used.

  7. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  8. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babuska, I.

    1975-10-01

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  9. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...

  10. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  11. Homogeneity and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  12. Homogeneous Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.

    1993-09-01

    We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs

  13. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  14. Homogeneous turbulence dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sagaut, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence  and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...

  15. Homogen Mur - et udviklingsprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Torben; Beim, Anne; Sørensen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk.......Mølletorvet i Slagelse er det første byggeri i Danmark, hvor ydervæggen er udført af homogene bærende og isolerende teglblokke. Byggeriet viser en række af de muligheder, der både med hensyn til konstruktioner, energiforhold og arkitektur ligger i anvendelsen af homogent blokmurværk....

  16. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  17. Homogeneous M2 duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  18. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  19. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  20. Homogeneous Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    "Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc

  1. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  2. Homogeneous instantons in bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying-li; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We study homogeneous gravitational instantons, conventionally called the Hawking-Moss (HM) instantons, in bigravity theory. The HM instantons describe the amplitude of quantum tunneling from a false vacuum to the true vacuum. Corrections to General Relativity (GR) are found in a closed form. Using the result, we discuss the following two issues: reduction to the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity and the possibility of preference for a large e-folding number in the context of the Hartle-Hawking (HH) no-boundary proposal. In particular, concerning the dRGT limit, it is found that the tunneling through the so-called self-accelerating branch is exponentially suppressed relative to the normal branch, and the probability becomes zero in the dRGT limit. As far as HM instantons are concerned, this could imply that the reduction from bigravity to the dRGT massive gravity is ill-defined.

  3. The relationship between continuum homogeneity and statistical homogeneity in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeger, W.R.; Ellis, G.F.R.; Hellaby, C.

    1987-01-01

    Although the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe models are based on the concept that the Universe is spatially homogeneous, up to the present time no definition of this concept has been proposed that could in principle be tested by observation. Such a definition is here proposed, based on a simple spatial averaging procedure, which relates observable properties of the Universe to the continuum homogeneity idea that underlies the FLRW models. It turns out that the statistical homogeneity often used to describe the distribution of matter on a large scale does not imply spatial homogeneity according to this definition, and so cannot be simply related to a FLRW Universe model. Values are proposed for the homogeneity parameter and length scale of homogeneity of the Universe. (author)

  4. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...

  5. Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.

  6. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous zeolite nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, W.H.; Garderen, van H.F.; Beelen, T.P.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Bras, W.

    1995-01-01

    Aggregates of fractal dimension were found in the intermediate gel phases that organize prior to nucleation and crystallization (shown right) of silicalite from a homogeneous reaction mixture. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies prove that for zeolites nucleation may be homogeneous or

  7. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, J W P

    2017-11-15

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 10 6 K s -1 , allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  8. Homogenization theory in reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr

  9. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  10. Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  11. A second stage homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A second homogenization is needed before the diffusion calculation of the core of large reactors. Such a second stage homogenization is outlined here. Our starting point is the Floquet theorem for it states that the diffusion equation for a periodic core always has a particular solution of the form esup(j)sup(B)sup(x) u (x). It is pointed out that the perturbation series expansion of function u can be derived by solving eigenvalue problems and the eigenvalues serve to define homogenized cross sections. With the help of these eigenvalues a homogenized diffusion equation can be derived the solution of which is cos Bx, the macroflux. It is shown that the flux can be expressed as a series of buckling. The leading term in this series is the well known Wigner-Seitz formula. Finally three examples are given: periodic absorption, a cell with an absorber pin in the cell centre, and a cell of three regions. (orig.)

  12. Homogenization methods for heterogeneous assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The third session of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting is concerned with the problem of homogenization of heterogeneous assemblies. Six papers will be presented on the theory of homogenization and on practical procedures for deriving homogenized group cross sections and diffusion coefficients. That the problem of finding so-called ''equivalent'' diffusion theory parameters for the use in global reactor calculations is of great practical importance. In spite of this, it is fair to say that the present state of the theory of second homogenization is far from being satisfactory. In fact, there is not even a uniquely accepted approach to the problem of deriving equivalent group diffusion parameters. Common agreement exists only about the fact that the conventional flux-weighting technique provides only a first approximation, which might lead to acceptable results in certain cases, but certainly does not guarantee the basic requirement of conservation of reaction rates

  13. Spinor structures on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhovskii, V.D.; Mudrov, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    For multidimensional models of the interaction of elementary particles, the problem of constructing and classifying spinor fields on homogeneous spaces is exceptionally important. An algebraic criterion for the existence of spinor structures on homogeneous spaces used in multidimensional models is developed. A method of explicit construction of spinor structures is proposed, and its effectiveness is demonstrated in examples. The results are of particular importance for harmonic decomposition of spinor fields

  14. A personal view on homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartar, L.

    1987-02-01

    The evolution of some ideas is first described. Under the name homogenization are collected all the mathematical results who help understanding the relations between the microstructure of a material and its macroscopic properties. Homogenization results are given through a critically detailed bibliography. The mathematical models given are systems of partial differential equations, supposed to describe some properties at a scale ε and we want to understand what will happen to the solutions if ε tends to 0

  15. Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdebosq, Y.

    1999-09-01

    In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)

  16. 7 CFR 58.920 - Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homogenization. 58.920 Section 58.920 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.920 Homogenization. Where applicable concentrated products shall be homogenized for the... homogenization and the pressure at which homogenization is accomplished will be that which accomplishes the most...

  17. Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.

  18. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  19. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  20. Electro-magnetostatic homogenization of bianisotropic metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Fietz, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We apply the method of asymptotic homogenization to metamaterials with microscopically bianisotropic inclusions to calculate a full set of constitutive parameters in the long wavelength limit. Two different implementations of electromagnetic asymptotic homogenization are presented. We test the homogenization procedure on two different metamaterial examples. Finally, the analytical solution for long wavelength homogenization of a one dimensional metamaterial with microscopically bi-isotropic i...

  1. Observational homogeneity of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnor, W.B.; Ellis, G.F.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to observational homogeneity is presented. The observation that stars and galaxies in distant regions appear similar to those nearby may be taken to imply that matter has had a similar thermodynamic history in widely separated parts of the Universe (the Postulate of Uniform Thermal Histories, or PUTH). The supposition is now made that similar thermodynamic histories imply similar dynamical histories. Then the distant apparent similarity is evidence for spatial homogeneity of the Universe. General Relativity is used to test this idea, taking a perfect fluid model and implementing PUTH by the condition that the density and entropy per baryon shall be the same function of the proper time along all galaxy world-lines. (author)

  2. Conclusions about homogeneity and devitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larche, F.

    1997-01-01

    A lot of experimental data concerning homogeneity and devitrification of R7T7 glass have been published. It appears that: - the crystallization process is very limited, - the interfaces due to bubbles and the container wall favor crystallization locally but the ratio of crystallized volume remains always below a few per cents, and - crystallization has no damaging long-term effects as far as leaching tests can be trusted. (A.C.)

  3. Is charity a homogeneous good?

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I estimate income and price elasticities of donations to six different charitable causes to test the assumption that charity is a homogeneous good. In the US, charitable donations can be deducted from taxable income. This has long been recognized as producing a price, or taxprice, of giving equal to one minus the marginal tax rate faced by the donor. A substantial portion of the economic literature on giving has focused on estimating price and income elasticities of giving as th...

  4. Advanced homogenization strategies in material modeling of thermally sprayed TBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Nickel, R.; Kashko, T.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), have a complex microstructure (lamellar, porous, micro-cracked). Process parameters take an influence on this microstructure. Two methods based on the homogenization for periodic structures are presented in this article. The methods are used to calculate the effective material behavior of APS-TBCs made of partially yttria stabilized zirconia (PYSZ) depending on the microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Physical applications of homogeneous balls

    CERN Document Server

    Scarr, Tzvi

    2005-01-01

    One of the mathematical challenges of modern physics lies in the development of new tools to efficiently describe different branches of physics within one mathematical framework. This text introduces precisely such a broad mathematical model, one that gives a clear geometric expression of the symmetry of physical laws and is entirely determined by that symmetry. The first three chapters discuss the occurrence of bounded symmetric domains (BSDs) or homogeneous balls and their algebraic structure in physics. The book further provides a discussion of how to obtain a triple algebraic structure ass

  6. Heterotic strings on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, D.; Kounnas, C.; Orlando, D.; Petropoulos, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We construct heterotic string backgrounds corresponding to families of homogeneous spaces as exact conformal field theories. They contain left cosets of compact groups by their maximal tori supported by NS-NS 2-forms and gauge field fluxes. We give the general formalism and modular-invariant partition functions, then we consider some examples such as SU(2)/U(1)∝S 2 (already described in a previous paper) and the SU(3)/U(1) 2 flag space. As an application we construct new supersymmetric string vacua with magnetic fluxes and a linear dilaton. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  8. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  9. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  10. 7 CFR 58.636 - Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Homogenization. 58.636 Section 58.636 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.636 Homogenization. Homogenization of the pasteurized mix shall be accomplished to...

  11. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use...... our analysis to show that the moduli space of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic space has two connected components....

  12. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  13. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  14. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  15. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  16. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  17. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  18. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  19. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  20. Homogeneity and thermodynamic identities in geometrothermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Hernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Rome (Italy); Quevedo, Maria N. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Bogota (Colombia); Sanchez, Alberto [CIIDET, Departamento de Posgrado, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a classification of thermodynamic systems in terms of the homogeneity properties of their fundamental equations. Ordinary systems correspond to homogeneous functions and non-ordinary systems are given by generalized homogeneous functions. This affects the explicit form of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Euler's identity. We show that these generalized relations can be implemented in the formalism of black hole geometrothermodynamics in order to completely fix the arbitrariness present in Legendre invariant metrics. (orig.)

  1. A literature review on biotic homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Guangmei Wang; Jingcheng Yang; Chuangdao Jiang; Hongtao Zhao; Zhidong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biotic homogenization is the process whereby the genetic, taxonomic and functional similarity of two or more biotas increases over time. As a new research agenda for conservation biogeography, biotic homogenization has become a rapidly emerging topic of interest in ecology and evolution over the past decade. However, research on this topic is rare in China. Herein, we introduce the development of the concept of biotic homogenization, and then discuss methods to quantify its three components (...

  2. Hybrid diffusion–transport spatial homogenization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooreman, Gabriel; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method. • An extension of the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method. • Auxiliary cross section makes homogenized diffusion consistent with heterogeneous diffusion. • An on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport. • The method is faster than fine-mesh transport by 6–8 times. - Abstract: A new hybrid diffusion–transport homogenization method has been developed by extending the consistent spatial homogenization (CSH) transport method to include diffusion theory. As in the CSH method, an “auxiliary cross section” term is introduced into the source term, making the resulting homogenized diffusion equation consistent with its heterogeneous counterpart. The method then utilizes an on-the-fly re-homogenization in transport theory at the assembly level in order to correct for core environment effects on the homogenized cross sections and the auxiliary cross section. The method has been derived in general geometry and tested in a 1-D boiling water reactor (BWR) core benchmark problem for both controlled and uncontrolled configurations. The method has been shown to converge to the reference solution with less than 1.7% average flux error in less than one third the computational time as the CSH method – 6 to 8 times faster than fine-mesh transport

  3. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  4. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Kronsbein, Cornelia; Legoll, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison

  5. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratiannil, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.; Willett, K.

    2013-09-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous values at various averaging scales, ii) the error in linear trend estimates and iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.

  6. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in term...

  7. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  8. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  9. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....

  10. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  11. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  12. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  13. DETERMINATION OF ROCURONIUM AND ITS PUTATIVE METABOLITES IN BODY-FLUIDS AND TISSUE-HOMOGENATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLEEF, UW; PROOST, JH; ROGGEVELD, J

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the quantification of the neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium and its putative metabolites (the 17-desacetyl derivative and the N-desallyl derivative of rocuronium) in plasma, urine, bile, tissue homogenates and stoma fluid. Samples were

  14. Poisson-Jacobi reduction of homogeneous tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, J; Iglesias, D; Marrero, J C; Padron, E; Urbanski, P

    2004-01-01

    The notion of homogeneous tensors is discussed. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between multivector fields on a manifold M, homogeneous with respect to a vector field Δ on M, and first-order polydifferential operators on a closed submanifold N of codimension 1 such that Δ is transversal to N. This correspondence relates the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of multivector fields on M to the Schouten-Jacobi bracket of first-order polydifferential operators on N and generalizes the Poissonization of Jacobi manifolds. Actually, it can be viewed as a super-Poissonization. This procedure of passing from a homogeneous multivector field to a first-order polydifferential operator can also be understood as a sort of reduction; in the standard case-a half of a Poisson reduction. A dual version of the above correspondence yields in particular the correspondence between Δ-homogeneous symplectic structures on M and contact structures on N

  15. Computational Method for Atomistic-Continuum Homogenization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The homogenization method is used as a framework for developing a multiscale system of equations involving atoms at zero temperature at the small scale and continuum mechanics at the very large scale...

  16. Homogenization and Control of Lattice Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blankenship, G. L

    1985-01-01

    ...., trusses may be modeled by beam equations). Using a technique from the mathematics of asymptotic analysis called "homogenization," the author shows how such approximations may be derived in a systematic way that avoids errors made using...

  17. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Li, Guanglian; Savatorova, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    , Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point

  18. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  19. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  20. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Dante, Giorgio; Zmijarevic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    We analyze piecewise homogenization with flux-weighted cross sections and preservation of averaged currents at the boundary of the homogenized domain. Introduction of a set of flux discontinuity ratios (FDR) that preserve reference interface currents leads to preservation of averaged region reaction rates and fluxes. We consider the class of numerical discretizations with one degree of freedom per volume and per surface and prove that when the homogenization and computing meshes are equal there is a unique solution for the FDRs which exactly preserve interface currents. For diffusion sub-meshing we introduce a Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov method and for all cases considered obtain an 'exact' numerical solution (eight digits for the interface currents). The homogenization is completed by extending the familiar full assembly homogenization via flux discontinuity factors to the sides of regions laying on the boundary of the piecewise homogenized domain. Finally, for the familiar nodal discretization we numerically find that the FDRs obtained with no sub-mesh (nearly at no cost) can be effectively used for whole-core diffusion calculations with sub-mesh. This is not the case, however, for cell-centered finite differences. (authors)

  1. Homogeneous anisotropic solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant and their homogeneous deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutsopoulos, George

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a potentially non-vanishing cosmological constant for homogeneous metrics without isotropy. We only reproduce known solutions. We also discuss their homogeneous deformations, possibly with isotropy. We show that de Sitter space and hyperbolic space cannot be infinitesimally homogeneously deformed in TMG. We clarify some of their Segre–Petrov types and discuss the warped de Sitter spacetime. (paper)

  2. Homogeneous anisotropic solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant and their homogeneous deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, George

    2013-06-01

    We solve the equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a potentially non-vanishing cosmological constant for homogeneous metrics without isotropy. We only reproduce known solutions. We also discuss their homogeneous deformations, possibly with isotropy. We show that de Sitter space and hyperbolic space cannot be infinitesimally homogeneously deformed in TMG. We clarify some of their Segre-Petrov types and discuss the warped de Sitter spacetime.

  3. Effects of a homogeneous magnetic field on erythrocyte sedimentation and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iino, Masaaki [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physiology I

    1997-05-01

    Effects of a homogeneous static magnetic field on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) have been assessed by using the standard Westergren method. A magnetic field of 6.3 T in the vertical direction only slightly enhanced ESR in saline solution, which was consistent with an effect on cell orientation. On the other hand, the magnetic field greatly enhanced ESR in plasma. It took a long time (about 20 min) for an ESR change to occur in plasma in response to the magnetic field. The effects in plasma were too large to originate only from cell orientation and were clearly distinct from a magnetic field-induced Boycott effect under an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A morphological examination and the nonlinear time course of the sedimentation in plasma indicated that the magnetic field increased cell aggregation and thereby enhanced ESR in plasma.

  4. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurran, Anne E.; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  5. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  6. Quantum aspects of photon propagation in transparent infinite homogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, Rudolf Emil

    2008-01-01

    The energy balance photon - medium, during the light travelling, through a specific continuous interaction between a single photon and a homogeneous, infinite medium (fully ionized plasma or a transparent dielectric), was studied. We obtained a wave equation for the interacting photon. To explain the interaction in quantum terms, we assume a certain photon - medium interaction energy, macroscopically materialized by the existence of the refractive index. It turns out that the interaction is of a scalar type, for vanishing rest mass and of spin 1 particle submitted both to scalar and vectorial fields. We found out an expression of the propagation equation of the photon through a non-dissipative medium, using a coupling between the photon spin S vector and the scalar interaction field ( E S vector,H S vector). (authors)

  7. Internal homogenization: effective permittivity of a coated sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettiar, Uday K; Engheta, Nader

    2012-10-08

    The concept of internal homogenization is introduced as a complementary approach to the conventional homogenization schemes, which could be termed as external homogenization. The theory for the internal homogenization of the permittivity of subwavelength coated spheres is presented. The effective permittivity derived from the internal homogenization of coreshells is discussed for plasmonic and dielectric constituent materials. The effective model provided by the homogenization is a useful design tool in constructing coated particles with desired resonant properties.

  8. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials......, it is shown how to set up parametric acceptance criteria for the batch that gives a high confidence that future samples with a probability larger than a specified value will pass the USP threeclass criteria. Properties and robustness of proposed changes to the USP test for content uniformity are investigated...

  9. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2015-04-16

    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  10. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  11. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  12. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Homogenization versus homogenization-free method to measure muscle glycogen fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojibi, N; Rasouli, M

    2016-12-01

    The glycogen is extracted from animal tissues with or without homogenization using cold perchloric acid. Three methods were compared for determination of glycogen in rat muscle at different physiological states. Two groups of five rats were kept at rest or 45 minutes muscular activity. The glycogen fractions were extracted and measured by using three methods. The data of homogenization method shows that total glycogen decreased following 45 min physical activity and the change occurred entirely in acid soluble glycogen (ASG), while AIG did not change significantly. Similar results were obtained by using "total-glycogen-fractionation methods". The findings of "homogenization-free method" indicate that the acid insoluble fraction (AIG) was the main portion of muscle glycogen and the majority of changes occurred in AIG fraction. The results of "homogenization method" are identical with "total glycogen fractionation", but differ with "homogenization-free" protocol. The ASG fraction is the major portion of muscle glycogen and is more metabolically active form.

  14. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  15. Synthesis of silica nanosphere from homogeneous and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    avoid it, reaction in heterogeneous system using CTABr was carried out. Nanosized silica sphere with ... Homogeneous system contains a mixture of ethanol, water, aqueous ammonia and ... heated to 823 K (rate, 1 K/min) in air and kept at this.

  16. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...

  17. Homogeneous nucleation of water in synthetic air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.A.L.J.; Sachteleben, E.; Hruby, J.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; DeMott, P.J.; O'Dowd, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates for water vapor in synthetic air are measured by means of a Pulse-Expansion Wave Tube (PEWT). A comparison of the experimental nucleation rates with the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) shows that a more elaborated model is necessary to describe supercooled water

  18. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  19. Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilevich, D.V.

    1992-07-01

    An algebraic technique of separation of gauge modes in Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces is proposed. An effective potential for the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory on S 3 is calculated. A generalization of the Chern-Simons action is suggested and analysed with the example of SU(3)/U(1) x U(1). (author). 11 refs

  20. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aquilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertačník, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Viarre, J.; Mueller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Duran, M. P.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2012), s. 89-115 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate data * instrumental time-series * greater alpine region * homogeneity test * variability * inhomogeneities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  1. Extension theorems for homogenization on lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    When applying homogenization techniques to problems involving lattice structures, it is necessary to extend certain functions defined on a perforated domain to a simply connected domain. This paper provides general extension operators which preserve bounds on derivatives of order l. Only the special case of honeycomb structures is considered.

  2. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V.; Akopyan, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Ishida, N.; Sugimoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using α's, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for δE/E≅0.5% for e/γ's above 50 GeV. (orig.)

  3. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Western traffic planning methodologies mostly address the concerns of homogeneous traffic and therefore often prove inadequate in solving problems involving ... Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016; Civil and Architectural Engineering ...

  4. A generalized model for homogenized reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook

    1996-01-01

    A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The method of K. Smith can be simulated within framework of new method, while the new method approximates hetero-geneous cell better in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are:improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith's approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b)control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO 2 /MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANBOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions

  5. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  6. Mach's principle in spatially homogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of Mach's Principle it is concluded that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations is flat space. It is shown that the only singularity-free solution to the empty space Einstein equations which is spatially homogeneous and globally hyperbolic is in fact suitably identified Minkowski space. (Auth.)

  7. Water Filtration through Homogeneous Granulated Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krautsou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.

  8. Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.

    1990-02-01

    In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)

  9. A new concept of equivalent homogenization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Pogoskekyan, Leonid; Kim, Young Il; Ju, Hyung Kook; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The offered concept covers both those of K. Koebke and K. Smith; both of them can be simulated within framework of new concept. Also, the offered concept covers Siemens KWU approach for baffle/reflector simulation, where the equivalent homogenized reflector XS are derived from the conservation of response matrix at the interface in 1D simi-infinite slab geometry. The IM and XS of new concept satisfy the same assumption about response matrix conservation in 1D semi-infinite slab geometry. It is expected that the new concept provides more accurate approximation of heterogeneous cell, especially in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are: improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith`s approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b) control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO{sub 2}/MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANDOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions. 9 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

  10. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phungamngoen Chanthima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  11. Gravitational bending of light rays in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsupko, O. Yu.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in presence of plasma. We observe that in a homogeneous plasma the gravitational deflection angle differs from that in vacuum, and it depends on the frequency of the photon. We discuss observational consequences of this dependence for the point-mass lensing and estimate possibility of the observation of this effect by the planned project Radioastron.

  12. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Homogenized group cross sections by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Marck, S. C.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Homogenized group cross sections play a large role in making reactor calculations efficient. Because of this significance, many codes exist that can calculate these cross sections based on certain assumptions. However, the application to the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, the limitations of such codes imply that the core calculations would become less accurate when using homogenized group cross sections (HGCS). Therefore we developed a method to calculate HGCS based on a Monte Carlo program, for which we chose MCNP. The implementation involves an addition to MCNP, and a set of small executables to perform suitable averaging after the MCNP run(s) have completed. Here we briefly describe the details of the method, and we report on two tests we performed to show the accuracy of the method and its implementation. By now, this method is routinely used in preparation of the cycle to cycle core calculations for HFR. (authors)

  14. Design of SC solenoid with high homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoliang; Liu Zhong; Luo Min; Luo Guangyao; Kang Qiang; Tan Jie; Wu Wei

    2014-01-01

    A novel kind of SC (superconducting) solenoid coil is designed to satisfy the homogeneity requirement of the magnetic field. In this paper, we first calculate the current density distribution of the solenoid coil section through the linear programming method. Then a traditional solenoid and a nonrectangular section solenoid are designed to produce a central field up to 7 T with a homogeneity to the greatest extent. After comparison of the two solenoid coils designed in magnet field quality, fabrication cost and other aspects, the new design of the nonrectangular section of a solenoid coil can be realized through improving the techniques of framework fabrication and winding. Finally, the outlook and error analysis of this kind of SC magnet coil are also discussed briefly. (authors)

  15. Testing homogeneity in Weibull-regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarine, Heleno; Valença, Dione M

    2005-10-01

    In survival studies with families or geographical units it may be of interest testing whether such groups are homogeneous for given explanatory variables. In this paper we consider score type tests for group homogeneity based on a mixing model in which the group effect is modelled as a random variable. As opposed to hazard-based frailty models, this model presents survival times that conditioned on the random effect, has an accelerated failure time representation. The test statistics requires only estimation of the conventional regression model without the random effect and does not require specifying the distribution of the random effect. The tests are derived for a Weibull regression model and in the uncensored situation, a closed form is obtained for the test statistic. A simulation study is used for comparing the power of the tests. The proposed tests are applied to real data sets with censored data.

  16. Core homogenization method for pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, V.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a core homogenization scheme for treating a stochastic pebble bed loading in pebble bed reactors. The reactor core is decomposed into macro-domains that contain several pebble types characterized by different degrees of burnup. A stochastic description is introduced to account for pebble-to-pebble and pebble-to-helium interactions within a macro-domain as well as for interactions between macro-domains. Performance of the proposed method is tested for the PROTEUS and ASTRA critical reactor facilities. Numerical simulations accomplished with the APOLLO2 transport lattice code show good agreement with the experimental data for the PROTEUS reactor facility and with the TRIPOLI4 Monte Carlo simulations for the ASTRA reactor configuration. The difference between the proposed method and the traditional volume-averaged homogenization technique is negligible while only one type of fuel pebbles present in the system, but it grows rapidly with the level of pebble heterogeneity. (authors)

  17. Smooth homogeneous structures in operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beltita, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Geometric ideas and techniques play an important role in operator theory and the theory of operator algebras. Smooth Homogeneous Structures in Operator Theory builds the background needed to understand this circle of ideas and reports on recent developments in this fruitful field of research. Requiring only a moderate familiarity with functional analysis and general topology, the author begins with an introduction to infinite dimensional Lie theory with emphasis on the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras. A detailed examination of smooth homogeneous spaces follows. This study is illustrated by familiar examples from operator theory and develops methods that allow endowing such spaces with structures of complex manifolds. The final section of the book explores equivariant monotone operators and Kähler structures. It examines certain symmetry properties of abstract reproducing kernels and arrives at a very general version of the construction of restricted Grassmann manifolds from the theory of loo...

  18. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Shape optimization in biomimetics by homogenization modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Ronald H.W.; Petrova, Svetozara I.

    2003-08-01

    Optimal shape design of microstructured materials has recently attracted a great deal of attention in material science. The shape and the topology of the microstructure have a significant impact on the macroscopic properties. The present work is devoted to the shape optimization of new biomorphic microcellular ceramics produced from natural wood by biotemplating. We are interested in finding the best material-and-shape combination in order to achieve the optimal prespecified performance of the composite material. The computation of the effective material properties is carried out using the homogenization method. Adaptive mesh-refinement technique based on the computation of recovered stresses is applied in the microstructure to find the homogenized elasticity coefficients. Numerical results show the reliability of the implemented a posteriori error estimator. (author)

  20. Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha

    2018-04-01

    The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.

  1. Homogenization of variational inequalities for obstacle problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Results on the convergence of solutions of variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities are defined by a non-linear monotone operator of the second order with periodic rapidly oscillating coefficients and a sequence of functions characterizing the obstacles. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting variational inequalities are obtained. Derivation methods for such inequalities are presented. Connections between the limiting variational inequalities and two-scale and macroscale minimization problems are established in the case of potential operators.

  2. Quantum groups and quantum homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of the R-matrix formalism and the reflection equations is demonstrated on examples of the quantum group covariant algebras (quantum homogeneous spaces): quantum Minkowski space-time, quantum sphere and super-sphere. The irreducible representations of some covariant algebras are constructed. The generalization of the reflection equation to super case is given and the existence of the quasiclassical limits is pointed out. (orig.)

  3. Process to produce homogenized reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.E.; Daniel, J.L.; Brite, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The fuels consist of a mixture of PuO 2 and UO 2 . In order to increase the homogeneity of mechanically mixed fuels the pellets are sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere with a sufficiently low oxygen potential. This results in a reduction of Pu +4 to Pu +3 . By the reduction process water vapor is obtained increasing the pressure within the PuO 2 particles and causing PuO 2 to be pressed into the uranium oxide structure. (DG) [de

  4. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K. (Lab. for Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J. (Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V. (ITEP, Moscow (Russia)); Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V. (IHEP, Serpukhov (Russia)); Akopyan, M. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russia)); Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T. (Science and Eng. Res. Lab., Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E. (Saitama Coll. of Health (Japan)); Ishida, N. (Seikei Univ. (Japan)); Sugimoto, S. (INS, Univ. Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-20

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using [alpha]'s, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for [delta]E/E[approx equal]0.5% for e/[gamma]'s above 50 GeV. (orig.).

  5. Fluoroscopic screen which is optically homogeneous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A high efficiency fluoroscopic screen for X-ray examination consists of an optically homogeneous crystal plate of fluorescent material such as activated cesium iodide, supported on a transparent protective plate, with the edges of the assembly beveled and optically coupled to a light absorbing compound. The product is dressed to the desired thickness and provided with an X-ray-transparent light-opaque cover. (Auth.)

  6. Correlated equilibria in homogenous good Bertrand competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jann, Ole; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We show that there is a unique correlated equilibrium, identical to the unique Nash equilibrium, in the classic Bertrand oligopoly model with homogenous goods and identical marginal costs. This provides a theoretical underpinning for the so-called "Bertrand paradox'' as well as its most general f...... formulation to date. Our proof generalizes to asymmetric marginal costs and arbitrarily many players in the following way: The market price cannot be higher than the second lowest marginal cost in any correlated equilibrium....

  7. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  8. Some properties of spatially homogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomer, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses two features of the universe which are influenced in a fundamental way by the spacetime geometry of the universe. The first is the growth of density fluctuations in the early stages of the evolution of the universe. The second is the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the universe. A spatially homogeneous universe is assumed in both discussions. The gravitational instability theory of galaxy formation is investigated for a viscous fluid and for a charged, conducting fluid with a magnetic field added as a perturbation. It is found that the growth rate of density perturbations in both cases is lower than in the perfect fluid case. Spatially homogeneous but nonisotropic spacetimes are investigated next. Two perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's field equations are found which have spacelike hypersurfaces with Bianchi type II geometry. An expression for the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation in a spatially homogeneous but nonisotropic universe is found. The expression is then used to determine the angular distribution of the intensity of the radiation in the simpler of the two solutions. When accepted values of the matter density and decoupling temperature are inserted into this solution, values for the age of the universe and the time of decoupling are obtained which agree reasonably well with the values of the standard model of the universe

  9. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as “homogeneous holographic lattices.' Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous holographic lattices. Our results indicate that the onset of the instability is controlled by the near horizon geometry, which for insulating solutions does carry information about the lattice. However, we observe no sharp connection between the characteristic momentum of the broken phase and the lattice pitch, which calls into question the applicability of these models to the physics of commensurability.

  10. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  11. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschö pe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  12. Testing Homogeneity with the Galaxy Fossil Record

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Heavens, Alan; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past lightcone, while observations take place on the lightcone. The history of star formation rates (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2homogeneity, we calculate the posterior distribution for the excess large-scale variance due to inhomogeneity, and find that the most likely solution is n...

  13. Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galtier

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.

  14. Investigation of methods for hydroclimatic data homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the methods used for the adjustment of inhomogeneities of temperature time series covering the last 100 years. Based on a systematic study of scientific literature, we classify and evaluate the observed inhomogeneities in historical and modern time series, as well as their adjustment methods. It turns out that these methods are mainly statistical, not well justified by experiments and are rarely supported by metadata. In many of the cases studied the proposed corrections are not even statistically significant. From the global database GHCN-Monthly Version 2, we examine all stations containing both raw and adjusted data that satisfy certain criteria of continuity and distribution over the globe. In the United States of America, because of the large number of available stations, stations were chosen after a suitable sampling. In total we analyzed 181 stations globally. For these stations we calculated the differences between the adjusted and non-adjusted linear 100-year trends. It was found that in the two thirds of the cases, the homogenization procedure increased the positive or decreased the negative temperature trends. One of the most common homogenization methods, 'SNHT for single shifts', was applied to synthetic time series with selected statistical characteristics, occasionally with offsets. The method was satisfactory when applied to independent data normally distributed, but not in data with long-term persistence. The above results cast some doubts in the use of homogenization procedures and tend to indicate that the global temperature increase during the last century is between 0.4°C and 0.7°C, where these two values are the estimates derived from raw and adjusted data, respectively.

  15. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  16. Exponential Stability of Switched Positive Homogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of switched positive nonlinear systems defined by cooperative and homogeneous vector fields. In order to capture the decay rate of such systems, we first consider the subsystems. A sufficient condition for exponential stability of subsystems with time-varying delays is derived. In particular, for the corresponding delay-free systems, we prove that this sufficient condition is also necessary. Then, we present a sufficient condition of exponential stability under minimum dwell time switching for the switched positive nonlinear systems. Some results in the previous literature are extended. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  17. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard; Zmijarevic, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the calculation of flux discontinuity factors (FDFs) for use with piecewise subdomain assembly homogenization. These coefficients depend on the numerical mesh used to compute the diffusion problem. When the mesh has a single degree of freedom on subdomain interfaces the solution is unique and can be computed independently per subdomain. For all other cases we have implemented an iterative calculation for the FDFs. Our numerical results show that there is no solution to this nonlinear problem but that the iterative algorithm converges towards FDFs values that reproduce subdomains reaction rates with a relatively high precision. In our test we have included both the GET and black-box FDFs. (author)

  18. Tensor harmonic analysis on homogenous space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hilbert space of tensor functions on a homogenous space with the compact stability group is considered. The functions are decomposed onto a sum of tensor plane waves (defined in the text), components of which are transformed by irreducible representations of the appropriate transformation group. The orthogonality relation and the completeness relation for tensor plane waves are found. The decomposition constitutes a unitary transformation, which allows to obtain the Parseval equality. The Fourier components can be calculated by means of the Fourier transformation, the form of which is given explicitly. (author)

  19. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  20. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Topology of actions and homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Konstantin L

    2013-01-01

    Topologization of a group of homeomorphisms and its action provide additional possibilities for studying the topological space, the group of homeomorphisms, and their interconnections. The subject of the paper is the use of the property of d-openness of an action (introduced by Ancel under the name of weak micro-transitivity) in the study of spaces with various forms of homogeneity. It is proved that a d-open action of a Čech-complete group is open. A characterization of Polish SLH spaces using d-openness is given, and it is established that any separable metrizable SLH space has an SLH completion that is a Polish space. Furthermore, the completion is realized in coordination with the completion of the acting group with respect to the two-sided uniformity. A sufficient condition is given for extension of a d-open action to the completion of the space with respect to the maximal equiuniformity with preservation of d-openness. A result of van Mill is generalized, namely, it is proved that any homogeneous CDH metrizable compactum is the only G-compactification of the space of rational numbers for the action of some Polish group. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  2. TWO FERROMAGNETIC SPHERES IN HOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Krasnitsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of two spherical conductors is studied quite in detail with bispherical coordinates usage and has numerous appendices in an electrostatics. The boundary-value problem about two ferromagnetic spheres enclosed on homogeneous and infinite environment in which the lack of spheres exists like homogeneous magnetic field is considered. The solution of Laplace's equation in the bispherical system of coordinates allows us to find the potential and field distribution in all spaces, including area between spheres. The boundary conditions in potential continuity and in ordinary density constituent of spheres surfaces induction flux are used. It is supposed that spheres are identical, and magnetic permeability of their material is expressed in  >> 0. The problem about falling of electromagnetic plane wave on the system of two spheres, which possesses electrically small sizes, can be considered as quasistationary. The scalar potentials received as a result of Laplace's equation solution are represented by the series containing Legendre polynomials. The concept of two spheres system effective permeability is introduced. It is equal to the advantage in magnitude of magnetic induction flux vector through a certain system’s section arising due to its magnetic properties. Necessary ratios for the effective permeability referred to the central system’s section are obtained. Particularly, the results can be used during the analysis of ferroxcube core clearance, which influences on the magnetic antenna properties. 

  3. Primary healthcare solo practices: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineault, Raynald; Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Provost, Sylvie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Boivin, Antoine; Couture, Audrey; Prud'homme, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Solo practices have generally been viewed as forming a homogeneous group. However, they may differ on many characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify different forms of solo practice and to determine the extent to which they are associated with patient experience of care. Methods. Two surveys were carried out in two regions of Quebec in 2010: a telephone survey of 9180 respondents from the general population and a postal survey of 606 primary healthcare (PHC) practices. Data from the two surveys were linked through the respondent's usual source of care. A taxonomy of solo practices was constructed (n = 213), using cluster analysis techniques. Bivariate and multilevel analyses were used to determine the relationship of the taxonomy with patient experience of care. Results. Four models were derived from the taxonomy. Practices in the "resourceful networked" model contrast with those of the "resourceless isolated" model to the extent that the experience of care reported by their patients is more favorable. Conclusion. Solo practice is not a homogeneous group. The four models identified have different organizational features and their patients' experience of care also differs. Some models seem to offer a better organizational potential in the context of current reforms.

  4. Cosmic Ray Hit Detection with Homogenous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O. M.

    Cosmic ray (CR) hits can affect a significant number of pixels both on long-exposure ground-based CCD observations and on the Space Telescope frames. Thus, methods of identifying the damaged pixels are an important part of the data preprocessing for practically any application. The paper presents an implementation of a CR hit detection algorithm based on a homogenous structure (also called cellular automata ), a concept originating in artificial intelligence and dicrete mathematics. Each pixel of the image is represented by a small automaton, which interacts with its neighbors and assumes a distinct state if it ``decides'' that a CR hit is present. On test data, the algorithm has shown a high detection rate (~0.7 ) and a low false alarm rate (frame. A homogenous structure is extremely trainable, which can be very important for processing large batches of data obtained under similar conditions. Training and optimizing issues are discussed, as well as possible other applications of this concept to image processing.

  5. Photo-electret effects in homogenous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiev, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the given work is shown the opportunity and created the theory of photo-electret condition in semiconductors with Dember mechanism of photo-voltage generation. Photo-electret of such type can be created, instead of traditional and without an external field as a result of only one illumination. Polar factor, in this case, is the distinction of electrons and holes mobility. Considered the multilayered structure with homogeneous photoactive micro areas shared by the layers, which are interfering to alignment of carriers concentration. We consider, that the homogeneous photoactive areas contain deep levels of stick. Because of addition of elementary photo voltage in separate micro photo cells it is formed the abnormal-large photo voltage (APV-effect). Let's notice, that Dember photo-voltage in a separate micro photo-cell ≤kT/q. From the received expressions, in practically important, special case, when quasi- balance between valent zone and stick levels established in much more smaller time, than free hole lifetime, and we received, that photo-voltage is relaxing. Comparing of the received expressions with the laws of photo voltage attenuation in p-n- junction structures shows their identity; the difference is only in absolute meanings of photo voltage. During the illumination in the semiconductor are created the superfluous concentration of charge carriers and part from them stays at deep levels. At de-energizing light there is a gradual generation of carriers located at these levels

  6. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  7. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  8. Hydrogen Production by Homogeneous Catalysis: Alcohol Acceptorless Dehydrogenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    in hydrogen production from biomass using homogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis has the advance of generally performing transformations at much milder conditions than traditional heterogeneous catalysis, and hence it constitutes a promising tool for future applications for a sustainable energy sector...

  9. Radiotracer investigation of cement raw meal homogenizers. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on radioisotopic tracer technique a method has been worked out to study the homogenization and segregation processes of cement-industrial raw meal homogenizers. On-site measurements were carried out by this method in some Hungarian cement works to determine the optimal homogenization parameters of operating homogenizers. The motion and distribution of different raw meal fractions traced with 198 Au radioisotope was studied in homogenization processes proceeding with different parameters. In the first part of the publication the change of charge homogenity in time was discussed which had been measured as the resultant of mixing and separating processes. In the second part the parameters and types of homogenizers influencing the efficiency of homogenization have been detailed. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiotracer investigation of cement raw meal homogenizers. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranyai, L

    1983-12-01

    Based on radioisotopic tracer technique a method has been worked out to study the homogenization and segregation processes of cement-industrial raw meal homogenizers. On-site measurements were carried out by this method in some Hungarian cement works to determine the optimal homogenization parameters of operating homogenizers. The motion and distribution of different raw meal fractions traced with /sup 198/Au radioisotope was studied in homogenization processes proceeding with different parameters. In the first part of the publication the change of charge homogenity in time was discussed which had been measured as the resultant of mixing and separating processes. In the second part the parameters and types of homogenizers influencing the efficiency of homogenization have been detailed.

  11. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  12. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  13. Correlations in plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium; Les correlations dans un plasma en equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper treats of a fully, ionized plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. An attempt is made at reviewing the calculation of spatial correlations in such a plasma. The equation of recurrence and the principle of superposition are used. The linear approximation is first treated. The next higher approximation is studied in the case of a neutral homogeneous and isotropic plasma. (author) [French] Un plasma completement ionise est en equilibre thermodynamique. On tente une mise au point du calcul des correlations de position dans ce plasma. On utilise les equations de recurrence et le principe de superposition. On expose d'abord l'approximation lineaire. Dans le cas d'un plasma neutre homogene et isotrope l'etude est poursuivie a l'approximation suivante. (auteur)

  14. Layered Fiberconcrete with Non-Homogeneous Fibers Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lūsis, V; Krasņikovs, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present research is to create fiberconcrete construction with non-homogeneous fibers distribution in it. Traditionally fibers are homogeneously dispersed in a concrete. At the same time in many situations fiberconcretes with homogeneously dispersed fibers are not optimal (majority of added fibers are not participating in a loads bearing process).

  15. Non-homogeneous dynamic Bayesian networks for continuous data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk

    Classical dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) are based on the homogeneous Markov assumption and cannot deal with non-homogeneous temporal processes. Various approaches to relax the homogeneity assumption have recently been proposed. The present paper presents a combination of a Bayesian network with

  16. Bounds for nonlinear composites via iterated homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2012-09-01

    Improved estimates of the Hashin-Shtrikman-Willis type are generated for the class of nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases distributed randomly with prescribed two-point correlations, as determined by the H-measure of the microstructure. For this purpose, a novel strategy for generating bounds has been developed utilizing iterated homogenization. The general idea is to make use of bounds that may be available for composite materials in the limit when the concentration of one of the phases (say phase 1) is small. It then follows from the theory of iterated homogenization that it is possible, under certain conditions, to obtain bounds for more general values of the concentration, by gradually adding small amounts of phase 1 in incremental fashion, and sequentially using the available dilute-concentration estimate, up to the final (finite) value of the concentration (of phase 1). Such an approach can also be useful when available bounds are expected to be tighter for certain ranges of the phase volume fractions. This is the case, for example, for the "linear comparison" bounds for porous viscoplastic materials, which are known to be comparatively tighter for large values of the porosity. In this case, the new bounds obtained by the above-mentioned "iterated" procedure can be shown to be much improved relative to the earlier "linear comparison" bounds, especially at low values of the porosity and high triaxialities. Consistent with the way in which they have been derived, the new estimates are, strictly, bounds only for the class of multi-scale, nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases that are distributed with prescribed H-measure at each stage in the incremental process. However, given the facts that the H-measure of the sequential microstructures is conserved (so that the final microstructures can be shown to have the same H-measure), and that H-measures are insensitive to length scales, it is conjectured

  17. Homogenization of the lipid profile values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Brotons, Carlos; Esteban-Salán, Margarita; García-Lerín, Aurora; Pintó, Xavier; Lekuona, Iñaki; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi

    Analytical reports from the clinical laboratory are essential to guide clinicians about what lipid profile values should be considered altered and, therefore, require intervention. Unfortunately, there is a great heterogeneity in the lipid values reported as "normal, desirable, recommended or referenced" by clinical laboratories. This can difficult clinical decisions and be a barrier to achieve the therapeutic goals for cardiovascular prevention. A recent international recommendation has added a new heterogeneity factor for the interpretation of lipid profile, such as the possibility of measuring it without previous fasting. All this justifies the need to develop a document that adapts the existing knowledge to the clinical practice of our health system. In this regard, professionals from different scientific societies involved in the measurement and use of lipid profile data have developed this document to establish recommendations that facilitate their homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. The structure and homogeneity of Psalm 32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Henk Potgieter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is widely regarded as a psalm of thanksgiving with elements of wisdom poetry intermingled into it. The wisdom elements are variously explained as having been present from the beginning, or as having been added to a foundational composition. Such views of the Gattung have had a decisive influence on the interpretation of the psalm. This article argues, on the basis of a structural analysis, that Psalm 32 should be understood as a homogeneous wisdom composition. The parallel and inverse structure of its two stanzas demonstrate that the aim of its author was to encourage the upright to foster an open, intimate relationship with Yahweh in which transgressions are confessed and Yahweh’s benevolent guidance on the way of life is wisely accepted.

  19. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  20. Homogenization in thermoelasticity: application to composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyroux, R [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France); Licht, C [Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier 2, 34 Montpellier (France)

    1993-11-01

    One of the obstacles to the industrial use of metal matrix composite materials is the damage they rapidly undergo when they are subjected to cyclic thermal loadings; local thermal stresses of high level can develop, sometimes nearby or over the elastic limit, due to the mismatch of elastic and thermal coefficients between the fibers and the matrix. For the same reasons, early cracks can appear in composites like ceramic-ceramic. Therefore, we investigate the linear thermoelastic behaviour of heterogeneous materials, taking account of the isentropic coupling term in the heat conduction equation. In the case of periodic materials, recent results, using the homogenization theory, allowed us to describe macroscopic and microscopic behaviours of such materials. This paper is concerned with the numerical simulation of this problem by a finite element method, using a multiscale approach. (orig.).

  1. Modelling of an homogeneous equilibrium mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, A.; Poujade, O.; Mathiaud, J.; Mathiaud, J.; Ghidaglia, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a model for two phase flows which is simpler than the 6-equations models (with two densities, two velocities, two temperatures) but more accurate than the standard mixture models with 4 equations (with two densities, one velocity and one temperature). We are interested in the case when the two-phases have been interacting long enough for the drag force to be small but still not negligible. The so-called Homogeneous Equilibrium Mixture Model (HEM) that we present is dealing with both mixture and relative quantities, allowing in particular to follow both a mixture velocity and a relative velocity. This relative velocity is not tracked by a conservation law but by a closure law (drift relation), whose expression is related to the drag force terms of the two-phase flow. After the derivation of the model, a stability analysis and numerical experiments are presented. (authors)

  2. Homogeneous wave turbulence driven by tidal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, B.; Le Reun, T.; Barker, A.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-12-01

    When a moon orbits around a planet, the rotation of the induced tidal bulge drives a homogeneous, periodic, large-scale flow. The combination of such an excitation with the rotating motion of the planet has been shown to drive parametric resonance of a pair of inertial waves in a mechanism called the elliptical instability. Geophysical fluid layers can also be stratified: this is the case for instance of the Earth's oceans and, as suggested by several studies, of the upper part of the Earth's liquid Outer Core. We thus investigate the stability of a rotating and stratified layer undergoing tidal distortion in the limit where either rotation or stratification is dominant. We show that the periodic tidal flow drives a parametric subharmonic resonance of inertial (resp. internal) waves in the rotating (resp. stratified) case. The instability saturates into a wave turbulence pervading the whole fluid layer. In such a state, the instability mechanism conveys the tidal energy from the large scale tidal flow to the resonant modes, which then feed a succession of triadic resonances also generating small spatial scales. In the rotating case, we observe a kinetic energy spectrum with a k-2 slope for which the Coriolis force is dominant at all spatial scales. In the stratified case, where the timescale separation is increased between the tidal excitation and the Brunt-Väisälä frequencies, the temporal spectrum decays with a ω-2 power law up to the cut-off frequency beyond which waves do not exist. This result is reminiscent of the Garrett and Munk spectrum measured in the oceans and theoretically described as a manifestation of internal wave turbulence. In addition to revealing an instability driving homogeneous turbulence in geophysical fluid layers, our approach is also an efficient numerical tool to investigate the possibly universal properties of wave turbulence in a geophysical context.

  3. Conformally compactified homogeneous spaces (Possible Observable Consequences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinich, P.

    1995-01-01

    Some arguments based on the possible spontaneous violation of the Cosmological Principles (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), the Cartan-geometry of simple spinors and on the Fock-formulation of hydrogen-atom wave-equation in momentum-space, are presented in favour of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum-space should be both conformally compactified and represented by the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformal group, both isomorphic to (S 3 X S 1 )/Z 2 and correlated by conformal inversion. Within this framework, the possible common origin for the S0(4) symmetry underlying the geometrical structure of the Universe, of Kepler orbits and of the H-atom is discussed. On of the consequences of the proposed hypothesis could be that any quantum field theory should be naturally free from both infrared and ultraviolet divergences. But then physical spaces defined as those where physical phenomena may be best described, could be different from those homogeneous spaces. A simple, exactly soluble, toy model, valid for a two-dimensional space-time is presented where the conjecture conformally compactified space-time and momentum-space are both isomorphic to (S 1 X S 1 )/Z 2 , while the physical spaces are two finite lattice which are dual since Fourier transforms, represented by finite, discrete, sums may be well defined on them. Furthermore, a q-deformed SU q (1,1) may be represented on them if q is a root of unity. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  4. Value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Li-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations, and obtain the results on the relations between the order of the solutions and the convergence exponents of the zeros, poles, a-points and small function value points of the solutions, which show the relations in the case of non-homogeneous equations are sharper than the ones in the case of homogeneous equations.

  5. Dissolution test for homogeneity of mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the relationship between fuel pellet homogeneity and pellet dissolubility. Although, in general, the amount of pellet residue decreased with increased homogeneity, as measured by the pellet figure of merit, the relationship was not absolute. Thus, all pellets with high figure of merit (excellent homogeneity) do not necessarily dissolve completely and all samples that dissolve completely do not necessarily have excellent homogeneity. It was therefore concluded that pellet dissolubility measurements could not be substituted for figure of merit determinations as a measurement of pellet homogeneity. 8 figures, 3 tables

  6. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  7. Assembly homogenization techniques for light water reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in development and application of advanced assembly homogenization methods for light water reactor analysis is reviewed. Practical difficulties arising from conventional flux-weighting approximations are discussed and numerical examples given. The mathematical foundations for homogenization methods are outlined. Two methods, Equivalence Theory and Generalized Equivalence Theory which are theoretically capable of eliminating homogenization error are reviewed. Practical means of obtaining approximate homogenized parameters are presented and numerical examples are used to contrast the two methods. Applications of these techniques to PWR baffle/reflector homogenization and BWR bundle homogenization are discussed. Nodal solutions to realistic reactor problems are compared to fine-mesh PDQ calculations, and the accuracy of the advanced homogenization methods is established. Remaining problem areas are investigated, and directions for future research are suggested. (author)

  8. Homogeneous deuterium exchange using rhenium and platinum chloride catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawdry, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange are mostly confined to one catalyst, the tetrachloroplatinite salt. Recent reports have indicated that chloride salts of iridium and rhodium may also be homogeneous exchange catalysts similar to the tetrachloroplatinite, but with much lower activities. Exchange by these homogeneous catalysts is frequently accompanied by metal precipitation with the termination of homogeneous exchange, particularly in the case of alkane exchange. The studies presented in this thesis describe two different approaches to overcome this limitation of homogeneous hydrogen isotope exchange catalysts. The first approach was to improve the stability of an existing homogeneous catalyst and the second was to develop a new homogeneous exchange catalyst which is free of the instability limitation

  9. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  10. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution

  11. Velocity and texture of a plasma jet created in a plasma torch with fixed minimal arc length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilotijevic, M; Dacic, B; Bozic, D

    2009-01-01

    A new plasma jet (PJ-100) plasma spraying torch with a fixed minimal arc length was tested and the basic working parameters were measured and evaluated. The velocity of the plasma exiting both the cylindrical and the conical anode nozzles was assessed by measuring the thrust generated by the plasma jet and by photographing the translation of plasma clouds (parts with different brightnesses) in the last third of the length of the plasma plume. The basic characteristics of the argon/hydrogen plasma jets (enthalpy, mean temperature, mean plasma velocity and effective exhaust thrust velocity) were determined for different working regimes, for both the cylindrical and the conical nozzles. The thermal efficiency of the new plasma torch is between 70% and 74% for the plasma generation power up to 90 kW. The plasma plume generated in the cylindrical nozzle has a homogeneous radial temperature (and velocity) distribution with a full laminar flow.

  12. General principles for the formation of dust self-organizing structures. Dust collective attraction and plasma crystal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a homogeneous dusty plasma is universally unstable to form structures. The effect of collective grain attraction is a basic phenomenon for the proposed new paradigm (general principles) for the plasma crystal formation

  13. On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.

    2000-08-01

    Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in

  14. Homogeneous Thorium Fuel Cycles in Candu Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Magill, M. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The CANDU{sup R} reactor has an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility, as a consequence of its fuel-channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle [1]. These features facilitate the introduction and full exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in Candu reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Because thorium itself does not contain a fissile isotope, neutrons must be provided by adding a fissile material, either within or outside of the thorium-based fuel. Those same Candu features that provide fuel-cycle flexibility also make possible many thorium fuel-cycle options. Various thorium fuel cycles can be categorized by the type and geometry of the added fissile material. The simplest of these fuel cycles are based on homogeneous thorium fuel designs, where the fissile material is mixed uniformly with the fertile thorium. These fuel cycles can be competitive in resource utilization with the best uranium-based fuel cycles, while building up a 'mine' of U-233 in the spent fuel, for possible recycle in thermal reactors. When U-233 is recycled from the spent fuel, thorium-based fuel cycles in Candu reactors can provide substantial improvements in the efficiency of energy production from existing fissile resources. The fissile component driving the initial fuel could be enriched uranium, plutonium, or uranium-233. Many different thorium fuel cycle options have been studied at AECL [2,3]. This paper presents the results of recent homogeneous thorium fuel cycle calculations using plutonium and enriched uranium as driver fuels, with and without U-233 recycle. High and low burnup cases have been investigated for both the once-through and U-233 recycle cases. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 1. Boczar, P.G. 'Candu Fuel-Cycle Vision', Presented at IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on 'Fuel Cycle Options for LWRs and HWRs', 1998 April 28 - May 01, also Atomic Energy

  15. Persymmetric Adaptive Detectors of Subspace Signals in Homogeneous and Partially Homogeneous Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of adaptive radar detection, an effective strategy to improve the detection performance is to exploit the structural information of the covariance matrix, especially in the case of insufficient reference cells. Thus, in this study, the problem of detecting multidimensional subspace signals is discussed by considering the persymmetric structure of the clutter covariance matrix, which implies that the covariance matrix is persymmetric about its cross diagonal. Persymmetric adaptive detectors are derived on the basis of the one-step principle as well as the two-step Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT in homogeneous and partially homogeneous clutter. The proposed detectors consider the structural information of the covariance matrix at the design stage. Simulation results suggest performance improvement compared with existing detectors when reference cells are insufficient. Moreover, the detection performance is assessed with respect to the effects of the covariance matrix, signal subspace dimension, and mismatched performance of signal subspace as well as signal fluctuations.

  16. Low-temperature synthesis of homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qijin; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide films are fabricated by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition from feedstock gases silane and methane heavily diluted with hydrogen at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses show that homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films can be synthesized at an appropriate silane fraction X[100%xsilane flow(SCCM)/silane+methane flow(SCCM)] in the gas mixture. The achievement of homogeneous nanocrystalline 3C-SiC films at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C is a synergy of a low deposition pressure (22 mTorr), high inductive rf power (2000 W), heavy dilution of feedstock gases silane and methane with hydrogen, and appropriate silane fractions X (X≤33%) in the gas mixture employed in our experiments

  17. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2011-01-10

    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  19. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  20. Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.

  1. Homogenization models for 2-D grid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Cioranescu, D.; Rebnord, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    In the past several years, we have pursued efforts related to the development of accurate models for the dynamics of flexible structures made of composite materials. Rather than viewing periodicity and sparseness as obstacles to be overcome, we exploit them to our advantage. We consider a variational problem on a domain that has large, periodically distributed holes. Using homogenization techniques we show that the solution to this problem is in some topology 'close' to the solution of a similar problem that holds on a much simpler domain. We study the behavior of the solution of the variational problem as the holes increase in number, but decrease in size in such a way that the total amount of material remains constant. The result is an equation that is in general more complex, but with a domain that is simply connected rather than perforated. We study the limit of the solution as the amount of material goes to zero. This second limit will, in most cases, retrieve much of the simplicity that was lost in the first limit without sacrificing the simplicity of the domain. Finally, we show that these results can be applied to the case of a vibrating Love-Kirchhoff plate with Kelvin-Voigt damping. We rely heavily on earlier results of (Du), (CS) for the static, undamped Love-Kirchhoff equation. Our efforts here result in a modification of those results to include both time dependence and Kelvin-Voigt damping.

  2. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Olson, S

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe. (paper)

  3. Numerical computation of homogeneous slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS).

  4. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  5. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  6. Lagrangian statistics in compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yantao; Wang, Jianchun; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi

    2011-11-01

    In this work we conducted the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a forced compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence and investigated the flow statistics from the Lagrangian point of view, namely the statistics is computed following the passive tracers trajectories. The numerical method combined the Eulerian field solver which was developed by Wang et al. (2010, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 5257-5279), and a Lagrangian module for tracking the tracers and recording the data. The Lagrangian probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) have then been calculated for both kinetic and thermodynamic quantities. In order to isolate the shearing part from the compressing part of the flow, we employed the Helmholtz decomposition to decompose the flow field (mainly the velocity field) into the solenoidal and compressive parts. The solenoidal part was compared with the incompressible case, while the compressibility effect showed up in the compressive part. The Lagrangian structure functions and cross-correlation between various quantities will also be discussed. This work was supported in part by the China's Turbulence Program under Grant No.2009CB724101.

  7. Forming homogeneous clusters for differential risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maardberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Latent risk situations are always present in society. General information on these risk situations is supposed to be received differently by different groups of people in the population. In the aftermath of specific accidents different groups presumably have need of specific information about how to act to survive, to avoid injuries, to find more information, to obtain facts about the accidents etc. As targets for information these different groups could be defined in different ways. The conventional way is to divide the population according to demographic variables, such as age, sex, occupation etc. Another way would be to structure the population according to dependent variables measured in different studies. They may concern risk perception, emotional reactions, specific technical knowledge of the accidents, and belief in the information sources. One procedure for forming such groupings of people into homogeneous clusters would be by statistical clustering methods on dependent variables. Examples of such clustering procedures are presented and discussed. Data are from a Norwegian study on the perception of radiation from nuclear accidents and other radiation sources. Speculations are made on different risk information strategies. Elements of a research programme are proposed. (author)

  8. Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant

    2010-11-01

    An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.

  9. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters in homogeneous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka, E.

    1995-01-01

    A physical background is presented for a computer program which calculates the thermal neutron diffusion parameters for homogeneous mixtures of any compounds. The macroscopic absorption, scattering and transport cross section of the mixture are defined which are generally function of the incident neutron energy. The energy-averaged neutron parameters are available when these energy dependences and the thermal neutron energy distribution are assumed. Then the averaged diffusion coefficient and the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rare and the diffusion constant) are also defined. The absorption cross section is described by the 1/v law and deviations from this behaviour are considered. The scattering cross section can be assumed as being almost constant in the thermal neutron region (which results from the free gas model). Serious deviations are observed for hydrogen atoms bound in molecules and a special study in the paper is devoted to this problem. A certain effective scattering cross section is found in this case on a base of individual exact data for a few hydrogenous media. Approximations assumed for the average cosine of the scattering angle are also discussed. The macroscopic parameters calculated are averaged over the Maxwellian energy distribution for the thermal neutron flux. An information on the input data for the computer program is included. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Generalized quantum theory of recollapsing homogeneous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David; Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    A sum-over-histories generalized quantum theory is developed for homogeneous minisuperspace type A Bianchi cosmological models, focusing on the particular example of the classically recollapsing Bianchi type-IX universe. The decoherence functional for such universes is exhibited. We show how the probabilities of decoherent sets of alternative, coarse-grained histories of these model universes can be calculated. We consider in particular the probabilities for classical evolution defined by a suitable coarse graining. For a restricted class of initial conditions and coarse grainings we exhibit the approximate decoherence of alternative histories in which the universe behaves classically and those in which it does not. For these situations we show that the probability is near unity for the universe to recontract classically if it expands classically. We also determine the relative probabilities of quasiclassical trajectories for initial states of WKB form, recovering for such states a precise form of the familiar heuristic 'J·dΣ' rule of quantum cosmology, as well as a generalization of this rule to generic initial states

  11. Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J; Malico, I

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.

  12. Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J [Mechanical Engineering Department, IDMEC/LAETA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malico, I [Physics Department, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)], E-mail: carlos.silva@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: imbm@uevora.pt, E-mail: pedro.coelho@ist.utl.pt

    2009-09-15

    An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.

  13. Interaction of the Modulated Electron Beam with Plasma: Kinetic Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Kiyanchuk, M.J.; Soroka, S.V.; Velikanets', D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the velocity distribution functions of plasma and beam electrons during modulated electron beam propagation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas was studied numerically. Velocity distribution function of plasma electrons at the late time moments strongly differs from the initially Maxwellian one. In the regions of strong electric field plasma electrons' bunches are formed. Comparison of distribution functions of beam electrons for modulated and non-modulated beams shows that deep initial modulation suppresses resonant instability development. In the inhomogeneous plasma acceleration of electrons in the plasma resonance point can be observed

  14. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  15. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  16. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  17. Shock implosion of a small homogeneous pellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1985-10-01

    A small spherical, or cylindrical, pellet is imploded by an intensive, evenly distributed, short energy pulse. At the surface of the pellet the matter ionizes, its temperature and pressure rapidly rise, and the ablated plasma, by reaction, implodes the inner nucleus of the pellet. The involved structure of the energy absorbing zone is idealized and a sharp deflagration front is considered. With an almost square energy pulse, slightly dropping with time, the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations of the compressed matter, is self-similar. The differential equation of the nondimensional position of the deflagration front, its integral, and the magnitude and shape of the outside energy pulse are derived. The process of ablation is shown to depend solely on the nondimensional velocity of the gas just ahead of the deflagration front, minus the speed of sound, or the ratio of the gas densities across the deflagration front.

  18. Shock implosion of a small homogeneous pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1985-01-01

    A small spherical, or cylindrical, pellet is imploded by an intensive, evenly distributed, short energy pulse. At the surface of the pellet the matter ionizes, its temperature and pressure rapidly rise, and the ablated plasma, by reaction, implodes the inner nucleus of the pellet. The involved structure of the energy absorbing zone is idealized and a sharp deflagration front is considered. With an almost square energy pulse, slightly dropping with time, the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations of the compressed matter, is self-similar. The differential equation of the nondimensional position of the deflagration front, its integral, and the magnitude and shape of the outside energy pulse are derived. The process of ablation is shown to depend solely on the nondimensional velocity of the gas just ahead of the deflagration front, minus the speed of sound, or the ratio of the gas densities across the deflagration front

  19. Ceria powders by homogeneous precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Roy, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Formation of precursors for ceria by two homogeneous precipitation reactions - (cerium chloride + urea at 95 degC - called reaction A and cerium chloride + hexamethylenetetramine at 85 degC - called reaction B) - has been studied. The variation of size of the colloidal particles formed and the zeta potential of the suspensions with progress of reactions exhibited similar trends for both the precipitation processes. Particle size increased from 100 to 300 nm with increasing temperature and extent of reaction. The zeta potential was found to decrease with increasing extent of precipitation in the pH range of 5 to 7. Filtration and drying led to agglomeration of the fine particles in case of the precursor from reaction B. The as-formed precursors were crystalline - a basic carbonate in case of reaction A and hydrous oxide in case of reaction B. It was found that nano-crystalline ceria powders (average crystallite size -10 nm) formed above 400 degC from both these precursors. The agglomerate size (D50) of the precursors and ceria powders formed after calcination at 600 degC varied from 0.7 to 3 μm. Increasing calcination temperature up to 800 degC, increased the crystallite size (50 nm). The zeta potential variation with pH and concentration of an anionic dispersant (Calgon) for the ceria powders formed was studied to determine the ideal conditions for suspension stability. It was found to be maximum (i.e., the suspensions stable) in the pH range of 3 to 4 or Calgon concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 weight percent. (author)

  20. A Modified Homogeneous Balance Method and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2011-01-01

    A modified homogeneous balance method is proposed by improving some key steps in the homogeneous balance method. Bilinear equations of some nonlinear evolution equations are derived by using the modified homogeneous balance method. Generalized Boussinesq equation, KP equation, and mKdV equation are chosen as examples to illustrate our method. This approach is also applicable to a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations. (general)

  1. Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballai, I

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas

  2. EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.

  3. Economical preparation of extremely homogeneous nuclear accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for target preparation with a minimum consumption of isotopic material are described. The rotating substrate method, which generates extremely homogeneous targets, is discussed in some detail

  4. Structural changes in heat resisting high nickel alloys during homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleshchev, A.S.; Korneeva, N.N.; Yurina, O.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of homogenization on the structure and technological plasticity of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys during treatment with pressure is investigated taking into account peculiarities if the phase composition. It is shown that homogenization of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys increases the technological plasticity. Homogenization efficiency is conditioned by the change of the grain boundaries and carbide morphology as well as by homogeneous distribution of the large γ'-phase [ru

  5. Sewage sludge solubilization by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Guo, Jianbin; Ma, Weifang; Fang, Wei; Ma, Boqiang; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of sludge solubilization using high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was examined by investigating the sludge solid reduction and organics solubilization. The sludge volatile suspended solids (VSS) decreased from 10.58 to 6.67 g/L for the sludge sample with a total solids content (TS) of 1.49% after HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles; total suspended solids (TSS) correspondingly decreased from 14.26 to 9.91 g/L. About 86.15% of the TSS reduction was attributed to the VSS reduction. The increase of homogenization pressure from 20 to 80 MPa or homogenization cycle number from 1 to 4 was favorable to the sludge organics solubilization, and the protein and polysaccharide solubilization linearly increased with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilization. More proteins were solubilized than polysaccharides. The linear relationship between SCOD solubilization and VSS reduction had no significant change under different homogenization pressures, homogenization cycles and sludge solid contents. The SCOD of 1.65 g/L was solubilized for the VSS reduction of 1.00 g/L for the three experimental sludge samples with a TS of 1.00, 1.49 and 2.48% under all HPH operating conditions. The energy efficiency results showed that the HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 30 MPa with a single homogenization cycle for the sludge sample with a TS of 2.48% was the most energy efficient.

  6. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A

    2014-08-08

    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions.

  7. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments.

  8. Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)

  9. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  10. Cytocompatibility of Plasma and Thermally Treated Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slepička

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the surface characterization of plasma and consequently thermally treated biocompatible polymers. PLLA (poly(L-lactide acid and PMP (poly-4-methyl-1-pentene are studied. The influence of Ar plasma treatment on the surface polarity of substrate measured immediately after treatment and during the polymer surface aging is studied. Surface roughness, morphology, wettability, and surface chemistry were determined. Plasma treatment leads to significant changes in PLLA surface morphology and chemistry, with the PMP being slightly affected. The higher resistance to plasma fluence results in smaller ablation of PMP than that of PLLA. The plasma treatment improves cell adhesion and proliferation on the PMP. Plasma treatment of PLLA influences mostly the homogeneity of adhered and proliferated VSMC.

  11. Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay: a novel homogeneous assay for antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A.

    1993-05-01

    A novel immunoassay, Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay (PORSCHA), is described. This assay relies upon the change in fluorescent spectral properties that pyrene and its derivatives show with varying concentration. Because antibodies and other biomolecules can bind two molecules simultaneously, they can change the local concentration of the molecules that they bind. This concentration change may be detected spectrally as a change in the fluorescence emission wavelength of an appropriately labeled biomolecule. Several tests of PORSCHA have been performed which demonstrate this principle. For example: with streptavidin as the binding biomolecule and a biotin labeled pyrene derivative, the production of the excimer emitting at 470 nm is observed. Without the streptavidin present, only the monomer emitting at 378 and 390 nm is observed. The ratio of monomer to excimer provides the concentration of unlabeled biotin in the sample. Approximately 1 ng/mL of biotin may be detected with this system using a 50 (mu) l sample (2 X 10-16 moles biotin). The principles behind PORSCHA, the results with the streptavidin/biotin system are discussed and extensions of the PORSCHA concept to antibodies as the binding partner and DNA in homogeneous assays are suggested.

  12. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  13. On integral representation, relaxation and homogenization for unbounded functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, L.; De Arcangelis, R.

    1997-01-01

    A theory of integral representation, relaxation and homogenization for some types of variational functionals taking extended real values and possibly being not finite also on large classes of regular functions is presented. Some applications to gradient constrained relaxation and homogenization problems are given

  14. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is it possible to homogenize resonant chiral metamaterials ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is very important as it makes possible description in terms of effective parameters. In this contribution we consider the homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for some metamaterials there is an optimal meta-atom size which depends on the coupling...

  16. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the

  17. Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....

  18. Comparison of surface modification of polypropylene film by filamentary DBD at atmospheric pressure and homogeneous DBD at medium pressure in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Xie, X; Li, J; Yang, H; Qiu, Y; Kuffel, E

    2009-01-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, polypropylene (PP) films are modified using a non-equilibrium plasma generated by a DBD in air in homogeneous mode and in filamentary mode. The filamentary DBD is generated in ambient air, and the homogeneous DBD is generated at medium pressure with an operating pressure value of 3 kPa. The characteristics of homogeneous DBD are studied and compared with those of filamentary DBD by measuring their electrical discharge parameters and observing their light emission phenomena, and the surface properties of the PP films before and after the treatments are studied using contact angle and surface energy measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the homogeneous DBD is even and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary DBD. The plasma treatments modify the PP surface in both morphology and composition. The PP films modified in both treatments show a remarkable decrease in the water contact angle and a remarkable increase in surface energy due to the introduction of oxygen-containing groups on the surface and the etching of the surface. The homogeneous DBD is more effective in PP surface modification than the filamentary DBD as it can make the contact angle decrease to a lower level by introducing more oxygen-containing groups. This effect could be explained by the evenly distributed plasma at a homogeneous DBD than at a filamentary DBD, and by the more efficient introduction of atomic oxygen to the PP surface in the case of homogeneous DBD.

  19. Vortex dynamics in plasmas and fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Hesthaven, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The existence and dynamics of vortical structures in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems will be discussed. In particular the dynamics of monopolar and dipolar vortices in a plasma with nonuniform density and in a rotating fluid with varying Coriolis force is described. The role of vortica...

  20. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  1. Verification of homogenization in fast critical assembly analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Go

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, homogenization procedures for fast critical assembly analyses are investigated. Errors caused by homogenizations are evaluated by the exact perturbation theory. In order to obtain reference solutions, three-dimensional plate-wise transport calculations are performed. It is found that the angular neutron flux along plate boundaries has a significant peak in the fission source energy range. To treat this angular dependence accurately, the double-Gaussian Chebyshev angular quadrature set with S 24 is applied. It is shown that the difference between the heterogeneous leakage theory and the homogeneous theory is negligible, and that transport cross sections homogenized with neutron flux significantly underestimate neutron leakage. The error in criticality caused by a homogenization is estimated at about 0.1%Δk/kk' in a small fast critical assembly. In addition, the neutron leakage is overestimated by both leakage theories when sodium plates in fuel lattices are voided. (author)

  2. Cosmic homogeneity: a spectroscopic and model-independent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R. S.; Carvalho, G. C.; Bengaly, C. A. P., Jr.; Carvalho, J. C.; Bernui, A.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Maartens, R.

    2018-03-01

    Cosmology relies on the Cosmological Principle, i.e. the hypothesis that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. This implies in particular that the counts of galaxies should approach a homogeneous scaling with volume at sufficiently large scales. Testing homogeneity is crucial to obtain a correct interpretation of the physical assumptions underlying the current cosmic acceleration and structure formation of the Universe. In this letter, we use the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to make the first spectroscopic and model-independent measurements of the angular homogeneity scale θh. Applying four statistical estimators, we show that the angular distribution of galaxies in the range 0.46 < z < 0.62 is consistent with homogeneity at large scales, and that θh varies with redshift, indicating a smoother Universe in the past. These results are in agreement with the foundations of the standard cosmological paradigm.

  3. Turbulent Diffusion in Non-Homogeneous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.; Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.

    2012-04-01

    Many experimental studies have been devoted to the understanding of non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics. Activity in this area intensified when the basic Kolmogorov self-similar theory was extended to two-dimensional or quasi 2D turbulent flows such as those appearing in the environment, that seem to control mixing [1,2]. The statistical description and the dynamics of these geophysical flows depend strongly on the distribution of long lived organized (coherent) structures. These flows show a complex topology, but may be subdivided in terms of strongly elliptical domains (high vorticity regions), strong hyperbolic domains (deformation cells with high energy condensations) and the background turbulent field of moderate elliptic and hyperbolic characteristics. It is of fundamental importance to investigate the different influence of these topological diverse regions. Relevant geometrical information of different areas is also given by the maximum fractal dimension, which is related to the energy spectrum of the flow. Using all the available information it is possible to investigate the spatial variability of the horizontal eddy diffusivity K(x,y). This information would be very important when trying to model numerically the behaviour in time of the oil spills [3,4] There is a strong dependence of horizontal eddy diffusivities with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the wind stress measured as the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Natural sea surface oily slicks of diverse origin (plankton, algae or natural emissions and seeps of oil) form complicated structures in the sea surface due to the effects of both multiscale turbulence and Langmuir circulation. It is then possible to use the topological and scaling analysis to discriminate the different physical sea surface processes. We can relate higher orden moments of the Lagrangian velocity to effective diffusivity in spite of the need to calibrate the different regions determining the

  4. Matrix shaped pulsed laser deposition: New approach to large area and homogeneous deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkan, C.K.; May, A. [INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Group, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hammadeh, M. [Department for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, IVF Laboratory, Saarland University Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Building 9, 66421 Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abdul-Khaliq, H. [Clinic for Pediatric Cardiology, Saarland University Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Building 9, 66421 Homburg, Saar (Germany); Aktas, O.C., E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Group, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the well-established physical vapor deposition methods used for synthesis of ultra-thin layers. Especially PLD is suitable for the preparation of thin films of complex alloys and ceramics where the conservation of the stoichiometry is critical. Beside several advantages of PLD, inhomogeneity in thickness limits use of PLD in some applications. There are several approaches such as rotation of the substrate or scanning of the laser beam over the target to achieve homogenous layers. On the other hand movement and transition create further complexity in process parameters. Here we present a new approach which we call Matrix Shaped PLD to control the thickness and homogeneity of deposited layers precisely. This new approach is based on shaping of the incoming laser beam by a microlens array and a Fourier lens. The beam is split into much smaller multi-beam array over the target and this leads to a homogenous plasma formation. The uniform intensity distribution over the target yields a very uniform deposit on the substrate. This approach is used to deposit carbide and oxide thin films for biomedical applications. As a case study coating of a stent which has a complex geometry is presented briefly.

  5. Nanosizing of valsartan by high pressure homogenization to produce dissolution enhanced nanosuspension: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodyanamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Shayana; Mustafa, Gulam; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate and evaluate nanosuspension of Valsartan (VAL), a poorly water soluble and low bioavailable drug (solubility of 0.18 mg mL(-1); 23% of oral bioavailability) with the aim of improving the aqueous solubility thus the bioavailability and consequently better anti-hypertensive activity. Valsartan nanosuspension (VAL-NS) was prepared using high-pressure homogenization followed by lyophilisation. The screening of homogenization factors influencing nanosuspension was done by 3-factorial, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design. Model suggested the influential role of homogenization pressure and cycles on drug nanosizing. The optimized formulation containing Poloxamer(-1)88 (PXM 188) was homogenized for 2 cycles at 500 and 1000 bar, followed by 5 cycles at 1500 bars. The size analysis and transmission electron microscopy showed nanometric size range and uniform shape of the nanosuspension. The in vitro dissolution showed an enhanced release of VAL from nanosuspension (VAL-NS) compared to physical mixture with PXM 188. Pharmacodynamic results showed that, oral administration of VAL-NS significantly lowered (p ≤ 0.001) blood pressure in comparison to non-homogenized VAL (VAL-Susp) in Wistar rat. The level of VAL in rat plasma treated with VAL-NS showed significant difference (p ≤ 0.005) in Cmax (1627.47 ± 112.05 ng mL(-1)), Tmax (2.00 h) and AUC0→24 (13279.2 ± 589.426 ng h mL(-1)) compared to VAL-Susp that was found to be 1384.73 ± 98.76 ng mL(-1), 3.00 h and 9416.24 ± 218.48 ng h mL(-1) respectively. The lower Tmax value, proved the enhanced dissolution rate of VAL. The overall results proved that newly developed VAL-NS increased the plasma bioavailability and pharmacodyanamic potential over the reference formulation containing crude VAL.

  6. Polytetrafluoroethylene surface modification by filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Hao Lili; Yang Hao; Xie Xiangqian; Qiu Yuchang; Edmund, Kuffel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films are modified using non-equilibrium plasma generated by homogeneous DBD in air at medium pressure, and the results are compared to those treated by using filamentary DBD in air at atmospheric pressure. The surface properties of PTFE films before and after the treatments are studied using contact angle and surface energy measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the plasma treatments modify the PTFE surface in both morphology and composition. The PTFE films modified in both treatments show a remarkable decrease in water contact and a remarkable increase in surface energy. XPS analysis reveals that oxygen-containing polar groups are introduced onto the PTFE surface, and SEM analysis shows that the surfaces of the films are etched after both the treatments. It is found that homogeneous DBD is more effective in PTFE surface modification than filamentary DBD as it can make the contact angle decline to a lower level by introducing more oxygen-containing groups, and the possible reason for this effect is discussed.

  7. Production of a large, quiescent, magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, D. L.; Ajmera, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental device is described which produces a large homogeneous quiescent magnetized plasma. In this device, the plasma is created in an evacuated brass cylinder by ionizing collisions between electrons emitted from a large-diameter electron gun and argon atoms in the chamber. Typical experimentally measured values of the electron temperature and density are presented which were obtained with a glass-insulated planar Langmuir probe. It is noted that the present device facilitates the study of phenomena such as waves and diffusion in magnetized plasmas.

  8. Nanodiamonds in dusty low-pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbulcke, L.; Gries, T.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Dusty plasmas composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen have been evidenced by optical emission spectroscopy and microwave interferometry, due to the increase in electron energy and the decrease in electron density. These plasmas allow homogeneous synthesis of nanodiamond grains composed of either pure diamond nanocrystals only (2-10 nm in size) or of diamond nanocrystals and some sp 2 -hybridized carbon entities. The control of their size and their microstructure could open ways for a wide range of fields. Their formation from a plasma-activated gaseous phase is also attractive because the formation of nanodiamonds in the universe is still a matter of controversy

  9. Preparation and Performance of Plasma/Polymer Composite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Hamzah, E.; Bagheriyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    ) that homogeneously covered the surface of the plasma layers. Contact angle measurement showed that polymer coating over plasma layers significantly decreased surface wettability. The corrosion current density (icorr) of an uncoated sample (262.7 µA/cm2) decreased to 76.9 µA/cm2 after plasma coatings were applied...

  10. Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiser, Benjamin; Olden, Julian D; Record, Sydne; Lockwood, Julie L; McKinney, Michael L

    2012-12-07

    Human activities have reorganized the earth's biota resulting in spatially disparate locales becoming more or less similar in species composition over time through the processes of biotic homogenization and biotic differentiation, respectively. Despite mounting evidence suggesting that this process may be widespread in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, past studies have predominantly focused on single taxonomic groups at a single spatial scale. Furthermore, change in pairwise similarity is itself dependent on two distinct processes, spatial turnover in species composition and changes in gradients of species richness. Most past research has failed to disentangle the effect of these two mechanisms on homogenization patterns. Here, we use recent statistical advances and collate a global database of homogenization studies (20 studies, 50 datasets) to provide the first global investigation of the homogenization process across major faunal and floral groups and elucidate the relative role of changes in species richness and turnover. We found evidence of homogenization (change in similarity ranging from -0.02 to 0.09) across nearly all taxonomic groups, spatial extent and grain sizes. Partitioning of change in pairwise similarity shows that overall change in community similarity is driven by changes in species richness. Our results show that biotic homogenization is truly a global phenomenon and put into question many of the ecological mechanisms invoked in previous studies to explain patterns of homogenization.

  11. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  12. At-tank Low-Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements

  13. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  14. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  15. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. An iterative homogenization technique that preserves assembly core exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, Ph.; Sanchez, R.

    2003-01-01

    A new interactive homogenization procedure for reactor core calculations is proposed that requires iterative transport assembly and diffusion core calculations. At each iteration the transport solution of every assembly type is used to produce homogenized cross sections for the core calculation. The converged solution gives assembly fine multigroup transport fluxes that preserve macro-group assembly exchanges in the core. This homogenization avoids the periodic lattice-leakage model approximation and gives detailed assembly transport fluxes without need of an approximated flux reconstruction. Preliminary results are given for a one-dimensional core model. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  18. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz

    1999-01-01

    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  19. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  20. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  1. Bridging heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis concepts, strategies, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Can

    2014-01-01

    This unique handbook fills the gap in the market for an up-to-date work that links both homogeneous catalysis applied to organic reactions and catalytic reactions on surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts.

  2. Time travel in the homogeneous Som-Raychaudhuri Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of the rotating Som-Raychaudhuri homogeneous space-time are investigated: time-like and null geodesics, causality features, horizons and invariant characterization. An integral representation of its five isometries is also discussed. (author) [pt

  3. [Methods for enzymatic determination of triglycerides in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, H; Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1987-10-01

    An enzymatic method is described for the determination of triacylglycerols in liver homogenate. In contrast to usual methods, higher reliability and selectivity are achieved by omitting the extraction step.

  4. A convenient procedure for magnetic field homogeneity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, J; Garrido, C E; Tannus, A

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of research that utilize magnetic fields in their studies, it is important to obtain fields with a spatial distribution as homogeneous as possible. A procedure usually utilized to evaluate and to optimize field homogeneity is the expansion of the measured field in spherical harmonic components. In addition to the methods proposed in the literature, we present a more convenient procedure for evaluation of field homogeneity inside a spherical volume. The procedure uses the orthogonality property of the spherical harmonics to find the field variance. It is shown that the total field variance is equal to the sum of the individual variances of each field component in the spherical harmonic expansion. Besides the advantages of the linear behaviour of the individual variances, there is the fact that the field variance and standard deviation are the best parameters to achieve global homogeneity field information

  5. Homogeneity Study of UO2 Pellet Density for Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Seon; Park, Chang Je; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Heung Soo; Song, Kee Chan

    2005-01-01

    A homogeneity study has been performed with various densities of UO 2 pellets as the work of a quality control. The densities of the UO 2 pellets are distributed randomly due to several factors such as the milling conditions and sintering environments, etc. After sintering, total fourteen bottles were chosen for UO 2 density and each bottle had three samples. With these bottles, the between-bottle and within-bottle homogeneity were investigated via the analysis of the variance (ANOVA). From the results of ANOVA, the calculated F-value is used to determine whether the distribution is accepted or rejected from the view of a homogeneity under a certain confidence level. All the homogeneity checks followed the International Standard Guide 35

  6. Tests for homogeneity for multiple 2 x 2 contingency tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Frequently data are described by 2 x 2 contingency tables. For example, each 2 x 2 table arises from two dichotomous classifications such as control/treated and respond/did not respond. Multiple 2 x 2 tables result from stratifying the observational units on the basis of other characteristics. For example, stratifying by sex produces separate 2 x 2 tables for males and females. From each table a measure of difference between the response rates for the control and the treated groups is computed. The researcher usually wants to know if the response-rate difference is zero for each table. If the tables are homogeneous, the researcher can generalize from a statement concerning an average to a statement concerning each table. If tables are not homogeneous, homogeneous subsets of the tables should be described separately. This paper presents tests for homogeneity and illustrates their use. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Engineered CHO cells for production of diverse, homogeneous glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Wang, Shengjun; Halim, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Production of glycoprotein therapeutics in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is limited by the cells' generic capacity for N-glycosylation, and production of glycoproteins with desirable homogeneous glycoforms remains a challenge. We conducted a comprehensive knockout screen of glycosyltransferas...

  8. Homogenization of aligned “fuzzy fiber” composites

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George; Efendiev, Yalchin; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study composites in which carbon fibers coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes are embedded in a matrix. The effective properties of these composites are identified using the asymptotic expansion homogenization

  9. Jordan's algebra of a facially homogeneous autopolar cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, Jean; Iochum, Bruno

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a Jordan-Banach algebra with predual may be canonically associated with a facially homogeneous autopolar cone. This construction generalizes the case where a trace vector exists in the cone [fr

  10. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  11. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  12. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Notes on a homogeneous reactor project; Idees sur un projet de reacteur homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, J; Bernot, J; Eidelman, D; Grenon, M; Portes, L; Raspaud, G; Tachon, J; Vendryes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod, L; Cohen de Lara, G; Delachanal, M; Fontanet, P; Halbronn, G [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France)

    1958-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop certain ideas concerning homogeneous reactors. The project under consideration is based on the simultaneous use of a suspension of uranium dispersed in heavy or light water and of boiling in the reactor for heat extraction. However, the studies of suspensions and of boiling are relatively independent and can also be developed for reactors of different types using one or the other. Our aim is a minimum investment in fissile material; for this we propose to extract the steam directly from the core and to make use of a cyclone to accelerate this extraction; a cyclone-type circulation creating a field of increasing tangential velocities of the fluid towards the axis causes the droplets of vapour to accelerate towards the axial vortex in which they are collected; the steam output is then evacuated to the external heat utilisation system, for example an exchanger of the condenser-boiler type. The input speed of water into the reactor being one of the important parameters in the running of the pile, a spiral supply input chamber is used, allowing this speed to be regulated in amount and direction. (author)Fren. [French] Nous nous sommes attaches a developper certaines idees relatives aux piles homogenes. Le projet que nous etudions est base sur l'emploi simultane d'une suspension contenant de l'uranium disperse dans l'eau legere ou lourde et de l'ebullition dans le reacteur pour l'extraction de chaleur. Neanmoins, les etudes de suspensions et d'ebullition sont relativement independantes et peuvent egalement etre developpees pour des reacteurs de type different utilisant l'une ou l'autre. Le but que nous cherchons a atteindre est un investissement minimum en matiere fissile; pour cela, nous proposons d'extraire directement la vapeur dans le coeur et de recourir a un dispositif cyclone pour accelerer cette extraction; une circulation type cyclone creant un champ de vitesses tangentielles du fluide croissantes veraxe a pour effet d

  14. Homogenization of aligned “fuzzy fiber” composites

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study composites in which carbon fibers coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes are embedded in a matrix. The effective properties of these composites are identified using the asymptotic expansion homogenization method in two steps. Homogenization is performed in different coordinate systems, the cylindrical and the Cartesian, and a numerical example are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Perron-Frobenius theorem for multi-homogeneous mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Antoine; Tudisco, Francesco; Hein, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The Perron-Frobenius theory for nonnegative matrices has been generalized to order-preserving homogeneous mappings on a cone and more recently to nonnegative multilinear forms. We unify both approaches by introducing the concept of order-preserving multi-homogeneous mappings, their associated nonlinear spectral problems and spectral radii. We show several Perron-Frobenius type results for these mappings addressing existence, uniqueness and maximality of nonnegative and positive eigenpairs. We...

  16. Homogeneity in Luxury Fashion Consumption: an Exploration of Arab Women

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, R.; Gad Mohsen, Marwa

    2014-01-01

    Consumer perceptions and consumer motivations are complex and whilst it is acknowledged within literature\\ud that heterogeneity exists, homogenous models dominate consumer behaviour research. The primary purpose of this\\ud paper is to explore the extent to which Arab women are a homogeneous group of consumers in regard to perceptions\\ud and motivations to consume luxury fashion goods. In particular, the paper seeks to present a critical review of luxury consumption frameworks. As part of the ...

  17. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapek, S. [Institut fuer Informatik tu Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  18. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  19. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  20. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levy, Y.; Sher, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  1. Applications of a systematic homogenization theory for nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-bin; Dorning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors recently have developed a self-consistent and systematic lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory based on a multiple spatial scales asymptotic expansion of the transport equation in the ratio of the mean free path to the reactor characteristics dimension for use with nodal diffusion methods. The mathematical development leads naturally to self-consistent analytical expressions for homogenized diffusion coefficients and cross sections and flux discontinuity factors to be used in nodal diffusion calculations. The expressions for the homogenized nuclear parameters that follow from the systematic homogenization theory (SHT) are different from those for the traditional flux and volume-weighted (FVW) parameters. The calculations summarized here show that the systematic homogenization theory developed recently for nodal diffusion methods yields accurate values for k eff and assembly powers even when compared with the results of a fine mesh transport calculation. Thus, it provides a practical alternative to equivalence theory and GET (Ref. 3) and to simplified equivalence theory, which requires auxiliary fine-mesh calculations for assemblies embedded in a typical environment to determine the discontinuity factors and the equivalent diffusion coefficient for a homogenized assembly

  2. Homogenization patterns of the world’s freshwater fish faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the “Homogocene era” is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes. PMID:22025692

  3. Homogenization patterns of the world's freshwater fish faunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-11-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the "Homogocene era" is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes.

  4. Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles.

  5. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  6. Analytical solutions of time-fractional models for homogeneous Gardner equation and non-homogeneous differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions of homogeneous time-fractional Gardner equation and non-homogeneous time-fractional models (including Buck-master equation using q-Homotopy Analysis Method (q-HAM. Our work displays the elegant nature of the application of q-HAM not only to solve homogeneous non-linear fractional differential equations but also to solve the non-homogeneous fractional differential equations. The presence of the auxiliary parameter h helps in an effective way to obtain better approximation comparable to exact solutions. The fraction-factor in this method gives it an edge over other existing analytical methods for non-linear differential equations. Comparisons are made upon the existence of exact solutions to these models. The analysis shows that our analytical solutions converge very rapidly to the exact solutions.

  7. Toward whole-core neutron transport without spatial homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A long-term goal of computational reactor physics is the deterministic analysis of power reactor core neutronics without incurring significant discretization errors in the energy, spatial or angular variables. In principle, given large enough parallel configurations with unlimited CPU time and memory, this goal could be achieved using existing three-dimensional neutron transport codes. In practice, however, solving the Boltzmann equation for neutrons over the six-dimensional phase space is made intractable by the nature of neutron cross-sections and the complexity and size of power reactor cores. Tens of thousands of energy groups would be required for faithful cross section representation. Likewise, the numerous material interfaces present in power reactor lattices require exceedingly fine spatial mesh structures; these ubiquitous interfaces preclude effective implementation of adaptive grid, mesh-less methods and related techniques that have been applied so successfully in other areas of engineering science. These challenges notwithstanding, substantial progress continues in the pursuit for more robust deterministic methods for whole-core neutronics analysis. This paper examines the progress over roughly the last decade, emphasizing the space-angle variables and the quest to eliminate errors attributable to spatial homogenization. As prolog we briefly assess 1990's methods used in light water reactor analysis and review the lessons learned from the C5G7 benchmark exercises which were originated in 1999 to appraise the ability of transport codes to perform core calculations without homogenization. We proceed by examining progress over the last decade much of which falls into three areas. These may be broadly characterized as reduced homogenization, dynamic homogenization and planar-axial synthesis. In the first, homogenization in three-dimensional calculations is reduced from the fuel assembly to the pin-cell level. In the second

  8. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Wyndham, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted wide interests since it emulates conventional ion-beam ion implantation (IBII) in niche applications. For instance, the technique has very high throughput, the implantation time is independent of the sample size, and samples with an irregular shape can be implanted without complex beam scanning or sample manipulation. For uniform ion implantation and deposition on to different substrates, like silicon, stainless steel etc., a capacitive coupled Radio frequency (RF), 13.6 MHz, plasma is used. During the PIII process, the physical parameters which are expected to play crucial rule in the deposition process like RF power, Negative pulse voltage and pulse duration, gas type and gas mixture, gas flow rates and the implantation dose are studied. The ion dose is calculated by dynamic sheath model and the plasma parameters are calculated from the V-I characteristic and power balance equation by homogeneous model of rf plasma discharge considering Ohmic as well as Stochastic heating. The correlations between the yield of the implantation process and the physical parameters as well as plasma parameters are discussed. (author)

  9. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  10. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J.; Grune, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple...

  11. Fissioning of nonlinear ion-acoustic rarefactive pulse in a homogeneous quiescent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Y.C.; Mattoo, S.K.; Sekar, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A finite amplitude rarefactive ion-acoustic wave is observed to fission resulting in two minima. After fissioning the two minima travel at different speeds, one at 0.8 Csub(s) and the other at 1.2 Csub(s), where Csub(s) is the ion-acoustic speed. (author)

  12. Spatial homogenization method based on the inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóta, Ádám; Makai, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We derive a spatial homogenization method in slab and cylindrical geometries. • The fluxes and the currents on the boundary are preserved. • The reaction rates and the integral of the fluxes are preserved. • We present verification computations utilizing two- and four-energy groups. - Abstract: We present a method for deriving homogeneous multi-group cross sections to replace a heterogeneous region’s multi-group cross sections; providing that the fluxes, the currents on the external boundary, the reaction rates and the integral of the fluxes are preserved. We consider one-dimensional geometries: a symmetric slab and a homogeneous cylinder. Assuming that the boundary fluxes are given, two response matrices (RMs) can be defined concerning the current and the flux integral. The first one derives the boundary currents from the boundary fluxes, while the second one derives the flux integrals from the boundary fluxes. Further RMs can be defined that connects reaction rates to the boundary fluxes. Assuming that these matrices are known, we present formulae that reconstruct the multi-group diffusion cross-section matrix, the diffusion coefficients and the reaction cross sections in case of one-dimensional (1D) homogeneous regions. We apply these formulae to 1D heterogeneous regions and thus obtain a homogenization method. This method produces such an equivalent homogeneous material, that the fluxes and the currents on the external boundary, the reaction rates and the integral of the fluxes are preserved for any boundary fluxes. We carry out the exact derivations in 1D slab and cylindrical geometries. Verification computations for the presented homogenization method were performed using two- and four-group material cross sections, both in a slab and in a cylindrical geometry

  13. Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Kahl, Tiemo; Grassein, Fabrice; Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Birkhofer, Klaus; Renner, Swen C; Sikorski, Johannes; Wubet, Tesfaye; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Jung, Kirsten; Keyel, Alexander C; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Penone, Caterina; Perović, David J; Purschke, Oliver; Schall, Peter; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Tschapka, Marco; Tscharntke, Teja; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul Christiaan; Weiner, Christiane N; Werner, Michael; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Westphal, Catrin; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Allan, Eric

    2016-12-08

    Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification homogenizes communities at different trophic levels, above- and belowground. Here we show that even moderate increases in local land-use intensity (LUI) cause biotic homogenization across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, and that this is largely independent of changes in α-diversity. We analysed a unique grassland biodiversity dataset, with abundances of more than 4,000 species belonging to 12 trophic groups. LUI, and, in particular, high mowing intensity, had consistent effects on β-diversity across groups, causing a homogenization of soil microbial, fungal pathogen, plant and arthropod communities. These effects were nonlinear and the strongest declines in β-diversity occurred in the transition from extensively managed to intermediate intensity grassland. LUI tended to reduce local α-diversity in aboveground groups, whereas the α-diversity increased in belowground groups. Correlations between the β-diversity of different groups, particularly between plants and their consumers, became weaker at high LUI. This suggests a loss of specialist species and is further evidence for biotic homogenization. The consistently negative effects of LUI on landscape-scale biodiversity underscore the high value of extensively managed grasslands for conserving multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Indeed, biotic homogenization rather than local diversity

  14. Central Andean temperature and precipitation measurements and its homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Observation of climatological parameters and the homogenization of these time series have a well-established history in western countries. This is not the case for many other countries, such as Bolivia and Peru. In Bolivia and Peru, the organization of measurements, quality of measurement equipment, equipment maintenance, training of staff and data management are fundamentally different compared to the western standard. The data needs special attention, because many problems are not detected by standard quality control procedures. Information about the weather stations, best achieved by station visits, is very beneficial. If the cause of the problem is known, some of the data may be corrected. In this study, cases of typical problems and measurement errors will be demonstrated. Much of research on homogenization techniques (up to subdaily scale) has been completed in recent years. However, data sets of the quality of western station networks have been used, and little is known about the performance of homogenization methods on data sets from countries such as Bolivia and Peru. HOMER (HOMogenizaton softwarE in R) is one of the most recent and widely used homogenization softwares. Its performance is tested on Peruvian-like data that has been sourced from Swiss stations (similar station density and metadata availability). The Swiss station network is a suitable test bed, because climate gradients are strong and the terrain is complex, as is also found in the Central Andes. On the other hand, the Swiss station network is dense, and long time series and extensive metadata are available. By subsampling the station network and omitting the metadata, the conditions of a Peruvian test region are mimicked. Results are compared to a dataset homogenized by THOMAS (Tool for Homogenization of Monthly Data Series), the homogenization tool used by MeteoSwiss.

  15. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  16. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  17. Determination of trimethyllead reference material using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hai; Wei Chao; Wang Jun; Chao Jingbo; Zhou Tao; Chen Dazhou

    2005-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) was combined, and the chromatography conditions were optimized. The stability and homogeneity of a trimethyllead reference material were determined using this method. (authors)

  18. Propagation of quasi-static wave and resonance cone in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbeto, A.P.B.

    1980-08-01

    The potential created by an oscillating punctual source in a magnetized homogeneous cold plasma, using quasistatic approximation is studied. The resonance cone structure in this plasma is theoretically obtained and it is verified that the conic field structure remains finite for an inhomogeneous cold plasma. The temperature effect in the resonance cone structure in layers where w->Ω e ,w->w PC and w->w nh for magnetized homogeneous electron plasma is studied. An approximated expression for dispersion relations is obtained, so that an analytical solution for the potential in these layers can be calculated. The theorem of energy conservation for quasistatic waves is developed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Non linear evolution of plasma waves excited to mode conversion at the vicinity of plasma resonance. Application to experiments of ionosphere modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr

  20. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  1. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  2. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  3. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  4. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  5. Automatic Control of the Concrete Mixture Homogeneity in Cycling Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Fedorovich, Tikhonov; Drozdov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the factors affecting the concrete mixture quality related to the moisture content of aggregates, since the effectiveness of the concrete mixture production is largely determined by the availability of quality management tools at all stages of the technological process. It is established that the unaccounted moisture of aggregates adversely affects the concrete mixture homogeneity and, accordingly, the strength of building structures. A new control method and the automatic control system of the concrete mixture homogeneity in the technological process of mixing components have been proposed, since the tasks of providing a concrete mixture are performed by the automatic control system of processing kneading-and-mixing machinery with operational automatic control of homogeneity. Theoretical underpinnings of the control of the mixture homogeneity are presented, which are related to a change in the frequency of vibrodynamic vibrations of the mixer body. The structure of the technical means of the automatic control system for regulating the supply of water is determined depending on the change in the concrete mixture homogeneity during the continuous mixing of components. The following technical means for establishing automatic control have been chosen: vibro-acoustic sensors, remote terminal units, electropneumatic control actuators, etc. To identify the quality indicator of automatic control, the system offers a structure flowchart with transfer functions that determine the ACS operation in transient dynamic mode.

  6. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David F.; Dighe, Shyam V.; Gass, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  7. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Dighe, S.V.; Gass, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles. 4 figs

  8. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  9. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  10. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  11. Higher-order asymptotic homogenization of periodic materials with low scale separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameen, M.M.; Peerlings, R.H.J.; Geers, M.G.D

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the limits of classical homogenization theories pertaining to homogenization of periodic linear elastic composite materials at low scale separations and demonstrate the effectiveness of higher-order periodic homogenization in alleviating this limitation. Classical

  12. Homogeneous nucleation in 4He: A corresponding-states analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Semura, J.S.; Brodie, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    We report homogeneous-nucleation-temperature measurements in liquid 4 He over a bath-temperature range 2.31 4 He, in a region far from the critical point. A simple empirical form is presented for estimating the homogeneous nucleation temperatures for any liquid with a spherically symmetric interatomic potential. The 4 He data are compared with nucleation data for Ar, Kr, Xe, and H; theoretical predictions for 3 He are given in terms of reduced quantities. It is shown that the nucleation data for both quantum and classical liquids obey a quantum law of corresponding states (QCS). On the basis of this QCS analysis, predictions of homogeneous nucleation temperatures are made for hydrogen isotopes such as HD, DT, HT, and T 2

  13. Radiotracer application in determining changes in cement mix homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breda, M.

    1979-01-01

    A small amount of cement labelled with 24 Na is added to the concrete mix and the relative activity of the mix is measured using a scintillation detector in preset points at different time intervals of the mixing process. The detector picks up information from a volume of 10 to 15 litres. The values characterize the degree of homogeneity of the cement component in the mix. Mathematical statistics methods are used for assessing mixing or the homogeneity changes. The technique is quick and simple and is used to advantage in determining the effect of the duration and method of transport of the cement mix on its homogeneity, and in monitoring the mixing process and determining the minimum mixing time for all types of concrete mix. (M.S.)

  14. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in curved channel with porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ayub, Sadia; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Purpose of the present investigation is to examine the peristaltic flow through porous medium in a curved conduit. Problem is modeled for incompressible electrically conducting Ellis fluid. Influence of porous medium is tackled via modified Darcy's law. The considered model utilizes homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions with equal diffusivities for reactant and autocatalysis. Constitutive equations are formulated in the presence of viscous dissipation. Channel walls are compliant in nature. Governing equations are modeled and simplified under the assumptions of small Reynolds number and large wavelength. Graphical results for velocity, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameters are examined for the emerging parameters entering into the problem. Results reveal an activation in both homogenous-heterogenous reaction effect and heat transfer rate with increasing curvature of the channel.

  15. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Glenn Michael; Ideker, Virgene Linda; Siegwarth, James David

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  16. Pyroxene Homogenization and the Isotopic Systematics of Eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1996-01-01

    The original Mg-Fe zoning of eucritic pyroxenes has in nearly all cases been partly homogenized, an observation that has been combined with other petrographic and compositional criteria to establish a scale of thermal "metamorphism" for eucrites. To evaluate hypotheses explaining development of conditions on the HED parent body (Vesta?) leading to pyroxene homogenization against their chronological implications, it is necessary to know whether pyroxene metamorphism was recorded in the isotopic systems. However, identifying the effects of the thermal metamorphism with specific effects in the isotopic systems has been difficult, due in part to a lack of correlated isotopic and mineralogical studies of the same eucrites. Furthermore, isotopic studies often place high demands on analytical capabilities, resulting in slow growth of the isotopic database. Additionally, some isotopic systems would not respond in a direct and sensitive way to pyroxene homogenization. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to generalize some observations, and to identify directions of potentially fruitful investigations.

  17. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  18. Radiation Resistance and Gain of Homogeneous Ring Quasi-Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1954-01-01

    In a previous paper homogeneous ring quasi-arrays of tangential or radial dipoles were introduced, i.e. systems of dipoles arranged equidistantly along a circle, the dipoles being oriented in tangential or radial directions and carrying currents with the same amplitude, but with a phase that incr......In a previous paper homogeneous ring quasi-arrays of tangential or radial dipoles were introduced, i.e. systems of dipoles arranged equidistantly along a circle, the dipoles being oriented in tangential or radial directions and carrying currents with the same amplitude, but with a phase...... that increases uniformly along the circle. Such quasi-arrays are azimuthally omnidirectional, and the radiated field will be mainly horizontally polarized and concentrated around the plane of the circle. In this paper expressions are obtained for the radiation resistance and the gain of homogeneous ring quasi...

  19. Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

    1999-06-29

    We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

  20. Homogenization technique for strongly heterogeneous zones in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.T.; Lee, B.H.; Cho, N.Z.; Oh, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an iterative homogenization method using transport theory in a one-dimensional cylindrical cell model developed to improve the homogenized cross sections fro strongly heterogeneous zones in research reactors. The flux-weighting homogenized cross sections are modified by a correction factor, the cell flux ratio under an albedo boundary condition. The albedo at the cell boundary is iteratively determined to reflect the geometry effects of the material properties of the adjacent cells. This method has been tested with a simplified core model of the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor. The results demonstrate that the reaction rates of an off-center control shroud cell, the multiplication factor, and the power distribution of the reactor core are close to those of the fine-mesh heterogeneous transport model

  1. Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Nanorods for Homogeneous Molecular Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongning Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is still difficult for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs to achieve homogeneous recognition since they cannot be easily dissolved in organic or aqueous phase. To address this issue, soluble molecularly imprinted nanorods have been synthesized by using soluble polyaniline doped with a functionalized organic protonic acid as the polymer matrix. By employing 1-naphthoic acid as a model, the proposed imprinted nanorods exhibit an excellent solubility and good homogeneous recognition ability. The imprinting factor for the soluble imprinted nanoroads is 6.8. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the apparent maximum number of the proposed imprinted nanorods are 248.5 μM and 22.1 μmol/g, respectively. We believe that such imprinted nanorods may provide an appealing substitute for natural receptors in homogeneous recognition related fields.

  2. Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Nanorods for Homogeneous Molecular Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongning; Wang, Tiantian; Zhang, Huan; Yao, Ruiqing; Qin, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, it is still difficult for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) to achieve homogeneous recognition since they cannot be easily dissolved in organic or aqueous phase. To address this issue, soluble molecularly imprinted nanorods have been synthesized by using soluble polyaniline doped with a functionalized organic protonic acid as the polymer matrix. By employing 1-naphthoic acid as a model, the proposed imprinted nanorods exhibit an excellent solubility and good homogeneous recognition ability. The imprinting factor for the soluble imprinted nanoroads is 6.8. The equilibrium dissociation constant and the apparent maximum number of the proposed imprinted nanorods are 248.5 μM and 22.1 μmol/g, respectively. We believe that such imprinted nanorods may provide an appealing substitute for natural receptors in homogeneous recognition related fields.

  3. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous shielding modeling of spent-fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Lindner, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    The design of spent-fuel casks for storage and transport requires modeling the cask for criticality, shielding, thermal, and structural analyses. While some parts of the cask are homogeneous, other regions are heterogeneous with different materials intermixed. For simplicity, some of the heterogeneous regions may be modeled as homogeneous. This paper evaluates the effect of homogenizing some regions of a cask on calculating radiation dose rates outside the cask. The dose rate calculations were performed with the one-dimensional discrete ordinates shielding XSDRNPM code coupled with the XSDOSE code and with the three-dimensional QAD-CGGP code. Dose rates were calculated radially at the midplane of the cask at two locations, cask surface and 2.3 m from the radial surface. The last location corresponds to a point 2 m from the lateral sides of a transport railroad car

  4. Method of the characteristics for calculation of VVER without homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslov, I.R.; Komlev, O.G.; Novikova, N.N.; Zemskov, E.A.; Tormyshev, I.V.; Melnikov, K.G.; Sidorov, E.B. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The first stage of the development of characteristics code MCCG3D for calculation of the VVER-type reactor without homogenization is presented. The parallel version of the code for MPI was developed and tested on cluster PC with LINUX-OS. Further development of the MCCG3D code for design-level calculations with full-scale space-distributed feedbacks is discussed. For validation of the MCCG3D code we use the critical assembly VENUS-2. The geometrical models with and without homogenization have been used. With both models the MCCG3D results agree well with the experimental power distribution and with results generated by the other codes, but model without homogenization provides better results. The perturbation theory for MCCG3D code is developed and implemented in the module KEFSFGG. The calculations with KEFSFGG are in good agreement with direct calculations. (authors)

  5. Does prescribed burning result in biotic homogenization of coastal heathlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velle, Liv Guri; Nilsen, Liv Sigrid; Norderhaug, Ann; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2014-05-01

    Biotic homogenization due to replacement of native biodiversity by widespread generalist species has been demonstrated in a number of ecosystems and taxonomic groups worldwide, causing growing conservation concern. Human disturbance is a key driver of biotic homogenization, suggesting potential conservation challenges in seminatural ecosystems, where anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing and burning are necessary for maintaining ecological dynamics and functioning. We test whether prescribed burning results in biotic homogenization in the coastal heathlands of north-western Europe, a seminatural landscape where extensive grazing and burning has constituted the traditional land-use practice over the past 6000 years. We compare the beta-diversity before and after fire at three ecological scales: within local vegetation patches, between wet and dry heathland patches within landscapes, and along a 470 km bioclimatic gradient. Within local patches, we found no evidence of homogenization after fire; species richness increased, and the species that entered the burnt Calluna stands were not widespread specialists but native grasses and herbs characteristic of the heathland system. At the landscapes scale, we saw a weak homogenization as wet and dry heathland patches become more compositionally similar after fire. This was because of a decrease in habitat-specific species unique to either wet or dry habitats and postfire colonization by a set of heathland specialists that established in both habitat types. Along the bioclimatic gradient, species that increased after fire generally had more specific environmental requirements and narrower geographical distributions than the prefire flora, resulting in a biotic 'heterogenisation' after fire. Our study demonstrates that human disturbance does not necessarily cause biotic homogenization, but that continuation of traditional land-use practices can instead be crucial for the maintenance of the diversity and ecological

  6. Numerical computing of elastic homogenized coefficients for periodic fibrous tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The homogenization theory in linear elasticity is applied to a periodic array of cylindrical inclusions in rectangular pattern extending to infinity in the inclusions axial direction, such that the deformation of tissue along this last direction is negligible. In the plane of deformation, the homogenization scheme is based on the average strain energy whereas in the third direction it is based on the average normal stress along this direction. Namely, these average quantities have to be the same on a Repeating Unit Cell (RUC of heterogeneous and homogenized media when using a special form of boundary conditions forming by a periodic part and an affine part of displacement. It exists an infinity of RUCs generating the considered array. The computing procedure is tested with different choices of RUC to control that the results of the homogenization process are independent of the kind of RUC we employ. Then, the dependence of the homogenized coefficients on the microstructure can be studied. For instance, a special anisotropy and the role of the inclusion volume are investigated. In the second part of this work, mechanical traction tests are simulated. We consider two kinds of loading, applying a density of force or imposing a displacement. We test five samples of periodic array containing one, four, sixteen, sixty-four and one hundred of RUCs. The evolution of mean stresses, strains and energy with the numbers of inclusions is studied. Evolutions depend on the kind of loading, but not their limits, which could be predicted by simulating traction test of the homogenized medium.

  7. Stochastic model of milk homogenization process using Markov's chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of development of a mathematical model of the process of homogenization of dairy products is considered in the work. The theory of Markov's chains was used in the development of the mathematical model, Markov's chain with discrete states and continuous parameter for which the homogenisation pressure is taken, being the basis for the model structure. Machine realization of the model is implemented in the medium of structural modeling MathWorks Simulink™. Identification of the model parameters was carried out by minimizing the standard deviation calculated from the experimental data for each fraction of dairy products fat phase. As the set of experimental data processing results of the micrographic images of fat globules of whole milk samples distribution which were subjected to homogenization at different pressures were used. Pattern Search method was used as optimization method with the Latin Hypercube search algorithm from Global Optimization Тoolbox library. The accuracy of calculations averaged over all fractions of 0.88% (the relative share of units, the maximum relative error was 3.7% with the homogenization pressure of 30 MPa, which may be due to the very abrupt change in properties from the original milk in the particle size distribution at the beginning of the homogenization process and the lack of experimental data at homogenization pressures of below the specified value. The mathematical model proposed allows to calculate the profile of volume and mass distribution of the fat phase (fat globules in the product, depending on the homogenization pressure and can be used in the laboratory and research of dairy products composition, as well as in the calculation, design and modeling of the process equipment of the dairy industry enterprises.

  8. A homogeneous cooling scheme investigation for high power slab laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianguo; Lin, Weiran; Fan, Zhongwei; Chen, Yanzhong; Ge, Wenqi; Yu, Jin; Liu, Hao; Mo, Zeqiang; Fan, Lianwen; Jia, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The forced convective heat transfer with the advantages of reliability and durability is widely used in cooling the laser gain medium. However, a flow direction induced temperature gradient always appears. In this paper, a novel cooling configuration based on longitudinal forced convective heat transfer is presented. In comparison with two different types of configurations, it shows a more efficient heat transfer and more homogeneous temperature distribution. The investigation of the flow rate reveals that the higher flow rate the better cooling performance. Furthermore, the simulation results with 20 L/min flow rate shows an adequate temperature level and temperature homogeneity which keeps a lower hydrostatic pressure in the flow path.

  9. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Note on integrability of certain homogeneous Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumiński, Wojciech [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-407, Zielona Góra (Poland); Maciejewski, Andrzej J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-407, Zielona Góra (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-407, Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-12-04

    In this paper we investigate a class of natural Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. The kinetic energy depends on coordinates but the system is homogeneous. Thanks to this property it admits, in a general case, a particular solution. Using this solution we derive necessary conditions for the integrability of such systems investigating differential Galois group of variational equations. - Highlights: • Necessary integrability conditions for some 2D homogeneous Hamilton systems are given. • Conditions are obtained analysing differential Galois group of variational equations. • New integrable and superintegrable systems are identified.

  11. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...... the basic code, which computes the effective elasticity tensor of a two material composite, where one material could be void, is easily extended to include more materials. Furthermore, extensions to homogenization of conductivity, thermal expansion, and fluid permeability are described in detail. The unit...

  12. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  13. Preparation of homogeneous isotopic targets with rotating substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.J.; Zhao, Z.G.

    1993-01-01

    Isotopically enriched accelerator targets were prepared using the evaporation-condensation method from a resistance heating crucible. For high collection efficiency and good homogeneity the substrate was rotated at a vertical distance of 1.3 to 2.5 cm from the evaporation source. Measured collection efficiencies were 13 to 51 μg cm -2 mg -1 and homogeneity tests showed values close to the theoretically calculated ones for a point source. Targets, selfsupporting or on backings, could be fabricated with this method for elements and some compounds with evaporation temperatures up to 2300 K. (orig.)

  14. A critical review of homogenization techniques in reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the shape of the neutron flux in a whole reactor is, at the time being, a much too complex problem to be treated by transport theory. Since the earlier times of reactor theory, the necessity appeared to solve the problem in two steps. First the reactor is divided into zones, each of them forming a regular lattice. In each of these zones, homogenized parameters are determined by transport theory, in order to define an equivalent smeared medium. In a second step, these parameters are introduced in a diffusion theory scheme in order to treat the reactor as a whole. This is the homogenization procedure. 14 refs

  15. Relativistic cosmologies with closed, locally homogeneous space sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    1985-01-01

    The homogeneous Bianchi and Kantowski-Sachs metrics of relativistic cosmology are investigated through their correspondence with recent geometrical results of Thurston. These allow a partial classification of the topologies for closed, locally homogeneous spaces according to Thurston's eight geometric types. Besides, which of the Bianchi-Kantowski-Sachs metrics can be imposed on closed space sections of cosmological models are learned. This is seen as a progress toward implementation of a postulate of the closure of space for both classical and quantum gravity. (Author) [pt

  16. Control rod homogenization in heterogeneous sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor is one of the candidates for a sustainable nuclear reactor system. In particular, the French ASTRID project employs an axially heterogeneous design, proposed in the so-called CFV (low sodium effect) core, to enhance the inherent safety features of the reactor. This thesis focuses on the accurate modeling of the control rods, through the homogenization method. The control rods in a sodium-cooled fast reactor are used for reactivity compensation during the cycle, power shaping, and to shutdown the reactor. In previous control rod homogenization procedures, only a radial description of the geometry was implemented, hence the axially heterogeneous features of the CFV core could not be taken into account. This thesis investigates the different axial variations the control rod experiences in a CFV core, to determine the impact that these axial environments have on the control rod modeling. The methodology used in this work is based on previous homogenization procedures, the so-called equivalence procedure. The procedure was newly implemented in the PARIS code system in order to be able to use 3D geometries, and thereby be take axial effects into account. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the impact of different neutron spectra on the homogeneous control-rod cross sections. The second part investigates the cases where the traditional radial control-rod homogenization procedure is no longer applicable in the CFV core, which was found to be 5-10 cm away from any material interface. In the third part, based on the results from the second part, a 3D model of the control rod is used to calculate homogenized control-rod cross sections. In a full core model, a study is made to investigate the impact these axial effects have on control rod-related core parameters, such as the control rod worth, the capture rates in the control rod, and the power in the adjacent fuel assemblies. All results were compared to a Monte

  17. A critical review of homogenization techniques in reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the shape of the neutron flux in a whole reactor is, at the time being, a much too complex problem to be treated by transport theory. Since the earlier times of reactor theory, the necessity appeared to solve the problem in two steps. First the reactor is divided into zones, each of them forming a regular lattice. In each of these zones, homogenized parameters are determined by transport theory, in order to define an equivalent smeared medium. In a second step, these parameters are introduced in a diffusion theory scheme in order to treat the reactor as a whole. This is the homogenization procedure

  18. A homogeneous catalogue of quasar candidates found with slitless spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Borra, E.F.; Edwards, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives a list of all quasar candidates obtained from an automated computer search performed on 11 grens plates. The description of the main characteristics of the survey is given along with the latest improvements in the selection techniques. Particular attention has been paid to understanding and quantifying selection effects. This allows the construction of homogeneous samples having well-understood characteristics. The noteworthy aspect of our homogenization process is the correction that we apply to our probability classes in order to take into account the signal-to-noise differences; at a given magnitude, among plates of different limiting magnitudes. (author)

  19. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  20. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jixing

    1990-01-01

    Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)

  2. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonenko, O P; Smirnov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies

  3. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  4. Size-dependent homogenized diffusion parameters for a finite lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical technique is reported for solving the transcendental equation for unknown Ysub(n+1). The solution is expressed in terms of quantities related to Ysub(n). This is an iterative reversion technique which has already been proven to converge rapidly in the homogeneous slab problem considered herein. (author)

  5. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D

    2001-07-19

    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  6. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently…

  7. Gauge freedom in perfect fluid spatially homogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The class of reference systems compatible with the symmetry of a spatially homogeneous perfect fluid spacetime is discussed together with the associated class of symmetry adapted comoving ADM frames (or computational frames). The fluid equations of motion are related to the four functions on the space of fluid flow lines discovered by Taub and which characterize an isentropic flow. (Auth.)

  8. Lagrangian statistics of particle pairs in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Boffeta, G.; Celani, A.; Devenish, B.J.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the particle pair separation process in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We use data from direct numerical simulations up to R????280 following the evolution of about two million passive tracers advected by the flow over a time span of about three decades. We

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations...

  10. Class Management and Homogeneous Grouping in Kindergarten Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guanglei; Pelletier, Janette; Hong, Yihua; Corter, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. Firstly the authors examine, given the amount of time allocated to literacy instruction, whether homogeneous grouping helps improve class manageability over the kindergarten year and whether individual students' externalizing problem behaviors will decrease in tandem. Secondly, they investigate whether the…

  11. On superspinor structure of homogeneous superspace of orthosymplectic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Soroka, V.A.; Tkach, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Superspinor structure of homogeneous superspaces of orthosymplectic groups are considered. It is shown how the properties of orthosymplectic group superspaces of OSp(N, 2K) group playing an important role in the supersymmetry theory can be described using superspinors. An example confirming a possibility of the relation between . canonical ratios of Butten bracket and conventional methods of quantization is considered

  12. Molecular weight enlargement : a molecular approach to continuous homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneous catalysts play an increasingly important role in organic synthesis today, because of their high activity and selectivity. Usually, precious metals are used in combination with valuable ligands and since metal prices are expected to increase further in the future, methods for their

  13. Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    density are functions of space i.e. non-homogeneous engineering material. .... The Solution of equation Eq. (9) in the form of Eq. (10) can be obtained by taking a phase ..... Viscoelastic Model Applied to a Particular Case .... p m i exp m α α σ σ σ. = −. +. −. (35). The progressive harmonic wave which starts from the end. 0 x =.

  14. DNA Dynamics Studied Using the Homogeneous Balance Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Arnous, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    We employ the homogeneous balance method to construct the traveling waves of the nonlinear vibrational dynamics modeling of DNA. Some new explicit forms of traveling waves are given. It is shown that this method provides us with a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. Strengths and weaknesses of the proposed method are discussed. (general)

  15. Homogenization and isotropization of an inflationary cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; Groen, Oe.; Oslo Univ.

    1986-01-01

    A member of the class of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models constructed by Wainwright and Goode is investigated. It is shown to describe a universe containing a scalar field which is minimally coupled to gravitation and a positive cosmological constant. It is shown that this cosmological model evolves exponentially rapidly towards the homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter universe model. (orig.)

  16. Revisiting the homogenization of dammed rivers in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff

    2012-01-01

    For some time, ecologists have attempted to make generalizations concerning how disturbances influence natural ecosystems, especially river systems. The existing literature suggests that dams homogenize the hydrologic variability of rivers. However, this might insinuate that dams affect river systems similarly despite a large gradient in natural hydrologic character....

  17. Homogeneous axisymmetric model with a limitting stiff equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkina, M.P.; Martynenko, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    A solution is obtained for Einstein's equations in which all metric coefficients are time functions for a limiting stiff equation of the substance state. Thr solution describes a homogeneous cosmological model with cylindrical symmetry. It is shown that the same metrics can be induced by a massless scalar only time-dependent field. Analysis of this solution is presented

  18. Fraisse sequences: category-theoretic approach to universal homogeneous structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 11 (2014), s. 1755-1811 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : universal homogeneous object * Fraissé sequence * amalgamation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000773

  19. Homogeneous Nucleation Rate Measurements in Supersaturated Water Vapor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brus, David; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 17 (2008), , 174501-1-174501-8 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/2214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : homogeneous nucleation * water * diffusion chamber Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.149, year: 2008

  20. Homogenization and Optimal Control S. Kesavan The Institute of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogenization permits us to study the global behaviour of heterogeneous bodies with a lot of heterogeneities whose dimen- sions are small compared to those of the body. • It describes the macroscopic behaviour of systems with a fine microstructure. 2 ...

  1. Exploring cosmic homogeneity with the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntelis, Pierros; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Busca, Nicolas Guillermo; Aubourg, Eric [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Burtin, Etienne; Laurent, Pierre; Rich, James; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des; Delabrouille, Nathalie Palanque [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tinker, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 726 Broadway, New York (United States); Bautista, Julian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Delubac, Timothée [Laboratoire d' astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Meyer Hall of Physics, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Vargas-Magaña, Mariana [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 20-364, México (Mexico); Pâris, Isabelle [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille (France); Petitjean, Partick [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, Paris, 75014 France (France); Rossi, Graziano, E-mail: pntelis@apc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: jchamilton75@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, Seoul, 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we probe the transition to cosmic homogeneity in the Large Scale Structure (LSS) of the Universe using the CMASS galaxy sample of BOSS spectroscopic survey which covers the largest effective volume to date, 3 h {sup −3} Gpc{sup 3} at 0.43 ≤ z ≤ 0.7. We study the scaled counts-in-spheres, N(< r ), and the fractal correlation dimension, D{sub 2}( r ), to assess the homogeneity scale of the universe using a Landy and Szalay inspired estimator. Defining the scale of transition to homogeneity as the scale at which D{sub 2}( r ) reaches 3 within 1%, i.e. D{sub 2}( r )>2.97 for r >R {sub H} , we find R {sub H} = (63.3±0.7) h {sup −1} Mpc, in agreement at the percentage level with the predictions of the ΛCDM model R {sub H} =62.0 h {sup −1} Mpc. Thanks to the large cosmic depth of the survey, we investigate the redshift evolution of the transition to homogeneity scale and find agreement with the ΛCDM prediction. Finally, we find that D{sub 2} is compatible with 3 at scales larger than 300 h {sup −1} Mpc in all redshift bins. These results consolidate the Cosmological Principle and represent a precise consistency test of the ΛCDM model.

  2. Homogenization of a thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krehel, O.; Aiki, T.; Muntean, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study the solvability and homogenization of a thermal-diffusion reaction problem posed in a periodically perforated domain. The system describes the motion of populations of hot colloidal particles interacting together via Smoluchowski production terms. The upscaled system, obtained via two-scale

  3. Homogeneous optical cloak constructed with uniform layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Liu; Luo, Yu

    2011-01-01

    , the majority of the invisibility cloaks reported so far have a spatially varying refractive index which requires complicated design processes. Besides, the size of the hidden object is usually small relative to that of the cloak device. Here we report the experimental realization of a homogenous invisibility...

  4. Homogenization of compacted blends of Ni and Mo powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanam, R.D.; Yeh, F.C.H.; Rovsek, J.E.; Smith, D.W.; Heckel, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The homogenization behavior of compacted blends of Ni and Mo powders was studied primarily as a function of temperature, mean compact composition, and Mo powder particle size. All compact compositions were in the Ni-rich terminal solid-solution range; temperatures were between 950 and 1200 0 C (in the region of the phase diagram where only the Mo--Ni intermediate phase forms); average Mo particle sizes ranged from 8.4 mu m to 48 mu m. Homogenization was characterized in terms of the rate of decrease of the amounts of the Mo-rich terminal solid-solution phase and the Mo--Ni intermediate phase. The experimental results were compared to predictions based upon the three-phase, concentric-sphere homogenization model. In general, agreement between experimental data and model predictions was fairly good for high-temperature treatments and for compact compositions which were not close to the solubility limit of Mo in Ni. Departures from the model are discussed in terms of surface diffusion contributions to homogenization and non-uniform mixing effects. (U.S.)

  5. A new formulation for the problem of fuel cell homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.-A.; Martinez, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new homogenization method for reactor cells is described. This new method consists in eliminating the NR approximation for the fuel resonance and the Wigner approximation for the resonance escape probability; the background cross section is then redefined and the problem studied is reanalyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Notes on a class of homogeneous space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvao, M.O.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F.; Silva Junior, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The breakdown of causality in homogeneous Goedel-type space-time manifolds is examined. An extension of Reboucas-Tiomno (RT) study is made. The existence of noncausal curves is also investigated under two different conditions on the energy-momentum tensor. An integral representation of the infinitesimal generators of isometries is obtained extending previous works on the RT geometry. (Author) [pt

  7. Transient computational homogenization for heterogeneous materials under dynamic excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, N.K.H.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel transient computational homogenization procedure that is suitable for the modelling of the evolution in space and in time of materials with non-steady state microstructure, such as metamaterials. This transient scheme is an extension of the classical (first-order)

  8. Non-homogeneous polymer model for wave propagation and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article concerns certain aspects of four parameter polymer models to study harmonic waves in the non-homogeneous polymer rods of varying density. There are two sections of this paper, in first section, the rheological behaviour of the model is discussed numerically and then it is solved analytically with the help of ...

  9. A characterization of Markovian homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a certain class of homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian generalized stochastic fields to possess a Markov property equivalent to Nelson's. The class of Markov fields so characterized has a as a cubclass the class of Markov fields which lead by Nelson's Reconstruction Theorem to some covariant (free) quantum fields. (orig.)

  10. Homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G.

    1990-04-01

    This thesis is devoted to homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations with a Dirichlet boundary condition in a domain containing many tiny obstacles. Tipycally those obstacles are distributed at the modes of a periodic lattice with same small period in each axe's direction, and their size is always asymptotically smaller than the lattice's step. With the help of the energy method, and thanks to a suitable pressure's extension, we prove the convergence of the homogenization process when the lattice's step tends to zero (and thus the number of obstacles tends to infinity). For a so-called critical size of the obstacles, the homogenized problem turns out to be a Brinkman's law (i.e. Stokes or Navier-Stokes equation plus a linear zero-order term for the velocity in the momentum equation). For obstacles which have a size smaller than the critical one, the limit problem reduces to the initial Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations, while for larger sizes the homogenized problem a Darcy's law. Furthermore, those results have been extended to the case of obstacles included in a hyperplane, and we establish a simple model of fluid flows through grids, which is based on a special form of Brinkman's law [fr

  11. Microsegregation and homogenization in U-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J. Fernando; Nogueira, R.A.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1987-01-01

    Microsegregation results in U-4 w t% Nb alloys casted in nonconsumable electrode arc furnace are presented. The microsegregation is studied qualitatively by optical microscopy and quantitatively by electron microprobe. The degreee of homogenetization has been measured after 800 0 C heat treatments. The times required for homogeneization of the alloys are also discussed. (author) [pt

  12. Environmental Kuznets Curves for CO2 : Heterogeneity Versus Homogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Melenberg, B.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust,

  13. Subspace identification of distributed clusters of homogeneous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This note studies the identification of a network comprised of interconnected clusters of LTI systems. Each cluster consists of homogeneous dynamical systems, and its interconnections with the rest of the network are unmeasurable. A subspace identification method is proposed for identifying a single

  14. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  15. Protein profiling reveals inter-individual protein homogeneity of arachnoid cyst fluid and high qualitative similarity to cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berle Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms behind formation and filling of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC fluid by proteomics to gain further knowledge about ACs. Two goals were set: 1 Comparison of AC fluid from individual patients to determine whether or not temporal AC is a homogenous condition; and 2 Evaluate the protein content of a pool of AC fluid from several patients and qualitatively compare this with published protein lists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. Methods AC fluid from 15 patients with temporal AC was included in this study. In the AC protein comparison experiment, AC fluid from 14 patients was digested, analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a semi-quantitative label-free approach and the data were compared by principal component analysis (PCA to gain knowledge of protein homogeneity of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, AC fluid from 11 patients was pooled, digested, and fractionated by SCX chromatography prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified were compared to published databases of proteins identified from CSF and plasma. AC fluid proteins not found in these two databases were experimentally searched for in lumbar CSF taken from neurologically-normal patients, by a targeted protein identification approach called MIDAS (Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM initiated detection and sequence analysis. Results We did not identify systematic trends or grouping of data in the AC protein comparison experiment, implying low variability between individual proteomic profiles of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, we identified 199 proteins. When compared to previously published lists of proteins identified from CSF and plasma, 15 of the AC proteins had not been reported in either of these datasets. By a targeted protein identification approach, we identified 11 of these 15 proteins in pooled CSF from neurologically-normal patients, demonstrating that

  16. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  17. Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma with Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The forming of atmospheric plasma with large dimensions using electrical discharge typically uses the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The study of atmospheric DBD was shown some problems related to homogeneous volume plasma. The volume of this plasma determines by cross section and gas gap between electrode and dielectric. The using of electron beam for volume ionization of air molecules by CW relativistic electron beams was shown the high efficiency of this process [1, 2]. The main advantage of this approach consists in the ionization of gas molecules by electrons in longitudinal direction determines by their kinetic energy. A novel method for forming of atmospheric homogeneous plasma with large volume dimensions using ionization of gas molecules by pulsed non-relativistic electron beams is presented in the paper. The results of computer modeling for delivered doses of electron beams in gases and ionization are discussed. The structure of experimental bench with plasma diagnostics is considered. The preliminary results of forming atmospheric plasma with ionization gas molecules by pulsed nanosecond non-relativistic electron beam are given. The analysis of potential applications for atmospheric volume plasma is presented. Reference: [1] S. Korenev. ``The ionization of air by scanning relativistic high power CW electron beam,'' 2002 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. May 2002, Alberta, Canada. [2] S. Korenev, I. Korenev. ``The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air.'' BEAMS 2002: 14th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA), June 2002, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 650(1), pp. 373-376. December 17.

  18. Steady state models for filamentary plasma structures associated with force free magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1978-05-01

    This paper presents a model for filamentary plasma structures associated with force-free magnetic fields. A homogenous electric field parallel to the symmetry axis of the magnetic field is assumed. Under the influence of these fields, the plasma will drift radially inwards resulting in an accumulation of plasma in the central region. We assume recombination losses to keep the central plasma density at a finite value, and the recombined plasma i.e. the neutrals to diffuse radially outwards. Plasma density and some neutral gas density distributions for a steady state situation are calculated for various cases

  19. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  20. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  1. Biotic homogenization of three insect groups due to urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cities are growing rapidly, thereby expected to cause a large-scale global biotic homogenization. Evidence for the homogenization hypothesis is mostly derived from plants and birds, whereas arthropods have so far been neglected. Here, I tested the homogenization hypothesis with three insect indicator groups, namely true bugs, leafhoppers, and beetles. In particular, I was interested whether insect species community composition differs between urban and rural areas, whether they are more similar between cities than between rural areas, and whether the found pattern is explained by true species turnover, species diversity gradients and geographic distance, by non-native or specialist species, respectively. I analyzed insect species communities sampled on birch trees in a total of six Swiss cities and six rural areas nearby. In all indicator groups, urban and rural community composition was significantly dissimilar due to native species turnover. Further, for bug and leafhopper communities, I found evidence for large-scale homogenization due to urbanization, which was driven by reduced species turnover of specialist species in cities. Species turnover of beetle communities was similar between cities and rural areas. Interestingly, when specialist species of beetles were excluded from the analyses, cities were more dissimilar than rural areas, suggesting biotic differentiation of beetle communities in cities. Non-native species did not affect species turnover of the insect groups. However, given non-native arthropod species are increasing rapidly, their homogenizing effect might be detected more often in future. Overall, the results show that urbanization has a negative large-scale impact on the diversity specialist species of the investigated insect groups. Specific measures in cities targeted at increasing the persistence of specialist species typical for the respective biogeographic region could help to stop the loss of biodiversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Homogenized description and retrieval method of nonlinear metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Larouche, Stéphane; Smith, David R.

    2018-03-01

    A patterned, plasmonic metasurface can strongly scatter incident light, functioning as an extremely low-profile lens, filter, reflector or other optical device. When the metasurface is patterned uniformly, its linear optical properties can be expressed using effective surface electric and magnetic polarizabilities obtained through a homogenization procedure. The homogenized description of a nonlinear metasurface, however, presents challenges both because of the inherent anisotropy of the medium as well as the much larger set of potential wave interactions available, making it challenging to assign effective nonlinear parameters to the otherwise inhomogeneous layer of metamaterial elements. Here we show that a homogenization procedure can be developed to describe nonlinear metasurfaces, which derive their nonlinear response from the enhanced local fields arising within the structured plasmonic elements. With the proposed homogenization procedure, we are able to assign effective nonlinear surface polarization densities to a nonlinear metasurface, and link these densities to the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities and averaged macroscopic pumping fields across the metasurface. These effective nonlinear surface polarization densities are further linked to macroscopic nonlinear fields through the generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs). By inverting the GSTCs, the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities of the metasurfaces can be solved for, leading to a generalized retrieval method for nonlinear metasurfaces. The application of the homogenization procedure and the GSTCs are demonstrated by retrieving the nonlinear susceptibilities of a SiO2 nonlinear slab. As an example, we investigate a nonlinear metasurface which presents nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in near infrared regime. The method is expected to apply to any patterned metasurface whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelengths of operation, with inclusions of arbitrary geometry

  3. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  4. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  5. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  6. Homogeneous nucleation limit on the bulk formation of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drehman, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Glassy Pd 82 Si 18 spheres, of up to 1 mm diameter, were formed in a drop tube filled with He gas. The largest spheres were successfully cooled to a glass using a cooling rate of less than 800 K/sec. Even at this low cooling rate, crystallization (complete or partial) was the result of heterogeneous nucleation at a high temperature, relative to the temperature at which copious homogeneous nucleation would commence. Bulk underscoring experiments demonstrated that this alloy could be cooled to 385 K below its eutectic melting temperature (1083 K) without the occurrence of crystallization. If heterogeneous nucleation can be avoided, it is estimated that a cooling rate of at most 100 K/sec would be required to form this alloy in the glassy state. Ingots of glassy Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 were formed from the liquid by cooling at a rate of only 1 K/sec. It was found that glassy samples of this alloy could be heated well above the glass transition temperature without the occurrence of rapid divitrification. This is a result due, in part of the low density of pre-existing nuclei, but, more importantly, due to the low homogeneous nucleation rate and the slow crystal growth kinetics. Based on the observed devitrification kinetics, the steady-state homogeneous nucleation rate is approximately 1 nuclei/cm 3 sec at 590 K (the temperature at which the homogeneous nucleation rate is estimated to be a maximum). Two iron-nickel based glass-forming alloys (Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 and Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 , were not successfully formed into glassy spheres, however, microstructural examination indicates that crystallization was not the result of copious homogeneous nucleation. In contrast, glass forming iron based alloys (Fe 80 B 20 and Fe/sub 79.3/B/sub 16.4/Si/sub 4.0/C/sub 0.3/) exhibit copious homogeneous nucleation when cooled at approximately the same rate

  7. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  8. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  9. The coherent state on SUq(2) homogeneous space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, N; Chakrabarti, R

    2009-01-01

    The generalized coherent states for quantum groups introduced by Jurco and StovIcek are studied for the simplest example SU q (2) in full detail. It is shown that the normalized SU q (2) coherent states enjoy the property of completeness, and allow a resolution of the unity. This feature is expected to play a key role in the application of these coherent states in physical models. The homogeneous space of SU q (2), i.e. the q-sphere of Podles, is reproduced in complex coordinates by using the coherent states. Differential calculus in the complex form on the homogeneous space is developed. The high spin limit of the SU q (2) coherent states is also discussed.

  10. Homogenization of the critically spectral equation in neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, G. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique; Bal, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1998-07-01

    We address the homogenization of an eigenvalue problem for the neutron transport equation in a periodic heterogeneous domain, modeling the criticality study of nuclear reactor cores. We prove that the neutron flux, corresponding to the first and unique positive eigenvector, can be factorized in the product of two terms, up to a remainder which goes strongly to zero with the period. On terms is the first eigenvector of the transport equation in the periodicity cell. The other term is the first eigenvector of a diffusion equation in the homogenized domain. Furthermore, the corresponding eigenvalue gives a second order corrector for the eigenvalue of the heterogeneous transport problem. This result justifies and improves the engineering procedure used in practice for nuclear reactor cores computations. (author)

  11. Constructing Bridges between Computational Tools in Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura; Kozlov, Sergey M.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Better catalysts are needed to address numerous challenges faced by humanity. In this perspective, we review concepts and tools in theoretical and computational chemistry that can help to accelerate the rational design of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In particular, we focus on the following three topics: 1) identification of key intermediates and transition states in a reaction using the energetic span model, 2) disentanglement of factors influencing the relative stability of the key species using energy decomposition analysis and the activation strain model, and 3) discovery of new catalysts using volcano relationships. To facilitate wider use of these techniques across different areas, we illustrate their potentials and pitfalls when applied to the study of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts.

  12. Fourier-Accelerated Nodal Solvers (FANS) for homogenization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Matthias; Fritzen, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Fourier-based homogenization schemes are useful to analyze heterogeneous microstructures represented by 2D or 3D image data. These iterative schemes involve discrete periodic convolutions with global ansatz functions (mostly fundamental solutions). The convolutions are efficiently computed using the fast Fourier transform. FANS operates on nodal variables on regular grids and converges to finite element solutions. Compared to established Fourier-based methods, the number of convolutions is reduced by FANS. Additionally, fast iterations are possible by assembling the stiffness matrix. Due to the related memory requirement, the method is best suited for medium-sized problems. A comparative study involving established Fourier-based homogenization schemes is conducted for a thermal benchmark problem with a closed-form solution. Detailed technical and algorithmic descriptions are given for all methods considered in the comparison. Furthermore, many numerical examples focusing on convergence properties for both thermal and mechanical problems, including also plasticity, are presented.

  13. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F

    2016-04-28

    We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Modification of enzymes by use of high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Aguilar, Jessika Gonçalves; Cristianini, Marcelo; Sato, Helia Harumi

    2018-07-01

    High-pressure is an emerging and relatively new technology that can modify various molecules. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) has been used in several studies on protein modification, especially in enzymes used or found in food, from animal, plant or microbial resources. According to the literature, the enzymatic activity can be modulated under pressure causing inactivation, stabilization or activation of the enzymes, which, depending on the point of view could be very useful. Homogenization can generate changes in the structure of the enzyme modifying various chemical bonds (mainly weak bonds) causing different denaturation levels and, consequently, affecting the catalytic activity. This review aims to describe the various alterations due to HPH treatment in enzymes, to show the influence of high-pressure on proteins and to report the HPH effects on the enzymatic activity of different enzymes employed in the food industry and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40–80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30–150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2–3 times. PMID:27375964

  16. Induction, bounding, weak combinatorial principles, and the homogeneous model theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschfeldt, Denis R; Shore, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Goncharov and Peretyat'kin independently gave necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types of a complete theory T is the type spectrum of some homogeneous model of T. Their result can be stated as a principle of second order arithmetic, which is called the Homogeneous Model Theorem (HMT), and analyzed from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. Previous computability theoretic results by Lange suggested a close connection between HMT and the Atomic Model Theorem (AMT), which states that every complete atomic theory has an atomic model. The authors show that HMT and AMT are indeed equivalent in the sense of reverse mathematics, as well as in a strong computability theoretic sense and do the same for an analogous result of Peretyat'kin giving necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types is the type spectrum of some model.

  17. Osteoarthritic cartilage is more homogeneous than healthy cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qazi, Arish A; Dam, Erik B; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-01-01

    it evolves as a consequence to disease and thereby can be used as a progression biomarker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 283 right and left knees from 159 subjects aged 21 to 81 years were scanned using a Turbo 3D T1 sequence on a 0.18-T MRI Esaote scanner. The medial compartment of the tibial cartilage...... sheet was segmented using a fully automatic voxel classification scheme based on supervised learning. From the segmented cartilage sheet, homogeneity was quantified by measuring entropy from the distribution of signal intensities inside the compartment. Each knee was examined by radiography...... of the region was evaluated by testing for overfitting. Three different regularization techniques were evaluated for reducing overfitting errors. RESULTS: The P values for separating the different groups based on cartilage homogeneity were 2 x 10(-5) (KL 0 versus KL 1) and 1 x 10(-7) (KL 0 versus KL >0). Using...

  18. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernandez, J. A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; López-Callejas, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results.

  19. Neutron transport equation - indications on homogenization and neutron diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    In PWR nuclear reactor, the practical study of the neutrons in the core uses diffusion equation to describe the problem. On the other hand, the most correct method to describe these neutrons is to use the Boltzmann equation, or neutron transport equation. In this paper, we give some theoretical indications to obtain a diffusion equation from the general transport equation, with some simplifying hypothesis. The work is organised as follows: (a) the most general formulations of the transport equation are presented: integro-differential equation and integral equation; (b) the theoretical approximation of this Boltzmann equation by a diffusion equation is introduced, by the way of asymptotic developments; (c) practical homogenization methods of transport equation is then presented. In particular, the relationships with some general and useful methods in neutronic are shown, and some homogenization methods in energy and space are indicated. A lot of other points of view or complements are detailed in the text or the remarks

  20. Non-Almost Periodicity of Parallel Transports for Homogeneous Connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, Johannes; Fleischhack, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Let A be the affine space of all connections in an SU(2) principal fibre bundle over ℝ 3 . The set of homogeneous isotropic connections forms a line l in A. We prove that the parallel transports for general, non-straight paths in the base manifold do not depend almost periodically on l. Consequently, the embedding l ↪ A does not continuously extend to an embedding l-bar ↪ A-bar of the respective compactifications. Here, the Bohr compactification l-bar corresponds to the configuration space of homogeneous isotropic loop quantum cosmology and A-bar to that of loop quantum gravity. Analogous results are given for the anisotropic case.

  1. Homogenization of the critically spectral equation in neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G.; Paris-6 Univ., 75; Bal, G.

    1998-01-01

    We address the homogenization of an eigenvalue problem for the neutron transport equation in a periodic heterogeneous domain, modeling the criticality study of nuclear reactor cores. We prove that the neutron flux, corresponding to the first and unique positive eigenvector, can be factorized in the product of two terms, up to a remainder which goes strongly to zero with the period. On terms is the first eigenvector of the transport equation in the periodicity cell. The other term is the first eigenvector of a diffusion equation in the homogenized domain. Furthermore, the corresponding eigenvalue gives a second order corrector for the eigenvalue of the heterogeneous transport problem. This result justifies and improves the engineering procedure used in practice for nuclear reactor cores computations. (author)

  2. Computer modeling of homogenization of boric acid in IRIS pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives Sanz, Ronny; Montesinos Otero, Maria Elena; Gonzalez Mantecon, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system; which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and help to boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer using the CFX code searching for designs alternatives that guaranteed its intrinsic security, focused on the phenomena before mentioned. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The relationships are programmed and incorporated into the code. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of the analyzed IRIS transients could be applied to the design of the pressurizer internal structures and components. (Author)

  3. Oscillatory Dynamics of One-Dimensional Homogeneous Granular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosvetsky, Yuli; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Hasan, Md. Arif; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    The acoustics of the homogeneous granular chains has been studied extensively both numerically and experimentally in the references cited in the previous chapters. This chapter focuses on the oscillatory behavior of finite dimensional homogeneous granular chains. It is well known that normal vibration modes are the building blocks of the vibrations of linear systems due to the applicability of the principle of superposition. One the other hand, nonlinear theory is deprived of such a general superposition principle (although special cases of nonlinear superpositions do exist), but nonlinear normal modes ‒ NNMs still play an important role in the forced and resonance dynamics of these systems. In their basic definition [1], NNMs were defined as time-periodic nonlinear oscillations of discrete or continuous dynamical systems where all coordinates (degrees-of-freedom) oscillate in-unison with the same frequency; further extensions of this definition have been considered to account for NNMs of systems with internal resonances [2]...

  4. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  5. Constructing Bridges between Computational Tools in Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2018-05-08

    Better catalysts are needed to address numerous challenges faced by humanity. In this perspective, we review concepts and tools in theoretical and computational chemistry that can help to accelerate the rational design of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In particular, we focus on the following three topics: 1) identification of key intermediates and transition states in a reaction using the energetic span model, 2) disentanglement of factors influencing the relative stability of the key species using energy decomposition analysis and the activation strain model, and 3) discovery of new catalysts using volcano relationships. To facilitate wider use of these techniques across different areas, we illustrate their potentials and pitfalls when applied to the study of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts.

  6. Electrical model of dielectric barrier discharge homogenous and filamentary modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Fernandez, J A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Muñoz-Castro, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes an electrical model that combines homogeneous and filamentary modes of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge cell. A voltage controlled electric current source has been utilized to implement the power law equation that represents the homogeneous discharge mode, which starts when the gas breakdown voltage is reached. The filamentary mode implies the emergence of electric current conducting channels (microdischarges), to add this phenomenon an RC circuit commutated by an ideal switch has been proposed. The switch activation occurs at a higher voltage level than the gas breakdown voltage because it is necessary to impose a huge electric field that contributes to the appearance of streamers. The model allows the estimation of several electric parameters inside the reactor that cannot be measured. Also, it is possible to appreciate the modes of the DBD depending on the applied voltage magnitude. Finally, it has been recognized a good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental results. (paper)

  7. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  8. Exact Polynomial Eigenmodes for Homogeneous Spherical 3-Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2005-01-01

    Observational data hints at a finite universe, with spherical manifolds such as the Poincare dodecahedral space tentatively providing the best fit. Simulating the physics of a model universe requires knowing the eigenmodes of the Laplace operator on the space. The present article provides explicit polynomial eigenmodes for all globally homogeneous 3-manifolds: the Poincare dodecahedral space S3/I*, the binary octahedral space S3/O*, the binary tetrahedral space S3/T*, the prism manifolds S3/D...

  9. Transport and spin effects in homogeneous magnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.L.; Pereyra, P.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2000-09-01

    Homogeneous semiconductors under spacially periodic external magnetic fields exhibit spin-band splitting and displacements, more clearly defined than in diluted magnetic semiconductor superlattices. We study the influence of the geometrical parameters and the spin-field interaction on the electronic transport properties. We show that by varying the external magnetic field, one can easily block the transmission of either the spin-up or the spin-down electrons. (author)

  10. Homogeneous nucleation, growth and recrystallization of discharge products on electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.

    1983-11-01

    The early stage of discharge of electrodes with an electrodissolution/precipitation mechanism is investigated. A theory is proposed for quasi-classical homogeneous nucleation and the subsequent growth. Based on this theory the radii distribution function was calculated for the diffusion-controlled growth of crystallites. Recrystallization was included. The nucleation overpotential was calculated as a function of time for discharges under various conditions.

  11. Numerical Integration of the Transport Equation For Infinite Homogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Rune

    1962-01-15

    The transport equation for neutrons in infinite homogeneous media is solved by direct numerical integration. Accounts are taken to the anisotropy and the inelastic scattering. The integration has been performed by means of the trapezoidal rule and the length of the energy intervals are constant in lethargy scale. The machine used is a Ferranti Mercury computer. Results are given for water, heavy water, aluminium water mixture and iron-aluminium-water mixture.

  12. Heterogeneous skills and homogeneous land: segmentation and agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Wrede

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of skill heterogeneity on regional patterns of production and housing in the presence of pecuniary externalities within a general-equilibrium framework assuming monopolistic competition at intermediate good markets. It shows that the interplay of heterogeneous skills and relatively homogeneous land demand triggers skill segmentation and agglomeration. The core region, being more attractive to high skilled workers, has a disproportionately large share of producti...

  13. Homogeneity and scale testing of generalized gamma distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehlik, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to derive the exact distributions of the likelihood ratio tests of homogeneity and scale hypothesis when the observations are generalized gamma distributed. The special cases of exponential, Rayleigh, Weibull or gamma distributed observations are discussed exclusively. The photoemulsion experiment analysis and scale test with missing time-to-failure observations are present to illustrate the applications of methods discussed

  14. Color Segmentation of Homogeneous Areas on Colposcopical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosteley Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of image processing and color segmentation applied to the problem of selection of homogeneous regions in the parameters of the color model. Methods of image processing such as Gaussian filter, median filter, histogram equalization and mathematical morphology are considered. The segmentation algorithm with the parameters of color components is presented, followed by isolation of the resulting connected component of a binary segmentation mask. Analysis of methods performed on images colposcopic research.

  15. Homogenization of monthly precipitation time series in Croatia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rasol, D.; Cindric, K.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3671-3682 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : homogenization * Croatia * precipitation * inhomogeneities * break points Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2014

  16. Tidal Dissipation in a Homogeneous Spherical Body. 1. Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    mantle (with χ = χlmpq ≡ |ωlmpq| being the physical forcing frequency). The dependency J̄ (χ ) follows from the rheological model . Evidently, the... current paper. Key words: planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability – planets and satellites: formation – planets and satellites: general... modeling the body with a homogeneous sphere of a certain rheology. However, the simplistic nature of the approach limits the precision of the ensuing

  17. Niobium bonds as homogeneous catalysts for the cyclotrimerization of alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, C.J.

    1984-05-01

    The activity and selectivity of the catalytic system MX 5 with M = Nb or Ta and X = Cl - or Br - and (CH 3 ) 3 TaCl 2 with regard to the reaction rate and product formation in the reaction with alkynes were evaluated. A measuring technique was developed with which the reaction path of the oligomerization reactions of alkynes with homogeneous catalysts in a nitrogen atmosphere can be followed spectrophotometrically

  18. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  19. Spinorial characterizations of surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Julien

    2010-06-01

    We give spinorial characterizations of isometrically immersed surfaces into three-dimensional homogeneous manifolds with four-dimensional isometry group in terms of the existence of a particular spinor field. This generalizes works by Friedrich for R3 and Morel for S3 and H3. The main argument is the interpretation of the energy-momentum tensor of such a spinor field as the second fundamental form up to a tensor depending on the structure of the ambient space.

  20. Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization for Multiscale Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations can benefit by utilizing high-fidelity models running at a lower length scale. Lower length-scale models provide a detailed view of the material behavior that is used to determine the average material response at the macroscale. These lower length-scale calculations may provide insight into material behavior where experimental data is sparse or nonexistent. This multiscale approach is especially useful in the nuclear field, since irradiation experiments are difficult and expensive to conduct. The lower length-scale models complement the experiments by influencing the types of experiments required and by reducing the total number of experiments needed. This multiscale modeling approach is a central motivation in the development of the BISON-MARMOT fuel performance codes at Idaho National Laboratory. These codes seek to provide more accurate and predictive solutions for nuclear fuel behavior. One critical aspect of multiscale modeling is the ability to extract the relevant information from the lower length-scale sim- ulations. One approach, the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) technique, has proven to be an effective method for determining homogenized material parameters. The AEH technique prescribes a system of equations to solve at the microscale that are used to compute homogenized material constants for use at the engineering scale. In this work, we employ AEH to explore the effect of evolving microstructural thermal conductivity and elastic constants on nuclear fuel performance. We show that the AEH approach fits cleanly into the BISON and MARMOT codes and provides a natural, multidimensional homogenization capability.

  1. Classification of compact homogeneous spaces with invariant G(2)-structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Munir, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 303-328 ISSN 1615-715X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact homogeneous space * G(2)-structure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.371, year: 2012 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/advg.2012.12.issue-2/advgeom.2011.054/advgeom.2011.054. xml

  2. Evaluation of basic mitochondrial functions using rat tissue homogenates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Alena; Drahota, Zdeněk; Nůsková, Hana; Pecina, Petr; Houštěk, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2011), s. 722-728 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9759; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0970; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk OC08017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : oxidative phosphorylation * isolated mitochondria * tissue homogenates * respiratory control * membrane potential Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2011

  3. Homogeneity evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells based on electrotaxis analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Dohyun; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell therapy that can restore function to damaged tissue, avoid host rejection and reduce inflammation throughout body without use of immunosuppressive drugs. The established methods were used to identify and to isolate specific stem cell markers by FACS or by immunomagnetic cell separation. The procedures for distinguishing population of stem cells took a time and needed many preparations. Here we suggest an electrotaxis analysis as a new method to evaluate the homogeneity of mesenchyma...

  4. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    OpenAIRE

    Hewett, DP; Hewitt, IJ

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called `Faraday cage e ect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to in nity we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an e ective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the...

  5. Homogeneity Property of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the classical Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces defined via differences and prove a homogeneity property for functions with bounded support in the frame of these spaces. As the proof is based on compact embeddings between the studied function spaces, we present also some results on the entropy numbers of these embeddings. Moreover, we derive some applications in terms of pointwise multipliers.

  6. Electromagnetic illusion with isotropic and homogeneous materials through scattering manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    A new isotropic and homogeneous illusion device for electromagnetic waves is proposed. This single-shelled device can change the fingerprint of the covered object into another one by manipulating the scattering of the composite structure. We show that an electrically small sphere can be disguised as another small one with different electromagnetic parameters. The device can even make a dielectric sphere (electrically small) behave like a conducting one. Full-wave simulations confirm the performance of proposed illusion device. (paper)

  7. Lower bounds for the circuit size of partially homogeneous polynomials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 4 (2017), s. 639-657 ISSN 1072-3374 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : partially homogeneous polynomials * polynomials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10958-017-3483-4

  8. Properties of subvisible cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations and mean sizes of ice crystals and derived microphysical and optical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds (SVCs formed by homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols are investigated as a function of temperature and updraft speed of adiabatically ascending air parcels. The properties of such clouds are insensitive to variations of the aerosol number and size distribution. Based on criteria constraining the optical extinction, sedimentation time, and existence time of SVCs, longer-lived (>10min clouds, capable of exerting a measurable radiative or chemical impact, are generated within a narrow range of updraft speeds below 1-2cm s-1 at temperatures below about 215K, with concentrations of ice crystals not exceeding 0.1cm-3. The clouds do not reach an equilibrium state because the ice crystals sediment out of the formation layer typically before the supersaturation is removed. Two important conclusions emerge from this work. First, the above characteristics of SVCs may provide an explanation for why SVCs are more common in the cold tropical than in the warmer midlatitude tropopause region. Second, it seems likely that a limited number (-3 of effective heterogeneous freezing nuclei that nucleate ice below the homogeneous freezing threshold can control the formation and properties of SVCs, although homogeneous freezing nuclei are far more abundant.

  9. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  10. Collision-free gases in spatially homogeneous space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The kinematical and dynamical properties of one-component collision-free gases in spatially homogeneous, locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) space-times are analyzed. Following Ray and Zimmerman [Nuovo Cimento B 42, 183 (1977)], it is assumed that the distribution function f of the gas inherits the symmetry of space-time, in order to construct solutions of Liouville's equation. The redundancy of their further assumption that f be based on Killing vector constants of the motion is shown. The Ray and Zimmerman results for Kantowski--Sachs space-time are extended to all spatially homogeneous LRS space-times. It is shown that in all these space-times the kinematic average four-velocity u/sup i/ can be tilted relative to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. This differs from the perfect fluid case, in which only one space-time admits tilted u/sup i/, as shown by King and Ellis [Commun. Math. Phys. 31, 209 (1973)]. As a consequence, it is shown that all space-times admit nonzero acceleration and heat flow, while a subclass admits nonzero vorticity. The stress π/sub i/j is proportional to the shear sigma/sub i/j by virtue of the invariance of the distribution function. The evolution of tilt and the existence of perfect fluid solutions is also discussed

  11. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  12. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  13. Broken ergodicity in two-dimensional homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous MHD turbulence. These features include several ideal (i.e., nondissipative) invariants along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity (defined as nonergodic behavior over a very long time). Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo. Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was found. Here, we study the origin of broken ergodicity in 2D MHD turbulence. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions. The origins of broken ergodicity in an ideal 2D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigenanalysis of the covariance matrices of the probability density function and by an examination of the associated entropy functional. When the values of ideal invariants are kept fixed and grid size increases, it will be shown that the energy in a few large modes remains constant, while the energy in any other mode is inversely proportional to grid size. Also, as grid size increases, we find that broken ergodicity becomes manifest at more and more wavenumbers.

  14. Bremsstrahlung radiation of a plasma expanding into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.G.; Silakov, V.P.; Fetisov, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung of a flat layer of a dense hot homogeneous plasma expanding to vacuum is considered. The spread of plasma is assumed to be adiabatic, and the plasma density and temperature are considered as known functions of coordinates and time in the radiation transport equation. Formulae for radiation intensity have been obtained in cases when the plasma layer covered by the rarefaction wave are optically thin and optically thick. The dependences of radiation intensity on the parameter α characterizing the optical thickness of the plasma layer and the spectrum of radiation of the spreading layer are presented graphically. It is shown that spread has an essential effect on the heat transfer and the spectral composition of the bremsstrahlung of a dense high-temperature plasma

  15. Plasma synthesis of hard materials with energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Othon R.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in plasma synthesis of hard materials using metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition are described. We have produced and characterized a variety of films including doped and undoped DLC (diamond-like carbon) and metal carbides. By using multiple plasma sources operated either synchronously or asynchronously, different metal plasma species can be either blended or linked so as to form mixed-composition films or multilayer structures, and by control of the depositing ion energy, interfaces can be made sharp or graded and the film morphology and microstructure can be widely tailored. Plasma compositional uniformity is important to produce homogeneous films, and therefore effective mixing of plasma streams produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arcs is very important. Specific systems described here include amorphic diamond, and TiC. We outline the deposition technique employed in this investigation, and summarize the results of the characterization of the films

  16. Scalar perturbations in two-temperature cosmological plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.; Marklund, M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the properties of density perturbations of a two-component plasma with a temperature difference on a homogeneous and isotropic background. For this purpose, we extend the general relativistic gauge-invariant and covariant (GIC) perturbation theory to include a multifluid with a particular

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  18. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of 60 Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  20. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  1. Homogenization of linearly anisotropic scattering cross sections in a consistent B1 heterogeneous leakage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marleau, G.; Debos, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main problems encountered in cell calculations is that of spatial homogenization where one associates to an heterogeneous cell an homogeneous set of cross sections. The homogenization process is in fact trivial when a totally reflected cell without leakage is fully homogenized since it involved only a flux-volume weighting of the isotropic cross sections. When anisotropic leakages models are considered, in addition to homogenizing isotropic cross sections, the anisotropic scattering cross section must also be considered. The simple option, which consists of using the same homogenization procedure for both the isotropic and anisotropic components of the scattering cross section, leads to inconsistencies between the homogeneous and homogenized transport equation. Here we will present a method for homogenizing the anisotropic scattering cross sections that will resolve these inconsistencies. (author)

  2. Probing plasma fluorinated graphene via spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C; Scardamaglia, M; Reckinger, N; Sezen, H; Amati, M; Gregoratti, L; Colomer, J-F; Ewels, C; Snyders, R; Bittencourt, C

    2017-11-29

    Plasma fluorination of graphene is studied using a combination of spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, giving insight into the yield and fluorination mechanism for functionalization of supported graphene with both CF 4 and SF 6 gas precursors. Ion acceleration during fluorination is used to probe the effect on grafting functionalities. Adatom clustering, which occurs with CF 4 plasma treatment, is suppressed when higher kinetic energy is supplied to the ions. During SF 6 plasma functionalization, the sulfur atoms tend to bond to bare copper areas instead of affecting the graphene chemistry, except when the kinetic energy of the ions is restricted. Using scanning photoelectron microscopy, with a 100 nm spatial resolution, the chemical bonding environment is evaluated in the fluorinated carbon network at selected regions and the functionalization homogeneity is controlled in individual graphene flakes.

  3. Electron distribution function in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourkal, E.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.; Sydora, R.; Kirkby, C.; Capjack, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Baldis, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new electron distribution function has been found in laser heated homogeneous plasmas by an analytical solution to the kinetic equation and by particle simulations. The basic kinetic model describes inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and electron--electron collisions. The non-Maxwellian distribution function is comprised of a super-Gaussian bulk of slow electrons and a Maxwellian tail of energetic particles. The tails are heated due to electron--electron collisions and energy redistribution between superthermal particles and light absorbing slow electrons from the bulk of the distribution function. A practical fit is proposed to the new electron distribution function. Changes to the linear Landau damping of electron plasma waves are discussed. The first evidence for the existence of non-Maxwellian distribution functions has been found in the interpretation, which includes the new distribution function, of the Thomson scattering spectra in gold plasmas [Glenzer , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999)

  4. On thermalization of electron-positron-photon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siutsou, I. A., E-mail: siutsou@icranet.org [CAPES–ICRANet program, ICRANet–Rio, CBPF 22290-180, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aksenov, A. G. [Institute for Computer-Aided Design, Russian Academy of Sciences 123056, 2nd Brestskaya st., 19/18, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vereshchagin, G. V. [ICRANet 65122, p.le della Republica, 10, Pescara (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Recently a progress has been made in understanding thermalization mechanism of relativistic plasma starting from a non-equilibrium state. Relativistic Boltzmann equations were solved numerically for homogeneous isotropic plasma with collision integrals for two- and three-particle interactions calculated from the first principles by means of QED matrix elements. All particles were assumed to fulfill Boltzmann statistics. In this work we follow plasma thermalization by accounting for Bose enhancement and Pauli blocking in particle interactions. Our results show that particle in equilibrium reach Bose-Einstein distribution for photons, and Fermi-Dirac one for electrons, respectively.

  5. On thermalization of electron-positron-photon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siutsou, I. A.; Aksenov, A. G.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently a progress has been made in understanding thermalization mechanism of relativistic plasma starting from a non-equilibrium state. Relativistic Boltzmann equations were solved numerically for homogeneous isotropic plasma with collision integrals for two- and three-particle interactions calculated from the first principles by means of QED matrix elements. All particles were assumed to fulfill Boltzmann statistics. In this work we follow plasma thermalization by accounting for Bose enhancement and Pauli blocking in particle interactions. Our results show that particle in equilibrium reach Bose-Einstein distribution for photons, and Fermi-Dirac one for electrons, respectively.

  6. Transition probabilities of some Si II lines obtained by laser produced plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Botho, B.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    The absolute transition probabilities for 28 Si II spectral lines have been determined by measurement of emission line intensities from laser-produced plasmas of Si in Ar and Kr atmospheres. The studied plasma has a temperature of about 2 . 10 4 K and 10 17 cm -3 electron density. The local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and plasma homogeneity have been checked. The results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and with present Hartree-Fock calculations in LS coupling. (orig.)

  7. Dense strongly non-ideal plasma generation by laser isobaric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, P.P.; Rozanov, E.K.; Riabii, V.A.; Titov, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of generation of a dense strongly non-ideal plasma by slow isobaric heating of a small target in a high inert gas medium is discussed. The characteristic life-time of dense plasma is 10 -3 sec. Estimations show that such a plasma is homogeneous. Conditions are found for temperature uniformity. The experimental results of the isobaric heating of a thin potassium foil target by a ruby laser beam at 500 atm are described. (Auth.)

  8. Selection of suitable prodrug candidates for in vivo studies via in vitro studies; the correlation of prodrug stability in between cell culture homogenates and human tissue homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlations/discrepancies of drug stabilities between in the homogenates of human culture cells and of human tissues. Amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine were chosen as the model drugs. The stabilities (half-lives) of floxuridine prodrugs in human tissues (pancreas, liver, and small intestine) homogenates were obtained and compared with ones in cell culture homogenates (AcPC-1, Capan-2, and Caco-2 cells) as well as human liver microsomes. The correlations of prodrug stability in human small bowel tissue homogenate vs. Caco-2 cell homogenate, human liver tissue homogenate vs. human liver microsomes, and human pancreatic tissue homogenate vs. pancreatic cell, AsPC-1 and Capan-2, homogenates were examined. The stabilities of floxuridine prodrugs in human small bowel homogenate exhibited the great correlation to ones in Caco-2 cell homogenate (slope = 1.0-1.3, r2 = 0.79-0.98). The stability of those prodrugs in human pancreas tissue homogenate also exhibited the good correlations to ones in AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells homogenates (slope = 0.5-0.8, r2 = 0.58-0.79). However, the correlations of prodrug stabilities between in human liver tissue homogenates and in human liver microsomes were weaker than others (slope = 1.3-1.9, r2 = 0.07-0.24). The correlations of drug stabilities in cultured cell homogenates and in human tissue homogenates were compared. Those results exhibited wide range of correlations between in cell homogenate and in human tissue homogenate (r2 = 0.07 - 0.98). Those in vitro studies in cell homogenates would be good tools to predict drug stabilities in vivo and to select drug candidates for further developments. In the series of experiments, 5'-O-D-valyl-floxuridine and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine would be selected as candidates of oral drug targeting delivery for cancer chemotherapy due to their relatively good stabilities compared to other tested prodrugs.

  9. On the influence of dissipative effects on instabilities of differentially-rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of differentially-rotating cylindrical plasmas in the axial homogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation of small-scale axisymmetric perturbations, taking into account the effects of the plasma thermal stratification, its resistivity and its viscosity, is derived. In the limiting cases of negligible resistivity and of negligible viscosity, the criteria of plasma stability are obtained. It is shown that in the case of small viscosity, the azimuthal flow of resistive plasma in the axial magnetic field is unstable due to the buoyancy effect if both the plasma pressure and its entropy either increase or decrease in the radial direction.

  10. Homogenization in powder compacts of UO2-PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.

    1979-01-01

    The homogenization kinetics in mixed UO 2 -PuO 2 compacts have been studied by adopting a concentric core-shell model of diffusion. An equation relating the extent of homogenization expressed in terms of the fraction of UO 2 remaining undissolved and the time of annealing has been derived. From the equation, the periods required at different annealing temperatures to attain a specified level of homogenization have been calculated. These calculated homogenization times have been found to be in fair agreement with the experimentally observed homogenization times. The derived relationship has also been shown to satisfactorily predict homogenization in Cu-Ni powder compacts. (Auth.)

  11. Technical Note: Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Martisikova, Maria; Jaekel, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The self-developing Gafchromic EBT film is a radiochromic film, widely used for relative photon dosimetry. Recently, the manufacturer has replaced the well-investigated EBT film by the new Gafchromic EBT2 film. It has the same sensitive component and, in addition, it contains a yellow marker dye in order to protect the film against ambient light exposure and to serve as a base for corrections of small differences in film response. Furthermore, the configuration of the film layers as well as the binder material have been changed in comparison to the EBT film. When investigating the properties of EBT2 film, all characteristics were found to be similar to those of EBT film, except for the film response homogeneity. Thus, in this article special focus was put on examining the homogeneity of EBT2 film. Methods: A scan protocol established for EBT film and published previously was used. The uniformity of the film coloration was investigated for unirradiated and irradiated EBT2 film sheets. The dose response of EBT2 film was measured and the influence of film inhomogeneities on dose determination was evaluated. Results: Inhomogeneities in pixel values of up to ±3.7% within one film were detected. The relative inhomogeneities were found to be approximately independent of the dose. Nonuniformities of the film response lead to uncertainties in dose determination of ±8.7% at 1 Gy. When using net optical densities for dose calibration, uncertainties in dose determination amount to more than ±6%. Conclusions: EBT2 films from the lot investigated in this study show response inhomogeneities, which lead to uncertainties in dose determination exceeding the commonly accepted tolerance levels. It is important to test further EBT2 lots regarding homogeneity before using the film in clinical routine.

  12. Comparison of different homogenization approaches for elastic–viscoplastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, S; Molinari, A; Berbenni, S; Berveiller, M

    2012-01-01

    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic and non-linear viscoplastic composite materials is considered in this paper. First, we compare two homogenization schemes based on the Mori–Tanaka method coupled with the additive interaction (AI) law proposed by Molinari et al (1997 Mech. Mater. 26 43–62) or coupled with a concentration law based on translated fields (TF) originally proposed for the self-consistent scheme by Paquin et al (1999 Arch. Appl. Mech. 69 14–35). These methods are also evaluated against (i) full-field calculations of the literature based on the finite element method and on fast Fourier transform, (ii) available analytical exact solutions obtained in linear viscoelasticity and (iii) homogenization methods based on variational approaches. Developments of the AI model are obtained for linear and non-linear material responses while results for the TF method are shown for the linear case. Various configurations are considered: spherical inclusions, aligned fibers, hard and soft inclusions, large material contrasts between phases, volume-preserving versus dilatant anelastic flow, non-monotonic loading. The agreement between the AI and TF methods is excellent and the correlation with full field calculations is in general of quite good quality (with some exceptions for non-linear composites with a large volume fraction of very soft inclusions for which a discrepancy of about 15% was found for macroscopic stress). Description of the material behavior with internal variables can be accounted for with the AI and TF approaches and therefore complex loadings can be easily handled in contrast with most hereditary approaches. (paper)

  13. Autoregressive Processes in Homogenization of GNSS Tropospheric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, A.; Bogusz, J.; Teferle, F. N.; Bock, O.; Pottiaux, E.; Van Malderen, R.

    2016-12-01

    Offsets due to changes in hardware equipment or any other artificial event are all a subject of a task of homogenization of tropospheric data estimated within a processing of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observables. This task is aimed at identifying exact epochs of offsets and estimate their magnitudes since they may artificially under- or over-estimate trend and its uncertainty delivered from tropospheric data and used in climate studies. In this research, we analysed a common data set of differences of Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) from GPS and ERA-Interim (1995-2010) provided for a homogenization group working within ES1206 COST Action GNSS4SWEC. We analysed daily IWV records of GPS and ERA-Interim in terms of trend, seasonal terms and noise model with Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Hector software. We found that this data has a character of autoregressive process (AR). Basing on this analysis, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of 25 years long data with two different noise types: white as well as combination of white and autoregressive and also added few strictly defined offsets. This synthetic data set of exactly the same character as IWV from GPS and ERA-Interim was then subjected to a task of manual and automatic/statistical homogenization. We made blind tests and detected possible epochs of offsets manually. We found that simulated offsets were easily detected in series with white noise, no influence of seasonal signal was noticed. The autoregressive series were much more problematic when offsets had to be determined. We found few epochs, for which no offset was simulated. This was mainly due to strong autocorrelation of data, which brings an artificial trend within. Due to regime-like behaviour of AR it is difficult for statistical methods to properly detect epochs of offsets, which was previously reported by climatologists.

  14. Homogenization of Doppler broadening in spin-noise spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, M. Yu.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. S.; Belyaev, L. Yu.; Potekhin, R. A.; Glazov, M. M.; Kulyasov, V. N.; Kozlov, G. G.; Aleksandrov, E. B.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The spin-noise spectroscopy, being a nonperturbative linear optics tool, is still reputed to reveal a number of capabilities specific to nonlinear optics techniques. The effect of the Doppler broadening homogenization discovered in this work essentially widens these unique properties of spin-noise spectroscopy. We investigate spin noise of a classical system—cesium atoms vapor with admixture of buffer gas—by measuring the spin-induced Faraday rotation fluctuations in the region of D 2 line. The line, under our experimental conditions, is strongly inhomogeneously broadened due to the Doppler effect. Despite that, optical spectrum of the spin-noise power has the shape typical for the homogeneously broadened line with a dip at the line center. This fact is in stark contrast with the results of previous studies of inhomogeneous quantum dot ensembles and Doppler broadened atomic systems. In addition, the two-color spin-noise measurements have shown, in a highly spectacular way, that fluctuations of the Faraday rotation within the line are either correlated or anticorrelated depending on whether the two wavelengths lie on the same side or on different sides of the resonance. The experimental data are interpreted in the frame of the developed theoretical model which takes into account both kinetics and spin dynamics of Cs atoms. It is shown that the unexpected behavior of the Faraday rotation noise spectra and effective homogenization of the optical transition in the spin-noise measurements are related to smallness of the momentum relaxation time of the atoms as compared with their spin-relaxation time. Our findings demonstrate abilities of spin-noise spectroscopy for studying dynamic properties of inhomogeneously broadened ensembles of randomly moving spins.

  15. Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Dennis; Drepper, Thomas; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Delvigne, Frank; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Grünberger, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    In natural habitats, microbes form multispecies communities that commonly face rapidly changing and highly competitive environments. Thus, phenotypic heterogeneity has evolved as an innate and important survival strategy to gain an overall fitness advantage over cohabiting competitors. However, in defined artificial environments such as monocultures in small- to large-scale bioreactors, cell-to-cell variations are presumed to cause reduced production yields as well as process instability. Hence, engineering microbial production toward phenotypic homogeneity is a highly promising approach for synthetic biology and bioprocess optimization. In this review, we discuss recent studies that have unraveled the cell-to-cell heterogeneity observed during bacterial gene expression and metabolite production as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. In addition, current single-cell technologies are briefly reviewed with respect to their applicability in exploring cell-to-cell variations. We highlight emerging strategies and tools to reduce phenotypic heterogeneity in biotechnological expression setups. Here, strain or inducer modifications are combined with cell physiology manipulations to achieve the ultimate goal of equalizing bacterial populations. In this way, the majority of cells can be forced into high productivity, thus reducing less productive subpopulations that tend to consume valuable resources during production. Modifications in uptake systems, inducer molecules or nutrients represent valuable tools for diminishing heterogeneity. Finally, we address the challenge of transferring homogeneously responding cells into large-scale bioprocesses. Environmental heterogeneity originating from extrinsic factors such as stirring speed and pH, oxygen, temperature or nutrient distribution can significantly influence cellular physiology. We conclude that engineering microbial populations toward phenotypic homogeneity is an increasingly important task to take biotechnological

  16. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  17. Hypersurface Homogeneous Cosmological Model in Modified Theory of Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katore, S. D.; Hatkar, S. P.; Baxi, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    We study a hypersurface homogeneous space-time in the framework of the f (R, T) theory of gravitation in the presence of a perfect fluid. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained for exponential and power law volumetric expansions. We also solve the field equations by assuming the proportionality relation between the shear scalar (σ ) and the expansion scalar (θ ). It is observed that in the exponential model, the universe approaches isotropy at large time (late universe). The investigated model is notably accelerating and expanding. The physical and geometrical properties of the investigated model are also discussed.

  18. Homogenization of variational inequalities and equations defined by pseudomonotone operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrakov, G V

    2008-01-01

    Results on the convergence of sequences of solutions of non-linear equations and variational inequalities for obstacle problems are proved. The variational inequalities and equations are defined by a non-linear, pseudomonotone operator of the second order with periodic, rapidly oscillating coefficients and by sequences of functions characterizing the obstacles and the boundary conditions. Two-scale and macroscale (homogenized) limiting problems for such variational inequalities and equations are obtained. Results on the relationship between solutions of these limiting problems are established and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of solutions are presented. Bibliography: 25 titles

  19. Fabrication of homogeneous titania/MWNT composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbely, Barbara; Nemeth, Zoltan; Reti, Balazs; Seo, Jin Won; Magrez, Arnaud; Forro, Laszlo; Hernadi, Klara

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Homogenous titania coverage on MWNT surface in a controllable way. → Various titanium alkoxy precursors are suitable for layer formation. → Acetone and ethanol are the best to promote interaction between MWNT and titania. -- Abstract: MWNT/titania nanocomposites were prepared by an impregnation method and subsequent heat treatment at 400 o C. Precursor compounds such as titanium (IV) propoxide and titanium (IV) ethoxide were used to cover the surface of CNTs under solution conditions. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were carried out to characterize the as-prepared titania layers.

  20. Preliminary development of thermal nuclear cell homogenization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Z.; Shafii, M. A.; Yudha, S. P.; Waris, A.; Rijal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cell homogenization for thermal reactors usually include three main parts, i.e., fast energy resonance part which usually adopt narrow resonance approximation to treat the resonance, low (intermediate) energy region in which the resonance can not be treated accurately using NR approximation and therefore we should use intermediate resonance treatment, and thermal energy region (very low) in which the effect of thermal must be treated properly. In n this study the application of the intermediate resonance approximation treatment for low energy nuclear resonance is discussed. The method is iterative based. As a sample the method is applied in U-235 low lying resonance and the result is presented and discussed.

  1. Decomposition of ammonium nitrate in homogeneous and catalytic denitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, A. V.; Tananaev, I. G.; Shilov, V. P.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate is one of potentially explosive by-products of spent fuel reprocessing. Decomposition of ammonium nitrate in the HNO 3 -HCOOH system was studied in the presence or absence of Pt/SiO 2 catalyst. It was found that decomposition of ammonium nitrate is due to homogeneous noncatalytic oxidation of ammonium ion with nitrous acid generated in the HNO 3 -HCOOH system during denitration. The platinum catalyst initiates the reaction of HNO 3 with HCOOH to form HNO 2 . The regular trends were revealed and the optimal conditions of decomposition of ammonium nitrate in nitric acid solutions were found [ru

  2. Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.

  3. Integrability of Hamiltonian systems with homogeneous potentials of degree zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, Guy, E-mail: guy.casale@univ-rennes1.f [IRMAR UMR 6625, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Duval, Guillaume, E-mail: dduuvvaall@wanadoo.f [1 Chemin du Chateau, 76 430 Les Trois Pierres (France); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: maciejka@astro.ia.uz.zgora.p [Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Licealna 9, PL-65-417 Zielona Gora (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Przybylska@astri.uni.torun.p [Torun Centre for Astronomy, N. Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2010-01-04

    We derive necessary conditions for integrability in the Liouville sense of classical Hamiltonian systems with homogeneous potentials of degree zero. We obtain these conditions through an analysis of the differential Galois group of variational equations along a particular solution generated by a non-zero solution d element of C{sup n} of nonlinear equation gradV(d)=d. We prove that when the system is integrable the Hessian matrix V{sup ''}(d) has only integer eigenvalues and is diagonalizable.

  4. Projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces with small boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, Ivan V

    2009-01-01

    We study open equivariant projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces such that the complement of the open orbit has codimension at least 2. We establish a criterion for the existence of such an embedding, prove that the set of isomorphism classes of such embeddings is finite, and give a construction of the embeddings in terms of Geometric Invariant Theory. A generalization of Cox's construction and the theory of bunched rings enable us to describe in combinatorial terms the basic geometric properties of embeddings with small boundary

  5. Homogeneous approximation property for continuous shearlet transforms in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the generalization of the homogeneous approximation property (HAP for a continuous shearlet transform to higher dimensions. First, we give a pointwise convergence result on the inverse shearlet transform in higher dimensions. Second, we show that every pair of admissible shearlets possess the HAP in the sense of L 2 ( R d $L^{2}(R^{d}$ . Third, we give a sufficient condition for the pointwise HAP to hold, which depends on both shearlets and functions to be reconstructed.

  6. Non-Homogenous Moral Space (from Bentham toSen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr (Peter Boltuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of moral space covers all thin (universal and thick (particular characteristics that may plausibly be seen as morally relevant. In this paper, I investigate certain properties of moral space so defined. These properties are not easily visible if we analyze moral characteristics individually, but become clear once we consider them collectively. In particular, following Amartya Sen, I claim that the value of moral properties is, in part, a function of positional characteristics. I call this notion the non-homogeneity of moral space.

  7. Homogenized Elastic Properties of Graphene for Small Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica Sorić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide the quantification of the linear and non-linear elastic mechanical properties of graphene based upon the judicious combination of molecular mechanics simulation results and homogenization methods. We clarify the influence on computed results by the main model features, such as specimen size, chirality of microstructure, the effect of chosen boundary conditions (imposed displacement versus force and the corresponding plane stress transformation. The proposed approach is capable of explaining the scatter of the results for computed stresses, energy and stiffness and provides the bounds on graphene elastic properties, which are quite important in modeling and simulation of the virtual experiments on graphene-based devices.

  8. Neutron guide geometries for homogeneous phase space volume transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stüßer, N.; Bartkowiak, M.; Hofmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    We extend geometries for recently developed optical guide systems that perform homogeneous phase space volume transformations on neutron beams. These modules allow rotating beam directions and can simultaneously compress or expand the beam cross-section. Guide systems combining these modules offer the possibility to optimize ballistic guides with and without direct view on the source and beam splitters. All systems are designed for monochromatic beams with a given divergence. The case of multispectral beams with wavelength-dependent divergence distributions is addressed as well. - Highlights: • Form invariant volume transformation in phase space. • Geometrical approach. • Ballistic guide, beam splitter, beam bender

  9. The General Theory of Homogenization A Personalized Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tartar, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization is not about periodicity, or Gamma-convergence, but about understanding which effective equations to use at macroscopic level, knowing which partial differential equations govern mesoscopic levels, without using probabilities (which destroy physical reality); instead, one uses various topologies of weak type, the G-convergence of Sergio Spagnolo, the H-convergence of Francois Murat and the author, and some responsible for the appearance of nonlocal effects, which many theories in continuum mechanics or physics guessed wrongly. For a better understanding of 20th century science,

  10. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  11. Diamond-shaped electromagnetic transparent devices with homogeneous material parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tinghua; Huang Ming; Yang Jingjing; Yu Jiang; Lan Yaozhong

    2011-01-01

    Based on the linear coordinate transformation method, two-dimensional and three-dimensional electromagnetic transparent devices with diamond shape composed of homogeneous and non-singular materials are proposed in this paper. The permittivity and permeability tensors of the transparent devices are derived. The performance and scattering properties of the transparent devices are confirmed by a full-wave simulation. It can physically protect electric devices such as an antenna and a radar station inside, without sacrificing their performance. This work represents important progress towards the practical realization of metamaterial-assisted transparent devices and expands the application of transformation optics.

  12. Neutron guide geometries for homogeneous phase space volume transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stüßer, N., E-mail: stuesser@helmholtz-berlin.de; Bartkowiak, M.; Hofmann, T.

    2014-06-01

    We extend geometries for recently developed optical guide systems that perform homogeneous phase space volume transformations on neutron beams. These modules allow rotating beam directions and can simultaneously compress or expand the beam cross-section. Guide systems combining these modules offer the possibility to optimize ballistic guides with and without direct view on the source and beam splitters. All systems are designed for monochromatic beams with a given divergence. The case of multispectral beams with wavelength-dependent divergence distributions is addressed as well. - Highlights: • Form invariant volume transformation in phase space. • Geometrical approach. • Ballistic guide, beam splitter, beam bender.

  13. Hydrogen atoms in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Koiller, B.

    1978-01-01

    A variational scheme to obtain the spectrum of the hydrogen atom in the presence of an external homogeneous magnetic field is proposed. Two different sets of basis function to diagonalize the Hamiltonian describing the system are used, namely the eigenfunctions of the free hydrogen atom and of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator; both having their radial coordinates properly scaled by a variational parammeter. Because of its characteristics, the present approach is suitable to describe the ground state as well as an infinite number of excited states also for a wide range of magnetic field strengths [pt

  14. Cosmology the homogeneous universe and the evolution of structures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2003-01-01

    In my course I will first give and introduction to standard cosmology. I discuss the equations of the homogeneous and isotropic universe and I'll briefly summarize its thermal history. After that I want to concentrate on the fluctuations in the universe. We will study anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, fluctuations of the matter density and the velocity field and weak lensing. I want to explain especially new cosmological data which are coming up right now and their implication for the cosmological model. N.B. This lecture series will be held in the Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 27, 28, 30, 31 January and in the Council room on 29 January.

  15. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  16. Chaos Control on a Duopoly Game with Homogeneous Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manying Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of a nonlinear discrete-time duopoly game, where the players have homogenous knowledge on the market demand and decide their outputs based on adaptive expectation. The Nash equilibrium and its local stability are investigated. The numerical simulation results show that the model may exhibit chaotic phenomena. Quasiperiodicity is also found by setting the parameters at specific values. The system can be stabilized to a stable state by using delayed feedback control method. The discussion of control strategy shows that the effect of both firms taking control method is better than that of single firm taking control method.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics in a finite homogeneous electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2002-10-07

    We treat homogeneous electric fields within density functional calculations with periodic boundary conditions. A nonlocal energy functional depending on the applied field is used within an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The reliability of the method is demonstrated in the case of bulk MgO for the Born effective charges, and the high- and low-frequency dielectric constants. We evaluate the static dielectric constant by performing a damped molecular dynamics in an electric field and avoiding the calculation of the dynamical matrix. Application of this method to vitreous silica shows good agreement with experiment and illustrates its potential for systems of large size.

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  19. Nonlinear ionic transport through microstructured solid electrolytes: homogenization estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the transport of multiple ionic species by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes in the presence of strong electric fields. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is heuristically deduced from a multi-scale convergence analysis of the relevant field equations. The resulting homogenized response involves an effective dissipation potential per species. Each potential is mathematically akin to that of a standard nonlinear heterogeneous conductor. A ‘linear-comparison’ homogenization technique is then used to generate estimates for these nonlinear potentials in terms of available estimates for corresponding linear conductors. By way of example, use is made of the Maxwell-Garnett and effective-medium linear approximations to generate estimates for two-phase systems with power-law dissipation. Explicit formulas are given for some limiting cases. In the case of threshold-type behavior, the estimates exhibit non-analytical dilute limits and seem to be consistent with fields localized in low energy paths.

  20. Heats pipes for temperature homogenization: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blet, Nicolas; Lips, Stéphane; Sartre, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is a review based on more than sixty references. • The review is sorted into various application fields. • Quantitative values of thermal gradients are compared with and without heat pipes. • Specificities of mentioned heat pipes are compared to other functions of heat pipes. - Abstract: Heat pipes offer high effective heat transfer in a purely passive way. Other specific properties of heat pipes, like temperature homogenization, can be also reached. In this paper, a literature review is carried out in order to investigate the existing heat pipe systems mainly aiming the reduction of temperature gradients. The review gathering more than sixty references is sorted into various application fields, like thermal management of electronics, of storage vessels or of satellites, for which the management of the temperature uniformity differs by the isothermal surface area, temperature ranges or the targeted precision of the temperature flattening. A summary of heat pipe characteristics for this function of temperature homogenization is then performed to identify their specificities, compared to other applications of heat pipes.