Sample records for homogeneous lossy half-space

  1. Thermomagnetic effect on the propagation of Rayleigh waves in an isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space under initial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ghatuary


    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave propagation in an isotropic homogeneous initially stressed thermoelastic half-space under the effect of magnetic field has been studied using Green–Lindsay (GL theory of generalized thermoelasticity. The frequency equation has been obtained for Rayleigh waves. The Rayleigh wave velocity is computed numerically for different values of initial stress parameter, magnetic pressure number, thermoelastic coupling parameter, and wave number for aluminium material, and the results obtained are compared graphically.

  2. Effect of coseismic and postseismic deformation on homogeneous and layered half-space and spherical analysis: Model simulation of the 2006 Java, Indonesia, tsunami earthquake (United States)

    Gunawan, Endra; Meilano, Irwan; Hanifa, Nuraini Rahma; Widiyantoro, Sri


    We simulate surface displacements calculated on homogeneous and layered half-space and spherical models as applied to the coseismic and postseismic (afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation) of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. Our analysis of coseismic and afterslip deformation suggests that the homogeneous half-space model generates a much broader displacement effect than the layered half-space and spherical models. Also, though the result for surface displacements is similar for the layered half-space and spherical models, noticeable displacements still occurred on top of the coseismic fault patches. Our displacement result in afterslip modeling suggests that significant displacements occurred on top of the main afterslip fault patches, differing from the viscoelastic relaxation model, which has displacements in the front region of coseismic fault patches. We propose this characteristic as one of the important features differentiating a postseismic deformation signal from afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation detected by geodetic data.

  3. Analysis of the moments of the sensitivity function for resistivity over a homogeneous half-space: Rules of thumb for pseudoposition, offline sensitivity and resolution (United States)

    Butler, S. L.


    It is instructive to consider the sensitivity function for a homogeneous half space for resistivity since it has a simple mathematical formula and it does not require a priori knowledge of the resistivity of the ground. Past analyses of this function have allowed visualization of the regions that contribute most to apparent resistivity measurements with given array configurations. The horizontally integrated form of this equation gives the sensitivity function for an infinitesimally thick horizontal slab with a small resistivity contrast and analysis of this function has admitted estimates of the depth of investigation for a given electrode array. Recently, it has been shown that the average of the vertical coordinate over this function yields a simple formula that can be used to estimate the depth of investigation. The sensitivity function for a vertical inline slab has also been previously calculated. In this contribution, I show that the sensitivity function for a homogeneous half-space can also be integrated so as to give sensitivity functions to semi-infinite vertical slabs that are perpendicular to the array axis. These horizontal sensitivity functions can, in turn, be integrated over the spatial coordinates to give the mean horizontal positions of the sensitivity functions. The mean horizontal positions give estimates for the centres of the regions that affect apparent resistivity measurements for arbitrary array configuration and can be used as horizontal positions when plotting pseudosections even for non-collinear arrays. The mean of the horizontal coordinate that is perpendicular to a collinear array also gives a simple formula for estimating the distance over which offline resistivity anomalies will have a significant effect. The root mean square (rms) widths of the sensitivity functions are also calculated in each of the coordinate directions as an estimate of the inverse of the resolution of a given array. For depth and in the direction perpendicular

  4. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

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    Bing Wei


    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  5. Static elastic deformation in an orthotropic half-space with rigid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Godara


    Oct 6, 2017 ... The solution of static elastic deformation of a homogeneous, orthotropic elastic uniform half-space with rigid boundary due to a non-uniform slip along a vertical strike-slip fault of infinite length and finite width has been studied. The results obtained here are the generalisation of the results for an isotropic.

  6. Thermal field diffusion in one, two and three-dimensional half space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cividjian Grigore A.


    Full Text Available The diffusion of suddenly occurring local high temperature in homogeneous half-infinite space is studied in the cases of one, two and three-dimensional half space. Comparison of the three cases is made. Applications of theoretically analyzed models are suggested. Errors induced by assumptions are evaluated.

  7. Surface waves on the relativistic quantum plasma half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao, Hang [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qiu, Min, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 16440 Kista (Sweden)


    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of surface waves on the relativistic quantum plasma half-space. The dispersion relations of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and electrostatic surface waves containing relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. Results show that the frequency of SPPs has a blue-shift, and surface Langmuir oscillations can propagate on the cold plasma half-space due to quantum effects. Numerical evaluation indicates that quantum effects to SPPs and electrostatic surface waves are significant and observable.

  8. New Poisson's Type Integral Formula for Thermoelastic Half-Space

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    Victor Seremet


    Full Text Available A new Green's function and a new Poisson's type integral formula for a boundary value problem (BVP in thermoelasticity for a half-space with mixed boundary conditions are derived. The thermoelastic displacements are generated by a heat source, applied in the inner points of the half-space and by temperature, and prescribed on its boundary. All results are obtained in closed forms that are formulated in a special theorem. A closed form solution for a particular BVP of thermoelasticity for a half-space also is included. The main difficulties to obtain these results are in deriving of functions of influence of a unit concentrated force onto elastic volume dilatation Θ( and, also, in calculating of a volume integral of the product of function Θ( and Green's function in heat conduction. Using the proposed approach, it is possible to extend the obtained results not only for any canonical Cartesian domain, but also for any orthogonal one.

  9. Consolidation of a poroelastic half-space with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fully coupled Biot quasi-static theory of linear poroelasticity is used to study the consolidation of a poroelastic half-space caused by axisymmetric surface loads. The fluid and solid constituents of the poroelastic medium are compressible and its permeability in the vertical direction is different from its permeability in the ...

  10. Isotropic Scattering in a Flatland Half-Space


    d'Eon, Eugene; Williams, MMR


    We solve the Milne, constant-source and albedo problems for isotropic scattering in a two-dimensional "Flatland" half-space via the Wiener-Hopf method. The Flatland $H$-function is derived and benchmark values and some identities unique to Flatland are presented. A number of the derivations are supported by Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Consolidation of a poroelastic half-space with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fully coupled Biot quasi-static theory of linear poroelasticity is used to study the consolidation of a poroelastic half-space caused by axisymmetric surface loads.The fluid and solid constituents of the poroelastic medium are compressible and its permeability in the vertical direction is different from its permeability in the ...

  12. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Closed form analytical expressions of stresses and displacements at any field point due to a very long dip-slip fault of finite width buried in a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space, are presented. Airy stress function is used to derive the expressions of stresses and displacements which depend on the dip angle and ...

  13. Surface waves on a quantum plasma half-space

    CERN Document Server

    Lázár, M; Smolyakov, A


    Surface modes are coupled electromagnetic/electrostatic excitations of free electrons near the vacuum-plasma interface and can be excited on a sufficiently dense plasma half-space. They propagate along the surface plane and decay in either sides of the boundary. In such dense plasma models, which are of interest in electronic signal transmission or in some astrophysical applications, the dynamics of the electrons is certainly affected by the quantum effects. Thus, the dispersion relation for the surface wave on a quantum electron plasma half-space is derived by employing the quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) and Maxwell-Poison equations. The QHD include quantum forces involving the Fermi electron temperature and the quantum Bohm potential. It is found that, at room temperature, the quantum effects are mainly relevant for the electrostatic surface plasma waves in a dense gold metallic plasma.

  14. Stresses due to vertical subsurface loading for an inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic half-space (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Der; Pan, Ernian


    In this article, we present the solutions for the stresses induced by four different loads associated with an axially loaded pile in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic half-space. The planes of cross-anisotropy are parallel to the horizontal surface of the half-space, and the Young's and shear moduli are assumed to vary exponentially with depth. The four loading types are: an embedded point load for an end-bearing pile, uniform skin friction, linear variation of skin friction, and non-linear parabolic variation of skin friction for a friction pile. The solutions for the stresses due to the pile load are expressed in terms of the Hankel integral and are obtained from the point load solutions of the same inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic half-space which were derived recently by the authors (Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 2003; 40(5):667-685). A numerical procedure is proposed to carry out the integral. For the special case of homogeneous isotropic and cross-anisotropic half-space, the stresses predicted by the numerical procedure agree well with the solutions of Geddes and Wang (Geotechnique 1966; 16(3):231-255; Soils Found. 2003; 43(5):41-52). An illustrative example is also given to investigate the effect of soil inhomogeneity, the type and degree of soil anisotropy, and the four different loading types on the vertical normal stress. The presented solutions are more realistic in simulating the actual stratum of loading problem in many areas of engineering practice. Copyright

  15. Surface plasmon oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We investigate the propagation of surface electrostatic oscillations on a quantum plasma half-space, taking into account the quantum effects. We derive the quantum surface wave frequencies of the system, by means the quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation and applying the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions. Numerical results show in the presence of the slow nonlocal variations, plasmon wave energies of the system are significantly modified and plasmonic oscillations with blue-shifted frequencies emerge.

  16. The Effect of Magnetic Field and Initial Stress on Fractional Order Generalized Thermoelastic Half-Space

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    Sunita Deswal


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study magneto-thermoelastic interactions in an initially stressed isotropic homogeneous half-space in the context of fractional order theory of generalized thermoelasticity. State space formulation with the Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the general solution, and the resulting formulation is applied to the ramp type increase in thermal load and zero stress. Solutions of the problem in the physical domain are obtained by using a numerical method of the Laplace inverse transform based on the Fourier expansion technique, and the expressions for the displacement, temperature, and stress inside the half-space are obtained. Numerical computations are carried out for a particular material for illustrating the results. Results obtained for the field variables are displayed graphically. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to present the effect of fractional parameter, ramp parameter, magnetic field, and initial stress on the field variables. Some particular cases of special interest have been deduced from the present investigation.

  17. Wave propagation in solid and porous half-space media

    CERN Document Server

    Hamidzadeh, Hamid R; Jazar, Reza N


    This unique book covers advanced topics in dynamic modeling of soil-foundation interaction, as well as the response of elastic semi-infinite media from an applications viewpoint. Advanced concepts such as solutions for analysis of elastic semi-infinite mediums, fluid motion in porous media, and nonlinearities in dynamic behavior are explained in great detail. Related theories and numerical analysis for independent vertical, horizontal, and rocking as well as coupled horizontal and rocking vibrations of a rigid rectangular base resting on the surface of a semi-infinite medium are presented. Throughout the book, a strong emphasis is placed on applications. A laboratory model for elastic half-space medium is also described. This book also: ·         Provides a systematic solution for analysis of elastic semi-infinite mediums when subjected to different loading conditions ·         Offers a solution for the continuous elastic medium that is also extended to visco-elastic media by considering com...

  18. Numerical modelling of complex resistivity effects on a homogeneous half-space at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Baumgartner, François


    The many different existing models describing the spectral behavior of the resistivity of geological materials at low frequency, combined with the lack of available field data, render the interpretation of complex resistivity (CR) data very difficult. With a recent interest in CR measurements...... that the use of a second Cole-Cole model to describe EM coupling may corrupt the interpretation of the low frequency dispersion, even when only the normal range of frequencies (...

  19. Generalized Magneto-thermo-microstretch Response of a Half-space with Temperature-dependent Properties During Thermal Shock

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    Qi-lin Xiong

    Full Text Available Abstract The generalized magneto-thermoelastic problem of an infinite homogeneous isotropic microstretch half-space with temperature-dependent material properties placed in a transverse magnetic field is investigated in the context of different generalized thermoelastic theories. The upper surface of the half-space is subjected to a zonal time-dependent heat shock. By solving finite element governing equations, the solution to the problem is obtained, from which the transient magneto-thermoelastic responses, including temperature, stresses, displacements, microstretch, microrotation, induced magnetic field and induced electric field are presented graphically. Comparisons are made in the results obtained under different generalized thermoelastic theories to show some unique features of generalized thermoelasticity, and comparisons are made in the results obtained under three forms of temperature dependent material properties (absolute temperature dependent, reference temperature dependent and temperature-independent to show the effects of absolute temperature and reference temperature. Weibull or Log-normal.

  20. Axisymmetric deformation of a poroelastic layer overlying an elastic half-space due to surface loading (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Rani, Sunita


    The axisymmetric deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, poroelastic layer of uniform thickness overlying a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space due to surface loads has been obtained. The fluid and the solid constituents of the porous layer are compressible and the permeability in vertical direction is different from its permeability in horizontal direction. The displacements and pore-pressure are taken as basic state variables. An analytical solution for the pore-pressure, displacements and stresses has been obtained using the Laplace-Hankel transform technique. The case of normal disc loading is discussed in detail. Diffusion of pore-pressure is obtained in the space-time domain. The Laplace inversion is evaluated using the fixed Talbot algorithm and the Hankel inversion using the extended Simpson's rule. Two different models of the Earth have been considered: continental crust model and oceanic crust model. For continental crust model, the layer is assumed to be of Westerly Granite and for the oceanic crust model of Hanford Basalt. The effect of the compressibilities of the fluid as well as solid constituents and anisotropy in permeability has been studied on the diffusion of pore-pressure. Contour maps have been plotted for the diffusion of pore-pressure for both models. It is observed that the pore-pressure changes to compression for the continental crust model with time, which is not true for the oceanic crust.

  1. Half-space albedo problem with modified F{sub N} method for linear and quadratic anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School


    One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation can be solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linear anisotropic and the quadratic anisotropic scattering properties. Having solved Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among these eigenfunctions, some neutron transport problems such as albedo problem can be calculated as numerically by using numerical or semi-analytic methods. In this study the half-space albedo problem is investigated by using the modified F{sub N} method.

  2. Static deformation of two welded monoclinic elastic half-spaces due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Static deformation of two monoclinic elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to a long inclined strike-slip fault situated in one of the half-spaces is studied analytically and numerically. Closedform algebraic expressions for the displacement at any point of the medium are obtained. The variation of the displacement at the ...

  3. Static deformation of two welded monoclinic elastic half-spaces due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Static deformation of two monoclinic elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to a long inclined strike-slip fault situated in one of the half-spaces is studied analytically and numerically. Closed- form algebraic expressions for the displacement at any point of the medium are obtained. The variation of the displacement at the ...

  4. Deformation of two welded elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inclined shear fault in two welded half-spaces is well known. The purpose of this note is to present the corresponding solution for a tensile fault. Closed-form analytical expressions for the. Airy stress function for a tensile line source in two welded half-spaces are first obtained. These expressions are then integrated ...

  5. Green’s functions for a volume source in an elastic half-space (United States)

    Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Hay, Todd A.; Hamilton, Mark F.


    Green’s functions are derived for elastic waves generated by a volume source in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The context is sources at shallow burial depths, for which surface (Rayleigh) and bulk waves, both longitudinal and transverse, can be generated with comparable magnitudes. Two approaches are followed. First, the Green’s function is expanded with respect to eigenmodes that correspond to Rayleigh waves. While bulk waves are thus ignored, this approximation is valid on the surface far from the source, where the Rayleigh wave modes dominate. The second approach employs an angular spectrum that accounts for the bulk waves and yields a solution that may be separated into two terms. One is associated with bulk waves, the other with Rayleigh waves. The latter is proved to be identical to the Green’s function obtained following the first approach. The Green’s function obtained via angular spectrum decomposition is analyzed numerically in the time domain for different burial depths and distances to the receiver, and for parameters relevant to seismo-acoustic detection of land mines and other buried objects. PMID:22423682

  6. Green's functions for a volume source in an elastic half-space. (United States)

    Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A; Ilinskii, Yurii A; Hay, Todd A; Hamilton, Mark F


    Green's functions are derived for elastic waves generated by a volume source in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The context is sources at shallow burial depths, for which surface (Rayleigh) and bulk waves, both longitudinal and transverse, can be generated with comparable magnitudes. Two approaches are followed. First, the Green's function is expanded with respect to eigenmodes that correspond to Rayleigh waves. While bulk waves are thus ignored, this approximation is valid on the surface far from the source, where the Rayleigh wave modes dominate. The second approach employs an angular spectrum that accounts for the bulk waves and yields a solution that may be separated into two terms. One is associated with bulk waves, the other with Rayleigh waves. The latter is proved to be identical to the Green's function obtained following the first approach. The Green's function obtained via angular spectrum decomposition is analyzed numerically in the time domain for different burial depths and distances to the receiver, and for parameters relevant to seismo-acoustic detection of land mines and other buried objects. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  7. Image potential in lossy dielectrics (United States)

    Lenac, Z.


    The interaction of a point charge with surrounding media ( the image potential) is analyzed using the quantum-mechanical description of dielectrics that consistently takes losses in media into account. We have derived a real dielectric function (without an imaginary part) appropriate for lossy dielectrics which, compared to the lossless one, significantly changes the image potential in the standard (first-order) calculations. However, when one adds to the Hamiltonian all higher-order terms caused by the losses, one finds that the image potential remains the same, as if there were no losses in media. Our calculations are approximative when analyzing complicated systems with various lossy dielectrics, but in some simple and essential cases ( e.g., a dielectric plate) we are able to give the exact proof.

  8. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . In a recent paper,. Wang et al (2003) gave FORTRAN programs for computation of deformation induced by earthquake sources in a multilayered half-space. The Airy stress function due to various two- dimensional sources in an unbounded ...

  9. Two-dimensional deformation of a uniform half-space due to non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional deformation of a uniform half-space due to non-uniform movement accompanying a long vertical tensile fracture. Sunita Rani Ram Chander Verma. Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1055-1063 ...

  10. Propagation of plane waves at the interface of an elastic solid half-space and a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S (1967 and Green-Lindsay (G-L (1972 theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  11. Rayleigh Waves in a Rotating Orthotropic Micropolar Elastic Solid Half-Space

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    Baljeet Singh


    Full Text Available A problem on Rayleigh wave in a rotating half-space of an orthotropic micropolar material is considered. The governing equations are solved for surface wave solutions in the half space of the material. These solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at free surface of the half-space to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. For numerical purpose, the frequency equation is approximated. The nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed and shown graphically versus nondimensional frequency and rotation-frequency ratio for both orthotropic micropolar elastic and isotropic micropolar elastic cases. The numerical results show the effects of rotation, orthotropy, and nondimensional frequency on the nondimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.

  12. Impact of a half-space interface on the wireless link between tiny sensor nodes (United States)

    Penkin, Dmitriy; Janssen, Gerard; Yarovoy, Alexander


    The power budget of a wireless link between two electrically small sensor nodes located close to an interface between two media is studied. The model includes both the propagation channel losses and input impedance of the radio frequency antennas. It is shown that a highly inductive half-space significantly enhances the received power due to the contribution of the surface wave while not resulting in considerable mismatch losses between the antennas and electronics. Hence, such a half-space improves the link gain, which may compensate the limited energy available for transmission from electrically and physically small nodes.

  13. Foundation plate on the elastic half-space, deterministic and probabilistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína


    Full Text Available Interaction between the foundation plate and subgrade can be described by different mathematical - physical model. Elastic foundation can be modelled by different types of models, e.g. one-parametric model, two-parametric model and a comprehensive model - Boussinesque (elastic half-space had been used. The article deals with deterministic and probabilistic analysis of deflection of the foundation plate on the elastic half-space. Contact between the foundation plate and subsoil was modelled using contact elements node-node. At the end the obtained results are presented.

  14. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of the coseismic deformation of an earth model consisting of an elastic layer of uniform thickness overlying an elastic half-space due to a very long tensile fault in the layer is solved analytically. Integral expressions for the surface displacements are obtained for a vertical tensile fault and a horizontal tensile fault.

  15. Residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened half-space under creep conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Radchenko


    Full Text Available We developed the method for solving the problem of residual stresses relaxation in surface-hardened layer of half-space under creep conditions. At the first stage we made the reconstruction of stress-strain state in half-space after plastic surface hardening procedure based on partial information about distribution for one residual stress tensor component experimentally detected. At the second stage using a numerical method we solve the problem of relaxation of self-balanced residual stresses under creep conditions. To solve this problem we introduce the following Cartesian system: x0y plane is aligned with hardened surface of half-space and 0z axis is directed to the depth of hardened layer. We also introduce the hypotheses of plane sections parallel to x0z and y0z planes. Detailed analysis of the problem has been done. Comparison of the calculated data with the corresponding test data was made for plane specimens (rectangular parallelepipeds made of EP742 alloy during T=650°C after the ultrasonic hardening with four hardening modes. We use half-space to model these specimens because penetration's depth of residual stresses is less than specimen general size in two digit exponent. There is enough correspondence of experimental and calculated data. It is shown that there is a decay (in modulus of pressing residual stresses under creep in 1.4–1.6 times.

  16. Modified Poisson Integral and Green Potential on a Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qiao


    Full Text Available We discuss the behavior at infinity of modified Poisson integral and Green potential on a half-space of the n-dimensional Euclidean space, which generalizes the growth properties of analytic functions, harmonic functions and superharmonic functions.

  17. Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Biot linearized quasi-static theory of fluid-infiltrated porous materials is used to formu- late the problem of the two-dimensional plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface loads. The Fourier–Laplace transforms of the stresses, displacements, pore pressure and fluid flux in each ...

  18. Static elastic deformation in an orthotropic half-space with rigid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 7. Static elastic deformation in an orthotropic half-space with rigid boundary model due to non-uniform long strike slip fault. Yogita Godara Ravinder Kumar Sahrawat Mahabir Singh. Volume 126 Issue 7 October 2017 Article ID 97 ...

  19. On the Suboptimality of Linear Lossy Codes (United States)

    Kuzuoka, Shigeaki

    This letter reveals that linear lossy codes cannot attain the rate-distortion function in general, even if the source is binary i. i. d. and the distortion is measured by the Hamming distortion measure.

  20. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ


    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  1. Rayleigh-type waves in nonlocal micropolar solid half-space. (United States)

    Khurana, Aarti; Tomar, S K


    Propagation of Rayleigh type surface waves in nonlocal micropolar elastic solid half-space has been investigated. Two modes of Rayleigh-type waves are found to propagate under certain approximations. Frequency equations of these Rayleigh type modes and their conditions of existence have been derived. These frequency equations are found to be dispersive in character due to the presence of micropolarity and nonlocality parameters in the medium. One of the frequency equations is a counterpart of the classical Rayleigh waves and the other is new and has appeared due to micropolarity of the medium. Phase speeds of these waves are computed numerically for Magnesium crystal and their variation against wavenumber are presented graphically. Comparisons have been made between the phase speeds of Rayleigh type waves through nonlocal micropolar, local micropolar and elastic solid half-spaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SH wave propagation in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials (United States)

    Shi, Xiaona; Shu, Haisheng; Zhou, Haiyong; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Ru; An, Shuowei; Zhu, Jie


    Based on the effective-medium theory, the propagation of a shear horizontal (SH) wave in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) is investigated. From the dispersion relations, the effects of negative effective-medium parameters on the properties of a SH wave traveling near the interface are analyzed in detail. It is found that a SH wave can always appear and travel along the interface under specific effective-parameter combinations no matter whether the effective transverse wave velocity is imaginary or real. This is significantly different from the classical case (joined half-spaces composed of natural media), and the existence of these SH interfacial wave modes may have important impacts on EMM-based SH wave manipulation, especially wave isolation and object protection.

  3. Electrostatic surface waves on a magnetized quantum plasma half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A theory of electrostatic surface waves on a quantum plasma half-space is developed with the inclusion of external magnetic field effects for the geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to the surface and the direction of propagation is perpendicular to the magnetic field. A general analytical expression for dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by solving Poisson and quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations with appropriate quantum boundary conditions.

  4. Rocking Rotation of a Rigid Disk Embedded in a Transversely Isotropic Half-Space

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    Seyed Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The asymmetric problem of rocking rotation of a circular rigid disk embedded in a finite depth of a transversely isotropic half-space is analytically addressed. The rigid disk is assumed to be in frictionless contact with the elastic half-space. By virtue of appropriate Green's functions, the mixed boundary value problem is written as a dual integral equation. Employing further mathematical techniques, the integral equation is reduced to a well-known Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results related to the contact stress distribution across the disk region and the equivalent rocking stiffness of the system are expressed in terms of the solution of the obtained Fredholm  integral  equation. When the rigid disk is located on the surface or at the remote boundary, the exact closed-form solutions are presented. For verification purposes, the limiting case of an isotropic half-space is considered and the results are verified with those available in the literature. The jump behavior in the results at the edge of the rigid disk for the case of an infinitesimal embedment is highlighted analytically for the first time. Selected numerical results are depicted for the contact stress distribution across the disk region, rocking stiffness of the system, normal stress, and displacement components along the radial axis. Moreover, effects of anisotropy on the rocking stiffness factor are discussed in detail.

  5. A Stochastic Analysis of the Transient Current Induced along the Thin Wire Scatterer Buried in a Lossy Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestar Šesnić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the stochastic collocation analysis of a time domain response of a straight thin wire scatterer buried in a lossy half-space. The wire is excited either by a plane wave transmitted through the air-ground interface or by an equivalent current source representing direct lightning strike pulse. Transient current induced at the center of the wire, governed by corresponding Pocklington integrodifferential equation, is determined analytically. This antenna configuration suffers from uncertainties in various parameters, such as ground properties, wire dimensions, and position. The statistical processing of the results yields additional information, thus enabling more accurate and efficient analysis of buried wire configurations.

  6. Direct current electric potential in an anisotropic half-space with vertical contact containing a conductive 3D body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping


    Full Text Available Detailed studies of anomalous conductors in otherwise homogeneous media have been modelled. Vertical contacts form common geometries in galvanic studies when describing geological formations with different electrical conductivities on either side. However, previous studies of vertical discontinuities have been mainly concerned with isotropic environments. In this paper, we deal with the effect on the electric potentials, such as mise-à-la-masse anomalies, due to a conductor near a vertical contact between two anisotropic regions. We also demonstrate the interactive effects when the conductive body is placed across the vertical contact. This problem is normally very difficult to solve by the traditional numerical methods. The integral equations for the electric potential in anisotropic half-spaces are established. Green's function is obtained using the reflection and transmission image method in which five images are needed to fit the boundary conditions on the vertical interface and the air-earth surface. The effects of the anisotropy of the environments and the conductive body on the electric potential are illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples.

  7. Analytical Expressions for Deformation from an Arbitrarily Oriented Spheroid in a Half-Space (United States)

    Cervelli, P. F.


    Deformation from magma chambers can be modeled by an elastic half-space with an embedded cavity subject to uniform pressure change along its interior surface. For a small number of cavity shapes, such as a sphere or a prolate spheroid, closed-form, analytical expressions for deformation have been derived, although these only approximate the uniform-pressure-change boundary condition, with the approximation becoming more accurate as the ratio of source depth to source dimension increases. Using the method of Elshelby [1957] and Yang [1988], which consists of a distribution of double forces and centers of dilatation along the vertical axis, I have derived expressions for displacement from a finite spheroid of arbitrary orientation and aspect ratio that are exact in an infinite elastic medium and approximate in a half-space. The approximation, like those for other cavity shapes, becomes increasingly accurate as the depth to source ratio grows larger, and is accurate to within a few percent in most real-world cases. I have also derived expressions for the deformation-gradient tensor, i.e., the derivatives of each component of displacement with respect to each coordinate direction. These can be transformed easily into the strain and stress tensors. The expressions give deformation both at the surface and at any point within the half-space, and include conditional statements that account for limiting cases that would otherwise prove singular. I have developed MATLAB code for these expressions (and their derivatives), which I use to demonstrate the accuracy of the approximation by showing how well the uniform-pressure-change boundary condition is satisfied in a variety of cases. I also show that a vertical, oblate spheroid with a zero-length vertical axis is equivalent to the penny-shaped crack of Fialko [2001] in an infinite medium and an excellent approximation in a half-space. Finally, because, in many cases, volume change is more tangible than pressure change, I have

  8. Coherent electromagnetic waves in the presence of a half space of randomly distributed scatterers (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.


    The present investigation of coherent field propagation notes, upon solving the Foldy-Twersky integral equation for a half-space of small spherical scatterers illuminated by a plane wave at oblique incidence, that the coherent field for a horizontally-polarized incident wave exhibits reflectivity and transmissivity consistent with the Fresnel formula for an equivalent continuous effective medium. In the case of a vertically polarized incident wave, both the vertical and longitudinal waves obtained for the coherent field have reflectivities and transmissivities that do not agree with the Fresnel formula.

  9. Propagation of Love waves in a void medium over a sandy half space under gravity (United States)

    Patra, Pulak; Gupta, Asit Kumar; Kundu, Santimoy


    The present study investigates the propagation of Love wave in a void layer resting over a sandy half space under the effect of gravitational force. The equations of motion have been gathered separately for different layers, and the boundary conditions have been introduced for two different layers at their interface. The mathematical analysis of the problem has been dealt with the help of Whittaker's function by expanding it asymptotically up to linear terms. The study reveals that in such a situation there exist two different wave fronts for the two above-mentioned layers: one is for the effects of gravity and sandy parameters, whereas other is for the effect of void parameter.

  10. Surface acoustic waves propagating over a rotating piezoelectric half-space. (United States)

    Fang, H; Yang, J; Jiang, Q


    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating over a piezoelectric half-space rotating at a constant angular rate about a fixed axis are analyzed using the linear theory of piezoelectricity, including Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Rotation sensitivity, the rotation induced change of wave speed, is studied. The dependence of the rotation sensitivity on the orientation of the rotation axis and the orientation of the material is examined. Numerical results for polarized ceramics PZT-5H are presented to show the detailed characteristics of the rotation sensitivity. The implications of the numerical results are discussed for different applications.

  11. Rayleigh Wave in a Rotating Initially Stressed Piezoelectric Half-Space (United States)

    Singh, Baljeet; Singh, Ranbir


    The governing equations of an initially stressed rotating piezoelectric medium are solved for surface wave solutions. The appropriate solutions in the half-space of the medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the frequency equation of Rayleigh wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The non-dimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave is computed numerically for particular examples of Lithium niobate and PZT-5H ceramics. The effects of rotation and initial stress are observed graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.

  12. Interference effects in phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions. (United States)

    Boucher, Matthew A; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim


    Geometrical acoustics provides a correct solution to the wave equation for rectangular rooms with rigid boundaries and is an accurate approximation at high frequencies with nearly hard walls. When interference effects are important, phased geometrical acoustics is employed in order to account for phase shifts due to propagation and reflection. Error increases, however, with more absorption, complex impedance values, grazing incidence, smaller volumes and lower frequencies. Replacing the plane wave reflection coefficient with a spherical one reduces the error but results in slower convergence. Frequency-dependent stopping criteria are then applied to avoid calculating higher order reflections for frequencies that have already converged. Exact half-space solutions are used to derive two additional spherical wave reflection coefficients: (i) the Sommerfeld integral, consisting of a plane wave decomposition of a point source and (ii) a line of image sources located at complex coordinates. Phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions agrees well with the finite element method for rectangular rooms with absorbing boundaries, at low frequencies and for rooms with different aspect ratios. Results are accurate even for long source-to-receiver distances. Finally, the crossover frequency between the plane and spherical wave reflection coefficients is discussed.

  13. Time-fractional wave-diffusion equation in an inhomogeneous half-space (United States)

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin


    We consider the fundamental solution of the time-fractional wave-diffusion equation in a three-dimensional half-space medium which contains an inhomogeneity in form of a plane parallel layer. The corresponding Green’s function which is derived by means of the Fourier and Laplace transforms can be accurately and efficiently evaluated without recourse to the Mittag-Leffler or the Fox H-function. Moreover, it is shown that in the one-dimensional case the fundamental solution in an inhomogeneous half-space is no longer a probability density function. In addition, we consider the advection equation for the fractional Laplacian {{(-Δ )}\\frac{1{2}}} and the Caputo time-fractional derivative of orders 0\\lt β ≤slant 1 on a bounded domain. Simple algorithms for accurate evaluation of the M-Wright function {{M}β }(x) and the Mittag-Leffler function {{E}β }(-x) are enclosed at the end of this article.

  14. Privacy of a lossy bosonic memory channel


    Ruggeri, G.; Mancini, S.


    We study the security of the information transmission between two honest parties realized through a lossy bosonic memory channel when losses are captured by a dishonest party. We then show that entangled inputs can enhance the private information of such a channel, which however does never overcome that of unentangled inputs in absence of memory.

  15. Scattering of targets over layered half space using a semi-analytic method in conjunction with FDTD algorithm. (United States)

    Cao, Le; Wei, Bing


    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a new method of plane wave excitation is used to investigate the RCS (Radar Cross Section) characteristics of targets over layered half space. Compare with the traditional excitation plane wave method, the calculation memory and time requirement is greatly decreased. The FDTD calculation is performed with a plane wave incidence, and the RCS of far field is obtained by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. However, methods available for extrapolating have to evaluate the half space Green function. In this paper, a new method which avoids using the complex and time-consuming half space Green function is proposed. Numerical results show that this method is in good agreement with classic algorithm and it can be used in the fast calculation of scattering and radiation of targets over layered half space.

  16. Asymmetric Vibrations of a Circular Elastic Plate on an Elastic Half Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H.; Krenk, Steen


    The asymmetric problem of a vibrating circular elastic plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half space is solved by an integral equation method, where the contact stress appears as the unknown function. By a trigonometric expansion, the problem is reduced to a number of uncoupled two......-dimensional problems. The radial variations of contact stresses and surface displacements are represented by polynomials, the coefficients of which are directly related by an infinite matrix that is a function of the vibration frequency. The results include a parametric study of the power input as a function...... of the vibration frequency of various plate stiffnesses and the normal component of the surface displacement field for simple excitation of the plate and passage of a plane Rayleigh wave....

  17. Vibration of an Elastic Circular Plate on an Elastic Half Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Schmidt, H.


    the expansion coefficients of the contact stresses and plate deformations. The solution technique is valid for all frequencies and avoids asympototic expansion in terms of the frequency. The plate is represented by the theory of Reissner and Mindlin, which imposes physical limitations for high frequencies......, but the method is easily extended to more general plate theories as well as nonsymmetric oscillations. The results include displacement and phase curves for rigid disks, power input for elastic plates, and typical stress and deformation distributions at selected phase angles. The results show considerable......The axisymmetric problem of a vibrating elastic plate on an elastic half space is solved by a direct method, in which the contact stresses and the normal displacements of the plate are taken as the unknown functions. First, the influence functions that give the displacements in terms...

  18. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Self similar motion of laser half-space plasmas. I deflagration regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanmartin, J. R.; Barrero, A.


    The one-dimensional self-similar motion of an initially cold, half-space plasma of electron density n{sub 0}, produced by the (anomalous) absorption of a laser pulse of irradiation {phi}- {phi}{sub 0}t / {iota} (0 < t {+-} 1 ) at the critical density n{sub c}(n{sub c}/n{sub 0}{+-}{epsilon}<<1), is considered; the analysis allows for electron heat conduction and ion-electron energy exchange (viscosities and ion conduction are found negligible) and retains three dimension less numbers: {epsilon}, Z{sub i} (ion charge number), and a parameter {alpha}{sup {alpha}}(n{sub 0}2{sub p}/{phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/3. For {alpha}>>{epsilon}{sup -}4/3, a deflagration wave (where energy absorption occurs) develops, separating an isentropic compression with a shock counting the undisturbed plasma, and an isotropic expansion flow to the vacuum. (Author)

  20. Rembrandt Kadrioru lossis / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-


    Kadrioru lossi kuppelsaali tundmatu meistri laemaali maalimise ajalugu. Maali aluseks on Rembrandti maal "Diana suplus". Laemaal on maalitud Magdalena de Passe (1600-1638) vasegravüüri põhjal, mis on tehtud Rembrandti maalist. Rembrandt on lähtunud Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630) kahest gravüürist, viimane on lähtunud Otto van Veeni (1556-1629) maalist

  1. On collaborative anonymous communications in lossy networks


    Rebollo-Monedero, David; Forné Muñoz, Jorge; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Parra-Arnau, Javier; Tripp Barba, Carolina; Urquiza Aguiar, Luis; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica


    Message encryption does not prevent eavesdroppers from unveiling who is communicating with whom, when, or how frequently, a privacy risk wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to. The Crowds protocol, a well-established anonymous communication system, capitalizes on user collaboration to enforce sender anonymity. This work formulates a mathematical model of a Crowd-like protocol for anonymous communication in a lossy network, establishes quantifiable metrics of anonymity and quality of...

  2. Integer computation of lossy JPEG2000 compression. (United States)

    Balster, Eric J; Fortener, Benjamin T; Turri, William F


    In this paper, an integer-based Cohen-Daubechies-Feauvea (CDF) 9/7 wavelet transform as well as an integer quantization method used in a lossy JPEG2000 compression engine is presented. The conjunction of both an integer transform and quantization step allows for a complete integer computation of lossy JPEG2000 compression. The lossy method of compression utilizes the CDF 9/7 wavelet filter, which transforms integer input pixel values into floating-point wavelet coefficients that are then quantized back into integers and finally compressed by the embedded block coding with optimal truncation tier-1 encoder. Integer computation of JPEG2000 allows a reduction in computational complexity of the wavelet transform as well as ease of implementation in embedded systems for higher computational performance. The results of the integer computation show an equivalent rate/distortion curve to the JasPer JPEG2000 compression engine, as well as a 30% reduction in computation time of the wavelet transform and a 56% reduction in computation time of the quantization processing on an average.

  3. Reconstruction of vibroacoustic fields in half-space by using hybrid near-field acoustical holography. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Sean F


    In this paper we examine the accuracy and efficiency of reconstructing the vibroacoustic quantities generated by a vibrating structure in half-space by using hybrid near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and modified Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) formulations. In hybrid NAH, we combine modified HELS with an inverse boundary element method (IBEM) to reconstruct a vibroacoustic field. The main advantage of this approach is that the majority of the input data can be regenerated but not measured, thus the efficiency is greatly enhanced. In modified HELS, we expand the field acoustic pressure in terms of outgoing and incoming spherical waves and specify the corresponding expansion coefficients by solving a system of equations obtained by matching the assumed-form solution to the measured acoustic pressure. Here the system of equations is ill conditioned and Tikhonov regularization is implemented through singular value decomposition (SVD) and the generalized cross-validation (GCV) method. Numerical examples of a dilating and oscillating spheres and finite cylinder are demonstrated. Test results show that hybrid NAH can yield a more accurate reconstruction than does a modified HELS, but a modified HELS is more efficient than is hybrid NAH [Work supported by NSF].

  4. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half space of densely distributed dielectric scatterers (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.


    The scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers is studied. The quasi-crystalline approximation is applied to truncate the hierarchy of multiple scattering equations, and the Percus-Yevick and the Verlet-Weis results are used to represent the pair distribution function. The coherent reflected wave is studied with these approximations. The incoherent scattered wave is calculated with the distorted Born approximation. In the low-frequency limit, closed-form expressions are obtained for the effective propagation constants, the coherent reflected wave, and the bistatic scattering coeficients. Results at higher frequencies are calculated numerically. The advantage of the present approach is that, in the low-frequency limit, it reproduces the effects of specular reflection, Fresnel reflection coefficient, Brewster angle, and Clausius-Mosotti relation. In addition to the classical results, the bistatic scattering coefficients are also calculated. The theory is also applied to match backscattering data from dry snow at microwave frequencies.

  5. Research of the Border Mobility Influence on the Half-Space Temperature Field Under Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Among the problems of unsteady heat conduction, tasks that can be solved in analytical closedform hold a special place. This species can be used both for parametric optimization of thermal protection of structures and for testing of computational algorithms.The previous paper presented an analytical solution of the problem to find the half-space temperature field with the uniformly moving boundary, which was under the external heat flux of constant power. In this paper we consider a similar problem, but the law of the moving boundary is assumed to be arbitrary nondecreasing, and the power of the heat flux can vary over time.An analytical dependence of the problem solution on the temperature of a moving boundary was obtained by using the Fourier transformation in the spatial variable. To determine the temperature of moving boundary, Volterra integral equation of the second kind was drawn. The solution of this equation was numerically conducted using a specially developed computational algorithm.The obtained representation was used to research the most characteristic features of the process to form the temperature field in studied area when implementing the various laws of boundaries motion and different operating conditions for the external heat flux influence. Using computational experiments allowed us to find that the asymptotic nature of this dependence confirms the results obtained in previous work. It has been established that the nonlinear character of both the boundary motion law and the external heat flux power variation law mainly affect the specifics of the transition process.

  6. Wave propagation through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces. (United States)

    Jiao, Fengyu; Wei, Peijun; Li, Yueqiu


    Reflection and transmission of plane waves through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces are studied in this paper. The secular equations in the flexoelectric piezoelectric material are first derived from the general governing equation. Different from the classical piezoelectric medium, there are five kinds of coupled elastic waves in the piezoelectric material with the microstructure effects taken into consideration. The state vectors are obtained by the summation of contributions from all possible partial waves. The state transfer equation of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order, and the transfer matrix of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is obtained by solving the state transfer equation. By using the continuous conditions at the interface and the approach of partition matrix, we get the resultant algebraic equations in term of the transfer matrix from which the reflection and transmission coefficients can be calculated. The amplitude ratios and further the energy flux ratios of various waves are evaluated numerically. The numerical results are shown graphically and are validated by the energy conservation law. Based on these numerical results, the influences of two characteristic lengths of microstructure and the flexoelectric coefficients on the wave propagation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Half-spaced substrate integrated spoof surface plasmon polaritons based transmission line. (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Feng; Liao, Shao Wei; Li, Shu Fang; Xue, Quan


    In this paper, a new spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based transmission line (TL) with semi-open structure is proposed, which is implemented on a single-layer substrate with metallized via holes planted on a ground plane. The electromagnetic (EM) power propagates along it in the form of controlled slow surface wave, which is the same with its existing counterparts. The proposed TL can adjust the degree of EM energy confinement, and thus balance its performance in every characteristic, in particular attenuation and interference. As the TL is semi-open (i.e., EM energy distributes in the half space above the ground plane), it is less vulnerable to the nearby interference compared with its former counterparts, which are fully-open structure (i.e., EM energy distributes in the full space). Prototypes working at Ka band are fabricated and measured. Bianco-Parodi (BP) method is used to derive the attenuation of the proposed TL from the measured S-parameters. The proposed structure can be easily scaled for THz applications, which opens the door for future high performance THz components and systems.

  8. A two dimensional fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic problem for a half-space subjected to mechanical force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailawalia Praveen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the two dimensional deformation of fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic medium in the context of Green-Lindsay theory of thermoelasticity. A mechanical force is applied along the interface of fluid half space and fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic half space. The normal mode analysis has been applied to obtain the exact expressions for displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress. The effect of anisotropy and micropolarity on the displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress has been depicted graphically.

  9. Exact Solutions of Rayleigh-Stokes Problem for Heated Generalized Maxwell Fluid in a Porous Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Xue


    Full Text Available The Rayleigh-Stokes problem for a generalized Maxwell fluid in a porous half-space with a heated flat plate is investigated. For the description of such a viscoelastic fluid, a fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model is used. By using the Fourier sine transform and the fractional Laplace transform, exact solutions of the velocity and the temperature are obtained. Some classical results can be regarded as particular cases of our results, such as the classical solutions of the first problem of Stokes for Newtonian viscous fluids, Maxwell fluids, and Maxwell fluids in a porous half-space.

  10. Quasi-Stationary Temperature Field of Two-Layer Half-Space with Moving Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Due to intensive introduction of mathematical modeling methods into engineering practice, analytical methods for solving problems of heat conduction theory along with computational methods become increasingly important. Despite the well-known limitations of the analytical method applicability, this trend is caused by many reasons. In particular, solutions of the appropriate problems presented in analytically closed form can be used to test the new efficient computational algorithms, to carry out a parametric study of the temperature field of the analyzed system and to explore specific features of its formation, to formulate and solve optimization problems. In addition, these solutions allow us to explore the possibility for simplifying mathematical model with retaining its adequacy to the studied process.The main goal of the conducted research is to provide an analytically closed-form solution to the problem of finding the quasi-stationary temperature field of the system, which is simulated by isotropic half-space with isotropic coating of constant thickness. The outer boundary of this system is exposed to the Gaussian-type heat flux and uniformly moves in parallel with itself.A two-dimensional mathematical model that takes into account the axial symmetry of the studied process has been used. After the transition to a moving coordinate system rigidly associated with a moving boundary the Hankel integral transform of zero order (with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform (with respect to the temporal variable were used. Next, the image of the Hankel transform for the stationary temperature field of the system with respect to the moving coordinate system was found using a limit theorem of operational calculus. This allowed representing the required quasi-stationary field in the form of an improper integral of the first kind, which depends on the parameters. This result obtained can be used to conduct a parametric study and solve

  11. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known. The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault. The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle. Graphs showing the variation of ...

  12. Reflection of spin and spin-elastic waves at the interface of a ferromagnetic half-space (United States)

    Danoyan, Zaven; Piliposian, Gayane; Hasanyan, Davresh

    This paper considers the reflection of pure spin and spin-elastic (or magneto-elastic) waves at the interface of a ferromagnetic half-space and a vacuum. For pure spin waves two cases are considered, with exchange effects, and without. It is shown that when exchange effects are taken into account, volume spin waves in the ferromagnetic half space incident at the boundary with the vacuum generate a reflected volume spin wave, and an accompanying compound surface wave propagating along the boundary and consisting of two partial inhomogeneous spin waves in the ferromagnetic half-space and a partial magneto-static inhomogeneous surface wave in the vacuum. When exchange effects are neglected the incident wave generates only a reflected volume wave in the ferromagnetic half-space. Reflection and transmission of spin-elastic (or magneto-elastic) waves has been considered only in the case of the absence of exchange effects. An incident volume wave generates a volume spin-elastic reflected wave and one inhomogeneous magneto-static accompanying surface wave. Excitations of the magnetic field are not transmitted into the vacuum in both cases when the exchange effect is neglected. In all cases the reflection of a spin wave has the character of a full internal reflection.

  13. Reflection and transmission of elastic waves through a couple-stress elastic slab sandwiched between two half-spaces (United States)

    Wang, Changda; Chen, Xuejun; Wei, Peijun; Li, Yueqiu


    The reflection and transmission of elastic waves through a couple-stress elastic slab that is sandwiched between two couple-stress elastic half-spaces are studied in this paper. Because of the couple-stress effects, there are three types of elastic waves in the couple-stress elastic solid, two of which are dispersive. The interface conditions between two couple-stress solids involve the surface couple and rotation apart from the surface traction and displacement. The nontraditional interface conditions between the slab and two solid half-spaces are used to obtain the linear algebraic equation sets from which the amplitude ratios of reflection and transmission waves to the incident wave can be determined. Then, the energy fluxes carried by the various reflection and transmission waves are calculated numerically and the normal energy flux conservation is used to validate the numerical results. The special case, couple-stress elastic slab sandwiched by the classical elastic half-spaces, is also studied and compared with the situation that the classical elastic slab sandwiched by the classical elastic half-spaces. Incident longitudinal wave (P wave) and incident transverse wave (SV wave) are both considered. The influences of the couple-stress are mainly discussed based on the numerical results. It is found that the couple-stress mainly influences the transverse modes of elastic waves.

  14. Laplace-transform-based method to calculate back-reflected radiance from an isotropically scattering half-space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzema, K.; Hoenders, B.J; Ferwerda, H.A

    We present a method to determine the back-reflected radiance From an isotropically scattering half-space with matched boundary. This method has the advantage that it leads very quickly to the relevant equations, the numerical solution of which is also quite easy. Essentially, the method is derived

  15. Analysis of the temporal electric fields in lossy dielectric media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C


    The time-dependent electric fields associated with lossy dielectric media are examined. The analysis illustrates that, with respect to the basic time constant, these lossy media can take a considerable time to attain a steady-state condition. Time-dependent field enhancement factors are considered...

  16. Modeling of Lossy Inductance in Moving-Coil Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xiao-Peng; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Zeng, Xin-Wu


    The electrical impedance of moving-coil loudspeakers is dominated by the lossy inductance in high frequency range. Using the equivalent electrical circuit method, a new model for the lossy inductance based on separate functions for the magnitude and phase of the impedance is presented. The electr...

  17. Rolling contact of a rigid sphere/sliding of a spherical indenter upon a viscoelastic half-space containing an ellipsoidal inhomogeneity (United States)

    Koumi, Koffi Espoir; Chaise, Thibaut; Nelias, Daniel


    In this paper, the frictionless rolling contact problem between a rigid sphere and a viscoelastic half-space containing one elastic inhomogeneity is solved. The problem is equivalent to the frictionless sliding of a spherical tip over a viscoelastic body. The inhomogeneity may be of spherical or ellipsoidal shape, the later being of any orientation relatively to the contact surface. The model presented here is three dimensional and based on semi-analytical methods. In order to take into account the viscoelastic aspect of the problem, contact equations are discretized in the spatial and temporal dimensions. The frictionless rolling of the sphere, assumed rigid here for the sake of simplicity, is taken into account by translating the subsurface viscoelastic fields related to the contact problem. Eshelby's formalism is applied at each step of the temporal discretization to account for the effect of the inhomogeneity on the contact pressure distribution, subsurface stresses, rolling friction and the resulting torque. A Conjugate Gradient Method and the Fast Fourier Transforms are used to reduce the computation cost. The model is validated by a finite element model of a rigid sphere rolling upon a homogeneous vciscoelastic half-space, as well as through comparison with reference solutions from the literature. A parametric analysis of the effect of elastic properties and geometrical features of the inhomogeneity is performed. Transient and steady-state solutions are obtained. Numerical results about the contact pressure distribution, the deformed surface geometry, the apparent friction coefficient as well as subsurface stresses are presented, with or without heterogeneous inclusion.

  18. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known.The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault.The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle.Graphs showing the variation of the ...

  19. Laplace-transform-based method to calculate back-reflected radiance from an isotropically scattering half-space


    Rinzema, K.; Hoenders, B. J.; Ferwerda, H.A.


    We present a method to determine the back-reflected radiance From an isotropically scattering half-space with matched boundary. This method has the advantage that it leads very quickly to the relevant equations, the numerical solution of which is also quite easy. Essentially, the method is derived from a mathematical criterion that effectively forbids the existence of solutions to the transport equation which grow exponentially as one moves away from the surface and deeper into the medium. Pr...

  20. Modelling of lossy coils using fractional derivatives (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingo; Krüger, Klaus


    Coils exposed to eddy current and hysteresis losses are conventionally described by an inductance with equivalent core-loss resistance connected in parallel. The value of the equivalent core-loss resistance depends on the working frequency and the external wiring. Thus the model is less than satisfactory. The authors propose to describe loss inductance using fractional derivatives containing both a loss term and a storage term. After introducing the theory of fractional derivatives, the operating mode of the fractional coil model is explained by the example of an RLC oscillating circuit. Subsequent measurements of a series resonant circuit with a lossy coil impressively confirm the theoretical model with regard to both the frequency and time domains.

  1. Entropy Approximation in Lossy Source Coding Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Śmieja


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate a lossy source coding problem, where an upper limit on the permitted distortion is defined for every dataset element. It can be seen as an alternative approach to rate distortion theory where a bound on the allowed average error is specified. In order to find the entropy, which gives a statistical length of source code compatible with a fixed distortion bound, a corresponding optimization problem has to be solved. First, we show how to simplify this general optimization by reducing the number of coding partitions, which are irrelevant for the entropy calculation. In our main result, we present a fast and feasible for implementation greedy algorithm, which allows one to approximate the entropy within an additive error term of log2 e. The proof is based on the minimum entropy set cover problem, for which a similar bound was obtained.

  2. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends (United States)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.


    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  3. Existence and asymptotic behavior of positive continuous solutions for a nonlinear elliptic system in the half space


    Sameh Turki


    This paper deals with the existence and the asymptotic behavior of positive continuous solutions of the nonlinear elliptic system \\(\\Delta u=p(x)u^{\\alpha}v^r\\), \\(\\Delta v = q(x)u^s v^{\\beta}\\), in the half space \\(\\mathbb{R}^n_+ :=\\{x=(x_1,..., x_n)\\in \\mathbb{R}^n : x_n \\gt 0\\}\\), \\(n \\geq 2\\), where \\(\\alpha, \\beta \\gt 1\\) and \\(r, s \\geq 0\\). The functions \\(p\\) and \\(q\\) are required to satisfy some appropriate conditions related to the Kato class \\(K^{\\infty}(\\mathbb{R}^n_+)\\). Our app...

  4. Application of strong fluctuation random medium theory to scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of dielectric mixture (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Newton, R. W.; Kong, J. A.


    The strong fluctuation random medium theory is applied to calculate scattering from a half-space of dielectric mixture. The first and second moments of the fields are calculated, respectively, by using the bilocal and the distorted Born approximations, and the low frequency limit is taken. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account. Expressions for the effective permittivity for the full space case are derived. It is shown that the derived result of the effect permittivity is identical to that of the Polder and van Santern mixing formula. The correlation function of the random medium is obtained by using simple physical arguments and is expressed in terms of the fractional volumes and particle sizes of the constituents of the mixture. Backscattering coefficients of a half-space dielectric mixture are also calculated. Numerical results of the effective permittivity and backscattering coefficients are illustrated using typical parameters encountered in microwave remote sensing of dry and wet snow. It is also shown that experimental data can be matched with the theory by using physical parameters of the medium as obtained from ground truth measurements.

  5. Three-dimensional coupled thermoelastodynamic stress and flux induced wave propagation for isotropic half-space with scalar potential functions (United States)

    Hayati, Yazdan; Eskandari-Ghadi, Morteza


    An asymmetric three-dimensional thermoelastodynamic wave propagation with scalar potential functions is presented for an isotropic half-space, in such a way that the wave may be originated from an arbitrary either traction or heat flux applied on a patch at the free surface of the half-space. The displacements, stresses and temperature are presented within the framework of Biot's coupled thermoelasticity formulations. By employing a complete representation for the displacement and temperature fields in terms of two scalar potential functions, the governing equations of coupled thermoelasticity are uncoupled into a sixth- and a second-order partial differential equation in cylindrical coordinate system. By virtue of Fourier expansion and Hankel integral transforms, the angular and radial variables are suppressed respectively, and a 6{th}- and a 2{nd}-order ordinary differential equation in terms of depth are received, which are solved readily, from which the displacement, stresses and temperature fields are derived in transformed space by satisfying both the regularity and boundary conditions. By applying the inverse Hankel integral transforms, the displacements and temperature are numerically evaluated to determine the solutions in the real space. The numerical evaluations are done for three specific cases of vertical and horizontal time-harmonic patch traction and a constant heat flux passing through a circular disc on the surface of the half-space. It has been previously proved that the potential functions used in this paper are applicable from elastostatics to thermoelastodynamics. Thus, the analytical solutions presented in this paper are verified by comparing the results of this study with two specific problems reported in the literature, which are an elastodynamic problem and an axisymmetric quasi-static thermoelastic problem. To show the accuracy of numerical results, the solution of this study is also compared with the solution for elastodynamics exists in

  6. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.


    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  7. Interaction between a punch and an arbitrary crack or inclusion in a transversely isotropic half-space (United States)

    Fabrikant, I.; Karapetian, E.; Kalinin, S. V.


    We consider the problem of an arbitrary shaped rigid punch pressed against the boundary of a transversely isotropic half-space and interacting with an arbitrary flat crack or inclusion, located in the plane parallel to the boundary. The set of governing integral equations is derived for the most general conditions, namely the presence of both normal and tangential stresses under the punch, as well as general loading of the crack faces. In order to verify correctness of the derivations, two different methods were used to obtain governing integral equations: generalized method of images and utilization of the reciprocal theorem. Both methods gave the same results. Axisymmetric coaxial case of interaction between a rigid inclusion and a flat circular punch both centered along the z-axis is considered as an illustrative example. Most of the final results are presented in terms of elementary functions.

  8. P-FFT Accelerated EFIE with a Novel Diagonal Perturbed ILUT Preconditioner for Electromagnetic Scattering by Conducting Objects in Half Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Wei Guo


    Full Text Available A highly efficient and robust scheme is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from electrically large arbitrary shaped conductors in a half space. This scheme is based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE with a half-space Green’s function. The precorrected fast Fourier transform (p-FFT is first extended to a half space for general three-dimensional scattering problems. A novel enhanced dual threshold incomplete LU factorization (ILUT is then constructed as an effective preconditioner to improve the convergence of the half-space EFIE. Inspired by the idea of the improved electric field integral operator (IEFIO, the geometrical-optics current/principle value term of the magnetic field integral equation is used as a physical perturbation to stabilize the traditional ILUT perconditioning matrix. The high accuracy of EFIE is maintained, yet good calculating efficiency comparable to the combined field integral equation (CFIE can be achieved. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to arbitrary geometrical structures including open surfaces and requires no extra types of Sommerfeld integrals needed in the half-space CFIE. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the high performance of the proposed solver among several other approaches in typical half-space problems.

  9. Possibility of perfect concealment by lossy conventional and lossy metamaterial cylindrical invisibility cloaks (United States)

    Dehbashi, Reza; Shahabadi, Mahmoud


    The commonly used coordinate transformation for cylindrical cloaks is generalized. This transformation is utilized to determine an anisotropic inhomogeneous diagonal material tensors of a shell type cloak for various material types, i.e., double-positive (DPS: ɛ, μ > 0), double-negative (DNG: ɛ, μ cloaking for various material types, a rigorous analysis is performed. It is shown that perfect cloaking will be achieved for same type material for the cloak and its surrounding medium. Moreover, material losses are included in the analysis to demonstrate that perfect cloaking for lossy materials can be achieved for identical loss tangent of the cloak and its surrounding material. Sensitivity of the cloaking performance to losses for different material types is also investigated. The obtained analytical results are verified using a Finite-Element computational analysis.

  10. Lossy/lossless coding of bi-level images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    Summary form only given. We present improvements to a general type of lossless, lossy, and refinement coding of bi-level images (Martins and Forchhammer, 1996). Loss is introduced by flipping pixels. The pixels are coded using arithmetic coding of conditional probabilities obtained using a template...... as is known from JBIG and proposed in JBIG-2 (Martins and Forchhammer). Our new state-of-the-art results are obtained using the more general free tree instead of a template. Also we introduce multiple refinement template coding. The lossy algorithm is analogous to the greedy `rate...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning


    The analysis of coupled lossy transmission line structures like microwave directional couplers and filters, 3-phase power cable networks or a databus is not simple. In this paper it is shown that the admittance parameters for the 2N port network, N coupled lossy transmission lines form, may...... be found using a set of almost arbitrary (orthogonal) quasi propagation modes instead of the true modes, if the up-per frequency is so low that the electrical length of the lines is smaller than about 1/3 of the wavelength for the propagation mode with the lowest phase velocity....

  12. Enhanced inertia from lossy effective fluids using multi-scale sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Guild


    Full Text Available In this work, a recent theoretically predicted phenomenon of enhanced permittivity with electromagnetic waves using lossy materials is investigated for the analogous case of mass density and acoustic waves, which represents inertial enhancement. Starting from fundamental relationships for the homogenized quasi-static effective density of a fluid host with fluid inclusions, theoretical expressions are developed for the conditions on the real and imaginary parts of the constitutive fluids to have inertial enhancement, which are verified with numerical simulations. Realizable structures are designed to demonstrate this phenomenon using multi-scale sonic crystals, which are fabricated using a 3D printer and tested in an acoustic impedance tube, yielding good agreement with the theoretical predictions and demonstrating enhanced inertia.

  13. Maarjamäe lossi lugu Mõisast muuseumiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Peterburi krahvi Anatoli Orlov-Davõdovi poolt 1873 Christian Rotermanni pärijatelt ostetud Strietbergi krundile, endisele suhkruvabriku asukohale, ehitatud Maarjamäe lossist. Lossis on tegutsenud elegantne restoran Riviera-Palais, Sõjaväe lennukool, olnud Nõukogude armee sõjaväelasperede ühiskorterid ning 1975. aastast on hoone Eesti NSV Riikliku Ajaloomuuseumi valduses

  14. Modelling the acoustical response of lossy lamella-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Willatzen, Morten


    The sound propagation properties of lossy lamella-crystals are analysed theoretically utilizing a rig- orous wave expansion formalism and an effective medium approach. We investigate both sup- ported and free-standing crystal slab structures and predict high absorption for a broad range...... only makes sense if the crystal filling fraction is sufficiently large to satisfy an effective medium approach....

  15. Dynamic interaction of twin vertically overlapping lined tunnels in an elastic half space subjected to incident plane waves (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Wang, Yirui; Liang, Jianwen


    The scattering of plane harmonic P and SV waves by a pair of vertically overlapping lined tunnels buried in an elastic half space is solved using a semi-analytic indirect boundary integration equation method. Then the effect of the distance between the two tunnels, the stiffness and density of the lining material, and the incident frequency on the seismic response of the tunnels is investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the dynamic interaction between the twin tunnels cannot be ignored and the lower tunnel has a significant shielding effect on the upper tunnel for high-frequency incident waves, resulting in great decrease of the dynamic hoop stress in the upper tunnel; for the low-frequency incident waves, in contrast, the lower tunnel can lead to amplification effect on the upper tunnel. It also reveals that the frequency-spectrum characteristics of dynamic stress of the lower tunnel are significantly different from those of the upper tunnel. In addition, for incident P waves in low-frequency region, the soft lining tunnels have significant amplification effect on the surface displacement amplitude, which is slightly larger than that of the corresponding single tunnel.

  16. Half-Space Temperature Field with a Movable Thermally Thin-Coated Boundary Under External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available In engineering practice analytical methods of the mathematical theory of heat conduction hold a special place. This is due to many reasons, in particular, because of the fact that the solutions of the relevant problems represented in analytically closed form, can be used not only for a parametric analysis of the studied temperature field and to explore the specific features of its formation, but also to test the developed computational algorithms, which are aimed at solving real-world application heat and mass transfer problems. Difficulties arising when using the analytical mathematical theory methods of heat conduction in practice are well known. Also they are significantly exacerbated if the boundaries of the system under study are movable, even in the simplest case, when the law of motion is known.The main goal of the conducted research is to have an analytically closed-form problem solution for finding the orthotropic half-space temperature field, a boundary of which has thermally thin coating exposed to extremely concentrated stationary external heat flux and uniformly moves parallel to itself.The assumption that the covering of the boundary is thermally thin, allowed to realize the idea of \\concentrated capacity", that is to accept the hypothesis that the mean-thickness coating temperature is equal to the temperature of its boundaries. This assumption allowed us to reduce the problem under consideration to a mixed problem for a parabolic equation with a specific boundary condition.The Hankel integral transform of zero order with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the temporal variable were used to solve the reduced problem. These techniques have allowed us to submit the required solution as an iterated integral.

  17. Lossless/Lossy Compression of Bi-level Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren


    We present a general and robust method for lossless/lossy coding of bi-level images. The compression and decompression method is analoguous to JBIG, the current international standard for bi-level image compression, andis based on arithmetic coding and a template to determine the coding state. Loss...... is introduced in a preprocess on the encoding side by flipping pixels in a controlled manner. The method is primarily aimed at halftoned images as a supplement to the specialized soft pattern matching techniques which work better for text. The new algorithm also works well on documents of mixed contents e.......g. halftoning and text without any segmentation of the image. The decoding is analoguous to the decoder of JBIG which means that software implementations easily have a through-put of 1 Mpixels per second.In general, the flipping method can target the lossy image for a given not-too-large distortion ornot...

  18. A Construction of Lossy Source Code Using LDPC Matrices (United States)

    Miyake, Shigeki; Muramatsu, Jun

    Research into applying LDPC code theory, which is used for channel coding, to source coding has received a lot of attention in several research fields such as distributed source coding. In this paper, a source coding problem with a fidelity criterion is considered. Matsunaga et al. and Martinian et al. constructed a lossy code under the conditions of a binary alphabet, a uniform distribution, and a Hamming measure of fidelity criterion. We extend their results and construct a lossy code under the extended conditions of a binary alphabet, a distribution that is not necessarily uniform, and a fidelity measure that is bounded and additive and show that the code can achieve the optimal rate, rate-distortion function. By applying a formula for the random walk on lattice to the analysis of LDPC matrices on Zq, where q is a prime number, we show that results similar to those for the binary alphabet condition hold for Zq, the multiple alphabet condition.

  19. An explicit method for modeling lossy and dispersive transmission lines


    Palà Schönwälder, Pere; Miró Sans, Joan Maria


    In this paper, an explicit -non iterative- method for modeling lossy and dispersive transmission lines, allowing the inclusion of skin-effect parameters is described. This method, based on multipoint Padé approximation, allows direct implementation to obtain models for existing simulation program -such as SPICE-without the need of making use of optimization algorithms at any stage. Examples are given to show that the described procedure yields the same accuracy as other existing techniques th...

  20. Lossy / lossless floating / grounded inductance simulation using one DDCC


    İbrahim, Muhammed A.; Minaei, Shahram; Yüce, Erkan; Herencsar, Norbert; Koton, Jaroslav


    In this work, we present new topologies for realizing one lossless grounded inductor and two floating, one lossless and one lossy, inductors employing a single differential difference current conveyor (DDCC) and a minimum number of passive components, two resistors, and one grounded capacitor. The floating inductors are based on ordinary dual-output differential difference current conveyor (DO-DDCC) while the grounded lossless inductor is based one a modified dual-output differential differen...

  1. Ameerikast Kuressaare lossi Louis Kahni hingust otsima / Sirli Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Sirli


    Suvel viibisid Kuressaares kaks härrasmeest Ameerikast, arhitekt Louis Kahni projekti järgi valminud eramu omanikud, kelle eesmärk oli külastada Kuressaare lossi kui Louis Kahni inspiratsiooniallikat. Neid saatis Kuressaares Louis Kahni näituse "Kahn. Saarlane" üks initsiaatoritest Heie Treier. Vestlusest ka Heie Treieriga näitusest ja ameerika külaliste arhitektuurihuvist

  2. Photon pair generation in a lossy microring resonator. I. Theory


    Alsing, Paul M.; Hach III, Edwin E.


    We investigate entangled photon pair generation in a lossy microring resonator using an input-output formalism based on the work of Raymer and McKinstrie (Phys. Rev. A 88, 043819 (2013)) and Alsing, et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 053828 (2017)) that incorporates circulation factors that account for the multiple round trips of the fields within the cavity. We consider the nonlinear processes of spontaneous parametric down conversion and spontaneous four wave mixing, and we compute the generated biph...

  3. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh


    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  4. On the motion of a sphere in a Stokes flow parallel to a Brinkman half-space (United States)

    Damiano, E. R.; Long, D. S.; El-Khatib, F. H.; Stace, T. M.


    A three-dimensional analysis is presented of the Stokes flow, adjacent to a Brinkman half-space, that is induced or altered by the presence of a sphere in the flow field that (a) translates uniformly without rotating, (b) rotates uniformly without translating, or (c) is fixed in a shear flow that is uniform in the far field. The linear superposition of these three flow regimes is also considered for the special case of the free motion of a neutrally buoyant sphere. Exact solutions to the momentum equations are obtained in terms of infinite series expansions in the Stokes-flow region and in terms of integral transforms in the Brinkman medium. Attention is focused on the approach to the asymptotic limit as the ratio of Newtonian- to Darcy-drag forces vanishes. From the leading-order asymptotic approximations, implicit recursion relations are derived to determine the coefficients in the series solutions such that those solutions exactly satisfy the boundary and interfacial conditions as well as the continuity equations in both the Stokes-flow and Brinkman regions. For each of the three flow regimes considered, results are presented in terms of the drag force on the sphere and torque about the sphere centre as a function of the dimensionless separation distance between the sphere and the interfacial plane for several small values of the dimensionless hydraulic permeability of the Brinkman medium. Finally, the free motion of a neutrally buoyant sphere is found by requiring that the net hydrodynamic drag force and torque acting on the sphere vanish. Results for this case are presented in terms of the dimensionless translational and rotational speeds of the sphere as a function of the dimensionless separation distance for several small values of the dimensionless hydraulic permeability. The work is motivated by its potential application as an analytical tool in the study of near-wall microfluidics in the vicinity of the glycocalyx surface layer on vascular endothelium and

  5. Efficient Numerical Modeling of 3D, Half-Space, Slow-Slip and Quasi-Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures (United States)

    Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.


    Motivated by the hypothesis that dilatancy plays a critical role in faulting in subduction zones, we are developing FDRA2 (Fault Dynamics with the Radiation-damping Approximation), a software package to simulate three-dimensional quasi-dynamic faulting that includes rate-state friction, thermal pressurization, and dilatancy (following Segall and Rice [1995]) in a finite-width shear zone. This work builds on the two-dimensional simulations performed by FDRA1 (Bradley and Segall [AGU 2010], Segall and Bradley [submitted]). These simulations show that at lower background effective normal stress (\\bar σ), slow slip events occur spontaneously, whereas at higher \\bar σ , slip is inertially limited. At intermediate \\bar σ , dynamic events are followed by quiescent periods and then long durations of repeating slow slip events. Models with depth-dependent properties produce sequences similar to those observed in Cascadia. Like FDRA1, FDRA2 solves partial differential equations in pressure and temperature on profiles normal to the fault. The diffusion equations are discretized in space using finite differences on a nonuniform mesh having greater density near the fault. The full system of equations is a semiexplicit index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE) in slip, slip rate, state, fault zone porosity, pressure, and temperature. We integrate state, porosity, and slip explicitly; solve the momentum balance equation on the fault for slip rate; and integrate pressure and temperature implicitly. Adaptive time steps are limited by accuracy and the stability criterion governing explicit integration of hyperbolic, but not the more stringent one governing parabolic, PDE. To compute elasticity in a 3D half-space, FDRA2 compresses the large, dense matrix arising from the boundary element method using an H-matrix. The work to perform a matrix-vector product scales almost linearly, rather than quadratically, in the number of fault cells. A new technique to relate the error

  6. Development of the town Viljandi in light of the studies at Lossi street / Eero Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinloo, Eero


    Uuringud näitasid, et varaseim püsiasustusele viitav ladestus on ulatunud Lossi ja Kauba tänavate ristist kuni Lossi tn 3 ja 4 hoonete vahelise alani. Hetkeseisus ei saa püsiasustuse algust dateerida varasemaks kui 13. sajandi keskpaik. Lossi tänava kujunemise võib dateerida 1270. või 1280. aastatesse. Hiljemalt 14. sajandi II veerandil on tänava puitsillutis asendatud munakivisillutisega.

  7. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail:


    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  8. The exact solution of the problem on a concentrated-force action on the isotropic half-space with the boundary fixed elastically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly S. Khapilova


    Full Text Available We present the analytical solution of the axisymmetric mixed problem for the isotropic half-space with the surface fixed elastically outside the circular area of the application of a distributed load. In the solution of the problem, the transition procedure from a distributed load to the concentrated force has been justified. A compact form of the exact analytical solution of the problem on the concentrated force applied to the half-space with the surface fixed elastically was obtained. In the specific case when the proportionality factor of normal stresses and displacements vanishing under the condition of the elastic fixing of the boundary, the constructed analytical solution was shown to coincide with the well-known Boussinesq formulae.

  9. The fictitious force method for efficient calculation of vibration from a tunnel embedded in a multi-layered half-space (United States)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; François, S.; Schevenels, M.; Hunt, H. E. M.; Talbot, J. P.; Degrande, G.


    This paper presents an extension of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model for calculating vibrations from underground railways that allows for the incorporation of a multi-layered half-space geometry. The model is based on the assumption that the tunnel displacement is not influenced by the existence of a free surface or ground layers. The displacement at the tunnel-soil interface is calculated using a model of a tunnel embedded in a full space with soil properties corresponding to the soil in contact with the tunnel. Next, a full space model is used to determine the equivalent loads that produce the same displacements at the tunnel-soil interface. The soil displacements are calculated by multiplying these equivalent loads by Green's functions for a layered half-space. The results and the computation time of the proposed model are compared with those of an alternative coupled finite element-boundary element model that accounts for a tunnel embedded in a multi-layered half-space. While the overall response of the multi-layered half-space is well predicted, spatial shifts in the interference patterns are observed that result from the superposition of direct waves and waves reflected on the free surface and layer interfaces. The proposed model is much faster and can be run on a personal computer with much less use of memory. Therefore, it is a promising design tool to predict vibration from underground tunnels and to assess the performance of vibration countermeasures in an early design stage.

  10. Theory and Circuit Model for Lossy Coaxial Transmission Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, T. C.; Anderson, C. N.; Clark, R. E.; Gansz-Torres, J.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, Dale Robert


    The theory of signal propagation in lossy coaxial transmission lines is revisited and new approximate analytic formulas for the line impedance and attenuation are derived. The accuracy of these formulas from DC to 100 GHz is demonstrated by comparison to numerical solutions of the exact field equations. Based on this analysis, a new circuit model is described which accurately reproduces the line response over the entire frequency range. Circuit model calculations are in excellent agreement with the numerical and analytic results, and with finite-difference-time-domain simulations which resolve the skindepths of the conducting walls.

  11. Scattering and diffraction of plane P-waves in a 2-D elastic half-space II: shallow arbitrary shaped canyon (United States)

    Brandow, Heather P.; Lee, Vincent


    Scattering and Diffraction of elastic in-plane P- and SV- waves by a surface topography such as an elastic canyon at the surface of a half-space is a classical problem which has been studied by earthquake engineers and strong-motion seismologists for over forty years. The case of out-of-plane SH waves on the same elastic canyon that is semi-circular in shape on the half-space surface is the first such problem that was solved by analytic closed form solutions over forty years ago by Trifunac. The corresponding case of in-plane P- and SV-waves on the same circular canyon is a much more complicated problem because, the in-plane P- and SV- scattered waves have different wave speeds and together they must have zero normal and shear stresses at the half-space surface. It is not until recently in 2014 that analytic solution for such problem is found by the author in the work of Lee and Liu. This paper uses the technique of Lee and Liu of defining these stress-free scattered waves to solve the problem of the scattered and diffraction of these in-plane waves on an almost-circular surface canyon that is arbitrary in shape.

  12. Wave Propagation in Lossy and Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap


    Full Text Available We present an accurate approach to compute the attenuation of waves, propagating in circular waveguides with lossy and superconducting walls. A set of transcendental equation is developed by matching the fields at the surface of the wall with the electrical properties of the wall material. The propagation constant kz is found by numerically solving for the root of the equation. The complex conductivity of the superconductor is obtained from the Mattis-Bardeen equations. We have compared the loss of TE11 mode computed using our technique with that using the perturbation and Stratton’s methods. The results from the three methods agree very well at a reasonable range of frequencies above the cutoff. The curves, however, deviate below cutoff and at millimeter wave frequencies. We attribute the discrepancies to the dispersive effect and the presence of the longitudinal fields in a lossy waveguide. At frequencies below the gap, the superconducting waveguide exhibits lossless transmission behavior. Above the gap frequency, Cooper-pair breaking becomes dominant and the loss increases significantly.

  13. Practical resources and measurements for lossy optical quantum metrology (United States)

    Oh, Changhun; Lee, Su-Yong; Nha, Hyunchul; Jeong, Hyunseok


    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation in a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using two general, and practical, resources generated by a laser and a nonlinear optical medium with passive optimal elements, which are readily available in the laboratory: One is a two-mode separable coherent and squeezed vacuum state at a beam splitter and the other is a two-mode squeezed vacuum state. In view of the ultimate precision given by quantum Fisher information, we show that the two-mode squeezed vacuum state can achieve a lower bound of estimation error than the coherent and squeezed vacuum state under a photon-loss channel. We further consider practical measurement schemes, homodyne detection and photon number resolving detection (PNRD), to characterize the accuracy of phase estimation in reality and find that the coherent and squeezed vacuum state largely achieves a lower bound than the two-mode squeezed vacuum in the lossy MZI while maintaining quantum enhancement over the shot-noise limit. By comparing homodyne detection and PNRD, we demonstrate that quadrature measurement with homodyne detection is more robust against photon loss than parity measurement with PNRD. We also show that double homodyne detection can provide a better tool for phase estimation than single homodyne detection against photon loss.

  14. Automated Bone Age Analysis with Lossy Image Files. (United States)

    Pinsker, Jordan E; Ching, Michael S L; Chiles, Daniel P; Lustik, Michael; Mahnke, C Becket; Rooks, Veronica J


    In our U.S. Department of Defense hospital system, pediatric endocrinology and radiology resources to evaluate bone age radiographs are limited. Our tertiary care center provides expert specialty support to remotely stationed beneficiaries at more than 30 Department of Defense medical facilities using a well-established, asynchronous, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant system that allows for physician-to-physician teleconsultation. Up to 14% of these teleconsultations are for endocrinology assessment, many of which include bone age analysis. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of using an automated bone age analysis program using the file format most commonly provided to us, lossy JPEG image files saved at lower quality, to improve access to our consultation services. All patients seen in the Tripler Army Medical Center pediatric endocrinology clinic, who were being evaluated for poor growth during the 2-month study period and who had a bone age film performed at Tripler Army Medical Center during that time, were eligible to have their deidentified bone age films analyzed. We imported lossy JPEG bone age image files from our hospital web viewer to BoneXpert, version 2.1, using a fully automated, custom built system that reconstructed each file's true resolution and then packaged the original image into a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine header. The original JPEG files were saved at 70% quality. Bone age readings were compared between our pediatric endocrinologists (ENDO), pediatric radiologists (RADS), and BoneXpert (BONE). Additionally, adult height prediction from ENDO and BONE were compared. 35 bone age images were evaluated over a 2-month period. Most patients were being evaluated for idiopathic short stature or growth hormone deficiency. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in mean bone age readings between the 3 groups (mean bone age reading = 9.0, 9.1, and 9.1 years for ENDO, RADS, and BONE

  15. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.


    The vertical-and horizontal-resolution limits Delta x(lossy) and Delta z(lossy) of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Delta x proportional to lambda z/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Delta x(lossy) proportional to z(2)/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, lambda is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing lambda with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Delta z(lossy) only worsens linearly in depth compared to Delta z proportional to lambda for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  16. Boundary Element Analysis of the Steady-state Response of an Elastic Half-Space to a Moving Force on its Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.


    The paper deals with the boundary element method formulation of the steady-state wave propagation through elastic media due to a source moving with constant velocity. The Greens' function for the three-dimensional full-space is formulated in a local frame of reference following the source...... is approximated, but the error which is introduced in this way is insignificant. Numerical examples are given for a moving rectangular load on an elastic half-space. The result from a boundary element code based on the derived Green's function are compared with a semi-analytic solution....

  17. Systematic network coding for two-hop lossy transmissions (United States)

    Li, Ye; Blostein, Steven; Chan, Wai-Yip


    In this paper, we consider network transmissions over a single or multiple parallel two-hop lossy paths. These scenarios occur in applications such as sensor networks or WiFi offloading. Random linear network coding (RLNC), where previously received packets are re-encoded at intermediate nodes and forwarded, is known to be a capacity-achieving approach for these networks. However, a major drawback of RLNC is its high encoding and decoding complexity. In this work, a systematic network coding method is proposed. We show through both analysis and simulation that the proposed method achieves higher end-to-end rate as well as lower computational cost than RLNC for finite field sizes and finite-sized packet transmissions.

  18. Bit threshold optimization for multiphoton communication in lossy channels (United States)

    Usenko, V. C.; Paris, M. G. A.


    We address M-ary communication channels based on entangled two-mode states of radiation in the presence of losses. In particular we focus on channels build by two-mode coherently-correlated (TMC) or twin-beam (TWB) states. Optimized bit discrimination thresholds, as well as the corresponding maximized mutual information, are explicitly evaluated as a function of beam intensities and loss parameters for binary and quaternary alphabets. The evolution of the two entangled support states in lossy channels is analyzed and the joint photon number distribution is evaluated, showing that the beam statistics (either sub-Poissonian for TMC or super-Poissonian for TWB) is not altered by channel losses. The effects of losses on the channel security is discussed.

  19. The diffraction of Rayleigh waves by a fluid-saturated alluvial valley in a poroelastic half-space modeled by MFS (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Wu, Chengqing


    Two dimensional diffraction of Rayleigh waves by a fluid-saturated poroelastic alluvial valley of arbitrary shape in a poroelastic half-space is investigated using the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). To satisfy the free surface boundary conditions exactly, Green's functions of compressional (PI and PII) and shear (SV) wave sources buried in a fluid-saturated poroelastic half-space are adopted. Next, the procedure for solving the scattering wave field is presented. It is verified that the MFS is of excellent accuracy and numerical stability. Numerical results illustrate that the dynamic response strongly depends on such factors as the incident frequency, the porosity of alluvium, the boundary drainage condition, and the valley shape. There is a significant difference between the diffraction of Rayleigh waves for the saturated soil case and for the corresponding dry soil case. The wave focusing effect both on the displacement and pore pressure can be observed inside the alluvial valley and the amplification effect seems most obvious in the case of higher porosity and lower frequency. Additionally, special attention should also be paid to the concentration of pore pressure, which is closely related to the site liquefaction in earthquakes.

  20. Lossi legendist, tamme teekonnast ja maali mõistatusest / Alar Läänelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läänelaid, Alar, 1951-


    Dendrokronoloogilisest dateerimisest (aastarõngasdateerimine), mis on toonud selgust Alatskivi lossi söögisaali laekaunistuse dateerimisse, Hans van Esseni maali "Vaikelu homaariga" ning Clara Peetersi "Vaikelu jahisaagiga" valmimisaja ja ehtsuse kindlaksmääramisse

  1. How useful is slow light in enhancing nonlinear interactions in lossy periodic nanostructures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank


    We investigate analytically, and with nonlinear simulations, the extent of usefulness of slow light for enhancing the efficiency of second harmonic generation in lossy nanostructures, and find that the slower is not always the better.......We investigate analytically, and with nonlinear simulations, the extent of usefulness of slow light for enhancing the efficiency of second harmonic generation in lossy nanostructures, and find that the slower is not always the better....

  2. Efficient Sparse Signal Transmission over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liantao Wu


    Full Text Available Reliable data transmission over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For signals that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS is applied to facilitate efficient sparse signal transmissions over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original signal will be reconstructed from the lossy transmission results using the CS-based reconstruction method at the receiving end. The impacts of packet lengths on transmission efficiency under different channel conditions have been discussed, and interleaving is incorporated to mitigate the impact of burst data loss. Extensive simulations and experiments have been conducted and compared to the traditional automatic repeat request (ARQ interpolation technique, and very favorable results have been observed in terms of both accuracy of the reconstructed signals and the transmission energy consumption. Furthermore, the packet length effect provides useful insights for using compressed sensing for efficient sparse signal transmission via lossy links.

  3. StirMark Benchmark: audio watermarking attacks based on lossy compression (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Lang, Andreas; Dittmann, Jana


    StirMark Benchmark is a well-known evaluation tool for watermarking robustness. Additional attacks are added to it continuously. To enable application based evaluation, in our paper we address attacks against audio watermarks based on lossy audio compression algorithms to be included in the test environment. We discuss the effect of different lossy compression algorithms like MPEG-2 audio Layer 3, Ogg or VQF on a selection of audio test data. Our focus is on changes regarding the basic characteristics of the audio data like spectrum or average power and on removal of embedded watermarks. Furthermore we compare results of different watermarking algorithms and show that lossy compression is still a challenge for most of them. There are two strategies for adding evaluation of robustness against lossy compression to StirMark Benchmark: (a) use of existing free compression algorithms (b) implementation of a generic lossy compression simulation. We discuss how such a model can be implemented based on the results of our tests. This method is less complex, as no real psycho acoustic model has to be applied. Our model can be used for audio watermarking evaluation of numerous application fields. As an example, we describe its importance for e-commerce applications with watermarking security.

  4. A lossy graph model for delay reduction in generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.


    The problem of minimizing the decoding delay in Generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) for both perfect and lossy feedback scenarios is formulated as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph in. In this letter, we introduce a new lossy G-IDNC graph (LG-IDNC) model to further minimize the decoding delay in lossy feedback scenarios. Whereas the G-IDNC graph represents only doubtless combinable packets, the LG-IDNC graph represents also uncertain packet combinations, arising from lossy feedback events, when the expected decoding delay of XORing them among themselves or with other certain packets is lower than that expected when sending these packets separately. We compare the decoding delay performance of LG-IDNC and G-IDNC graphs through extensive simulations. Numerical results show that our new LG-IDNC graph formulation outperforms the G-IDNC graph formulation in all lossy feedback situations and achieves significant improvement in the decoding delay especially when the feedback erasure probability is higher than the packet erasure probability. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Uus omanik tahab Keila-Joa lossi endisaegset aadlihõngu tuua / Andrei Dvorjaninov ; intervjueerinud Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dvorjaninov, Andrei


    Keila-Joa lossi ostnud mööblisalongi Luxor omanik Andrei Dvorjaninov endast, huvist ajaloo ja kunsti vastu, Keila-Joa lossi (Hans (Andrei) Stackenschneider, 1831-1833) restaureerimise plaanidest ja tulevikust. Keila-Joa mõisa taastamistöödega loodetakse alustada hiljemalt 2012. a. kevadel

  6. Ajaloomuuseumi Maarjamäe lossi haridusprogrammid / Triin Siiner, Anu Kohal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siiner, Triin


    Eesti ajaloomuuseum on aastaid korraldanud haridusprogramme Maarjamäe lossis näitusel „Iseolemise tahe”. Eesti Vabariigi 90. sünnipäevaks valminud näitusest, mis pakub võimaluse uurida Eesti omariiklust

  7. Stabilizing switching control of power converters : the lossy line and nonlinear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zainea, Marius; Schaft, Arjan van der; Buisson, Jean


    This paper proposes a switching control approach for the set-point stabilization of power converters connected via a lossy transmission line to a resistive load. The approach employs a Lyapunov function that is directly based on the energy functions of the power converter and of the transmission

  8. Properties of the Band Gaps in 1D Ternary Lossy Photonic Crystal Containing Double-Negative Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alireza Aghajamali; Maryam Akbarimoosavi; Mahmood Barati


    ... are composed of double-negative and double-positive materials. This study shows that by varying the angle of incidence, the band gaps for TM and TE waves behave differently in both ternary and binary lossy structures...

  9. Edge-Based Image Compression with Homogeneous Diffusion (United States)

    Mainberger, Markus; Weickert, Joachim

    It is well-known that edges contain semantically important image information. In this paper we present a lossy compression method for cartoon-like images that exploits information at image edges. These edges are extracted with the Marr-Hildreth operator followed by hysteresis thresholding. Their locations are stored in a lossless way using JBIG. Moreover, we encode the grey or colour values at both sides of each edge by applying quantisation, subsampling and PAQ coding. In the decoding step, information outside these encoded data is recovered by solving the Laplace equation, i.e. we inpaint with the steady state of a homogeneous diffusion process. Our experiments show that the suggested method outperforms the widely-used JPEG standard and can even beat the advanced JPEG2000 standard for cartoon-like images.

  10. Stored and absorbed energy of fields in lossy chiral single-component metamaterials (United States)

    Semchenko, I.; Balmakou, A.; Khakhomov, S.; Tretyakov, S.


    Here we present theoretical results for estimation of electromagnetic field energy density and absorbed energy in dispersive lossy chiral single-component metamaterials which consist of an ensemble of identical helical resonators as inclusions. The shape of the helical resonator can vary over a wide range, from a straight wire to a flat split ring. An interaction of the inclusions with harmonic circularly polarized electromagnetic plane waves is studied. We focus on how the inclusion shape influences the mentioned metamaterial properties. The derived general solution for the problem is in good agreement with previous partial and alternative solutions obtained for split ring resonators, straight wires, and helices. The study reveals the optimal geometry of helical lossy resonators for their strongest selectivity of interaction with circularly polarized radiation.

  11. Lossy/Lossless Floating/Grounded Inductance Simulation Using One DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available In this work, we present new topologies for realizing one lossless grounded inductor and two floating, one lossless and one lossy, inductors employing a single differential difference current conveyor (DDCC and a minimum number of passive components, two resistors, and one grounded capacitor. The floating inductors are based on ordinary dual-output differential difference current conveyor (DO-DDCC while the grounded lossless inductor is based one a modified dual-output differential difference current conveyor (MDO-DDCC. The proposed lossless floating inductor is obtained from the lossy one by employing a negative impedance converter (NIC. The non-ideality effects of the active element on the simulated inductors are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed grounded inductance simulator as an example, it is used to construct a parallel resonant circuit. SPICE simulation results are given to confirm the theoretical analysis.

  12. A comprehensive review of lossy mode resonance-based fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Wan-Ming


    This review paper presents the achievements and present developments in lossy mode resonances-based optical fiber sensors in different sensing field, such as physical, chemical and biological, and briefly look forward to its future development trend in the eyes of the author. Lossy mode resonances (LMR) is a relatively new physical optics phenomenon put forward in recent years. Fiber sensors utilizing LMR offered a new way to improve the sensing capability. LMR fiber sensors have diverse structures such as D-shaped, cladding-off, fiber tip, U-shaped and tapered fiber structures. Major applications of LMR sensors include refraction sensors and biosensors. LMR-based fiber sensors have attracted considerable research and development interest, because of their distinct advantages such as high sensitivity and label-free measurement. This kind of sensor is also of academic interest and many novel and great ideas are continuously developed.

  13. A singular-value method for reconstruction of nonradial and lossy objects. (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Astheimer, Jeffrey; Waag, Robert


    Efficient inverse scattering algorithms for nonradial lossy objects are presented using singular-value decomposition to form reduced-rank representations of the scattering operator. These algorithms extend eigenfunction methods that are not applicable to nonradial lossy scattering objects because the scattering operators for these objects do not have orthonormal eigenfunction decompositions. A method of local reconstruction by segregation of scattering contributions from different local regions is also presented. Scattering from each region is isolated by forming a reduced-rank representation of the scattering operator that has domain and range spaces comprised of far-field patterns with retransmitted fields that focus on the local region. Methods for the estimation of the boundary, average sound speed, and average attenuation slope of the scattering object are also given. These methods yielded approximations of scattering objects that were sufficiently accurate to allow residual variations to be reconstructed in a single iteration. Calculated scattering from a lossy elliptical object with a random background, internal features, and white noise is used to evaluate the proposed methods. Local reconstruction yielded images with spatial resolution that is finer than a half wavelength of the center frequency and reproduces sound speed and attenuation slope with relative root-mean-square errors of 1.09% and 11.45%, respectively.

  14. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l’Ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) de Lossi en République du Congo-


    Mbete, Roger A.; Banga Mboko, Henri; Njikam Nsangou, Ibrahim; Joiris Daou, Véronique; Leroy, Pascal


    The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and ...

  15. Influence of Lossy Compressed DEM on Radiometric Correction for Land Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Images (United States)

    Moré, G.; Pesquer, L.; Blanes, I.; Serra-Sagristà, J.; Pons, X.


    World coverage Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have progressively increased their spatial resolution (e.g., ETOPO, SRTM, or Aster GDEM) and, consequently, their storage requirements. On the other hand, lossy data compression facilitates accessing, sharing and transmitting large spatial datasets in environments with limited storage. However, since lossy compression modifies the original information, rigorous studies are needed to understand its effects and consequences. The present work analyzes the influence of DEM quality -modified by lossy compression-, on the radiometric correction of remote sensing imagery, and the eventual propagation of the uncertainty in the resulting land cover classification. Radiometric correction is usually composed of two parts: atmospheric correction and topographical correction. For topographical correction, DEM provides the altimetry information that allows modeling the incidence radiation on terrain surface (cast shadows, self shadows, etc). To quantify the effects of the DEM lossy compression on the radiometric correction, we use radiometrically corrected images for classification purposes, and compare the accuracy of two standard coding techniques for a wide range of compression ratios. The DEM has been obtained by resampling the DEM v.2 of Catalonia (ICC), originally having 15 m resolution, to the Landsat TM resolution. The Aster DEM has been used to fill the gaps beyond the administrative limits of Catalonia. The DEM has been lossy compressed with two coding standards at compression ratios 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 and 200:1. The employed coding standards have been JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC; the former is an international ISO/ITU-T standard for almost any type of images, while the latter is a recommendation of the CCSDS consortium for mono-component remote sensing images. Both techniques are wavelet-based followed by an entropy-coding stage. Also, for large compression ratios, both techniques need a post processing for correctly

  16. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf


    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  17. Celiac disease biodetection using lossy-mode resonances generated in tapered single-mode optical fibers (United States)

    Socorro, A. B.; Corres, J. M.; Del Villar, I.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.


    This work presents the development and test of an anti-gliadin antibodies biosensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMRs) to detect celiac disease. Several polyelectrolites were used to perform layer-by-layer assembly processes in order to generate the LMR and to fabricate a gliadin-embedded thin-film. The LMR shifted 20 nm when immersed in a 5 ppm anti-gliadin antibodies-PBS solution, what makes this bioprobe suitable for detecting celiac disease. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that LMRs are used to detect celiac disease and these results suppose promising prospects on the use of such phenomena as biological detectors.

  18. The Application of RPL Routing Protocol in Low Power Wireless Sensor and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang


    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer information technology, wireless sensor has been successfully changed the mode of human life, at the same time, as one of the technologies continues to improve the future life, how to better integration with the RPL routing protocols together become one of research focuses in the current climate. This paper start from the wireless sensor network, briefly discusses the concept, followed by systematic exposition of RPL routing protocol developed background, relevant standards, working principle, topology and related terms, and finally explore the RPL routing protocol in wireless sensor low power lossy network applications.

  19. Heaviside revisited: Distortionless signal transmission through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization (United States)

    Flake, Robert H.


    A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical signal in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive transmission media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected signal, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks.

  20. Homogeneity and Entropy (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.


    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  1. Sink-to-Sink Coordination Framework Using RPL: Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer M. Khan


    Full Text Available RPL (Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks is recommended by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IPv6-based LLNs (Low Power and Lossy Networks. RPL uses a proactive routing approach and each node always maintains an active path to the sink node. Sink-to-sink coordination defines syntax and semantics for the exchange of any network defined parameters among sink nodes like network size, traffic load, mobility of a sink, and so forth. The coordination allows sink to learn about the network condition of neighboring sinks. As a result, sinks can make coordinated decision to increase/decrease their network size for optimizing over all network performance in terms of load sharing, increasing network lifetime, and lowering end-to-end latency of communication. Currently, RPL does not provide any coordination framework that can define message exchange between different sink nodes for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, a sink-to-sink coordination framework is proposed which utilizes the periodic route maintenance messages issued by RPL to exchange network status observed at a sink with its neighboring sinks. The proposed framework distributes network load among sink nodes for achieving higher throughputs and longer network’s life time.

  2. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang


    Full Text Available Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current. To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV. The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.

  3. Receiver-Assisted Congestion Control to Achieve High Throughput in Lossy Wireless Networks (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Shu, Yantai; Yang, Oliver; Luo, Jiarong


    Many applications would require fast data transfer in high-speed wireless networks nowadays. However, due to its conservative congestion control algorithm, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) cannot effectively utilize the network capacity in lossy wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a receiver-assisted congestion control mechanism (RACC) in which the sender performs loss-based control, while the receiver is performing delay-based control. The receiver measures the network bandwidth based on the packet interarrival interval and uses it to compute a congestion window size deemed appropriate for the sender. After receiving the advertised value feedback from the receiver, the sender then uses the additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD) mechanism to compute the correct congestion window size to be used. By integrating the loss-based and the delay-based congestion controls, our mechanism can mitigate the effect of wireless losses, alleviate the timeout effect, and therefore make better use of network bandwidth. Simulation and experiment results in various scenarios show that our mechanism can outperform conventional TCP in high-speed and lossy wireless environments.

  4. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li


    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  5. A Framework for Advanced Video Traces: Evaluating Visual Quality for Video Transmission Over Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisslein Martin


    Full Text Available Conventional video traces (which characterize the video encoding frame sizes in bits and frame quality in PSNR are limited to evaluating loss-free video transmission. To evaluate robust video transmission schemes for lossy network transport, generally experiments with actual video are required. To circumvent the need for experiments with actual videos, we propose in this paper an advanced video trace framework. The two main components of this framework are (i advanced video traces which combine the conventional video traces with a parsimonious set of visual content descriptors, and (ii quality prediction schemes that based on the visual content descriptors provide an accurate prediction of the quality of the reconstructed video after lossy network transport. We conduct extensive evaluations using a perceptual video quality metric as well as the PSNR in which we compare the visual quality predicted based on the advanced video traces with the visual quality determined from experiments with actual video. We find that the advanced video trace methodology accurately predicts the quality of the reconstructed video after frame losses.

  6. Upper bounds on secret-key agreement over lossy thermal bosonic channels (United States)

    Kaur, Eneet; Wilde, Mark M.


    Upper bounds on the secret-key-agreement capacity of a quantum channel serve as a way to assess the performance of practical quantum-key-distribution protocols conducted over that channel. In particular, if a protocol employs a quantum repeater, achieving secret-key rates exceeding these upper bounds is evidence of having a working quantum repeater. In this paper, we extend a recent advance [Liuzzo-Scorpo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 120503 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.120503] in the theory of the teleportation simulation of single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels such that it now applies to the relative entropy of entanglement measure. As a consequence of this extension, we find tighter upper bounds on the nonasymptotic secret-key-agreement capacity of the lossy thermal bosonic channel than were previously known. The lossy thermal bosonic channel serves as a more realistic model of communication than the pure-loss bosonic channel, because it can model the effects of eavesdropper tampering and imperfect detectors. An implication of our result is that the previously known upper bounds on the secret-key-agreement capacity of the thermal channel are too pessimistic for the practical finite-size regime in which the channel is used a finite number of times, and so it should now be somewhat easier to witness a working quantum repeater when using secret-key-agreement capacity upper bounds as a benchmark.

  7. Heaviside revisited: Distortionless signal transmission through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flake, Robert H., E-mail:


    A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical signal in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive transmission media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected signal, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks. - Highlights: • Introduction of rising exponential shape as a distortion-resistant wave pulse (SD signal) in electrical propagation through lossy media. • Derivation of distortion-free and constant-velocity properties of the SD signal based on telegrapher's equation of Oliver Heaviside. • Experimental demonstration of enhanced precision of time-of-flight measurements utilizing SD signals in the e-TDR. • Design of a precision clock-synchronization procedure based on SD signaling and e-TDR.

  8. Lossy Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Rodler, Flemming Friche


    We present a simple and efficient dictionary with worst case constant lookup time, equaling the theoretical performance of the classic dynamic perfect hashing scheme of Dietzfelbinger et al. The space usage is similar to that of binary search trees, i.e., three words per key on average...

  9. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel


    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  10. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta


    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  11. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. We write D for the complex unit disc and G for the Möbius group, the group of holo- morphic self-maps of D. A bounded operator T on a Hilbert space H is said to be homogeneous if its spectrum is contained in ¯D and for every g in G there exists a unitary operator U(g) such that g(T ) = U(g). −1. T U (g).

  12. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren


    The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...... or shrink by accretion or evaporation of monomers only but also by an exponentially declining change in cluster size per time step equal to the cluster distribution in the supersaturated gas....

  13. Homogenization of dislocation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Hassan; Monneau, Regis, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [CERMICS, ENPC, 6 and 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cite Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne-la-Valle Cedex 2 (France)


    In this paper we consider the dynamics of dislocations with the same Burgers vector, contained in the same glide plane, and moving in a material with periodic obstacles. We study two cases: i) the particular case of parallel straight dislocations and ii) the general case of curved dislocations. In each case, we perform rigorously the homogenization of the dynamics and predict the corresponding effective macroscopic elasto-visco-plastic flow rule.

  14. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  15. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)


    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  16. Quality Factor and Radiation Efficiency of Dual-Mode Self-Resonant Spherical Antennas With Lossy Magnetodielectric Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    For spherical antennas consisting of a solid magnetodielectric lossy core with an impressed surface current density exciting a superposition of the ${\\rm TE}_{mn}$ and ${\\rm TM}_{mn}$ spherical modes, we analytically determine the radiation quality factor $Q$ and radiation efficiency $e$ . Also, we...

  17. Homogeneous Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shaoqiang


    "Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc


    King, L.D.P.


    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  19. Dirichlet problem on the upper half space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Mathematics and Statistics, Henan University of Science and Technology,. Luoyang 471023, People's Republic of China. 2School of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan University of Economics and. Law, Zhengzhou 450046, People's Republic of ... Introduction and results. Let Rn(n ≥ 3) denote the ...

  20. Dirichlet problem on the upper half space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Dewu Yang1 Yudong Ren2. School of Mathematics and Statistics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, People's Republic of China; School of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450046, People's Republic of China ...

  1. Stegano-Crypto Hiding Encrypted Data in Encrypted Image Using Advanced Encryption Standard and Lossy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shawakat Tahir


    Full Text Available The Steganography is an art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other, seemingly harmless messages and lots of researches are working in it. Proposed system is using AES Algorithm and Lossy technique to overcome the limitation of previous work and increasing the process’s speed. The sender uses AES Algorithm to encrypt message and image, then using LSB technique to hide encrypted data in encrypted message. The receive get the original data using the keys that had been used in encryption process. The proposed system has been implemented in NetBeans 7.3 software uses image and data in different size to find the system’s speed.

  2. The impact of JPEG2000 lossy compression on the scientific quality of radio astronomy imagery (United States)

    Peters, S. M.; Kitaeff, V. V.


    The sheer volume of data anticipated to be captured by future radio telescopes, such as, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and its precursors present new data challenges, including the cost and technical feasibility of data transport and storage. Image and data compression are going to be important techniques to reduce the data size. We provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of JPEG2000's lossy wavelet image compression algorithm on the quality of the radio astronomy imagery data. This analysis is completed by evaluating the completeness, soundness and source parameterisation of the Duchamp source finder using compressed data. Here we found the JPEG2000 image compression has the potential to denoise image cubes, however this effect is only significant at high compression rates where the accuracy of source parameterisation is decreased.

  3. A causal and fractional all-frequency wave equation for lossy media. (United States)

    Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter


    This work presents a lossy partial differential acoustic wave equation including fractional derivative terms. It is derived from first principles of physics (mass and momentum conservation) and an equation of state given by the fractional Zener stress-strain constitutive relation. For a derivative order α in the fractional Zener relation, the resulting absorption α(k) obeys frequency power-laws as α(k) ∝ ω(1+α) in a low-frequency regime, α(k) ∝ ω(1-α/2) in an intermediate-frequency regime, and α(k) ∝ ω(1-α) in a high-frequency regime. The value α=1 corresponds to the case of a single relaxation process. The wave equation is causal for all frequencies. In addition the sound speed does not diverge as the frequency approaches infinity. This is an improvement over a previously published wave equation building on the fractional Kelvin-Voigt constitutive relation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Graphene Oxide in Lossy Mode Resonance-Based Optical Fiber Sensors for Ethanol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernaez


    Full Text Available The influence of graphene oxide (GO over the features of an optical fiber ethanol sensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMR has been studied in this work. Four different sensors were built with this aim, each comprising a multimode optical fiber core fragment coated with a SnO2 thin film. Layer by layer (LbL coatings made of 1, 2 and 4 bilayers of polyethyleneimine (PEI and graphene oxide were deposited onto three of these devices and their behavior as aqueous ethanol sensors was characterized and compared with the sensor without GO. The sensors with GO showed much better performance with a maximum sensitivity enhancement of 176% with respect to the sensor without GO. To our knowledge, this is the first time that GO has been used to make an optical fiber sensor based on LMR.

  5. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature. (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E


    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  6. Photon-pair generation in a lossy microring resonator. I. Theory (United States)

    Alsing, Paul M.; Hach, Edwin E.


    We investigate entangled photon-pair generation in a lossy microring resonator using an input-output formalism based on the work of M. G. Raymer and C. J. McKinstrie [Phys. Rev. A 88, 043819 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.043819] and P. M. Alsing et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 053828 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.053828] that incorporates circulation factors that account for the multiple round-trips of the fields within the cavity. We consider the nonlinear processes of spontaneous parametric down-conversion and spontaneous four-wave mixing, and we compute the generated biphoton signal-idler state from a single-bus microring resonator, along with the generation, coincidence-to-accidental, and heralding efficiency rates. We compare these generalized results to those obtained by previous works employing the standard Langevin input-output formalism.

  7. Rigorous expansion of electromagnetic Green's tensor of lossy resonators in open systems (United States)

    Chen, Parry Y.; Bergman, David J.; Sivan, Yonatan


    We obtain an eigenmode expansion of the electromagnetic Green's tensor G(r,r') for lossy resonators in open systems, which is simple yet complete. This enables rapid simulations by providing the spatial variation of G0(r,r') over both r and r' in one simulation. Few eigenmodes are often necessary for nanostructures, facilitating both analytic calculations and unified insight into computationally intensive phenomena such as Purcell enhancement, radiative heat transfer, van der Waals forces, and Förster resonance energy transfer. We bypass all implementation and completeness issues associated with the alternative quasinormal eigenmode methods, by defining modes with permittivity rather than frequency as the eigenvalue. Thus, modes decay rather than diverge at infinity, and are defined by a linear eigenvalue problem, readily implemented using any numerical method. We demonstrate its general implementation in COMSOL Multiphysics, using the default in-built tools.

  8. Definition and measurement of the normalized electrical impedance of lossy piezoelectric resonators for ultrasonic transducers (United States)

    San Emeterio JL; Ramos; Sanz; Cegarra


    Relevant equivalent circuit parameters and values of material constants of a piezoelectric resonator can be determined from measurements of its electrical input impedance as a function of frequency. The complex electrical impedance curves and the associated critical frequencies are the basis of this characterization by the piezoelectric resonance method. In this paper, the previously introduced concept of normalized electrical impedance of the lossy resonator, extended to include piezoelectric losses, is applied to the analysis of the effects of different types of intrinsic losses on peak values, bandwidths and characteristic frequencies. The resulting impedance patterns depend solely on the electromechanical coupling coefficient and the loss tangents, providing a useful tool for the analysis of low-Q resonators. The normalized impedance is experimentally evaluated from the basic data provided by an HP 4194A impedance analyser by means of specifically developed ASP programs.

  9. Pseudoconvex and Disprisoning Homogeneous Sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Riego, L D


    The pseudoconvex and disprisoning conditions for geodesics of linear connections are extended to the solution curves of general homogeneous sprays. The main result is that pseudoconvexity and disprisonment are jointly stable in the fine topology on the space of all homogeneous sprays of any degree of homogeneity.


    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.


    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  11. Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi, Maarjamäe lossi tallihoone renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonian History Museum's Maarjamäe palace stables / Jaak Huimerind, Tarmo Piirmets ; kommenteerinud Kaido Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Huimerind, Jaak, 1957-


    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi Maarjamäe lossi renoveeritud tallihoone Tallinnas Pirita tee 66, valminud 2014. Arhitekt Jaak Huimerind (Studio Paralleel OÜ), sisearhitekt ja näituse kujundaja Tarmo Piirmets (Pink OÜ). Eesti Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali renoveerimispreemia 2014

  12. A microcontroller-based microwave free-space measurement system for permittivity determination of lossy liquid materials. (United States)

    Hasar, U C


    A microcontroller-based noncontact and nondestructive microwave free-space measurement system for real-time and dynamic determination of complex permittivity of lossy liquid materials has been proposed. The system is comprised of two main sections--microwave and electronic. While the microwave section provides for measuring only the amplitudes of reflection coefficients, the electronic section processes these data and determines the complex permittivity using a general purpose microcontroller. The proposed method eliminates elaborate liquid sample holder preparation and only requires microwave components to perform reflection measurements from one side of the holder. In addition, it explicitly determines the permittivity of lossy liquid samples from reflection measurements at different frequencies without any knowledge on sample thickness. In order to reduce systematic errors in the system, we propose a simple calibration technique, which employs simple and readily available standards. The measurement system can be a good candidate for industrial-based applications.

  13. Quantum nonlinear optics in lossy coupled-cavities in photonic crystal slabs (United States)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen

    light devices are considered, the probability of finding photon pairs at particular locations is affected both by the dispersive behavior of the waveguide and the lossy behavior. This is important as it opens up different possible design strategies that one might want to use in lossy systems.

  14. Enabling Near Real-Time Remote Search for Fast Transient Events with Lossy Data Compression (United States)

    Vohl, Dany; Pritchard, Tyler; Andreoni, Igor; Cooke, Jeffrey; Meade, Bernard


    We present a systematic evaluation of JPEG2000 (ISO/IEC 15444) as a transport data format to enable rapid remote searches for fast transient events as part of the Deeper Wider Faster programme. Deeper Wider Faster programme uses 20 telescopes from radio to gamma rays to perform simultaneous and rapid-response follow-up searches for fast transient events on millisecond-to-hours timescales. Deeper Wider Faster programme search demands have a set of constraints that is becoming common amongst large collaborations. Here, we focus on the rapid optical data component of Deeper Wider Faster programme led by the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Each Dark Energy Camera image has 70 total coupled-charged devices saved as a 1.2 gigabyte FITS file. Near real-time data processing and fast transient candidate identifications-in minutes for rapid follow-up triggers on other telescopes-requires computational power exceeding what is currently available on-site at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. In this context, data files need to be transmitted rapidly to a foreign location for supercomputing post-processing, source finding, visualisation and analysis. This step in the search process poses a major bottleneck, and reducing the data size helps accommodate faster data transmission. To maximise our gain in transfer time and still achieve our science goals, we opt for lossy data compression-keeping in mind that raw data is archived and can be evaluated at a later time. We evaluate how lossy JPEG2000 compression affects the process of finding transients, and find only a negligible effect for compression ratios up to 25:1. We also find a linear relation between compression ratio and the mean estimated data transmission speed-up factor. Adding highly customised compression and decompression steps to the science pipeline considerably reduces the transmission time-validating its introduction to the Deeper Wider Faster programme science pipeline and

  15. Property of impulsive response for SH wave in the layered half space using Love wave and leaking mode; Love ha to leaking mode ni yotte koseisareru hanmugen seiso jiban no impulse oto no seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, S. [Sato Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes a mechanism of propagation for elastic SH wave which is composed of Love wave and leaking mode. Based on a formulation previously proposed, impulsive response was determined from the numerical integration of intrinsic mode. Then, property of the impulsive response was examined using time-distance curve derived from ray theory. In addition, characteristics of dispersed wave composed of Love wave and leaking mode were discussed from the viewpoint of ray theory. The property of impulsive response for SH wave in the layered half space using Love wave and leaking mode could be explained by the time-distance derived from ray theory. These results are in physical harmony with calculated impulsive response. The propagation of dispersed wave formed in the intrinsic mode could be explained by the ray theory. The leaking mode corresponded to the reflected wave propagating in the surface ground layer in an angle below the critical angle, and the Love wave mode with higher frequency than Airy phase corresponded to the total reflected wave. On the other hand, the Love wave mode with lower frequency than Airy phase corresponded to the refracted wave. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Homogeneous Functionalization of Methane. (United States)

    Gunsalus, Niles Jensen; Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Park, Sae Hume; Bischof, Steven M; Hashiguchi, Brian G; Periana, Roy A


    One of the remaining "grand challenges" in chemistry is the development of a next generation, less expensive, cleaner process that can allow the vast reserves of methane from natural gas to augment or replace oil as the source of fuels and chemicals. Homogeneous (gas/liquid) systems that convert methane to functionalized products with emphasis on reports after 1995 are reviewed. Gas/solid, bioinorganic, biological, and reaction systems that do not specifically involve methane functionalization are excluded. The various reports are grouped under the main element involved in the direct reactions with methane. Central to the review is classification of the various reports into 12 categories based on both practical considerations and the mechanisms of the elementary reactions with methane. Practical considerations are based on whether or not the system reported can directly or indirectly utilize O2 as the only net coreactant based only on thermodynamic potentials. Mechanistic classifications are based on whether the elementary reactions with methane proceed by chain or nonchain reactions and with stoichiometric reagents or catalytic species. The nonchain reactions are further classified as CH activation (CHA) or CH oxidation (CHO). The bases for these various classifications are defined. In particular, CHA reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane that result in a discrete methyl intermediate where the formal oxidation state (FOS) on the carbon remains unchanged at -IV relative to that in methane. In contrast, CHO reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane where the carbon atom of the product is oxidized and has a FOS less negative than -IV. This review reveals that the bulk of the work in the field is relatively evenly distributed across most of the various areas classified. However, a few areas are only marginally examined, or not examined at all. This review also shows that, while significant scientific progress has been made

  17. Optimization of Error-Bounded Lossy Compression for Hard-to-Compress HPC Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Sheng; Cappello, Franck


    Since today’s scientific applications are producing vast amounts of data, compressing them before storage/transmission is critical. Results of existing compressors show two types of HPC data sets: highly compressible and hard to compress. In this work, we carefully design and optimize the error-bounded lossy compression for hard-tocompress scientific data. We propose an optimized algorithm that can adaptively partition the HPC data into best-fit consecutive segments each having mutually close data values, such that the compression condition can be optimized. Another significant contribution is the optimization of shifting offset such that the XOR-leading-zero length between two consecutive unpredictable data points can be maximized. We finally devise an adaptive method to select the best-fit compressor at runtime for maximizing the compression factor. We evaluate our solution using 13 benchmarks based on real-world scientific problems, and we compare it with 9 other state-of-the-art compressors. Experiments show that our compressor can always guarantee the compression errors within the user-specified error bounds. Most importantly, our optimization can improve the compression factor effectively, by up to 49% for hard-tocompress data sets with similar compression/decompression time cost.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of buried objects in very lossy earth by inversion of VETEM data (United States)

    Cui, T.J.; Aydiner, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.


    The very early time electromagnetic system (VETEM) is an efficient tool for the detection of buried objects in very lossy earth, which allows a deeper penetration depth compared to the ground-penetrating radar. In this paper, the inversion of VETEM data is investigated using three-dimensional (3-D) inverse scattering techniques, where multiple frequencies are applied in the frequency range from 0-5 MHz. For small and moderately sized problems, the Born approximation and/or the Born iterative method have been used with the aid of the singular value decomposition and/or the conjugate gradient method in solving the linearized integral equations. For large-scale problems, a localized 3-D inversion method based on the Born approximation has been proposed for the inversion of VETEM data over a large measurement domain. Ways to process and to calibrate the experimental VETEM data are discussed to capture the real physics of buried objects. Reconstruction examples using synthesized VETEM data and real-world VETEM data are given to test the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  19. Resource allocation for downlink multiuser video transmission over wireless lossy networks. (United States)

    Maani, Ehsan; Pahalawatta, Peshala V; Berry, Randall; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K


    Demand for multimedia services, such as video streaming over wireless networks, has grown dramatically in recent years. The downlink transmission of multiple video sequences to multiple users over a shared resource-limited wireless channel, however, is a daunting task. Among the many challenges in this area are the time-varying channel conditions, limited available resources, such as bandwidth and power, and the different transmission requirements of different video content. This work takes into account the time-varying nature of the wireless channels, as well as the importance of individual video packets, to develop a cross-layer resource allocation and packet scheduling scheme for multiuser video streaming over lossy wireless packet access networks. Assuming that accurate channel feedback is not available at the scheduler, random channel losses combined with complex error concealment at the receiver make it impossible for the scheduler to determine the actual distortion of the sequence at the receiver. Therefore, the objective of the optimization is to minimize the expected distortion of the received sequence, where the expectation is calculated at the scheduler with respect to the packet loss probability in the channel. The expected distortion is used to order the packets in the transmission queue of each user, and then gradients of the expected distortion are used to efficiently allocate resources across users. Simulations show that the proposed scheme performs significantly better than a conventional content-independent scheme for video transmission.

  20. Passive states as optimal inputs for single-jump lossy quantum channels (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Lloyd, Seth; Giovannetti, Vittorio


    The passive states of a quantum system minimize the average energy among all the states with a given spectrum. We prove that passive states are the optimal inputs of single-jump lossy quantum channels. These channels arise from a weak interaction of the quantum system of interest with a large Markovian bath in its ground state, such that the interaction Hamiltonian couples only consecutive energy eigenstates of the system. We prove that the output generated by any input state ρ majorizes the output generated by the passive input state ρ0 with the same spectrum of ρ . Then, the output generated by ρ can be obtained applying a random unitary operation to the output generated by ρ0. This is an extension of De Palma et al. [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62, 2895 (2016)], 10.1109/TIT.2016.2547426, where the same result is proved for one-mode bosonic Gaussian channels. We also prove that for finite temperature this optimality property can fail already in a two-level system, where the best input is a coherent superposition of the two energy eigenstates.

  1. GTD analysis of airborne antennas radiating in the presence of lossy dielectric layers (United States)

    Rojas-Teran, R. G.; Burnside, W. D.


    The patterns of monopole or aperture antennas mounted on a perfectly conducting convex surface radiating in the presence of a dielectric or metal plate are computed. The geometrical theory of diffraction is used to analyze the radiating system and extended here to include diffraction by flat dielectric slabs. Modified edge diffraction coefficients valid for wedges whose walls are lossy or lossless thin dielectric or perfectly conducting plates are developed. The width of the dielectric plates cannot exceed a quarter of a wavelength in free space, and the interior angle of the wedge is assumed to be close to 0 deg or 180 deg. Systematic methods for computing the individual components of the total high frequency field are discussed. The accuracy of the solutions is demonstrated by comparisons with measured results, where a 2 lambda by 4 lambda prolate spheroid is used as the convex surface. A jump or kink appears in the calculated pattern when higher order terms that are important are not included in the final solution. The most immediate application of the results presented here is in the modelling of structures such as aircraft which are composed of nonmetallic parts that play a significant role in the pattern.

  2. Complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves at a lossy metasurface (United States)

    Schwan, Logan; Geslain, Alan; Romero-García, Vicente; Groby, Jean-Philippe


    The complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at a lossy resonant metasurface is theoretically and experimentally reported. The metasurface consists of the periodic arrangement of borehole resonators in a rigid substrate. The theoretical model relies on a boundary layer approach that provides the effective metasurface admittance governing the complex dispersion relation in the presence of viscous and thermal losses. The model is experimentally validated by measurements in the semi-anechoic chamber. The complex SAW dispersion relation is experimentally retrieved from the analysis of the spatial Laplace transform of the pressure scanned along a line at the metasurface. The geometrical spreading of the energy from the speaker is accounted for, and both the real and imaginary parts of the SAW wavenumber are obtained. The results show that the strong reduction of the SAW group velocity occurs jointly with a drastic attenuation of the wave, leading to the confinement of the field close to the source and preventing the efficient propagation of such slow-sound surface modes. The method opens perspectives to theoretically predict and experimentally characterize both the dispersion and the attenuation of surface waves at structured surfaces.

  3. Shaping the longitudinal intensity pattern of Cartesian beams in lossless and lossy media (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Corato-Zanarella, Henrique; Zamboni-Rached, Michel


    Several applications, such as optical tweezers and atom guiding, benefit from techniques that allow the engineering of spatial field profiles, in particular their longitudinal intensity patterns. In cylindrical coordinates, methods such as frozen waves allow an advanced control of beam characteristics, but in Cartesian coordinates there is no analogous technique. Since Cartesian beams may also be useful in applications, we develop here a method to modulate on demand the longitudinal intensity pattern of any (initially) unidimensional Cartesian beam with concentrated angular spectrum (thus encompassing all unidimensional paraxial beams) in lossless and lossy media. To this end, we write the total beam as a product of two unidimensional beams and explore the degree of freedom provided by the additional Cartesian coordinate. While in the plane where this coordinate is zero the chosen unidimensional beam keeps its structure with the additional desired intensity modulation, a sinusoidal-like oscillation appears in the direction of this variable and creates a spot whose size is tunable. Examples with Gaussian and Airy beams are presented and their corresponding experimental demonstrations in free-space are performed to show the validity of the method.

  4. Position Dependence of Fractional Derivative Models for Loudspeaker Voice Coils with Lossy Inductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.


    Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe the freq......Commonly used models of moving-coil loudspeaker voice coils, which include effects from eddy current losses, are either inaccurate or contain an abundance of parameters, and are difficult to extend to the nonlinear domain. On the contrary, fractional derivative models accurately describe...... the frequency and position dependence of the lossy inductance, with meaningful connections to the underlying physics, while keeping the number of parameters low. These fractional derivatives are also compatible with state-space polynomial methods of modeling nonlinear behavior. It is shown that the fractional...... order derivative approaches a value of 1, corresponding to an ideal inductance, when the voice coil is completely outside the magnetic system. Finally, the developed model reveals details about the effect of conductive voice coil formers...

  5. Delay reduction in lossy intermittent feedback for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.


    In this paper, we study the effect of lossy intermittent feedback loss events on the multicast decoding delay performance of generalized instantly decodable network coding. These feedback loss events create uncertainty at the sender about the reception statues of different receivers and thus uncertainty to accurately determine subsequent instantly decodable coded packets. To solve this problem, we first identify the different possibilities of uncertain packets at the sender and their probabilities. We then derive the expression of the mean decoding delay. We formulate the Generalized Instantly Decodable Network Coding (G-IDNC) minimum decoding delay problem as a maximum weight clique problem. Since finding the optimal solution is NP-hard, we design a variant of the algorithm employed in [1]. Our algorithm is compared to the two blind graph update proposed in [2] through extensive simulations. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the blind approaches in all the situations and achieves a tolerable degradation, against the perfect feedback, for large feedback loss period. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Statistics of the performance of time reversal in a lossy reverberating medium. (United States)

    Cozza, Andrea


    It has been proposed [J. De Rosny, Ph.D. thesis, Université Paris VI, 2000] that the performance of time reversal at recreating a coherent pulse in a strongly reverberating medium is directly proportional to the number of resonant modes M actively taking part at the transmission of energy. This idea is here tested against experimental results showing that as soon as losses are taken into account, the quality of the focused pulse is a sublinear function of M leading to a saturation phenomenon that was previously unacknowledged. This is here proven to be caused by mutual coupling between lossy resonant modes, thanks to a statistical modal description of the transmission of signals through the medium. Closed-form relationships are proposed for the first two moments of the pulse signal-to-noise ratio linking them to the occupied bandwidth, the number of active modes, and the degree of resonance of the medium. These formulas, supported by experimental and numerical results, prove that the performance of time reversal can be affected by a strong statistical dispersion. The proposed analysis also predicts that time reversal is a self-averaging process when applied to a reverberating medium, thus, allowing the use of models developed in an ensemble-average framework.

  7. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l'ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) de Lossi en République du Congo- Brazzaville: première analyse de résultats et des contraintes


    Mbété, RA.; Banga-Mboko, H.; Njikam Nsangou, I.; Joiris Daou, V.; P. Leroy


    Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central...

  8. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers (United States)

    Schick, C.; Androsch, R.; Schmelzer, J. W. P.


    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  9. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA


    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  10. Electric field and force modeling for electrostatic levitation of lossy dielectric plates (United States)

    Woo, S. J.; Higuchi, T.


    Electrostatic levitation holds great promise for the semiconductor, solar panel, and flat-panel display industry where the handling of dielectrics in a contact-free manner can bring many advantages and solve long-standing contamination and particulate control problems. In this work an analytical model is developed for the electrostatic levitation field between a lossy dielectric plate and a generic stator electrode structure consisting of a regular planar array of parallel bar electrodes. Time-varying voltages of differing polarities are alternatingly applied to the bar electrodes. Atmospheric humidity-related surface conduction on the plate is explicitly taken into account in the model since it has a profound effect on the field dynamics. Based on this model, the electrostatic levitation force is calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor formulation. The levitation force dynamics are investigated by evaluating the transient response of the field under a step in the applied voltages. In this context, the rate of electric charge build up on the plate is characterized by the suspension initiation time (TSI), which is defined as the time elapsed between applying step voltages to the stator electrodes and start of lift-off of the dielectric plate from its initial position. TSI is theoretically predicted for 0.7 mm thick soda-lime glass substrates, typically used in the manufacturing of liquid crystal displays (LCDs), as a function of electrode geometry, air gap separation, ambient humidity, and step voltage magnitudes. The predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with previously published experimental data for soda-lime glass substrates.

  11. Filled and Unfilled Temperature-Dependent Epoxy Resin Blends for Lossy Transducer Substrates (United States)

    Eames, Matthew D.C.; Hossack, John A.


    In the context of our ongoing investigation of low-cost 2-dimensional (2-D) arrays, we studied the temperature-dependent acoustic properties of epoxy blends that could serve as an acoustically lossy backing material in compact 2-D array-based devices. This material should be capable of being machined during array manufacture, while also providing adequate signal attenuation to mitigate backing block reverberation artifacts. The acoustic impedance and attenuation of 5 unfilled epoxy blends and 2 filled epoxy blends—tungsten and fiberglass fillers—were analyzed across a 35°C temperature range in 5°C increments. Unfilled epoxy materials possessed an approximately linear variation of impedance and sigmoidal variation of attenuation properties over the range of temperatures of interest. An intermediate epoxy blend was fitted to a quadratic trend line with R2 values of 0.94 and 0.99 for attenuation and impedance, respectively. It was observed that a fiberglass filler induces a strong quadratic trend in the impedance data with temperature, which results in increased error in the characterization of attenuation and impedance. The tungsten-filled epoxy was not susceptible to such problems because a different method of fabrication was required. At body temperature, the tungsten-filled epoxy could provide a 44 dB attenuation of the round-trip backing block echo in our application, in which the center frequency is 5 MHz and the backing material is 1.1 mm thick. This is an 11 dB increase in attenuation compared with the fiberglass-filled epoxy in the context of our application. This work provides motivation for exploring the use of custom-made tungsten-filled epoxy materials as a substitute PCB-based substrate to provide electrical signal interconnect. PMID:19406716

  12. Potential-field sounding using Euler's homogeneity equation and Zidarov bubbling (United States)

    Cordell, Lindrith


    Potential-field (gravity) data are transformed into a physical-property (density) distribution in a lower half-space, constrained solely by assumed upper bounds on physical-property contrast and data error. A two-step process is involved. The data are first transformed to an equivalent set of line (2-D case) or point (3-D case) sources, using Euler's homogeneity equation evaluated iteratively on the largest residual data value. Then, mass is converted to a volume-density product, constrained to an upper density bound, by 'bubbling,' which exploits circular or radial expansion to redistribute density without changing the associated gravity field. The method can be developed for gravity or magnetic data in two or three dimensions. The results can provide a beginning for interpretation of potential-field data where few independent constraints exist, or more likely, can be used to develop models and confirm or extend interpretation of other geophysical data sets.

  13. G3-homogeneous gravitational instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliot, F; Petropoulos, P M [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS-UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Estes, J [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, CNRS-UMR 8549, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Spindel, Ph, E-mail: bourliot@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: estes@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: marios@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: [Service de Mecanique et Gravitation, Universite de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium)


    We provide an exhaustive classification of self-dual four-dimensional gravitational instantons foliated with three-dimensional homogeneous spaces, i.e. homogeneous self-dual metrics on four-dimensional Euclidean spaces admitting a Bianchi simply transitive isometry group. The classification pattern is based on the algebra homomorphisms relating the Bianchi group and the duality group SO(3). New and general solutions are found for Bianchi III.

  14. G3-homogeneous gravitational instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Bourliot, F; Petropoulos, P M; Spindel, Ph


    We provide an exhaustive classification of self-dual four-dimensional gravitational instantons foliated with three-dimensional homogeneous spaces, i.e. homogeneous self-dual metrics on four-dimensional Euclidean spaces admitting a Bianchi simply transitive isometry group. The classification pattern is based on the algebra homomorphisms relating the Bianchi group and the duality group SO(3). New and general solutions are found for Bianchi III.

  15. Homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide. (United States)

    Klein, D H; Smith, M D; Driy, J A


    The rate of homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide has been determined as a function of solution concentration, using a quasi-homogeneous precipitation technique and electronic particle counting. The nucleation rate becomes measurable at super-saturations of about 4, and is dependent on the 33rd power of the product aMgaOH(2). The experimental results are consistent with nucleation theory. The nucleus-solution interfacial energy is calculated to be 115 erg/cm(2).

  16. [Obtaining ribosome crystals in homogenates]. (United States)

    Bersani, F; Longo, I; Fanti, M; Pettazzoni, P


    Chick embryos are homogenized in order to analyse ribosome crystallization. Ribosome crystallization has been induced by hypothermic treatment in chick embryos homogenate. Tetramers and crystals were produced by gradually inducing the temperature over a span of 10 h to 4 degrees C. It has been observed that the concentration of KCl in the buffer is a critical point. It is suggested that the nuclear fraction is engaged in ribosome crystallization.

  17. Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.

  18. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL). (United States)

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil


    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnamoorthy


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new lossy to lossless image coding scheme combined with Orthogonal Polynomials Transform and Integer Wavelet Transform is proposed. The Lifting Scheme based Integer Wavelet Transform (LS-IWT is first applied on the image in order to reduce the blocking artifact and memory demand. The Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW subband coding algorithm is used in this proposed work for progressive image coding which achieves efficient bit rate reduction. The computational complexity of lower subband coding of EZW algorithm is reduced in this proposed work with a new integer based Orthogonal Polynomials transform coding. The normalization and mapping are done on the subband of the image for exploiting the subjective redundancy and the zero tree structure is obtained for EZW coding and so the computation complexity is greatly reduced in this proposed work. The experimental results of the proposed technique also show that the efficient bit rate reduction is achieved for both lossy and lossless compression when compared with existing techniques.

  20. Observer-Based Event-Triggering Consensus Control for Multiagent Systems With Lossy Sensors and Cyber-Attacks. (United States)

    Ding, Derui; Wang, Zidong; Ho, Daniel W C; Wei, Guoliang


    In this paper, the observer-based event-triggering consensus control problem is investigated for a class of discrete-time multiagent systems with lossy sensors and cyber-attacks. A novel distributed observer is proposed to estimate the relative full states and the estimated states are then used in the feedback protocol in order to achieve the overall consensus. An event-triggered mechanism with state-independent threshold is adopted to update the control input signals so as to reduce unnecessary data communications. The success ratio of the launched attacks is taken into account to reflect the probabilistic failures of the attacks passing through the protection devices subject to limited resources and network fluctuations. The purpose of the address problem is to design an observer-based distributed controller such that the closed-loop multiagent system achieves the prescribed consensus in spite of the lossy sensors and cyber-attacks. By making use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix, the closed-loop system is transformed into an easy-to-analyze setting and then a sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the desired consensus. Furthermore, the controller gain is obtained in terms of the solution to certain matrix inequality which is independent of the number of agents. An algorithm is provided to optimize the consensus bound. Finally, a simulation example is utilized to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed controller design scheme.

  1. Properties of the Band Gaps in 1D Ternary Lossy Photonic Crystal Containing Double-Negative Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aghajamali


    Full Text Available Theoretically, the characteristics matrix method is employed to investigate and compare the properties of the band gaps of the one-dimensional ternary and binary lossy photonic crystals which are composed of double-negative and double-positive materials. This study shows that by varying the angle of incidence, the band gaps for TM and TE waves behave differently in both ternary and binary lossy structures. The results demonstrate that, by increasing the angle of incidence for the TE wave, the width and the depth of zero-n¯, zero-μ, and Bragg gap increase in both ternary and binary structures. On the other hand, the enhancement of the angle of incidence for the TM wave contributes to reduction of the width and the depth of the zero-n¯ and Bragg gaps, and they finally disappear for incidence angles greater than 50° and 60° for the binary structure and 40° and 45° for the ternary structures, respectively. In addition, the details of the edges of the band gaps variations as a function of incidence angle for both structures are studied.

  2. A new approach of objective quality evaluation on JPEG2000 lossy-compressed lung cancer CT images (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jianguo


    Image compression has been used to increase the communication efficiency and storage capacity. JPEG 2000 compression, based on the wavelet transformation, has its advantages comparing to other compression methods, such as ROI coding, error resilience, adaptive binary arithmetic coding and embedded bit-stream. However it is still difficult to find an objective method to evaluate the image quality of lossy-compressed medical images so far. In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate the image quality by using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system. We selected 77 cases of CT images, bearing benign and malignant lung nodules with confirmed pathology, from our clinical Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). We have developed a prototype of CAD system to classify these images into benign ones and malignant ones, the performance of which was evaluated by the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves. We first used JPEG 2000 to compress these cases of images with different compression ratio from lossless to lossy, and used the CAD system to classify the cases with different compressed ratio, then compared the ROC curves from the CAD classification results. Support vector machine (SVM) and neural networks (NN) were used to classify the malignancy of input nodules. In each approach, we found that the area under ROC (AUC) decreases with the increment of compression ratio with small fluctuations.

  3. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen


    Full Text Available In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL, which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.

  4. ChIPWig: A Random Access-Enabling Lossless and Lossy Compression Method for ChIP-seq Data. (United States)

    Ravanmehr, Vida; Kim, Minji; Wang, Zhiying; Milenkovic, Olgica


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments are inexpensive and time-efficient, and result in massive datasets that introduce significant storage and maintenance challenges. To address the resulting Big Data problems, we propose a lossless and lossy compression framework specifically designed for ChIP-seq Wig data, termed ChIPWig. ChIPWig enables random access, summary statistics lookups and it is based on the asymptotic theory of optimal point density design for nonuniform quantizers. We tested the ChIPWig compressor on 10 ChIP-seq datasets generated by the ENCODE consortium. On average, lossless ChIPWig reduced the file sizes to merely 6% of the original, and offered 6-fold compression rate improvement compared to bigWig. The lossy feature further reduced file sizes 2-fold compared to the lossless mode, with little or no effects on peak calling and motif discovery using specialized NarrowPeaks methods. The compression and decompression speed rates are of the order of 0:2 MB/sec using general purpose computers. The source code and binaries are freely available for download at, implemented in C ++. Available on the Bioinformatics submission site.

  5. Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Vesentini, E


    This title includes: S.G. Gindikin, I.I. Pjateckii-Sapiro, E.B. Vinberg: Homogeneous Kahler manifolds; S.G. Greenfield: Extendibility properties of real submanifolds of Cn; W. Kaup: Holomorphische Abbildungen in Hyperbolische Raume; A. Koranyi: Holomorphic and harmonic functions on bounded symmetric domains; J.L. Koszul: Formes harmoniques vectorielles sur les espaces localement symetriques; S. Murakami: Plongements holomorphes de domaines symetriques; and E.M. Stein: The analogues of Fatous' theorem and estimates for maximal functions.

  6. Spatial Filter Housing for Enhancement of the Shielding Effectiveness of Perforated Enclosures with Lossy Internal Coating: Broadband Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid F. A. Hussein


    Full Text Available This work is concerned with studying and enhancement of the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of open metallic enclosures with openings over a wide range of the frequency including the UHF band. The suggested methods depend on the suppression of the excessive power penetrating the enclosure cavity especially at its resonances by a variety of methods that include increasing aspect ratio of the rectangular aperture, splitting the opening into a number of apertures, coating the internal walls of the metallic enclosure with a multilayered lossy material of the appropriate conductivity profile, and, finally, placing the metallic enclosure inside a spatial filter housing. A minimum value of 20 dB is achieved for the shielding effectiveness using the suggested methods. The present work also provides a study to investigate the effect of the direction and polarization of the incident plane wave on the shielding effectiveness of the enclosure.

  7. Distributed Control of Inverter-Based Lossy Microgrids for Power Sharing and Frequency Regulation Under Voltage Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei


    This paper presents a new distributed control framework to coordinate inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs) in island microgrids. We show that under bounded load uncertainties, the proposed control method can steer the microgrid to a desired steady state with synchronized inverter frequency across the network and proportional sharing of both active and reactive powers among the inverters. We also show that such convergence can be achieved while respecting constraints on voltage magnitude and branch angle differences. The controller is robust under various contingency scenarios, including loss of communication links and failures of DERs. The proposed controller is applicable to lossy mesh microgrids with heterogeneous R/X distribution lines and reasonable parameter variations. Simulations based on various microgrid operation scenarios are also provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  8. An Adaptive Systematic Lossy Error Protection Scheme for Broadcast Applications Based on Frequency Filtering and Unequal Picture Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ramon


    Full Text Available Systematic lossy error protection (SLEP is a robust error resilient mechanism based on principles of Wyner-Ziv (WZ coding for video transmission over error-prone networks. In an SLEP scheme, the video bitstream is separated into two parts: a systematic part consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding, and additional information consisting of a WZ supplementary stream. This paper presents an adaptive SLEP scheme in which the WZ stream is obtained by frequency filtering in the transform domain. Additionally, error resilience varies adaptively depending on the characteristics of compressed video. We show that the proposed SLEP architecture achieves graceful degradation of reconstructed video quality in the presence of increasing transmission errors. Moreover, it provides good performances in terms of error protection as well as reconstructed video quality if compared to solutions based on coarser quantization, while offering an interesting embedded scheme to apply digital video format conversion.

  9. A combined application of lossless and lossy compression in ECG processing and transmission via GSM-based SMS. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S K; Mitra, S; Mitra, M


    This paper presents a software-based scheme for reliable and robust Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression and its efficient transmission using Second Generation (2G) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) based Short Message Service (SMS). To achieve a firm lossless compression in high standard deviating QRS complex regions and an acceptable lossy compression in the rest of the signal, two different algorithms have been used. The combined compression module is such that it outputs only American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) characters and, hence, SMS service is found to be most suitable for transmitting the compressed signal. At the receiving end, the ECG signal is reconstructed using just the reverse algorithm. The module has been tested to all the 12 leads of different types of ECG signals (healthy and abnormal) collected from the PTB Diagnostic ECG Database. The compression algorithm achieves an average compression ratio of ∼22.51, without any major alteration of clinical morphology.

  10. Equivalence between the Hamiltonian and Langevin noise descriptions of plasmon polaritons in a dispersive and lossy inhomogeneous medium (United States)

    Drezet, Aurélien


    We demonstrate the fundamental links existing between two different descriptions of quantum electrodynamics in inhomogeneous, lossy, and dispersive dielectric media which are based either on the Huttner-Barnett formalism for polaritons [Huttner and Barnett, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4306 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.4306] or the Langevin noise approach using fluctuating currents [Gruner and Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1818 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevA.53.1818]. In this work we demonstrate the practical equivalence of the two descriptions by introducing the concept of the effective photon state associated with some specific noise current distribution. We study the impact of these results on the calculation and interpretation of quantum observables such as fluctuations, correlations, and Casimir forces.

  11. Description of spontaneous photon emission and local density of states in the presence of a lossy polaritonic inhomogeneous medium (United States)

    Drezet, Aurélien


    We provide a description of spontaneous emission in a dispersive and dissipative linear inhomogeneous medium based on the generalized Huttner-Barnett model [Phys. Rev. A 46, 4306 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.4306]. Our discussion considers on an equal footing both the photonic and material fluctuations which are necessary to preserve unitarity of the quantum evolution. Within this approach we justify the results obtained in the past using the Langevin noise method that neglects the removal of photonic fluctuations. We finally discuss the concept of local density of states in a lossy and dispersive inhomogeneous environment that provides a basis for theoretical studies of fluorescent emitters near plasmonic and polaritonic antennas.

  12. Optical monitoring of thin film electro-polymerization on surface of ITO-coated lossy-mode resonance sensor (United States)

    Sobaszek, Michał; Dominik, Magdalena; Burnat, Dariusz; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Stranak, Viteszlav; Sezemsky, Petr; Śmietana, Mateusz


    This work presents an optical fiber sensors based on lossy-mode resonance (LMR) phenomenon supported by indium tin oxide (ITO) thin overlay for investigation of electro-polymerization effect on ITO's surface. The ITO overlays were deposited on core of polymer-clad silica (PCS) fibers using reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) method. Since ITO is electrically conductive and electrochemically active it can be used as a working electrode in 3-electrode cyclic voltammetry setup. For fixed potential applied to the electrode current flow decrease with time what corresponds to polymer layer formation on the ITO surface. Since LMR phenomenon depends on optical properties in proximity of the ITO surface, polymer layer formation can be monitored optically in real time. The electrodeposition process has been performed with Isatin which is a strong endogenous neurochemical regulator in humans as it is a metabolic derivative of adrenaline. It was found that optical detection of Isatin is possible in the proposed configuration.

  13. Homogenization in chemical reactive flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conca


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the homogenization of two nonlinear models for chemical reactive flows through the exterior of a domain containing periodically distributed reactive solid grains (or reactive obstacles. In the first model, the chemical reactions take place on the walls of the grains, while in the second one the fluid penetrates the grains and the reactions take place therein. The effective behavior of these reactive flows is described by a new elliptic boundary-value problem containing an extra zero-order term which captures the effect of the chemical reactions.

  14. Optimizing homogenization by chaotic unmixing? (United States)

    Weijs, Joost; Bartolo, Denis


    A number of industrial processes rely on the homogeneous dispersion of non-brownian particles in a viscous fluid. An ideal mixing would yield a so-called hyperuniform particle distribution. Such configurations are characterized by density fluctuations that grow slower than the standard √{ N}-fluctuations. Even though such distributions have been found in several natural structures, e.g. retina receptors in birds, they have remained out of experimental reach until very recently. Over the last 5 years independent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that periodically driven suspensions can self-assemble hyperuniformally. Simple as the recipe may be, it has one important disadvantage. The emergence of hyperuniform states co-occurs with a critical phase transition from reversible to non reversible particle dynamics. As a consequence the homogenization dynamics occurs over a time that diverges with the system size (critical slowing down). Here, we discuss how this process can be sped up by exploiting the stirring properties of chaotic advection. Among the questions that we answer are: What are the physical mechanisms in a chaotic flow that are relevant for hyperuniformity? How can we tune the flow parameters such to obtain optimal hyperuniformity in the fastest way? JW acknowledges funding by NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) through a Rubicon Grant.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  16. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min


    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  17. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These vehicles have widely different static and dynamic characteristics. The traffic is also very different from homogeneous traffic which primarily consists of motorized vehicles. Homogeneous traffic follows strict lane discipline as compared to non-homogeneous traffic. Western traffic planning methodologies mostly address ...

  18. Projective duality and homogeneous spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tevelev, E A


    Projective duality is a very classical notion naturally arising in various areas of mathematics, such as algebraic and differential geometry, combinatorics, topology, analytical mechanics, and invariant theory, and the results in this field were until now scattered across the literature. Thus the appearance of a book specifically devoted to projective duality is a long-awaited and welcome event. Projective Duality and Homogeneous Spaces covers a vast and diverse range of topics in the field of dual varieties, ranging from differential geometry to Mori theory and from topology to the theory of algebras. It gives a very readable and thorough account and the presentation of the material is clear and convincing. For the most part of the book the only prerequisites are basic algebra and algebraic geometry. This book will be of great interest to graduate and postgraduate students as well as professional mathematicians working in algebra, geometry and analysis.

  19. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere (United States)

    Mason, V. B.


    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  20. Scattering and Doppler Spectral Analysis for a Fast-Moving Target above Time-Varying Lossy Dielectric Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li


    Full Text Available A numerical electromagnetic method based on the physical optics with physical optics method (PO-PO is employed to calculate backscattered returns from a missile-like target above sea surface. Surfaces are time-varying Monte Carlo simulations initialized as realizations of a Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum. The monostatic normalized radar cross section of composite model by the hybrid PO-PO method is calculated and compared with those by the conventional method of moments, as well as the runtime and memory requirements. The results are found to be in good agreement. The runtime shows that the hybrid PO-PO method enables large-scale time-varying Monte Carlo simulations. The numerical simulations of the Doppler spectrum from the fast-moving target above time-varying lossy dielectric sea surface are obtained, and the Doppler spectra of backscattered signals from this model are discussed for different incident angles, speed of flying target, wind speeds, incident frequencies, and target altitudes in detail. Finally, the coupling effects on Doppler spectra are analyzed. All the results are obtained at the incidence of horizontal polarization wave in this study.

  1. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon (United States)

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan


    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.

  2. Indium tin oxide refractometer in the visible and near infrared via lossy mode and surface plasmon resonances with Kretschmann configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, V. [Antenna Group–TERALAB, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Beruete, M. [Antenna Group–TERALAB, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Sánchez, P. [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona 31006 (Spain); Del Villar, I. [Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona 31006 (Spain)


    An indium tin oxide (ITO) refractometer based on the generation of lossy mode resonances (LMRs) and surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) is presented. Both LMRs and SPRs are excited, in a single setup, under grazing angle incidence with Kretschmann configuration in an ITO thin-film deposited on a glass slide. The sensing capabilities of the device are demonstrated using several solutions of glycerin and water with refractive indices ranging from 1.33 to 1.47. LMRs are excited in the visible range, from 617 nm to 682 nm under TE polarization and from 533 nm to 637 nm under TM polarization, with a maximum sensitivity of 700 nm/RIU and 1200 nm/RIU, respectively. For the SPRs, a sensing range between 1375 nm and 2494 nm with a maximum sensitivity of 8300 nm/RIU is measured under TM polarization. Experimental results are supported with numerical simulations based on a modification of the plane-wave method for a one-dimensional multilayer waveguide.

  3. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon. (United States)

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan


    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.


    Busey, H.M.


    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.


    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  6. Homogeneity and thermodynamic identities in geometrothermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Hernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Rome (Italy); Quevedo, Maria N. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Bogota (Colombia); Sanchez, Alberto [CIIDET, Departamento de Posgrado, Queretaro (Mexico)


    We propose a classification of thermodynamic systems in terms of the homogeneity properties of their fundamental equations. Ordinary systems correspond to homogeneous functions and non-ordinary systems are given by generalized homogeneous functions. This affects the explicit form of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Euler's identity. We show that these generalized relations can be implemented in the formalism of black hole geometrothermodynamics in order to completely fix the arbitrariness present in Legendre invariant metrics. (orig.)

  7. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.


    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  8. Advancing Homogeneous Antimicrobial Glycoconjugate Vaccines. (United States)

    Adamo, Roberto


    Since 2004, when the first synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine against the pneumonia and meningitis causing bacterium Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) approved for human use in Cuba was reported, 34 million doses of the synthetic vaccine have been already distributed in several countries under the commercial name of Quimi-Hib. However, despite the success of this product, no other synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine has been licensed in the following 13 years. As well as avoiding the need to handle pathogens, synthetic glycoconjugates offer clear advantages in terms of product characterization and the possibility to understand the parameters influencing immunogenicity. Nevertheless, large scale application of synthetic sugars has been perceived as challenging because of manufacturing costs and process complexity compared to natural polysaccharides. Chemoenzymatic approaches, one-pot protocols, and automated solid-phase synthesis are rendering carbohydrate production considerably more attractive for industrialization. Here we identify three areas where chemical approaches can advance this progress: (i) chemical or enzymatic methods enabling the delivery of the minimal polysaccharide portion responsible for an effective immune response; (ii) site-selective chemical or enzymatic conjugation strategies for the exploration of the conjugation point in immune responses against carbohydrate-based vaccines, and the consistent preparation of more homogeneous products; (iii) multicomponent constructs targeting receptors responsible for immune response modulation in order to control its quality and magnitude. We discuss how synthesis of bacterial oligosaccharides is useful toward understanding the polysaccharide portion responsible for immunogenicity, and for developing robust and consistent alternatives to natural heterogeneous polysaccharides. The synthesis of sugar analogues can lead to the identification of hydrolytically more stable versions of oligosaccharide antigens. The

  9. Geometric classifications of homogeneous production functions


    Chen, Bang-Yen; Vilcu, Gabriel Eduard


    In this paper, we completely classify homogeneous production functions with an arbitrary number of inputs whose production hypersurfaces are flat. As an immediate consequence, we obtain a complete classification of homogeneous production functions with two inputs whose production surfaces are developable.

  10. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use ...

  11. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in term...

  12. Synthesis of silica nanosphere from homogeneous and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Silica nanosphere was synthesized using homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, respectively. In homogeneous system, silica spheres were synthesized without cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr), which gave bimodal particle size and lower yield (77%). To improve the yield, CTABr was added and ...

  13. Homogeneous nucleation and the Ostwald step rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, P.R. ten; Frenkel, D.


    We compare the pathways for homogeneous nucleation in a number of different systems. In most cases, the simulations show that the nucleation pathways are markedly different from what is assumed in classical nucleation theory. We find that homogeneous nucleation exhibits, at the microscopic level,

  14. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp


    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  15. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.


    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  16. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l'ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla de Lossi en République du Congo- Brazzaville: première analyse de résultats et des contraintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbété, RA.


    Full Text Available Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and to identify the constraints linked to the participative approach. The work of primatologists allowed the habituation of the gorillas to the human presence and opened eyesight tourism of western lowland gorillas. A camp for tourists and the access road to the sanctuary have been constructed. The tourism generated jobs in favour of the local population which is also a take-partner of contracts on road repairing. The income from the tourism allowed the construction of a health centre. However, the works of researchers and tourism activities failed during the outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever and during the three civil war episodes. The consolidation and the long term of this process of co-management of natural resources of Lossi remains the establishment of a management that should include conservation, rural development and scientific research, with equitably in the distribution of gain between the partnerses.

  17. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)


    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  18. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks. (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M


    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels.

  19. Homogenization of precipitation data in Pannonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Nenad Đ.


    Full Text Available Testing the homogeneity of data of meteorological occurrences is very important for ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the data that will later be used in a variety of research related to the assessment and prediction of future trends of climate changes. This paper presents the verification of homogeneity of data on average annual precipitations from 19 meteorological stations in the Pannonian region. For this purpose, it has been used four different statistical tests that are applied on each meteorological station individually. It was found that 4 out of 19 meteorological stations or in 21% of the cases there are in homogeneities of precipitation data.

  20. Shocks in homogeneous and heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail:


    A system subject to a point process of shocks is considered. Shocks occur in accordance with a non-homogeneous Poisson process. Different criterions of system failures are discussed in a homogeneous case. Two natural settings are analyzed. Heterogeneity is modeled by an unobserved univariate random variable (frailty). It is shown that reliability (safety) analysis for a heterogeneous case can differ dramatically from that for a homogeneous setting. A shock burn-in procedure for a heterogeneous population is described. The corresponding bounds for the failure rates are obtained.

  1. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)


    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  2. Homogeneous operators and projective representations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  3. Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Drosophila melanogaster; inversion polymorphism; Southeast Asia; genetic homogeneity; balancing selection. Abstract. East Asian Drosophila melanogaster are known for great variation in morphological and physiological characters among populations, variation that is believed to be maintained by genetic drift.

  4. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla


    of internal factors to the blend e.g. the particle size distribution. The relation between particle size distribution and the variation in drug content in blend and tablet samples is discussed. A central problem is to develop acceptance criteria for blends and tablet batches to decide whether the blend......In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials....... Some methods have a focus on exploratory analysis where the aim is to investigate the spatial distribution of drug content in the batch. Other methods presented focus on describing the overall (total) (in)homogeneity of the blend. The overall (in)homogeneity of the blend is relevant as it is closely...

  5. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.


    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  6. Layout optimization using the homogenization method (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru


    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  7. Rethinking the Role of Top-Down Attention in Vision: Effects Attributable to a Lossy Representation in Peripheral Vision (United States)

    Rosenholtz, Ruth; Huang, Jie; Ehinger, Krista A.


    According to common wisdom in the field of visual perception, top-down selective attention is required in order to bind features into objects. In this view, even simple tasks, such as distinguishing a rotated T from a rotated L, require selective attention since they require feature binding. Selective attention, in turn, is commonly conceived as involving volition, intention, and at least implicitly, awareness. There is something non-intuitive about the notion that we might need so expensive (and possibly human) a resource as conscious awareness in order to perform so basic a function as perception. In fact, we can carry out complex sensorimotor tasks, seemingly in the near absence of awareness or volitional shifts of attention (“zombie behaviors”). More generally, the tight association between attention and awareness, and the presumed role of attention on perception, is problematic. We propose that under normal viewing conditions, the main processes of feature binding and perception proceed largely independently of top-down selective attention. Recent work suggests that there is a significant loss of information in early stages of visual processing, especially in the periphery. In particular, our texture tiling model (TTM) represents images in terms of a fixed set of “texture” statistics computed over local pooling regions that tile the visual input. We argue that this lossy representation produces the perceptual ambiguities that have previously been as ascribed to a lack of feature binding in the absence of selective attention. At the same time, the TTM representation is sufficiently rich to explain performance in such complex tasks as scene gist recognition, pop-out target search, and navigation. A number of phenomena that have previously been explained in terms of voluntary attention can be explained more parsimoniously with the TTM. In this model, peripheral vision introduces a specific kind of information loss, and the information available to an

  8. Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Sergey; Dannberg, Peter; Gebhardt, Andreas


    LED-optics for homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas - as required for reading lamps or lighting of imagers - employ a primary optics which acts as collimator and a secondary optics for beam shaping, homogenization and relaying the light onto the illuminated plane. Efficient primary optics are realized by concentrators which are either simple reflecting or combined refractivereflective devices. Different design algorithms based on the modelling of the concentrators by Bezier splines were developed: A modification of the edge-ray principle allows the formulation of the merit function in geometrical terms (for instance the divergence after collimator), while a more general algorithm with direct Powell optimization allows for combined optimization criteria like efficiency and homogeneity in near- and/or farfield. Concentrator prototypes were realized by direct diamond-turning into PMMA. Telecentric, homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas is achieved by a subsequent secondary optics with tandem lens array integrators. We describe design rules for array integrator optics derived from a simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential real raytracing is used for the actual optics system design and analysis of aberrations, which deteriorate homogeneity and useful system transmission. We realized miniaturized array integrators with monolithic tandem microlens arrays, which remarkably reduce overall system length compared to light-pipe approaches. Double-sided cylindrical microlens arrays with large fill-factor over 99%, realized by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses, relax system assembly by shifting critical adjustment steps into element manufacturing.

  9. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik


    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  10. Harmonic analysis on spaces of homogeneous type

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Donggao


    The dramatic changes that came about in analysis during the twentieth century are truly amazing. In the thirties, complex methods and Fourier series played a seminal role. After many improvements, mostly achieved by the Calderón-Zygmund school, the action today is taking place in spaces of homogeneous type. No group structure is available and the Fourier transform is missing, but a version of harmonic analysis is still available. Indeed the geometry is conducting the analysis. The authors succeed in generalizing the construction of wavelet bases to spaces of homogeneous type. However wavelet bases are replaced by frames, which in many applications serve the same purpose.

  11. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  12. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  13. Homogenization-Based Numerical Mathods, Homogenization, Asymptotic Analysis, Asymptotic Expansion, Numerical Simulation


    Frenod, Emmanuel


    In this note, a classification of Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods and (in particular) of Numerical Methods that are based on the Two-Scale Convergence is done. In this classification stand: Direct Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods; H-Measure-Based Numerical Methods; Two-Scale Numerical Methods and TSAPS: Two-Scale Asymptotic Preserving Schemes.

  14. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature and methanol characteristics (oil molar ratio; catalyst type, concentration and agitation) controlled the ester convers-ion. ... The fuel properties of biodiesels and blends were analysed quantitati-vely, and the biodiesel produced by homogeneous catalysis compared favourably with conventional diesel fuel.

  15. Homogenization Effects of Variable Speed Limits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Garcia-Castro; Andres Monzon


    ... and their results This study also presents a key indicator which measures the speed homogeneity and a methodology to obtain the data based on floating cars and GPS technology applying it to a case study on a section of the M30 urban motorway in Madrid (Spain). It also presents the relation between this indicator and road performance and emissions values.

  16. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is constructed. It is used to derive Einstein's planetary equation of motion and photon equation of motion in the vicinity of the rotating homogeneous spherical mass.

  17. On horizons in homogeneous isotropic universes (United States)

    Patzelt, Harald


    In homogeneous isotropic universes the particle horizon defines causally connected regions. For inflationary universes it is known that microphysics can interact coherently only on a much smaller scale. Here an interaction horizon is introdued that allows this scale to be determined for Robertson-Walker models. During inflation its upper bound is the event horizon.

  18. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  19. Reduced-order modelling numerical homogenization. (United States)

    Abdulle, A; Bai, Y


    A general framework to combine numerical homogenization and reduced-order modelling techniques for partial differential equations (PDEs) with multiple scales is described. Numerical homogenization methods are usually efficient to approximate the effective solution of PDEs with multiple scales. However, classical numerical homogenization techniques require the numerical solution of a large number of so-called microproblems to approximate the effective data at selected grid points of the computational domain. Such computations become particularly expensive for high-dimensional, time-dependent or nonlinear problems. In this paper, we explain how numerical homogenization method can benefit from reduced-order modelling techniques that allow one to identify offline and online computational procedures. The effective data are only computed accurately at a carefully selected number of grid points (offline stage) appropriately 'interpolated' in the online stage resulting in an online cost comparable to that of a single-scale solver. The methodology is presented for a class of PDEs with multiple scales, including elliptic, parabolic, wave and nonlinear problems. Numerical examples, including wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and solute transport in unsaturated porous media, illustrate the proposed method. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional dispersion analysis of homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of wave propagation in an infinite, homogeneous, transversely isotropic thermo elastic polygonal cross-sectional bar immersed in fluid is studied using Fourier expansion collocation method, with in the framework of linearized, three dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Three displacement potential functions ...

  1. Predictive modeling in homogeneous catalysis: a tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado, A.G.; Rothenberg, G.


    Predictive modeling has become a practical research tool in homogeneous catalysis. It can help to pinpoint ‘good regions’ in the catalyst space, narrowing the search for the optimal catalyst for a given reaction. Just like any other new idea, in silico catalyst optimization is accepted by some


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effects of aqueous homogenates of avocado pear (Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves co-administered with anti-tuberculosis drug on liver enzymes of albino rats. Twenty (20) albino rats were divided into five (5) groups (of four rats each).

  3. On homogeneous skewness of unimodal distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Shubhabrata; Mandal, Pranab K.; Ghosh, Diptesh


    We introduce a new concept of skewness for unimodal continuous distributions which is built on the asymmetry of the density function around its mode. The asymmetry is captured through a skewness function. We call a distribution homogeneously skewed if this skewness function is consistently positive

  4. Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces


    Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.


    In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.

  5. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  6. Higher dimensional homogeneous cosmology in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assuming a homogeneous perfect fluid with ρ = ρ() and = (), we have obtained exact solutions for cosmological models in higher-dimension based on Lyra geometry. Depending on the form of metric chosen, the model is similar to FRW type. The explicit solutions of the scale factor are found via the assumption of an ...

  7. Performance analysis of zinc oxide-implemented lossy mode resonance-based optical fiber refractive index sensor utilizing thin film/nanostructure. (United States)

    Usha, Sruthi Prasood; Gupta, Banshi Dhar


    A detailed primeval study on the lossy mode resonance (LMR) behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated optical fiber as a refractive index sensor is carried out. Theoretical evaluation predicts ZnO as a good choice for the LMR-based chemical and gas sensor operating in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To confirm, the optical fiber probe has been fabricated with an optimized film thickness of ZnO over an unclad core of fiber and characterized. Additionally, an LMR-based nanosensor platform utilizing ZnO has also been investigated to find the compatibility of a nanotechnological LMR sensor. The nanostructured LMR sensors have shown enhanced sensitivity in comparison to a bulk layered probe.

  8. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phungamngoen Chanthima


    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  9. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry


    We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

  10. Coherent Eigenmodes in Homogeneous MHD Turbulence (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    The statistical mechanics of Fourier models of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is discussed, along with their relevance for dissipative magnetofluids. Although statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation, i.e., we have coherent structure. We use eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density function to explain this phenomena in terms of `broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We provide examples from 2-D and 3-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from long-time simulations of MHD turbulence with and without a mean magnetic field

  11. Kinematical uniqueness of homogeneous isotropic LQC

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan


    In a paper by Ashtekar and Campiglia, invariance under volume preserving residual diffeomorphisms has been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). In this paper, we use invariance under all residual diffeomorphisms to single out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of homogeneous isotropic LQC for both the standard configuration space $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$, as well as for the Fleischhack one $\\mathbb{R} \\sqcup \\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$. We first determine the scale invariant Radon measures on these spaces, and then show that the Haar measure on $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$ is the only such measure for which the momentum operator is hermitian w.r.t. the corresponding inner product. In particular, the measure is forced to be identically zero on $\\mathbb{R}$ in the Fleischhack case, so that for both approaches, the standard kinematical LQC-Hilbert space is singled out.

  12. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor


    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  13. Correlated equilibria in homogenous good Bertrand competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jann, Ole; Schottmüller, Christoph


    We show that there is a unique correlated equilibrium, identical to the unique Nash equilibrium, in the classic Bertrand oligopoly model with homogenous goods and identical marginal costs. This provides a theoretical underpinning for the so-called "Bertrand paradox'' as well as its most general f...... formulation to date. Our proof generalizes to asymmetric marginal costs and arbitrarily many players in the following way: The market price cannot be higher than the second lowest marginal cost in any correlated equilibrium....

  14. A homogeneous model of spinfoam cosmology (United States)

    Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David


    We examine spinfoam cosmology by use of a simple graph adapted to homogeneous cosmological models. We calculate dynamics in the isotropic limit, and provide the framework for the anisotropic case. We calculate the transition amplitude between holomorphic coherent states on a single node graph and find that the resultant dynamics is peaked on solutions which have no support on the zero volume state, indicating that big bang type singularities are avoided within such models. Communicated by P Singh

  15. Hypersurface-homogeneous space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.


    We propose a new method to build exact solutions of Einstein field equations in case of ''hypersurface-homogeneous space-times.'' The energy-momentum tensor is of perfect fluid type. Starting from SE solutions we are able to build new classes of solutions which add to the rare solutions not satisfying the equation of state p = (..gamma..-1) We study the geometrical and physical properties of some of the solutions obtained.

  16. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan


    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  17. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels. (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg


    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  18. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi


    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  19. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Richard; Zmijarevic, Igor, E-mail:, E-mail: [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)


    We analyze the calculation of flux discontinuity factors (FDFs) for use with piecewise subdomain assembly homogenization. These coefficients depend on the numerical mesh used to compute the diffusion problem. When the mesh has a single degree of freedom on subdomain interfaces the solution is unique and can be computed independently per subdomain. For all other cases we have implemented an iterative calculation for the FDFs. Our numerical results show that there is no solution to this nonlinear problem but that the iterative algorithm converges towards FDFs values that reproduce subdomains reaction rates with a relatively high precision. In our test we have included both the GET and black-box FDFs. (author)

  20. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Jackson, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Barrat, Jean-Alix, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Université Européenne de Bretagne, Université de Brest, CNRS UMR 6538 (Domaines Océaniques), I.U.E.M., Place Nicolas Copernic, F-29280 Plouzané Cedex (France)


    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  1. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert


    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  2. Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent E Eskridge

    Full Text Available Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

  3. Numerical homogenization: survey, new results, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Antoine


    Full Text Available These notes give a state of the art of numerical homogenization methods for linear elliptic equations. The guideline of these notes is analysis. Most of the numerical homogenization methods can be seen as (more or less different discretizations of the same family of continuous approximate problems, which H-converges to the homogenized problem. Likewise numerical correctors may also be interpreted as approximations of Tartar’s correctors. Hence the convergence analysis of these methods relies on the H-convergence theory. When one is interested in convergence rates, the story is different. In particular one first needs to make additional structure assumptions on the heterogeneities (say periodicity for instance. In that case, a crucial tool is the spectral interpretation of the corrector equation by Papanicolaou and Varadhan. Spectral analysis does not only allow to obtain convergence rates, but also to devise efficient new approximation methods. For both qualitative and quantitative properties, the development and the analysis of numerical homogenization methods rely on seminal concepts of the homogenization theory. These notes contain some new results. Ces notes de cours dressent un état de l’art des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique pour les équations elliptiques linéaires. Le fil conducteur choisi est l’analyse. La plupart des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique s’interprète comme des discrétisations (plus ou moins différentes d’une même famille de problèmes continus approchés qui H-converge vers le problème homogénéisé. De même, le concept de correcteur numérique s’interprète comme une approximation des correcteurs introduits par Tartar. Ainsi l’analyse de convergence repose essentiellement sur la théorie de la H-convergence. Si on s’intéresse aux estimations quantitatives d’erreur, il faut faire des hypothèses supplémentaires de structure sur les hétérogénéités (périodicité par

  4. A method for testing the cosmic homogeneity with Shannon entropy (United States)

    Pandey, Biswajit


    We propose a method for testing cosmic homogeneity based on the Shannon entropy in Information theory and test the potentials and limitations of the method on Monte Carlo simulations of some homogeneous and inhomogeneous 3D point process in a finite region of space. We analyse a set of N-body simulations to investigate the prospect of determining the scale of homogeneity with the proposed method and show that the method could serve as an efficient tool for the study of homogeneity.

  5. Homogeneous spaces and transitive actions by Polish groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, J.


    We prove that for every homogeneous and strongly locally homogeneous Polish space X there is a Polish group admitting a transitive action on X. We also construct an example of a homogeneous Polish space which is not a coset space and on which no separable metrizable topological group acts

  6. Determination of lamb wave dispersion data in lossy anisotropic plates using time domain finite element analysis. Part I: theory and experimental verification. (United States)

    Hayward, Gordon; Hyslop, Jamie


    A theoretical and experimental approach for extraction of guided wave dispersion data in plate structures is described. Finite element modeling is used to calculate the surface displacement data (in-plane and out-of-plane) when the plate is subject to either symmetrical or antisymmetrical impulsive force stimulation at one or both of the parallel faces. Fourier transformation of the resultant space-time displacement histories is then employed to obtain phase velocity as a function of frequency. Experimental verification in the case of antisymmetrical stimulation is provided by means of a high-power Q-switched laser source that is used to excite guided waves in the plate. The subsequent out-of-plane displacement data were then obtained by means of a scanning laser vibrometer, and good agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated. Examples of dispersion data are provided for aluminum, and excellent correlation between the data sets and conventional Rayleigh-Lamb theory for plate structures was obtained. This was then extended to lossy polymeric plates, in addition to both unpolarized and polarized piezoelectric ceramic plates, again with good agreement between the finite element modeling and optical experiments. The last set of results prepares the way for a detailed investigation of the nonhomogeneous piezoelectric composite waveguides described in a companion paper (Part II).

  7. Homogenization of the lipid profile values. (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Brotons, Carlos; Esteban-Salán, Margarita; García-Lerín, Aurora; Pintó, Xavier; Lekuona, Iñaki; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi


    Analytical reports from the clinical laboratory are essential to guide clinicians about what lipid profile values should be considered altered and, therefore, require intervention. Unfortunately, there is a great heterogeneity in the lipid values reported as "normal, desirable, recommended or referenced" by clinical laboratories. This can difficult clinical decisions and be a barrier to achieve the therapeutic goals for cardiovascular prevention. A recent international recommendation has added a new heterogeneity factor for the interpretation of lipid profile, such as the possibility of measuring it without previous fasting. All this justifies the need to develop a document that adapts the existing knowledge to the clinical practice of our health system. In this regard, professionals from different scientific societies involved in the measurement and use of lipid profile data have developed this document to establish recommendations that facilitate their homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Sojourning with the Homogeneous Poisson Process. (United States)

    Liu, Piaomu; Peña, Edsel A


    In this pedagogical article, distributional properties, some surprising, pertaining to the homogeneous Poisson process (HPP), when observed over a possibly random window, are presented. Properties of the gap-time that covered the termination time and the correlations among gap-times of the observed events are obtained. Inference procedures, such as estimation and model validation, based on event occurrence data over the observation window, are also presented. We envision that through the results in this paper, a better appreciation of the subtleties involved in the modeling and analysis of recurrent events data will ensue, since the HPP is arguably one of the simplest among recurrent event models. In addition, the use of the theorem of total probability, Bayes theorem, the iterated rules of expectation, variance and covariance, and the renewal equation could be illustrative when teaching distribution theory, mathematical statistics, and stochastic processes at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This article is targeted towards both instructors and students.

  9. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.


    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  10. Edge-based compression of cartoon-like images with homogeneous diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mainberger, Markus; Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim


    Edges provide semantically important image features. In this paper a lossy compression method for cartoon-like images is presented, which is based on edge information. Edges together with some adjacent grey/colour values are extracted and encoded using a classical edge detector, binary compressio...

  11. Is it possible to homogenize resonant chiral metamaterials ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Homogenization of metamaterials is very important as it makes possible description in terms of effective parameters. In this contribution we consider the homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for some metamaterials there is an optimal meta-atom size which depends on the coupling...... between meta-atoms. We introduce numerical criterion of homogeneity on the basis of the Bloch modes dispersion diagram calculation and a tool to predict the homogeneity limit. We show that some metamaterials with strong coupling between meta-atoms cannot be considered as homogeneous at all...

  12. Wood volume distribution as an indicatorof stand homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Milivoj


    Full Text Available The results of stand homogeneity definition are analyzed based on the percentage ratio of the distribution of tree number and the distribution of volume per diameter degrees. Homogeneity is defined based on homogeneity index (H and Lorenz’s curve. Homogeneous stand is the hypothetical stand whose trees have equal volumes. Real stands, depending on their silvicultural form and treatment, as well as the development stage, are more or less distant from the absolutely homogenous state. The effect of the diameter degree width on the accuracy of homogeneity index calculation was determined and the possibility of applying the homogeneity index as an additional parameter for the assessment of site quality of selection stands was analyzed.

  13. Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Serge; Dannberg, Peter; Zeitner, Uwe D.


    Efficient homogeneous illumination of rectangular or circular areas with LEDs is a promising application for doublesided microlens arrays. Such illumination schemes employ a primary optics - which can be realized with a concentrator or a collimation lens - and a secondary optics with one or more double-sided microlens arrays and a collection optics for superposing the light from the individual array channels. The main advantage of this design is the achievable short system length compared to integrating lightpipe designs with subsequent relay optics. We describe design rules for the secondary optics derived from simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential raytracing is used for the actual optics system design. Double-sided arrays are manufactured by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. With cylindrical lens arrays we assembled high-brightness RGB-illumination systems for rectangular areas. Hexagonal packed double-sided arrays of spherical lenslets were applied for a miniaturized circular spotlight. Black matrix polymer apertures attached to the lens array helped to avoid unwanted straylight.

  14. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao


    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  15. Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Srivastava


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.

  16. Vortex stretching in a homogeneous isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Hirota, M.; Nishio, Y.; Izawa, S.; Fukunishi, Y.


    Stretching vortices whose sizes are in the inertial subrange of a homogeneous isotropic turbulence are picked up, and the geometric relations with the neighboring vortices whose scales are twice larger are studied. Hierarchical vortices are extracted using a Fourier band-pass filter, and each extracted vortex is reconstructed as a set of short cylindrical segments along the vortex axis to discuss the vortex interactions. As a result, it is shown that the directions of larger vortices near the segments of the fast stretching vortices tend to be orthogonal to the direction of the stretching segments, and the locations of the larger vortices that contribute most to the stretching of smaller vortex segments are likely to be found in the direction with the relative angle of 45° from the axes of the stretching vortex segments. And, the vortices with the second highest contributions tend to be in the directions 45° from the stretching segments’ axes and orthogonal to the directions of the highest contributing vortices.

  17. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa


    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  18. Plasmons on Separated Particles: Homogenization and Applications (United States)

    McPhedran, Ross

    In this chapter, we discuss localized plasmons in optical systems containing metallic particles, clusters of metallic particles, or periodic arrays of metallic particles, separated in all cases by a background dielectric material or matrix. We begin with a brief discussion of the equations governing electromagnetic propagation in structured or composite systems containing metal particles in a matrix. A full electromagnetic solution for a periodic array of particles or a finite cluster of them is possible, but much can be learned from treatments in the quasistatic approximation, where properties of the particles are subsumed in effective dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities, and these are used in Maxwells' equations for a homogeneous material to calculate reflection and transmission properties. The two most important equations used to calculate effective dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities are the Maxwell-Garnett formula and Bruggeman's effective medium formulae. We compare these in Sect. 6.3, and look at applications in Sect. 6.4 to the field of selective absorbers for photothermal and photovoltaic energy applications. In the next section, we go on to consider collections of particles and their resonant properties, which can be exploited to deliver strong local concentrations of electromagnetic fields. These are used in Sects. 6.6 and 6.7 to discuss cloaking using plasmonic resonance, and spasers, devices which can overcome through amplification the propagation losses associated with plasmons.

  19. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase. (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra


    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  20. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato


    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  1. Homogeneous and isotropic calorimetry for space experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N., E-mail: [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Adriani, O. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Basti, A. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bonechi, S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bongi, M. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brogi, P. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Detti, S.; Lenzi, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Papini, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); and others


    Calorimetry plays an essential role in experiments observing high energy gamma and cosmic rays in space. The observational capabilities are mainly limited by the geometrical dimensions and the mass of the calorimeter. Since deployable mass depends on the design of the detector and the total mass of the payload, it is important to optimize the geometrical acceptance of the calorimeter for rare events, its granularity for particle identification, and its absorption depth for the measurement of the particle energy. A design of a calorimeter that could simultaneously optimize these characteristics assuming a mass limit of about 1.6 t has been studied. As a result, a homogeneous calorimeter instrumented with cesium iodide (CsI) crystals was chosen as the best compromise given the total mass constraint. The most suitable geometry found is cubic and isotropic, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance; granularity is obtained by filling the cubic volume with small cubic CsI crystals. The total radiation length in any direction is very large, and allows for optimal electromagnetic particle identification and energy measurement, while the interaction length is at least sufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of hadronic showers. Optimal values for the size of the crystals and spacing among them have been studied. Two prototypes have been constructed and preliminary tests with high energy ion and muon beams are reported.

  2. Effects of geometry homogenization on the HTR-10 criticality calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng-Jen [Center for Energy and Environmental Research, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peir, Jinn-Jer, E-mail: [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liang, Jenq-Horng [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    This study performs an investigation of geometry homogenization simulation using MCNP5 v1.51 and SCALE6 on the HTR-10 criticality calculations and focusing on the impact of geometry homogenization on k{sub eff} and neutron spectrum. The data libraries employed in this work are both continuous ENDF/B-VI respectively in MCNP5 and SCALE6. Six models, which are Model 1 – heterogeneous model, Model 2 – TRISO coating and graphite matrix homogenized model, Model 3 – TRISO homogenized model, Model 4 – fuel zone of fuel ball homogenized model, Model 5 – fuel ball homogenized model, and Model 6 – core homogenized model, are performed correspondingly by using MCNP5 and SCALE6 on the homogeneous effect analysis in HTR-10. The results revealed that the differences of k{sub eff} between MCNP5 and SCALE6 are all less than 300 pcm. The small differences of k{sub eff}, neutron spectra, and also the consistent discrepancies of neutron spectra between each homogenized model (Model 2–6) and Model 1 show the good agreement of MCNP5 with SCALE6 in the geometry homogenization.

  3. Climate Data Homogenization Using Edge Detection Algorithms (United States)

    Hammann, A. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.


    The problem of climate data homogenization has predominantly been addressed by testing the likelihood of one or more breaks inserted into a given time series and modeling the mean to be stationary in between the breaks. We recast the same problem in a slightly different form: that of detecting step-like changes in noisy data, and observe that this problem has spawned a large number of approaches to its solution as the "edge detection" problem in image processing. With respect to climate data, we ask the question: How can we optimally separate step-like from smoothly-varying low-frequency signals? We study the hypothesis that the edge-detection approach makes better use of all information contained in the time series than the "traditional" approach (e.g. Caussinus and Mestre, 2004), which we base on several observations. 1) The traditional formulation of the problem reduces the available information from the outset to that contained in the test statistic. 2) The criterion of local steepness of the low-frequency variability, while at least hypothetically useful, is ignored. 3) The practice of using monthly data corresponds, mathematically, to applying a moving average filter (to reduce noise) and subsequent subsampling of the result; this subsampling reduces the amount of available information beyond what is necessary for noise reduction. Most importantly, the tradeoff between noise reduction (better with filters with wide support in the time domain) and localization of detected changes (better with filters with narrow support) is expressed in the well-known uncertainty principle and can be addressed optimally within a time-frequency framework. Unsurprisingly, a large number of edge-detection algorithms have been proposed that make use of wavelet decompositions and similar techniques. We are developing this framework in part to be applied to a particular set of climate data from Greenland; we will present results from this application as well as from tests with

  4. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Macchioni, Alceo


    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  5. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures. (United States)

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A


    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions.

  6. Markov Chain Computation for Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous Data: MARCH 1.1 Users Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Berchtold


    Full Text Available MARCH is a free software for the computation of different types of Markovian models including homogeneous Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Double Chain Markov Models (DCMMs. The main characteristic of this software is the implementation of a powerful optimization method for HMMs and DCMMs combining a genetic algorithm with the standard Baum-Welch procedure. MARCH is distributed as a set of Matlab functions running under Matlab 5 or higher on any computing platform. A PC Windows version running independently from Matlab is also available.

  7. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These data should be hydro- logically and statistically reliable for later hydrological, meteorological, climate change modelling and forecasting studies. For this reason, Standard Normal. Homogeneity Test (SNHT), (Swed–Eisenhart) Runs Test and Pettitt homogeneity tests were applied for the annual total precipitation data ...

  8. The negative effects of homogeneous traffic on merging sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Bart; van Berkum, Eric C.


    Homogeneous traffic flows are believed to be better in absorbing disturbances, raise capacity and stimulate traffic safety. Measures to make traffic more homogeneous are therefore often taken to increase capacity. This paper shows that the ability of a traffic flow to deal with traffic coming from

  9. Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels


    We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....

  10. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel


    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  12. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz


    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  13. An iterative homogenization technique that preserves assembly core exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondot, Ph. [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developement, SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France); Sanchez, R. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Etudes Nucleaires, Service Etude des Reacteurs et de Modelisations Avancees, 91 - Gilf sur Yvette (France)


    A new interactive homogenization procedure for reactor core calculations is proposed that requires iterative transport assembly and diffusion core calculations. At each iteration the transport solution of every assembly type is used to produce homogenized cross sections for the core calculation. The converged solution gives assembly fine multigroup transport fluxes that preserve macro-group assembly exchanges in the core. This homogenization avoids the periodic lattice-leakage model approximation and gives detailed assembly transport fluxes without need of an approximated flux reconstruction. Preliminary results are given for a one-dimensional core model. (authors)

  14. A Monte Carlo Study of Seven Homogeneity of Variance Tests


    Howard B. Lee; Gary S. Katz; Alberto F. Restori


    Problem statement: The decision by SPSS (now PASW) to use the unmodified Levene test to test homogeneity of variance was questioned. It was compared to six other tests. In total, seven homogeneity of variance tests used in Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) were compared on robustness and power using Monte Carlo studies. The homogeneity of variance tests were (1) Levene, (2) modified Levene, (3) Z-variance, (4) Overall-Woodward Modified Z-variance, (5) OBrien, (6) Samiuddin Cube Root and (7) F-Max....

  15. The evolution of lossy compression. (United States)

    Marzen, Sarah E; DeDeo, Simon


    In complex environments, there are costs to both ignorance and perception. An organism needs to track fitness-relevant information about its world, but the more information it tracks, the more resources it must devote to perception. As a first step towards a general understanding of this trade-off, we use a tool from information theory, rate-distortion theory, to study large, unstructured environments with fixed, randomly drawn penalties for stimuli confusion ('distortions'). We identify two distinct regimes for organisms in these environments: a high-fidelity regime where perceptual costs grow linearly with environmental complexity, and a low-fidelity regime where perceptual costs are, remarkably, independent of the number of environmental states. This suggests that in environments of rapidly increasing complexity, well-adapted organisms will find themselves able to make, just barely, the most subtle distinctions in their environment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Engineered CHO cells for production of diverse, homogeneous glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Wang, Shengjun; Halim, Adnan


    Production of glycoprotein therapeutics in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is limited by the cells' generic capacity for N-glycosylation, and production of glycoproteins with desirable homogeneous glycoforms remains a challenge. We conducted a comprehensive knockout screen of glycosyltransferase...

  17. Bridging heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis concepts, strategies, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Can


    This unique handbook fills the gap in the market for an up-to-date work that links both homogeneous catalysis applied to organic reactions and catalytic reactions on surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts.

  18. Nomograms for calculating the safety factor of homogeneous earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Nomograms, safety factor, homogeneous earth dams. INTRODUCTION ... based on variations of the main properties in the long- term stability ... 2002; Duncan, 2005), the value of the density of these materials is chosen as the ...

  19. Einstein-Cartan gravitational collapse of a homogeneous Weyssenhoff fluid


    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Moniz, Paulo Vargas; Ranjbar, Arash; Sepangi, Hamid Reza


    We consider the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric homogeneous matter distribution consisting of a Weyssenhoff fluid in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Our aim is to investigate the effects of torsion and spin averaged terms on the final outcome of the collapse. For a specific interior spacetime setup, namely the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW metric, we obtain two classes of solutions to the field equations where depending on the relation between spin source ...

  20. Orbits in Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Gravitational Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.


    Full Text Available The generalized Lagrangian in general relativistic homogeneous oblate spheroidal gravitational fields is constructed and used to study orbits exterior to homogenous oblate spheroids. Expressions for the conservation of energy and angular momentum for this gravitational field are obtained. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion of a photon in the vicinity of an oblate spheroid are derived. These equations have additional terms not found in Schwarzschild's space time.

  1. Treatment of Pesticides in Wastewater by Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalysis


    Stan, Catalina Daniela; Cretescu, Igor; Pastravanu, Cristina; Poulios, Ioannis; Drăgan, Maria


    The effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic systems on the oxidative degradation of mepiquat chloride in aqueous solutions was investigated. In the case of heterogeneous reactions, the influence of five factors was studied: the type of catalyst, photocatalyst concentration, pH, pesticide concentration, and the presence of H2O2 and/or Fe3+. For homogeneous catalysis, other factors were studied: the oxidising agent and the light source. Nearly complete degradation of me...

  2. Homogenization of aligned “fuzzy fiber” composites

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George


    The aim of this work is to study composites in which carbon fibers coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes are embedded in a matrix. The effective properties of these composites are identified using the asymptotic expansion homogenization method in two steps. Homogenization is performed in different coordinate systems, the cylindrical and the Cartesian, and a numerical example are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum Depletion of a Homogeneous Bose-Einstein Condensate (United States)

    Lopes, Raphael; Eigen, Christoph; Navon, Nir; Clément, David; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran


    We measure the quantum depletion of an interacting homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate and confirm the 70-year-old theory of Bogoliubov. The observed condensate depletion is reversibly tunable by changing the strength of the interparticle interactions. Our atomic homogeneous condensate is produced in an optical-box trap, the interactions are tuned via a magnetic Feshbach resonance, and the condensed fraction is determined by momentum-selective two-photon Bragg scattering.

  4. Homogeneity revisited: analysis of updated precipitation series in Turkey (United States)

    Bickici Arikan, Bugrayhan; Kahya, Ercan


    Homogeneous time series of meteorological variables are necessary for hydrologic and climate studies. Dependability of historical precipitation data is subjected to keen evaluation prior to every study in water resources, hydrology, and climate change fields. This study aims to characterize the homogeneity of long-term Turkish precipitation data in order to ensure that they can be reliably used. The homogeneity of monthly precipitation data set was tested using the standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand test, Von Neumann ratio test, and Pettitt test at the 5% significance level across Turkey. Our precipitation records including the most updated observations, extracted from 160 meteorological stations, for the periods 1974-2014 were analyzed by all the four homogeneity tests. According to the results of all tests, five out of 160 stations have an inhomogeneity. With regard to our strict confirmation rule, 44 out of 160 stations are said to be inhomogeneous since they failed from at least one of the four tests. The breaks captured by the Buishand and Pettitt tests usually tend to appear in the middle of the precipitation series, whereas the ability of standard normal homogeneity test is in favor of identifying inhomogeneities mostly at the beginning or at the end of the records. Our results showed that 42 out of 44 inhomogeneous stations passed all the four tests after applying a correction procedure based on the double mass curve analysis. Available metadata was used to interpret the detected inhomogeneity.

  5. When individual behaviour matters: homogeneous and network models in epidemiology. (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Grenfell, Bryan T; Meyers, Lauren Ancel


    Heterogeneity in host contact patterns profoundly shapes population-level disease dynamics. Many epidemiological models make simplifying assumptions about the patterns of disease-causing interactions among hosts. In particular, homogeneous-mixing models assume that all hosts have identical rates of disease-causing contacts. In recent years, several network-based approaches have been developed to explicitly model heterogeneity in host contact patterns. Here, we use a network perspective to quantify the extent to which real populations depart from the homogeneous-mixing assumption, in terms of both the underlying network structure and the resulting epidemiological dynamics. We find that human contact patterns are indeed more heterogeneous than assumed by homogeneous-mixing models, but are not as variable as some have speculated. We then evaluate a variety of methodologies for incorporating contact heterogeneity, including network-based models and several modifications to the simple SIR compartmental model. We conclude that the homogeneous-mixing compartmental model is appropriate when host populations are nearly homogeneous, and can be modified effectively for a few classes of non-homogeneous networks. In general, however, network models are more intuitive and accurate for predicting disease spread through heterogeneous host populations.

  6. Trend and Homogeneity Analysis of Precipitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Javari


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine trend and homogeneity through the analysis of rainfall variability patterns in Iran. The study presents a review on the application of homogeneity and seasonal time series analysis methods for forecasting rainfall variations. Trend and homogeneity methods are applied in the time series analysis from collecting rainfall data to evaluating results in climate studies. For the homogeneity analysis of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall, homogeneity tests were used in 140 stations in the 1975–2014 period. The homogeneity of the monthly and annual rainfall at each station was studied using the autocorrelation (ACF, and the von Neumann (VN tests at a significance level of 0.05. In addition, the nature of the monthly and seasonal rainfall series in Iran was studied using the Kruskal-Wallis (KW test, the Thumb test (TT, and the least squares regression (LSR test at a significance level of 0.05. The present results indicate that the seasonal patterns of rainfall exhibit considerable diversity across Iran. Rainfall seasonality is generally less spatially coherent than temporal patterns in Iran. The seasonal variations of rainfall decreased significantly throughout eastern and central Iran, but they increased in the west and north of Iran during the studied interval. The present study comparisons among variations of patterns with the seasonal rainfall series reveal that the variability of rainfall can be predicted by the non-trended and trended patterns.

  7. A conceptual translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis: homogeneous-like heterogeneous gold nanoparticle catalyst induced by ceria supporter. (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Xue, Wei; Guan, Bing-Tao; Shi, Fu-Bo; Shi, Zhang-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chun-Hua


    Translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis is a promising solution to green and sustainable development in chemical industry. For this purpose, noble metal nanoparticles represent a new frontier in catalytic transformations. Many challenges remain for researchers to transform noble metal nanoparticles of heterogeneous catalytic active sites into ionic species of homogeneous catalytic active sites. We report here a successful design on translating homogeneous gold catalysis into a heterogeneous system with a clear understanding of the catalytic pathway. This study initiates a novel concept to immobilize a homogeneous catalyst based on electron transfer between supporting base and supported nanoparticles. Meanwhile, on the basis of theoretical calculation, it has deepened the understanding of the interactions between noble metal nanoparticles and the catalyst support.

  8. Analytical solutions of time-fractional models for homogeneous Gardner equation and non-homogeneous differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola


    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions of homogeneous time-fractional Gardner equation and non-homogeneous time-fractional models (including Buck-master equation using q-Homotopy Analysis Method (q-HAM. Our work displays the elegant nature of the application of q-HAM not only to solve homogeneous non-linear fractional differential equations but also to solve the non-homogeneous fractional differential equations. The presence of the auxiliary parameter h helps in an effective way to obtain better approximation comparable to exact solutions. The fraction-factor in this method gives it an edge over other existing analytical methods for non-linear differential equations. Comparisons are made upon the existence of exact solutions to these models. The analysis shows that our analytical solutions converge very rapidly to the exact solutions.

  9. Development of homogeneous mixing technology of dispersion nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, P. W.; Mun, S. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)


    The measurement methods of homogeneity of dispersion fuel were analyzed. The effects of mixing method, rotating speed, particle shape, particle size and moisture content on homogeneity of U{sub 3}Si/Al powder mixture were characterized by the apparent density measurement. The effects of fuel particle shape on green properties and optimum compaction conditions were investigated in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al powder compacts. 3 kinds of measurement method on the homogeneity were analyzed by apparent density measurement method, x-ray image contrast method and image analysis method of mixed powders or fuel rods. The homogeneity of dispersed fuel powder mixture was analyzed using three kinds of mixing, by apparent density measurements method. The homogeneity of powder mixture increased with rotating speed of the V-shape tumbler mixer. The comminuted irregular shaped particles and smaller particle size of fuel powders showed homogeneity improved of powder mixture due to adsorbed layer bonding. The homogeneity of powder mixtures increased to a minimum at approximately 0.10 wt% moisture and then decrease with moisture content. The relative density of the compacts increased with increasing the compacting pressure. The compressibility of comminuted powder compacts was larger than that of the atomized powder compacts due to the fragmentation of comminuted particles. The green strength of comminuted powder compacts is higher than that of the atomized powder compact. It is suggested that the compacting condition required to fabricate the atomized powder compacts is over the 350MPa. 76 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  10. Homogeneous solutions of minimal massive 3D gravity (United States)

    Charyyev, Jumageldi; Deger, Nihat Sadik


    In this paper, we systematically construct simply transitive homogeneous spacetime solutions of the three-dimensional minimal massive gravity (MMG) model. In addition to those that have analogs in topologically massive gravity, such as warped AdS and p p waves, there are several solutions genuine to MMG. Among them, there is a stationary Lifshitz metric with the dynamical exponent z =-1 and an anisotropic Lifshitz solution where all coordinates scale differently. Moreover, we identify a homogeneous Kundt-type solution at the chiral point of the theory. We also show that in a particular limit of the physical parameters in which the Cotton tensor drops out from the MMG field equation, homogeneous solutions exist only at the merger point in the parameter space if they are not conformally flat.

  11. Homogenization of CZ Si wafers by Tabula Rasa annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meduna, M., E-mail: mjme@physics.muni.c [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Caha, O.; Kubena, J.; Kubena, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic)


    The precipitation of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski grown silicon has been investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy, chemical etching, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction after application of homogenization annealing process called Tabula Rasa. The influence of this homogenization step consisting in short time annealing at high temperature has been observed for various temperatures and times. The experimental results involving the interstitial oxygen decay in Si wafers and absorption spectra of SiO{sub x} precipitates during precipitation annealing at 1000 deg. C were compared with other techniques for various Tabula Rasa temperatures. The differences in oxygen precipitation, precipitate morphology and evolution of point defects in samples with and without Tabula Rasa applied is evident from all used experimental techniques. The results qualitatively correlate with prediction of homogenization annealing process based on classical nucleation theory.

  12. Treatment of Pesticides in Wastewater by Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Daniela Stan


    Full Text Available The effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic systems on the oxidative degradation of mepiquat chloride in aqueous solutions was investigated. In the case of heterogeneous reactions, the influence of five factors was studied: the type of catalyst, photocatalyst concentration, pH, pesticide concentration, and the presence of H2O2 and/or Fe3+. For homogeneous catalysis, other factors were studied: the oxidising agent and the light source. Nearly complete degradation of mepiquat chloride was obtained after about 180 minutes in the presence of an acid medium (pH3 using a UV-A lamp and TiO2P-25 catalyst (0.5 g/L, for an initial pesticide concentration of 10 ppm. Degradation rates corresponding to homogeneous photocatalysis were lower compared to those corresponding to the use of TiO2 as the photocatalyst.

  13. Stochastic model of milk homogenization process using Markov's chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov


    Full Text Available The process of development of a mathematical model of the process of homogenization of dairy products is considered in the work. The theory of Markov's chains was used in the development of the mathematical model, Markov's chain with discrete states and continuous parameter for which the homogenisation pressure is taken, being the basis for the model structure. Machine realization of the model is implemented in the medium of structural modeling MathWorks Simulink™. Identification of the model parameters was carried out by minimizing the standard deviation calculated from the experimental data for each fraction of dairy products fat phase. As the set of experimental data processing results of the micrographic images of fat globules of whole milk samples distribution which were subjected to homogenization at different pressures were used. Pattern Search method was used as optimization method with the Latin Hypercube search algorithm from Global Optimization Тoolbox library. The accuracy of calculations averaged over all fractions of 0.88% (the relative share of units, the maximum relative error was 3.7% with the homogenization pressure of 30 MPa, which may be due to the very abrupt change in properties from the original milk in the particle size distribution at the beginning of the homogenization process and the lack of experimental data at homogenization pressures of below the specified value. The mathematical model proposed allows to calculate the profile of volume and mass distribution of the fat phase (fat globules in the product, depending on the homogenization pressure and can be used in the laboratory and research of dairy products composition, as well as in the calculation, design and modeling of the process equipment of the dairy industry enterprises.

  14. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series (United States)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah


    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  15. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue


    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  16. Influence of temperature and homogenization on honey crystallization


    Lucília Carolina Vardenski Costa; Elaine Kaspchak; Marise Bonifácio Queiroz; Mareci Mendes de Almeida; Ernesto Quast; Leda Battestin Quast


    SummaryThis work aimed to verify the influence of prior homogenization and storage temperature on the crystallization of honey. Honeys from Campos Gerais, PR Brazil, were used for the experiments. The samples were subjected to homogenization at 0, 180, 360 and 540 rpm for 15 minutes and stored at 15 °C or 25 °C. Crystallization was monitored by the colour, absorbance at 660 nm and moisture analysis. At the end of the experiment, the crystal sizes were determined by optical microscopy and lase...

  17. Volatile loss during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Zhang, Youxue; Guan, Yunbin


    Volatile abundances in lunar mantle are critical factors to consider for constraining the model of Moon formation. Recently, the earlier understanding of a ;dry; Moon has shifted to a fairly ;wet; Moon due to the detection of measurable amount of H2O in lunar volcanic glass beads, mineral grains, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions. The ongoing debate on a ;dry; or ;wet; Moon requires further studies on lunar melt inclusions to obtain a broader understanding of volatile abundances in the lunar mantle. One important uncertainty for lunar melt inclusion studies, however, is whether the homogenization of melt inclusions would cause volatile loss. In this study, a series of homogenization experiments were conducted on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the sample 74220 to evaluate the possible loss of volatiles during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions. Our results suggest that significant loss of H2O could occur even during minutes of homogenization, while F, Cl and S in the inclusions remain unaffected. We model the trend of H2O loss in homogenized melt inclusions by a diffusive hydrogen loss model. The model can reconcile the observed experimental data well, with a best-fit H diffusivity in accordance with diffusion data explained by the ;slow; mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in olivine. Surprisingly, no significant effect for the low oxygen fugacity on the Moon is observed on the diffusive loss of hydrogen during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions under reducing conditions. Our experimental and modeling results show that diffusive H loss is negligible for melt inclusions of >25 μm radius. As our results mitigate the concern of H2O loss during homogenization for crystalline lunar melt inclusions, we found that H2O/Ce ratios in melt inclusions from different lunar samples vary with degree of crystallization. Such a variation is more likely due to H2O loss on the lunar surface, while heterogeneity in their lunar mantle source is also a possibility. A

  18. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.


    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  19. Marital Happiness among Mixed and Homogeneous Marriages in Israel. (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; Rofe, Yacov


    Wives (N=298) completed two marital happiness questionnaires and other measures. Found no significant differences in marital happiness dimensions between mixed and homogeneous marriages. Women of Asian or African origin reported less marital happiness than did women of Western descent. Differences became nonsignificant when socioeconomic levels…

  20. Torus quotients of homogeneous spaces of the general linear group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 1. Torus Quotients of Homogeneous Spaces of the General Linear Group and the Standard Representation of Certain Symmetric Groups. S S Kannan Pranab Sardar. Volume 119 Issue 1 February ...

  1. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe


    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...

  2. Atomic Homogeneity: A semantic strategy for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of a particular semantic agreement strategy, what I will here call Atomic Homogeneity, has been argued to determine plurality in complex noun phrases. If the denotational properties of a complex noun phrase can be distributed to its smallest, atomic subset then plural agreement is the result. This paper ...

  3. Radiation Resistance and Gain of Homogeneous Ring Quasi-Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.


    that increases uniformly along the circle. Such quasi-arrays are azimuthally omnidirectional, and the radiated field will be mainly horizontally polarized and concentrated around the plane of the circle. In this paper expressions are obtained for the radiation resistance and the gain of homogeneous ring quasi...

  4. Homogenization of zinc distribution in vertical Bridgman grown Cd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.96Zn0.04Te material, is to achieve homogenization of the high axial variation of Zn concentration, caused by the larger than unity segregation coefficient of Zn in CdTe. This is achieved in our crystals. by thermal annealing of the CdZnTe crystal, ...

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther


    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...

  6. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; van der Neut, J.R.; Slob, E.C.


    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green’s function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because

  7. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English (United States)

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra


    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  8. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 1. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered and disordered Sr2FeMoO6. Dinesh Topwal U Manju Sugata Ray S Raj D D Sarma S R Krishnakumar M Bertolo S La Rosa G Cautero. Volume 118 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 87-92 ...

  9. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula. (United States)

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D


    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  10. Maximum absorption by homogeneous magneto-dielectric sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvig, Michael Forum; Breinbjerg, Olav; Willatzen, Morten


    n order to obtain a benchmark for electromagnetic energy harvesting, we investigate the maximum absorption efficiency by a magneto-dielectric homogeneous sphere illuminated by a plane wave, and we arrive at several novel results. For electrically small spheres we show that the optimal relative pe...

  11. Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.

  12. Influence of temperature and homogenization on honey crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Carolina Vardenski Costa


    Full Text Available SummaryThis work aimed to verify the influence of prior homogenization and storage temperature on the crystallization of honey. Honeys from Campos Gerais, PR Brazil, were used for the experiments. The samples were subjected to homogenization at 0, 180, 360 and 540 rpm for 15 minutes and stored at 15 °C or 25 °C. Crystallization was monitored by the colour, absorbance at 660 nm and moisture analysis. At the end of the experiment, the crystal sizes were determined by optical microscopy and laser diffraction. It could be observed that the samples kept at 15 °C and homogenized by agitation at 360 or 540 rpm showed crystal formation after 7 days of storage, while all the samples stored at 25 °C showed crystal formation after 20 days. It was also observed that the effect of temperature was much more pronounced than that of mechanical agitation during homogenization. All the samples stored at 15 °C developed crystals that were smaller than 20 μm.

  13. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts. (United States)

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently…

  14. EPR spectroscopy as a tool in homogeneous catalysis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goswami, M.; Chirila, A.; Rebreyend, C.; de Bruin, B.


    In the context of homogeneous catalysis, open-shell systems are often quite challenging to characterize. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most frequently applied tool to characterize organometallic compounds, but NMR spectra are usually broad, difficult to interpret and often

  15. ANOVA and the variance homogeneity assumption: Exploring a better gatekeeper. (United States)

    Kim, Yoosun Jamie; Cribbie, Robert A


    Valid use of the traditional independent samples ANOVA procedure requires that the population variances are equal. Previous research has investigated whether variance homogeneity tests, such as Levene's test, are satisfactory as gatekeepers for identifying when to use or not to use the ANOVA procedure. This research focuses on a novel homogeneity of variance test that incorporates an equivalence testing approach. Instead of testing the null hypothesis that the variances are equal against an alternative hypothesis that the variances are not equal, the equivalence-based test evaluates the null hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls outside or on the border of a predetermined interval against an alternative hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls within the predetermined interval. Thus, with the equivalence-based procedure, the alternative hypothesis is aligned with the research hypothesis (variance equality). A simulation study demonstrated that the equivalence-based test of population variance homogeneity is a better gatekeeper for the ANOVA than traditional homogeneity of variance tests. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  17. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  18. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  19. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, Joris


    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous

  20. Tandem fluid queues fed by homogeneous on-off sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Aalto, Samuli


    We consider a tandem fluid model with multiple consecutive buffers. The input of buffer j+1 is the output from buffer j, while the first buffer is fed by a, possibly infinite, number of independent homogeneous on–off sources. The sources have exponentially distributed silent periods and generally

  1. The delineation of plant communities in relatively homogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A relatively homogenous area of grassland was sampled by means of 2204 systematically place 0.5 m squared quadrats for the presence or absence of all vascular plants this data was processed by the method of normal association analysis which provided an hierarchical subdivision of the vegetation. This subdivision ...

  2. Magnetic stimulation for non-homogeneous biological structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic stimulation has gained relatively wide application in studying nervous system structures. This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action. It has become clinically accepted modality for brain stimulation. However, theoretical and practical solutions for assessment of induced current distribution need more detailed and accurate consideration. Some possible analyses are proposed for distribution of the current induced from excitation current contours of different shape and disposition. Relatively non-difficult solutions are shown, applicable for two- and three-dimensional analysis. Methods The boundary conditions for field analysis by the internal Dirichlet problem are introduced, based on the vector potential field excited by external current coils. The feedback from the induced eddy currents is neglected. Finite element modeling is applied for obtaining the electromagnetic fields distribution in a non-homogeneous domain. Results The distributions were obtained in a non-homogeneous structure comprised of homogeneous layers. A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain. Current density concentrations occur at the boundary between layers, suggesting the possibility for focusing on, or predicting of, a zone of stimulation. Conclusion The theoretical basis and simplified approach for generation of 3D FEM networks for magnetic stimulation analysis are presented, applicable in non-homogeneous and non-linear media. The inconveniences of introducing external excitation currents are avoided. Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

  3. Metal-Nonmetal Transition and Homogeneous Nucleation of Mercury Vapour (United States)

    Uchtmann, H.; Rademann, K.; Hensel, F.

    The paper presents ionization potentials of mercury clusters obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy which provide evidence that a size-dependent gradual transition from van der Waals-type to metallic interaction occurs in Hgx-clusters for × > 13. In order to probe the role of this nonmetal to metal transition in the homogeneous nucleation process of supersaturated mercury vapour we have determined the supersaturation necessary for homogeneous condensation of mercury vapour in the temperature range 250 to 320 K. The measurements were made using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber. The results demonstrate that none of the current theories for homogeneous nucleation satisfactorily predict the observed critical supersaturations. The measured values are about 3 orders of magnitude lower than the values predicted by the conventional Becker-Döring-Zeldovitch-theory.Translated AbstractMetall-Nichtmetallübergang und homogene Keimbildung bei QuecksilberdampfEs werden photoelektronenspektroskopische Messungen der Ionisationspotentiale von im Molekularstrahl synthetisierten Quecksilberclustern als Funktion der Größe beschrieben. Sie zeigen, daß ein größenabhängiger kontinuierlicher Übergang von van der Waals-Bindung zu metallischer Bindung für Cluster mit mehr als 13 Hg-Atomen auftritt. Um erste Informationen über den Einfluß dieses Übergangs von nichtmetallischem zu metallischem Verhalten auf den Keimbildungsprozeß in übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen zu erhalten, werden zusätzlich Untersuchungen der homogenen Kondensation von übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen im Temperaturbereich zwischen 250 bis 320 K mit einer Diffusionsnebelkammer berichtet. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse können mit keiner der existierenden Theorien für die homogene Kondensation beschrieben werden. Die beobachteten Werte für die die homogene Kondensation auslösende kritische Übersättigung sind um drei Größenordnungen größer als die mit der klassischen Becker

  4. Mathematical homogenization of inelastic dissipative materials: a survey and recent progress (United States)

    Charalambakis, Nicolas; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Chemisky, Yves; Meraghni, Fodil


    In this paper, a review of papers on mathematical homogenization of dissipative composites under small strains and on the interplay between homogenization procedure and dissipation due to mechanical work is presented. Moreover, a critical survey on the links between mathematical homogenization and computational homogenization is attempted.

  5. Emergence of Space-Time from Topologically Homogeneous Causal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro


    In this paper we study the emergence of Minkowski space-time from a causal network. Differently from previous approaches, we require the network to be topologically homogeneous, so that the metric is derived from pure event-counting. Emergence from events has an operational motivation in requiring that every physical quantity---including space-time---be defined through precise measurement procedures. Topological homogeneity is a requirement for having space-time metric emergent from the pure topology of causal connections, whereas physically corresponds to the universality of the physical law. We analyze in detail the case of 1+1 dimension. Coordinate systems are established via an Einsteinian protocol, and lead to a digital version of the Lorentz transformations. In a computational analogy, the foliation construction can also be regarded as the synchronization with a global clock of the calls to independent subroutines (corresponding to the causally independent events) in a parallel distributed computation, ...

  6. Homogenization of the critically spectral equation in neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, G. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique; Bal, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    We address the homogenization of an eigenvalue problem for the neutron transport equation in a periodic heterogeneous domain, modeling the criticality study of nuclear reactor cores. We prove that the neutron flux, corresponding to the first and unique positive eigenvector, can be factorized in the product of two terms, up to a remainder which goes strongly to zero with the period. On terms is the first eigenvector of the transport equation in the periodicity cell. The other term is the first eigenvector of a diffusion equation in the homogenized domain. Furthermore, the corresponding eigenvalue gives a second order corrector for the eigenvalue of the heterogeneous transport problem. This result justifies and improves the engineering procedure used in practice for nuclear reactor cores computations. (author)

  7. Homogenization of some evolution problems in domains with small holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bituin Cabarrubias


    Full Text Available This article concerns the asymptotic behavior of the wave and heat equations in periodically perforated domains with small holes and Dirichlet conditions on the boundary of the holes. In the first part we extend to time-dependent functions the periodic unfolding method for domains with small holes introduced in [6]. Therein, the method was applied to the study of elliptic problems with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes, recovering the homogenization result with a "strange term" originally obtained in [11] for the Laplacian. In the second part we obtain some homogenization results for the wave and heat equations with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes. The results concerning the wave equation extend those obtained in [12] for the case where the elliptic part of the operator is the Laplacian.

  8. Exploring the Kibble-Zurek mechanism with homogeneous Bose gases

    CERN Document Server

    Beugnon, J


    Out-of-equilibrium phenomena is a subject of considerable interest in many fields of physics. Ultracold quantum gases, which are extremely clean, well-isolated and highly controllable systems, offer ideal platforms to investigate this topic. The recent progress in tailoring trapping potentials now allows the experimental production of homogeneous samples in custom geometries, which is a key advance for studies of the emergence of coherence in interacting quantum systems. Here we review recent experiments in which temperature quenches have been performed across the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phase transition in an annular geometry and in homogeneous 3D and quasi-2D gases. Combined, these experiments give a comprehensive picture of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scenario through complementary measurements of correlation functions and topological defects density. They also allow the measurement of KZ scaling laws, the direct confirmation of the "freeze-out" hypothesis that underlies the KZ theory, and the extractio...

  9. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe


    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  10. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects on nuclear resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J.D.; Herling, G


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Moessbauer effect in isomers like {sup 107}Ag with a half-life of 44s. It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus the Moessbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Moessbauer experiments, unless the radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width {gamma}{sub H} which exceeds the natural width {gamma}, and the inhomogeneous width {delta}, the Moessbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}/{gamma}{sub H}.

  11. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects onnuclear resonance experiments (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J. D.; Herling, G.


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Mössbauer effect in isomers like 107Ag with a half-life of 44s.It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus theMössbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Mössbauer experiments, unless the radiative width ΓΓ also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width Γ_H which exceeds the natural width Γ, and the inhomogeneous width Δ, the Mössbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of Γγ/Γ H.

  12. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization. (United States)

    Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F


    We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139

  14. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  15. Fabric Defect Detection Using Local Homogeneity Analysis and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rebhi


    Full Text Available In the textile manufacturing industry, fabric defect detection becomes a necessary and essential step in quality control. The investment in this field is more than economical when reduction in labor cost and associated benefits are considered. Moreover, the development of a wholly automated inspection system requires efficient and robust algorithms. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we present a new fabric defect detection scheme which uses the local homogeneity and neural network. Its first step consists in computing a new homogeneity image denoted as H-image. The second step is devoted to the application of the discrete cosine transform (DCT to the H-image and the extraction of different representative energy features of each DCT block. These energy features are used by the back-propagation neural network to judge the existence of fabric defect. Simulations on different fabric images and different defect aspects show that the proposed method achieves an average accuracy of 97.35%.

  16. Modelling steel’s homogenization during argon purging


    J. Pieprzyca; Z. Kudliński; K. Michalek; K. Gryc; Tkadlečková, M.


    Purpose: One of the primary tasks that put the steel producers to the test is to reduce production costs while maintaining high quality. This objective is achieved among others through the optimization of conducted technological processes. Commonly used technology of steel homogenization with inert gases is an important stage in the production of steel in which that objective can be accomplished.Design/methodology/approach: Tests of hydrodynamic processes occurring during the steel blowing wi...

  17. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered and disordered Sr2FeMoO6. DINESH TOPWAL,1 U MANJU,1 SUGATA RAY,1,a S RAJ,1,b D D SARMA,1,*. S R KRISHNAKUMAR2,c, M BERTOLO,3 S LA ROSA3 and G CAUTERO3. 1Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  18. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method


    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any se...

  19. Eigenview on Jones matrix models of homogeneous anisotropic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkov S.


    Full Text Available The polarization of light when it passes through optical medium can change as a result of change in the amplitude (dichroism or phase shift (birefringence of the electric vector. The anisotropic properties of media can be determined from these two optical effects. Our main concern here is to revisit the factor of eigenpolarizations and eigenvalues in modeling of polarization properties of homogeneous media and elucidate certain new features in polarization behavior of birefringent and dichroic media.

  20. New mechanistic aspects of the asymmetric homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes. (United States)

    Brown, J M; Giernoth, R


    Progress in homogeneous catalysis depends upon an understanding of the reaction mechanism; in asymmetric catalysis this entails an insight into the origins of enantioselectivity. Significant advances have been made in the area of alkene reduction catalyzed by rhodium or ruthenium complexes, which has been in tandem with the development of new, more effective ligands for the reaction. The combination of quantum chemical calculations and direct spectroscopic observation of catalytic intermediates has proved powerful in this regard.

  1. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A


    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  2. Homogeneity evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells based on electrotaxis analysis


    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Dohyun; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul


    Stem cell therapy that can restore function to damaged tissue, avoid host rejection and reduce inflammation throughout body without use of immunosuppressive drugs. The established methods were used to identify and to isolate specific stem cell markers by FACS or by immunomagnetic cell separation. The procedures for distinguishing population of stem cells took a time and needed many preparations. Here we suggest an electrotaxis analysis as a new method to evaluate the homogeneity of mesenchyma...

  3. Homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate parabolic differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nandakumaran


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the homogenization of the nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation $$ partial_t b({x /varepsilon},u_varepsilon - mathop{ m div} a({x /varepsilon},{t /varepsilon}, u_varepsilon,abla u_varepsilon=f(x,t, $$ with mixed boundary conditions(Neumann and Dirichlet and obtain the limit equation as $varepsilon o 0$. We also prove corrector results to improve the weak convergence of $abla u_varepsilon$ to strong convergence.

  4. Examination of genome homogeneity in prokaryotes using genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Bohlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA word frequencies, normalized for genomic AT content, are remarkably stable within prokaryotic genomes and are therefore said to reflect a "genomic signature." The genomic signatures can be used to phylogenetically classify organisms from arbitrary sampled DNA. Genomic signatures can also be used to search for horizontally transferred DNA or DNA regions subjected to special selection forces. Thus, the stability of the genomic signature can be used as a measure of genomic homogeneity. The factors associated with the stability of the genomic signatures are not known, and this motivated us to investigate further. We analyzed the intra-genomic variance of genomic signatures based on AT content normalization (0(th order Markov model as well as genomic signatures normalized by smaller DNA words (1(st and 2(nd order Markov models for 636 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Regression models were fitted, with intra-genomic signature variance as the response variable, to a set of factors representing genomic properties such as genomic AT content, genome size, habitat, phylum, oxygen requirement, optimal growth temperature and oligonucleotide usage variance (OUV, a measure of oligonucleotide usage bias, measured as the variance between genomic tetranucleotide frequencies and Markov chain approximated tetranucleotide frequencies, as predictors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regression analysis revealed that OUV was the most important factor (p<0.001 determining intra-genomic homogeneity as measured using genomic signatures. This means that the less random the oligonucleotide usage is in the sense of higher OUV, the more homogeneous the genome is in terms of the genomic signature. The other factors influencing variance in the genomic signature (p<0.001 were genomic AT content, phylum and oxygen requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic homogeneity in prokaryotes is intimately linked to genomic GC content, oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV and aerobiosis, while

  5. When individual behaviour matters: homogeneous and network models in epidemiology


    Bansal, Shweta; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel


    Heterogeneity in host contact patterns profoundly shapes population-level disease dynamics. Many epidemiological models make simplifying assumptions about the patterns of disease-causing interactions among hosts. In particular, homogeneous-mixing models assume that all hosts have identical rates of disease-causing contacts. In recent years, several network-based approaches have been developed to explicitly model heterogeneity in host contact patterns. Here, we use a network perspective to qua...

  6. Classification of compact homogeneous spaces with invariant G(2)-structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Munir, M.


    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 303-328 ISSN 1615-715X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact homogeneous space * G(2)-structure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.371, year: 2012 xml


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nagel


    Full Text Available Recently (Nagel and Weiss, 2005, the class of homogeneous random tessellations that are stable under the operation of iteration (STIT was introduced. In the present paper this model is reviewed and new results for the mean values of essential geometric features of STIT tessellations in two and three dimensions are provided and proved. For the isotropic model, these mean values are compared with those ones of the Poisson-Voronoi and of the Poisson plane tessellations, respectively.

  8. [Homogeneous dose distribution in the moving-strip technic]. (United States)

    Chiecchio, A; Torrengo, S; Barboni, G; Giordana, C; Malinverni, G


    The moving-strip technique employing a 60Co beam, is used in radiotherapy for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian tumours and lymphomas. With this technique the spread of received dose from single strip, around an average value, is very high. Our paper suggest a computerized method for a more homogeneous dose distribution in central strips and a lower dose in out-side tissues.

  9. Research on homogeneous deformation of electromagnetic incremental tube bulging


    Cui, Xiaohui; Mo, Jianhua; Li, Jianjun


    The electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF) method is used for tube forming process. Suitable 2D FE models are designed to predict the forming process with a moving coil. In comparison with experimental values, simulation method can obtain accurate results. Then, effect factors named overlapping ration of adjacent discharge positions, discharge voltage, forming sequence and die dimension on tube homogeneous deformation are discussed. The result demonstrates that it is feasib...

  10. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem. (United States)

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M


    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  11. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether


    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper


    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio...

  12. Homogenization of monthly precipitation time series in Croatia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rasol, D.; Cindric, K.; Štěpánek, Petr


    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3671-3682 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : homogenization * Croatia * precipitation * inhomogeneities * break points Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2014

  13. Homogeneity Property of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schneider


    Full Text Available We consider the classical Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces defined via differences and prove a homogeneity property for functions with bounded support in the frame of these spaces. As the proof is based on compact embeddings between the studied function spaces, we present also some results on the entropy numbers of these embeddings. Moreover, we derive some applications in terms of pointwise multipliers.

  14. Spatial distribution and ethnic homogenization of population in Serbia


    Raduški Nada


    In the article is going to presented the ethnic picture of the population of the Serbia and the ethnodemographic changes in period 1991-2002, caused by migration, natural movement, changed declaration on national affiliation, as well as some political and socio-economic factors. Ethnocentric migrations (voluntary and forced) primarily influenced on the change of ethnic structure of the Serbia, in the sense of creating nationally more homogeneous region, having in mind the national struc...

  15. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles (United States)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)


    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  16. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu


    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Stress homogenization effect in multicore fiber optic bending sensors. (United States)

    Capilla-Gonzalez, G; May-Arrioja, D A; Lopez-Cortes, D; Guzman-Sepulveda, J R


    In this work we study the particular case of an optical fiber subjected to compression-bending load, the most common loading configuration for testing fiber optic bending sensors. Our analysis is based on the foundations of column theory and reveals a progressive stress homogenization across the optical fiber with increasing bending. This effect is general to any optical fiber subjected to this load configuration and it is of particular interest for structures with multiple cores since the state of stress experienced by each core can significantly differ even for a condition of constant load. The approach outlined here captures relevant features observed in experiments with multicore fiber optic bending sensors. Also, this approach can be incorporated into coupled-mode theory for assessing the performance of spectrally operated fiber sensors based on multicore coupled structures under realistic conditions commonly encountered in the experiments and without the need of performing computationally expensive simulations. The progressive stress homogenization, as well as the regime of homogeneous stress dominated by the bending contribution, is experimentally demonstrated using a multicore optical fiber with three coupled cores. Our observations are similar to those reported in recent experiments using other multicore fibers with different number of cores.

  18. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert


    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  19. Homogeneous UVA system for corneal cross-linking treatment (United States)

    Ayres Pereira, Fernando R.; Stefani, Mario A.; Otoboni, José A.; Richter, Eduardo H.; Ventura, Liliane


    The treatment of keratoconus and corneal ulcers by collagen cross-linking using ultraviolet type A irradiation, combined with photo-sensitizer Riboflavin (vitamin B2), is a promising technique. The standard protocol suggests instilling Riboflavin in the pre-scratched cornea every 5min for 30min, during the UVA irradiation of the cornea at 3mW/cm2 for 30 min. This process leads to an increase of the biomechanical strength of the cornea, stopping the progression, or sometimes, even reversing Keratoconus. The collagen cross-linking can be achieved by many methods, but the utilization of UVA light, for this purpose, is ideal because of its possibility of a homogeneous treatment leading to an equal result along the treated area. We have developed a system, to be clinically used for treatment of unhealthy corneas using the cross-linking technique, which consists of an UVA emitting delivery device controlled by a closed loop system with high homogeneity. The system is tunable and delivers 3-5 mW/cm2, at 365nm, for three spots (6mm, 8mm and 10mm in diameter). The electronics close loop presents 1% of precision, leading to an overall error, after the calibration, of less than 10% and approximately 96% of homogeneity.

  20. Multiscale modeling of lymphatic drainage from tissues using homogenization theory. (United States)

    Roose, Tiina; Swartz, Melody A


    Lymphatic capillary drainage of interstitial fluid under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions is important for tissue fluid balance, cancer metastasis, and immunity. Lymphatic drainage function is critically coupled to the fluid mechanical properties of the interstitium, yet this coupling is poorly understood. Here we sought to effectively model the lymphatic-interstitial fluid coupling and ask why the lymphatic capillary network often appears with roughly a hexagonal architecture. We use homogenization method, which allows tissue-scale lymph flow to be integrated with the microstructural details of the lymphatic capillaries, thus gaining insight into the functionality of lymphatic anatomy. We first describe flow in lymphatic capillaries using the Navier-Stokes equations and flow through the interstitium using Darcy's law. We then use multiscale homogenization to derive macroscale equations describing lymphatic drainage, with the mouse tail skin as a basis. We find that the limiting resistance for fluid drainage is that from the interstitium into the capillaries rather than within the capillaries. We also find that between hexagonal, square, and parallel tube configurations of lymphatic capillary networks, the hexagonal structure is the most efficient architecture for coupled interstitial and capillary fluid transport; that is, it clears the most interstitial fluid for a given network density and baseline interstitial fluid pressure. Thus, using homogenization theory, one can assess how vessel microstructure influences the macroscale fluid drainage by the lymphatics and demonstrate why the hexagonal network of dermal lymphatic capillaries is optimal for interstitial tissue fluid clearance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)


    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  2. Mathematical Structure of Loop Quantum Cosmology: Homogeneous Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bojowald


    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of homogeneous loop quantum cosmology is analyzed, starting with and taking into account the general classification of homogeneous connections not restricted to be Abelian. As a first consequence, it is seen that the usual approach of quantizing Abelian models using spaces of functions on the Bohr compactification of the real line does not capture all properties of homogeneous connections. A new, more general quantization is introduced which applies to non-Abelian models and, in the Abelian case, can be mapped by an isometric, but not unitary, algebra morphism onto common representations making use of the Bohr compactification. Physically, the Bohr compactification of spaces of Abelian connections leads to a degeneracy of edge lengths and representations of holonomies. Lifting this degeneracy, the new quantization gives rise to several dynamical properties, including lattice refinement seen as a direct consequence of state-dependent regularizations of the Hamiltonian constraint of loop quantum gravity. The representation of basic operators - holonomies and fluxes - can be derived from the full theory specialized to lattices. With the new methods of this article, loop quantum cosmology comes closer to the full theory and is in a better position to produce reliable predictions when all quantum effects of the theory are taken into account.

  3. Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz homogenization formulas for binary lattice metamaterials (United States)

    Sozio, Valentina; Vallecchi, Andrea; Albani, Matteo; Capolino, Filippo


    Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz formulas are developed for the effective parameters of binary lattice metamaterials composed of a periodic arrangement of electric and/or magnetic inclusions. The proposed homogenization approach is based on a dual dipole approximation for the induced currents. The obtained formulas for the metamaterial effective electric and magnetic characteristics duly consider both electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the inclusions and completely describe the effects of frequency and spatial dispersion. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the general applicability of the proposed formulas to different types of binary lattices and inclusions. It is shown that the proposed effective parameters have the capability of providing a physically sound and accurate description of wave propagation in the metamaterials in an extended range of frequencies in contrast to the equivalent parameters that can be defined in the absence of impressed sources and assuming a local anisotropic constitutive model, which hides inherent spatial dispersion effects and nonphysical features. To gain further insight into the metamaterial response and the physical meaningfulness of calculated effective parameters, the power flow of metamaterial supported modes is analyzed and its homogenized representation is compared to the complete description. A correspondence between the power flow due to the microscopic field and the effect of spatial dispersion in the homogenized parameters is established.

  4. static elastic deformation in an orthotropic half-space with rigid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    change in shear stress. Uniform slip could be unstable to small spatial perturbations, thus leading to spatially non-uniform slip (Ruina et. al. 1986). To dislocation theory, several works deal with the mathematical treatment of static elastic residual fields given by Steketee (1958a, 1958b), Chinnery (1961, 1963), Maruyama ...

  5. Electromagnetic diffraction by an impedance cylinder buried halfway between two half-spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed


    We consider the problem of electromagnetic diffraction from a cylinder with impedance surface and half-buried between two dielectric media. An arbitrary located electric dipole provides the excitation. The harmonic solution is presented as a series sum over a spectrum of a discrete-index Hankel transform, and the spectral amplitudes are determined by solving an infinite linear system of equations, which is constructed by applying the orthogonality relation of the 1D Green\\'s function. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Projections Onto Super-Half-Spaces for Monotone Variational Inequality Problems in Finite-Dimensional Space. (United States)

    Censor, Yair; Gibali, Aviv


    The variational inequality problem (VIP) is considered here. We present a general algorithmic scheme which employs projections onto hyperplanes that separate balls from the feasible set of the VIP instead of projections onto the feasible set itself. Our algorithmic scheme includes the classical projection method and Fukushima's subgradient projection method as special cases.

  7. Two-dimensional deformation of a uniform half-space due to non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan and Wendland (1986) pre- sented a solution for the three-dimensional crack problems using the calculus of pseudo-differential operators. Niu et al. .... 2.3 Parabolic case. Let the movement on the fracture be given by b(h) = b0. (. 1 − h2. L2. ) , (0 ≤ h ≤ L). (11). The expressions for the displacements obtained.

  8. Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sarva Jit Singh1 Sunita Rani2. Senior Scientist, INSA, Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India. Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 125 001, India.

  9. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco


    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  10. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups (United States)

    Das, S.; Cunnane, C.


    In regional flood frequency estimation, a homogeneous pooling group of sites leads to a reduction in the error of quantile estimators which is the main aim of a regional flood frequency analysis. Examination of the homogeneity of regions/pooling groups is usually based on a statistic that relates to the formulation of a frequency distribution model, e.g. the coefficient of variation (Wiltshire, 1986; Fill and Stedinger, 1995) and/or skew coefficient, their L-moment equivalents (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Hosking and Wallis, 1997) or of dimensionless quantiles such as the 10-yr event (Dalrymple, 1960; Lu and Stedinger, 1992). Hosking andWallis (1993, 1997) proposed homogeneity tests based on L-moment ratios such as L-CV alone (H1) and L-CV & L-skewness jointly (H2) which were also recently investigated by Viglione et al. (2007). In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group, which satisfies the 5T rule (FEH, 1999, 3, p. 169) for the 100 yr quantile. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2) in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have all their t2 values within the confidence limits, while 7, 33 and 44 of them have 1, 2 or 3 or more, t2 values outside the confidence limits. The outcomes are also compared with the

  11. Drying regimes in homogeneous porous media from macro- to nanoscale (United States)

    Thiery, J.; Rodts, S.; Weitz, D. A.; Coussot, P.


    Magnetic resonance imaging visualization down to nanometric liquid films in model porous media with pore sizes from micro- to nanometers enables one to fully characterize the physical mechanisms of drying. For pore size larger than a few tens of nanometers, we identify an initial constant drying rate period, probing homogeneous desaturation, followed by a falling drying rate period. This second period is associated with the development of a gradient in saturation underneath the sample free surface that initiates the inward recession of the contact line. During this latter stage, the drying rate varies in accordance with vapor diffusion through the dry porous region, possibly affected by the Knudsen effect for small pore size. However, we show that for sufficiently small pore size and/or saturation the drying rate is increasingly reduced by the Kelvin effect. Subsequently, we demonstrate that this effect governs the kinetics of evaporation in nanopores as a homogeneous desaturation occurs. Eventually, under our experimental conditions, we show that the saturation unceasingly decreases in a homogeneous manner throughout the wet regions of the medium regardless of pore size or drying regime considered. This finding suggests the existence of continuous liquid flow towards the interface of higher evaporation, down to very low saturation or very small pore size. Paradoxically, even if this net flow is unidirectional and capillary driven, it corresponds to a series of diffused local capillary equilibrations over the full height of the sample, which might explain that a simple Darcy's law model does not predict the effect of scaling of the net flow rate on the pore size observed in our tests.

  12. Comparison of different homogenization approaches for elastic-viscoplastic materials (United States)

    Mercier, S.; Molinari, A.; Berbenni, S.; Berveiller, M.


    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic and non-linear viscoplastic composite materials is considered in this paper. First, we compare two homogenization schemes based on the Mori-Tanaka method coupled with the additive interaction (AI) law proposed by Molinari et al (1997 Mech. Mater. 26 43-62) or coupled with a concentration law based on translated fields (TF) originally proposed for the self-consistent scheme by Paquin et al (1999 Arch. Appl. Mech. 69 14-35). These methods are also evaluated against (i) full-field calculations of the literature based on the finite element method and on fast Fourier transform, (ii) available analytical exact solutions obtained in linear viscoelasticity and (iii) homogenization methods based on variational approaches. Developments of the AI model are obtained for linear and non-linear material responses while results for the TF method are shown for the linear case. Various configurations are considered: spherical inclusions, aligned fibers, hard and soft inclusions, large material contrasts between phases, volume-preserving versus dilatant anelastic flow, non-monotonic loading. The agreement between the AI and TF methods is excellent and the correlation with full field calculations is in general of quite good quality (with some exceptions for non-linear composites with a large volume fraction of very soft inclusions for which a discrepancy of about 15% was found for macroscopic stress). Description of the material behavior with internal variables can be accounted for with the AI and TF approaches and therefore complex loadings can be easily handled in contrast with most hereditary approaches.

  13. Prooxidant effects of ferrous iron, hemoglobin, and ferritin in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates are different from those in raw-meat homogenates. (United States)

    Ahn, D U; Kim, S M


    Oil emulsion and raw and cooked tissue homogenates were used to determine the mechanisms of various iron forms on the catalysis of lipid peroxidation. Flax oil (0.25 g) was blended with 160 mL maleate buffer (0.1 M, pH 6.5) to prepare an oil emulsion. Raw or cooked turkey leg meat was used to prepare meat homogenates. Samples were prepared by adding iron from each of the various sources, reactive oxygen species, or enzyme (xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase) systems into the oil emulsion or meat homogenates. In oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates, ferrous iron and hemoglobin had strong prooxidant effects, but ferritin became prooxidant only when ascorbate was present. Hemoglobin and ferritin had no prooxidant effect in raw-meat homogenates. The status of heme iron and the released iron from hemoglobin had little effect on the prooxidant effect of hemoglobin in oil emulsion and cooked meat homogenate systems. The prooxidant effect of ferrous iron in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates disappeared in the presence of superoxide (.O2-), H2O2, or xanthine oxidase systems. In raw-meat homogenates, however, ferrous had strong prooxidant effects even in the presence of .O2-, or H2O2. The status of free iron was the most important factor in the oxidation of oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates but the impact in raw-meat homogenates was small.

  14. The Radiation Problem from a Vertical Hertzian Dipole Antenna above Flat and Lossy Ground: Novel Formulation in the Spectral Domain with Closed-Form Analytical Solution in the High Frequency Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ioannidi


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of radiation from a vertical short (Hertzian dipole above flat lossy ground, which represents the well-known “Sommerfeld radiation problem” in the literature. The problem is formulated in a novel spectral domain approach, and by inverse three-dimensional Fourier transformation the expressions for the received electric and magnetic (EM field in the physical space are derived as one-dimensional integrals over the radial component of wavevector, in cylindrical coordinates. This formulation appears to have inherent advantages over the classical formulation by Sommerfeld, performed in the spatial domain, since it avoids the use of the so-called Hertz potential and its subsequent differentiation for the calculation of the received EM field. Subsequent use of the stationary phase method in the high frequency regime yields closed-form analytical solutions for the received EM field vectors, which coincide with the corresponding reflected EM field originating from the image point. In this way, we conclude that the so-called “space wave” in the literature represents the total solution of the Sommerfeld problem in the high frequency regime, in which case the surface wave can be ignored. Finally, numerical results are presented, in comparison with corresponding numerical results based on Norton’s solution of the problem.

  15. Suitable ligands for homogeneous ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of esters


    Engelen, Marcel Chr. van; Teunissen, Herman T.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Elsevier, Cornelis J.


    Effective hydrogenolysis of dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol has been obtained using a catalyst prepared in situ from Ru(acac)3 with the facially coordinating tridentate phosphine ligand CH3C(CH2PPh2)3. This catalyst enabled full and selective conversion in 16 h at [S]/[Ru] = 500 at 80–100 bar hydrogen pressure at 120 °C. This catalyst is far more active than any known homogeneous catalyst able to hydrogenate dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol. Several mono-, di- and tridentate P- and N-l...

  16. Electronic homogeneity of nanowire heterostructure Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (United States)

    Selcu, Camelia; May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    In addition to low defect densities and great tunability bandgap within a single heterostructure, the possibility of growing (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire heterostructure LEDs on different substrates while maintaining their high electronic and optical properties makes them very attractive. We investigated the electronic homogeneity of the (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire ensemble by acquiring current maps at certain applied biases using conductive AFM. By taken IVs on individual nanowires, we found that different wires have different turn on voltages and that some of the nanowires degrade due to the applied bias.

  17. Homogenization of a double porosity model in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Ainouz


    Full Text Available The article addresses the homogenization of a family of micro-models for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid in a poroelastic matrix containing periodically distributed poroelastic inclusions, with low permeabilities and with imperfect contact on the interface. The micro-models are based on Biot's system for consolidation processes in each phase, with interfacial barrier formulation. Using the two-scale convergence technique, it is shown that the derived system is a general model of that proposed by Aifantis, plus an extra memory term.

  18. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL


    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  19. Homogeneous 1-based structures and interpretability in random structures


    Koponen, Vera


    Let $V$ be a finite relational vocabulary in which no symbol has arity greater than 2. Let $M$ be countable $V$-structure which is homogeneous, simple and 1-based. The first main result says that if $M$ is, in addition, primitive, then it is strongly interpretable in a random structure. The second main result, which generalizes the first, implies (without the assumption on primitivity) that if $M$ is "coordinatized" by a set with SU-rank 1 and there is no definable (without parameters) nontri...

  20. Chemical kinetics of homogeneous atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Sander, S. P.; Seinfeld, J. H.


    A systematic evaluation of known homogeneous SO2 reactions which might be important in air pollution chemistry is carried out. A mechanism is developed to represent the chemistry of NOx/hydrocarbon/SO2 systems, and the mechanism is used to analyze available experimental data appropriate for quantitative analysis of SO2 oxidation kinetics. Detailed comparisons of observed and predicted concentration behavior are presented. In all cases, observed SO2 oxidation rates cannot be explained solely on the basis of those SO2 reactions for which rate constants have been measured. The role of ozone-olefin reactions in SO2 oxidation is elucidated.

  1. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough


    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  2. Operator-based homogeneous coordinates: application in camera document scanning (United States)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.


    An operator-based approach for the study of homogeneous coordinates and projective geometry is proposed. First, some basic geometrical concepts and properties of the operators are investigated in the one- and two-dimensional cases. Then, the pinhole camera model is derived, and a simple method for homography estimation and camera calibration is explained. The usefulness of the analyzed theoretical framework is exemplified by addressing the perspective correction problem for a camera document scanning application. Several experimental results are provided for illustrative purposes. The proposed approach is expected to provide practical insights for inexperienced students on camera calibration, computer vision, and optical metrology among others.

  3. The General Theory of Homogenization A Personalized Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tartar, Luc


    Homogenization is not about periodicity, or Gamma-convergence, but about understanding which effective equations to use at macroscopic level, knowing which partial differential equations govern mesoscopic levels, without using probabilities (which destroy physical reality); instead, one uses various topologies of weak type, the G-convergence of Sergio Spagnolo, the H-convergence of Francois Murat and the author, and some responsible for the appearance of nonlocal effects, which many theories in continuum mechanics or physics guessed wrongly. For a better understanding of 20th century science,

  4. Homogenous asymmetric hydrogenation: Recent trends and industrial applications. (United States)

    Palmer, Andreas M; Zanotti-Gerosa, Antonio


    Recent advances in the field of homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation are presented in this review. An analysis of academic literature published in the past 2 years highlights significant advances in the asymmetric hydrogenation of functional groups that previously were considered difficult to hydrogenate, as well as the emergence of novel concepts in catalysis, such as the use of non-traditional metals, phosphine-free catalysts and chiral counterions. An analysis of industry publications from 2009 and 2010 highlights more established applications of asymmetric hydrogenation reactions; these are discussed with a particular focus on practical aspects, such as catalyst selection, experimental conditions and the removal of metal residues.

  5. Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence (United States)

    Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto


    The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.

  6. Homogenized Elastic Properties of Graphene for Small Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica Sorić


    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide the quantification of the linear and non-linear elastic mechanical properties of graphene based upon the judicious combination of molecular mechanics simulation results and homogenization methods. We clarify the influence on computed results by the main model features, such as specimen size, chirality of microstructure, the effect of chosen boundary conditions (imposed displacement versus force and the corresponding plane stress transformation. The proposed approach is capable of explaining the scatter of the results for computed stresses, energy and stiffness and provides the bounds on graphene elastic properties, which are quite important in modeling and simulation of the virtual experiments on graphene-based devices.

  7. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.


    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  8. Electromagnetic cloaking of conducting cylinders using homogeneous and isotropic media (United States)

    Gana, Usman M.


    Scattering characteristics of cloaked conducting cylinders is investigated. An attempt is made in replacing the difficult anisotropic material properties required of a cloack with simple ones. The anisotropic material parameters of the cylindrical cloaking shell was approximated by homogeneous, isotropic layers and effective medium approximation was employed in determining the parameters of the layers. Scattering of both polarized (TM & TE) and un-polarized plane electromagnetic waves was studied in the far field. Scattering cross sections of different kinds of cylindrical cloaks are presented and the merits of their structures outlined. Significant reductions in scattering cross sections, compared with bare cylinders, were realized by some of the structures studied.

  9. Non-Homogenous Moral Space (from Bentham toSen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr (Peter Boltuc


    Full Text Available The notion of moral space covers all thin (universal and thick (particular characteristics that may plausibly be seen as morally relevant. In this paper, I investigate certain properties of moral space so defined. These properties are not easily visible if we analyze moral characteristics individually, but become clear once we consider them collectively. In particular, following Amartya Sen, I claim that the value of moral properties is, in part, a function of positional characteristics. I call this notion the non-homogeneity of moral space.

  10. Transport equation for plasmas in a stationary-homogeneous turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie, E-mail: [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    For a plasma in a stationary homogeneous turbulence, the Fokker-Planck equation is derived from the nonlinear Vlasov equation by introducing the entropy principle. The ensemble average in evaluating the kinetic diffusion tensor, whose symmetry has been proved, can be computed in a straightforward way when the fluctuating particle trajectories are provided. As an application, it has been shown that a mean parallel electric filed can drive a particle flux through the Stokes-Einstein relation, independent of the details of the fluctuations.

  11. Loyalty inducing programs and competition with homogeneous goods


    Nicolás Figueroa; Ronald Fischer; Sebastian Infante


    We analyze a market where two firms producing a homogenous good compete by means of two mechanisms: prices and a loyalty bonus. We assume that firms act simultaneously when posting their loyalty bonus and prices. Consumers who purchase from a firmin the first period must return the bonus in case they switch providers in the second period. They fully anticipate the effects on future prices of accepting the bonus and maximize their total surplus over both periods. We first show that there is no...

  12. Homogeneous Poisson Structures on Loop Spaces of Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Pickrell


    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to [Caine A., Pickrell D., Int. Math. Res. Not., to appear, arXiv:0710.4484], where we studied the Hamiltonian systems which arise from the Evens-Lu construction of homogeneous Poisson structures on both compact and noncompact type symmetric spaces. In this paper we consider loop space analogues. Many of the results extend in a relatively routine way to the loop space setting, but new issues emerge. The main point of this paper is to spell out the meaning of the results, especially in the SU(2 case. Applications include integral formulas and factorizations for Toeplitz determinants.

  13. Matter collineations of spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Camci, U


    The spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type spacetimes which have four classes of metrics are studied according to their matter collineations. The results obtained are compared with Killing vectors and Ricci collineations. It is found that these spacetimes have an infinite number of matter collineations in the degenerate case, i.e. det(T sub a sub b) = 0, and do not admit proper matter collineations in the non-degenerate case, i.e. det(T sub a sub b) not = 0. The degenerate case has the new constraints on the parameters m and w which characterize the causality features of the Gödel-type spacetimes.

  14. Cosmology the homogeneous universe and the evolution of structures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    In my course I will first give and introduction to standard cosmology. I discuss the equations of the homogeneous and isotropic universe and I'll briefly summarize its thermal history. After that I want to concentrate on the fluctuations in the universe. We will study anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, fluctuations of the matter density and the velocity field and weak lensing. I want to explain especially new cosmological data which are coming up right now and their implication for the cosmological model. N.B. This lecture series will be held in the Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 27, 28, 30, 31 January and in the Council room on 29 January.

  15. Predicting the losses and the efficiency of a 1-3 piezo-composite transducer through a partial homogeneization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor, J.


    Full Text Available The topic of this work is the theoretical study of a disc-shaped acoustic transducer made with a 1-3 piezoelectric composite material. This material consists of PZT ceramic rods embedded in a polymer matrix. A modeling of this ideal transversally periodic structure is proposed. It is based on a finite element approach derived from homogenization techniques mainly used for composite material studies. The analysis focuses on a representative unit cell with specific boundary conditions on the lateral surfaces taking accurately into account the periodicity of the structure. The first step proposed is the development of a three-dimensional Fortran code with complex variables, especially adapted for this problem. Using the principle of correspondence of Lee-Mandel, this technique allows the prediction of the damping properties of the transducer from the complex modulus of the constituents. Both the versatility of the method and the rigorous character of the model are pointed out through various boundary conditions and mixed loadings. An interesting result is that, despite the lossy polymer matrix, a 1-3 composite can advantageously replace a much heavier massive transducer, in terms of efficiency and loss factor.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio teórico de un transductor acústico con forma de disco construido con un composite piezoeléctrico 1-3. Este material consiste en barras cerámicas de PZT embebidas en una matriz polimérica. Se propone un modelo de su estructura periódica transversal ideal basándose en una aproximación mediante elementos finitos derivada de técnicas de homogeneización usadas principalmente para estudios de materiales compuestos. El análisis se enfoca a una celdilla unidad representativa con unas condiciones de contorno específicas sobre las superficies laterales, teniendo en cuenta adecuadamente la periodicidad de la estructura. El primer paso propuesto es el desarrollo de un código Fortran

  16. Micromechanics and homogenization of inelastic composite materials with growing cracks (United States)

    Costanzo, Francesco; Boyd, James G.; Allen, David H.


    A homogenization scheme is employed to derive the effective constitutive equations of an elastoplastic composite system with growing damage. The homogenization procedure followed herein is based on the thermodynamics of dissipative media. It is shown that when damage consists of sharps microcracks the macroscopic constitutive behavior is that of a so-called generalized standard material. The latter is a general dissipative medium whose constitutive equations are completely characterized by a single scalar convex potential function of the chosen state variables and whose evolution is completely characterized by a single convex dissipation potential function of the thermodynamic forces conjugate to the chosen internal state variables. The analysis presented is valid under the assumption that the evolution of the representative volume element at hand is unique and stable. The results of the theoretical analysis are then employed for formulating an approximate method for practically deriving the macroscopic constitutive equations. Computer software development for the application of said method is currently ongoing. A simple example of the numerical results obtained so far is presented.

  17. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation (United States)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla


    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  18. Interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts. (United States)

    Watzke, Ronny; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland; Naumann, Michael


    The aim of this study was to light microscopically evaluate the homogeneity of the cement interface of an adhesively luted glass fiber post (GFP) by using a new cement application aid compared to a conventional post cementation method. Twenty artificial root canals (n = 5) received GFP under the following experimental conditions: I = RelyX Unicem applied with a new application aid, II = RelyX Unicem, III = Panavia F 2.0 and IV = Variolink II (groups II-IV with conventional post cementation). From all specimens standardized photographs were taken perpendicularly to the post surface under a light-optical microscope from two opposite sides. The depicted cement interfaces were analysed using surface-analyzing software and related to the complete three-dimensional surface of the cement interface. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median values of the observed inhomogeneities (alpha = 5%). The median values (%) of inhomogeneities within the cement interface for the cervical, middle, and apical level of analysis were: I = 2, 2, 7; II = 15, 19, 24; III = 8, 16, 39; IV = 11, 16, 29. For the complete post length, median values (%) of inhomogeneities were: I = 4; II = 19; III = 20; IV = 18. The conventional application technique for luting endodontic post results in a large number of voids and bubbles. The combination of a flexible root-canal-shaped application aid achieves a more homogenous cement interface for the self-adhesive luting material tested.

  19. Einstein-Cartan gravitational collapse of a homogeneous Weyssenhoff fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Sepangi, Hamid Reza [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vargas Moniz, Paulo [Universidade da Beira Interior, Departamento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes (CMA-UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Ranjbar, Arash [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Centro de Estudios Cientficos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile)


    We consider the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric homogeneous matter distribution consisting of a Weyssenhoff fluid in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Our aim is to investigate the effects of torsion and spin averaged terms on the final outcome of the collapse. For a specific interior space-time setup, namely the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW metric, we obtain two classes of solutions to the field equations where depending on the relation between spin source parameters, (i) the collapse procedure culminates in a space-time singularity or (ii) it is replaced by a non-singular bounce. We show that, under certain conditions, for a specific subset of the former solutions, the formation of trapped surfaces is prevented and thus the resulted singularity could be naked. The curvature singularity that forms could be gravitationally strong in the sense of Tipler. Our numerical analysis for the latter solutions shows that the collapsing dynamical process experiences four phases, so that two of which occur at the pre-bounce and the other two at post-bounce regimes. We further observe that there can be found a minimum radius for the apparent horizon curve, such that the main outcome of which is that there exists an upper bound for the size of the collapsing body, below which no horizon forms throughout the whole scenario. (orig.)

  20. Homogeneous protein analysis by magnetic core-shell nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan


    Studying protein interactions is of vital importance both to fundamental biology research and to medical applications. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a universally applicable label-free homogeneous platform for rapid protein analysis. It is based on optically detecting changes in the rotational dynamics of magnetically agitated core-shell nanorods upon their specific interaction with proteins. By adjusting the excitation frequency, we are able to optimize the measurement signal for each analyte protein size. In addition, due to the locking of the optical signal to the magnetic excitation frequency, background signals are suppressed, thus allowing exclusive studies of processes at the nanoprobe surface only. We study target proteins (soluble domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - sHER2) specifically binding to antibodies (trastuzumab) immobilized on the surface of our nanoprobes and demonstrate direct deduction of their respective sizes. Additionally, we examine the dependence of our measurement signal on the concentration of the analyte protein, and deduce a minimally detectable sHER2 concentration of 440 pM. For our homogeneous measurement platform, good dispersion stability of the applied nanoprobes under physiological conditions is of vital importance. To that end, we support our measurement data by theoretical modeling of the total particle-particle interaction energies. The successful implementation of our platform offers scope for applications in biomarker-based diagnostics as well as for answering basic biology questions.

  1. Vaccine impact in homogeneous and age-structured models. (United States)

    Magpantay, F M G


    A general model of an imperfect vaccine for a childhood disease is presented and the effects of different types of vaccine failure on transmission were investigated using models that consider both homogeneous and age-specific mixing. The models are extensions of the standard SEIR equations with an additional vaccinated component that allows for five different vaccine parameters: three types of vaccine failure in decreasing susceptibility to infection via failure in degree ("leakiness"), take ("all-or-nothingness") and duration (waning of vaccine-derived immunity); one parameter reflecting the relative reduction in infectiousness of vaccinated individuals who get infected; and one parameter that reflects the relative reduction in reporting probability of vaccinated individuals due to a possible reduction in severity of symptoms. Only the first four parameters affect disease transmission (as measured by the basic reproduction number). The reduction in transmission due to vaccination is different for age-structured models than for homogeneous models. Notably, if the vaccine exhibits waning protection this could be larger for an age-structured model with high contact rates between young children who are still protected by the vaccine and lower contact rates between adults for whom protection might have already waned. Analytic expressions for age-specific "vaccine impacts" were also derived. The overall vaccine impact is bounded between the age-specific impact for the oldest age class and that of the youngest age class.

  2. Surface energy, elasticity and the homogenization of rough surfaces (United States)

    Mohammadi, P.; Liu, L. P.; Sharma, P.; Kukta, R. V.


    The concept of surface energy is widely used to understand numerous aspects of material behavior: fracture, self-assembly, catalysis, void formation, microstructure evolution, and size-effect exhibited by nanostructures. Extensive work exists on deriving homogenized constitutive responses for macroscopic composites—relating effective properties to various microstructural details. In the present work, we focus on homogenization of surfaces. Indeed, elucidation of the effect of surface roughness on the surface energy, stress, and elastic behavior is relatively under-studied and quite relevant to the behavior of both nanostructures and bulk material where surfaces are involved in some form or fashion. We present derivations that relate both periodic and random roughness to the effective surface elastic behavior. We find that the residual surface stress is hardly affected by roughness while the superficial elastic properties are dramatically altered and, importantly, they may also change sign—this has significant ramifications in the interpretation of sensing based on frequency measurement changes. Interestingly, even if the bare surface has a zero surface elasticity modulus, roughness is seen to endow it with one. Using atomistic calculations, we verify the qualitative validity of the obtained theoretical insights. We show, through an illustrative example, that the square of resonance frequency of a cantilever beam with rough surface can decrease almost by a factor of two compared to a flat surface.

  3. Improvement of thermal homogenization using multiple swirling jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braikia Mohamed


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different blowing configurations of multiple swirling jets for use it in terminal units of ventilation applications. The influence of several parameters such as the inclined vanes of diffuser and the sense of rotation of the single or multiple swirling jets, their number and their arrangement on the flow resulting dynamically and thermally is experimentally investigated. Flow rate was adjusted at Reynolds numbers, Re0, ranging from 104 to 30.103. The current study is carried out under uniform heat flux condition for each diffuser at Reynolds number of 30.103, the air being the working fluid. Experiences concerning the fusion of several jets show that the resulting jet is clearly more homogenized under swirling influence. The findings of this study show that the gap between the jets and their sense of rotation relative to the central jet, affects the quality of the homogenization of ambiance. Among the studied different configuration, the one which consists of a swirling central jet controlling the behavior of six swirling jets in counter-rotation is shown to be the most effective in terms of thermal destratification.

  4. Subfilter scalar-flux vector orientation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. (United States)

    Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, G


    The geometric orientation of the subfilter-scale scalar-flux vector is examined in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Vector orientation is determined using the eigenframe of the resolved strain-rate tensor. The Schmidt number is kept sufficiently large so as to leave the velocity field, and hence the strain-rate tensor, unaltered by filtering in the viscous-convective subrange. Strong preferential alignment is observed for the case of Gaussian and box filters, whereas the sharp-spectral filter leads to close to a random orientation. The orientation angle obtained with the Gaussian and box filters is largely independent of the filter width and the Schmidt number. It is shown that the alignment direction observed numerically using these two filters is predicted very well by the tensor-diffusivity model. Moreover, preferred alignment of the scalar gradient vector in the eigenframe is shown to mitigate any probable issues of negative diffusivity in the tensor-diffusivity model. Consequentially, the model might not suffer from solution instability when used for large eddy simulations of scalar transport in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Further a priori tests indicate poor alignment of the Smagorinsky and stretched vortex model predictions with the exact subfilter flux. Finally, strong filter dependence of subfilter scalar-flux orientation suggests that explicit filtering may be preferable to implicit filtering in large eddy simulations.

  5. Numerical Studies of Homogenization under a Fast Cellular Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Iyer, Gautam


    We consider a two dimensional particle diffusing in the presence of a fast cellular flow confined to a finite domain. If the flow amplitude A is held fixed and the number of cells L 2 →∞, then the problem homogenizes; this has been well studied. Also well studied is the limit when L is fixed and A→∞. In this case the solution averages along stream lines. The double limit as both the flow amplitude A→∞and the number of cells L 2 →∞was recently studied [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074]; one observes a sharp transition between the homogenization and averaging regimes occurring at A = L 2. This paper numerically studies a few theoretically unresolved aspects of this problem when both A and L are large that were left open in [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074] using the numerical method devised in [G. A. Pavliotis, A. M. Stewart, and K. C. Zygalakis, J. Comput. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 1030-1055]. Our treatment of the numerical method uses recent developments in the theory of modified equations for numerical integrators of stochastic differential equations [K. C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2001), pp. 102-130]. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Examination of genome homogeneity in prokaryotes using genomic signatures. (United States)

    Bohlin, Jon; Skjerve, Eystein


    DNA word frequencies, normalized for genomic AT content, are remarkably stable within prokaryotic genomes and are therefore said to reflect a "genomic signature." The genomic signatures can be used to phylogenetically classify organisms from arbitrary sampled DNA. Genomic signatures can also be used to search for horizontally transferred DNA or DNA regions subjected to special selection forces. Thus, the stability of the genomic signature can be used as a measure of genomic homogeneity. The factors associated with the stability of the genomic signatures are not known, and this motivated us to investigate further. We analyzed the intra-genomic variance of genomic signatures based on AT content normalization (0(th) order Markov model) as well as genomic signatures normalized by smaller DNA words (1(st) and 2(nd) order Markov models) for 636 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Regression models were fitted, with intra-genomic signature variance as the response variable, to a set of factors representing genomic properties such as genomic AT content, genome size, habitat, phylum, oxygen requirement, optimal growth temperature and oligonucleotide usage variance (OUV, a measure of oligonucleotide usage bias), measured as the variance between genomic tetranucleotide frequencies and Markov chain approximated tetranucleotide frequencies, as predictors. Regression analysis revealed that OUV was the most important factor (pcontent, phylum and oxygen requirement. Genomic homogeneity in prokaryotes is intimately linked to genomic GC content, oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV) and aerobiosis, while oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV) is associated with genomic GC content, aerobiosis and habitat.

  7. Homogenizing Indonesian Islam: Persecution of the Shia Group in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin


    Full Text Available This article studies “the homogenizing movement” in Indonesian Islam propagated by conservative Sunni groups in the form of persecuting minorities. However, this paper particularly focuses on the case of a Shia intellectual group in Yogyakarta called Rausyan Fikr which was persecuted by the radical Indonesian Jihad Front (FJI group in November and December 2013. This paper finds that the scenario to terrorize the Rausyan was not an isolated incident, but the case is part of a grand homogenizing movement in the country. In addition, the anti-Shia propaganda was planned by local perpetrators and national actors: local radicals who persecuted the Shia and conservative activists who propagated anti-Shia ideology in national level. This paper offers fresh accounts of the two new forces which played vital roles in the Rausyan incident: the activists of the Council of Young Intellectual Ulama of Indonesia (MIUMI, who propagated anti-Shia sentiment, and the radical group FJI, which was directly responsible for terrorizing the Shia in Yogyakarta.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v24i1.3354

  8. Improvement of spatial homogeneity in IBAD based YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Z. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Graduate School of ISEE, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kiss, T.; Inoue, M.; Enpuku, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Graduate School of ISEE, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 819-0395 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Watanabe, T.; Mori, M.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Ibi, A.; Miyata, S.; Yamada, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Division of Superconducting Tape and Wire, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)


    Prior to the development of fabrication technique for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor on a IBAD-Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, investigations on the improvement of spatial homogeneity have been done. By using spatially resolved measurements and combined multiple microanalysis techniques with length scale of several {mu}m, physical and transport properties of the CVD samples have been investigated before and after fabrication modification. Structural inhomogeneity was visualized using thermoelectric voltage imaging (TVI) technique using a laser scanning microscope. Laser scanning microscopy at superconducting temperature is used to visualize flux flow dissipation; furthermore, mappings of 2D local current flow density distribution have been done using a scanning SQUID microscopy. It has been shown that the superconducting layer consisted of YBCO matrix with localized defects originating from the buffer layer. This led to current non-uniformity and caused high flux flow dissipation within the vicinity of the defects. Process conditions have been modified effectively based on those insights. After fabrication modification, our measurement analyses shows that the texturing of the YBCO layer improved significantly and the appearance of spatially distributed obstacles that are responsible for non-uniform current distribution and localized dissipation are reduced. Our complementing, quick yet non-invasive technique not only can quantify the improvement of YBCO homogeneity but also shed light on the basic understanding of the current limiting mechanism in the IBAD based coated conductors.

  9. Exploration into power of homogeneity and serial correlation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Střelec


    Full Text Available Verification of regression models is primarily based on analysis of error terms and constitutes one of the most important steps in applied regression analysis. In cross-sectional models, the error terms are typically heteroskedastic, while in time series regressions the errors are often affected by serial correlation. Consequently, in this paper, we focus on Monte Carlo simulations applied to explore the power of several tests of homogeneity and tests for presence of autocorrelation. In the past decades, the computational power has increased significantly to allow the benefit of simulation from exact distributions, which are not defined explicitly. We will discuss 1 testing of homogeneity for a given number of components in the exponential mixture approximated by subpopulations and 2 simulation of power in several commonly used tests of autocorrelation. For the first case, we consider exact likelihood ratio test (ELR and exact likelihood ratio test against the alternative with two-component subpopulation (ELR2. In the second case, we consider the Durbin-Watson, Durbin h, Breusch-Godfrey, Box-Pierce and Ljung-Box tests of 1st order serial correlation and the runs test of randomness in two different types of linear regression models.

  10. A Majorca case study of daily extreme temperatures homogenization (United States)

    Guijarro, J. A.


    Detecting sudden jumps in daily climatological data is a problematic task due to the low signal/noise ratio. For this reason, usual methodologies begin by the detection of the jumps in annual, seasonal or monthly series at most, followed by the computation of the correction terms or factors, which are then applied to the daily data. However, sometimes it is necessary to detect the jumps directly on the daily series. An example is presented from Majorca, where meta-data indicates that, during an approximate period of three months at the beginning of 1961, a different thermometer was used in a particular station to measure extreme daily temperatures, resulting in a systematic error of around 5°C in these data. As there was no indication neither of the exact amount of the error nor of the precise initial and final days when this anomalous thermometer was used, a homogenization procedure was applied to the daily data to determine this details. The process consisted in comparing one year of extreme daily temperatures of the problem station with contemporary data from the other five available stations in the island at that time. After removing the annual cycle, the R homogenization package "Climatol" was used to detect the timing of the shifts and evaluate their magnitude. Results suggest a correction of -7°C, and show some uncertainty in the first thermometer change, although a more precise date for the replacement of the original instrument can be assessed.

  11. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian


    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  12. Exploiting Homogeneity of Density in Incremental Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi H. Widiyantoro


    Full Text Available Hierarchical clustering is an important tool in many applications. As it involves a large data set that proliferates over time, reclustering the data set periodically is not an efficient process. Therefore, the ability to incorporate a new data set incrementally into an existing hierarchy becomes increasingly demanding. This article describes Homogen, a system that employs a new algorithm for generating a hierarchy of concepts and clusters incrementally from a stream of observations. The system aims to construct a hierarchy that satisfies the homogeneity and the monotonicity properties. Working in a bottom-up fashion, a new observation is placed in the hierarchy and a sequence of hierarchy restructuring processes is performed only in regions that have been affected by the presence of the new observation. Additionally, it combines multiple restructuring techniques that address different restructuring objectives to get a synergistic effect. The system has been tested on a variety of domains including structured and unstructured data sets. The experimental results reveal that the system is able to construct a concept hierarchy that is consistent regardless of the input data order and whose quality is comparable to the quality of those produced by non incremental clustering algorithms.

  13. A Class of Homogeneous Scalar Tensor Cosmologies with a Radiation Fluid (United States)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    We present a new class of exact homogeneous cosmological solutions with a radiation fluid for all scalar tensor theories. The solutions belong to Bianchi type VIh cosmologies. Explicit examples of nonsingular homogeneous scalar tensor cosmologies are also given.

  14. Modeling and Experimental Strain Measurements on a Non-Homogeneous Cylinder Under Transverse Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viator, John A; Kreger, Stephen; Winz, Michele W; Udd, Eric


    .... While there is an analytical model for determining the strain on a homogeneous cylinder under transverse load, these ber optic sensors are not homogeneous as they consist of distinct regions within the ber...

  15. Some estimates of the Bergman kernel of minimal bounded homogeneous domains


    Ishi, Hideyuki; Yamaji, Satoshi


    We describe the Bergman kernel of any bounded homogeneous domain in a minimal realization relating to the Bergman kernels of the Siegel disks. Taking advantage of this expression, we obtain substantial estimates of the Bergman kernel of the homogeneous domain.

  16. Propagation of S-waves in a non-homogeneous anisotropic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homogeneous anisotropic incompressible and initially stressed medium. Analytical analysis reveals that the velocities of the shear waves depend upon the direction of propagation, the anisotropy, the non-homogeneity of the medium and the initial ...

  17. The Role of Homogeneous Chemistry during Ignition of Propane Combustion in Pt-Catalyzed Microburners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Reddy Regatte


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to numerically investigate the ignition behavior of homogeneous-heterogeneous (HH combustion of propane in a Pt-catalyzed microburner to delineate the role of homogeneous chemistry during cold-start ignition. A two dimensional model with one-step homogeneous and catalytic mechanisms in a parallel-plate microburner is considered. The ignition characteristics (ignition temperature and ignition time are explored for catalytic microreactor with and without homogeneous chemistry. We show that the catalytic reaction lights-off first, followed by the homogeneous reaction. Consequently, the homogeneous chemistry does not affect the ignition behavior of the catalytic microburner. The effect of inlet velocity, wall thermal conductivity and gap size on ignition characteristics is explored. The ignition characteristics are not affected by homogeneous chemistry even at larger gap sizes, despite the fact that the homogeneous contribution at steady state increases with increasing gap size of the microburner.

  18. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Multi-layered Berm Breakwaters with Respect to Overtopping and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Skals, Kasper; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm.......The paper deals with homogeneous and multi-layer berm breakwaters designed to maximize the utilization of the quarry material. Two wide stone classes are typically used for berm breakwaters with a homogeneous berm....

  19. Local Fractional Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Non-Homogeneous Heat Conduction Equations in Fractal Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available In this article, the local fractional Homotopy perturbation method is utilized to solve the non-homogeneous heat conduction equations. The operator is considered in the sense of the local fractional differential operator. Comparative results between non-homogeneous and homogeneous heat conduction equations are presented. The obtained result shows the non-differentiable behavior of heat conduction of the fractal temperature field in homogeneous media.

  20. Effects of high-speed homogenization and high-pressure homogenization on structure of tomato residue fibers. (United States)

    Hua, Xiao; Xu, Shanan; Wang, Mingming; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hui; Yang, Ruijin


    Tomato residue fibers obtained after derosination and deproteinization were processed by high-speed homogenization (HSH) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH), and their effects on fiber structure was investigated, respectively. Characterizations including particle size distribution, SEM, TEM and XRD were performed. HSH could break raw fibers to small particles of around 60μm, while HPH could reshape fibers to build network structure. Microfibrils were released and their nanostructure consisting of elementary fibrils was observed by TEM. XRD patterns indicated both HSH and HPH could hardly alter the nanostructure of the fibers. Physicochemical properties including expansibility, WHC and OHC were determined. Both HSH and HPH could increase the soluble fiber content by about 8%, but HSH-HPH combined processing did not show better result. Acid (4mol/L HCl) was used in replacement of water medium and the acidic degradation of fibers could be promoted by high speed shearing or high pressure processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Homogeneity of the Potsdam Solar Radiation Data (United States)

    Behrens, K.


    At Meteorological Station in Potsdam (Germany) the measurement of sunshine duration started already in 1983. Later on, in 1937 the registration of global, diffuse and direct solar radiation was begun with pyranometers and a pyrheliometer. Since 1983 sunshine duration has been measured with the same method, the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder, at the same site, while the measurements of solar radiation changed as well as in equipment, measurement methods and location. Furthermore, it was firstly necessary to supplement some missing data within the time series and secondly, it was desirable to extend the series of global radiation by regression with the sunshine duration backward to 1893. Because solar radiation, especially global radiation, is one of the most important quantities for climate research, it is necessary to investigate the homogeneity of these time series. At first the history was studied and as much as possible information about all parameters, which could influence the data, were gathered. In a second step these metadata were reviewed critically followed by a discussion about the potential effects of local factors on the homogeneity of the data. In a first step of data rehabilitation the so-called engineering correction (data levelling to WRR and SI units) were made followed by the supplementation of gaps. Finally, for every month and the year the so generated time series of measured data (1937/2008) and the complete series, prolonged by regression and measurements (1893/2008), were tested on homogeneity with the following distribution-free tests: WILCOXON (U) test, MANN-KENDALL test and progressive analysis were used for the examination of the stability of the mean and the dispersion, while with the Wald-Wolfowitz test the first order autocorrelation was checked. These non-parametric test were used, because frequently radiation data do not fulfil the assumption of a GAUSSian or normal distribution. The investigations showed, that discontinuities

  2. Immobilised Homogeneous Catalysts for Sequential Fine Chemical Synthesis : Functionalised Organometallics for Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonald, A.R.


    The work described in this thesis has demonstrated the application of heterogenised homogeneous catalysts. We have shown that by coupling a homogeneous catalyst to a heterogeneous support we could combine the benefits of two major fields of catalysis: retain the high selectivity of homogeneous

  3. Elastodynamic single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation: Theory and examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Reinicke Urruticoechea, C.


    The homogeneous Green’s function is the Green’s function minus its timereversal. Many wavefield imaging applications make use of the homogeneous Green’s function in form of a closed boundary integral. Wapenaar et al. (2016a) derived an accurate single-sided homogeneous Green’s function

  4. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids with a homogeneous cobalt catalyst. (United States)

    Korstanje, Ties J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Elsevier, Cornelis J; de Bruin, Bas


    The reduction of esters and carboxylic acids to alcohols is a highly relevant conversion for the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries and for biomass conversion. It is commonly performed using stoichiometric reagents, and the catalytic hydrogenation of the acids previously required precious metals. Here we report the homogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to alcohols using earth-abundant cobalt. This system, which pairs Co(BF4)2·6H2O with a tridentate phosphine ligand, can reduce a wide range of esters and carboxylic acids under relatively mild conditions (100°C, 80 bar H2) and reaches turnover numbers of up to 8000. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g Pada Lingkungan Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati


    Full Text Available Telecommunication technology and applications have developed fast recently. Hence this development will take energy consumption significantly. Many studies have been done on energy efficiency on cellular network. The studies are more focused on energy usage of the base station, as the base station is the component of cellular station which takes the most energy consumption. Therefore this study analyzes energy efficiency on homogeneous network of WCDMA/3G for outdoor environment. Energy consumption of three macro base stations is compared with energy consumption of 12 micro base stations. This comparison analysis has been conducted on the same Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE. The results show that the macro base stations are more efficient for energy usage than the micro base stations. However based on ASE requirements, the micro base stations are more efficient than the macro base stations on both busy hours and non-busy hour.

  6. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis


    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  7. Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    In thin magnetic layers with structural inversion asymmetry and spin-orbit coupling, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arises at the interface. When a spin-wave current jm flows in a system with a homogeneous magnetization m, this interaction produces an effective fieldlike torque of the form TFLm×(z×jm) as well as a dampinglike torque, TDLm×[(z×jm)×m], the latter only in the presence of spin-wave relaxation (z is normal to the interface). These torques mediated by the magnon flow can reorient the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can be efficient in the case of magnons driven by a thermal gradient.

  8. Linearization of homogeneous, nearly-isotropic cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew


    Homogeneous, nearly-isotropic Bianchi cosmological models are considered. Their time evolution is expressed as a complete set of non-interacting linear modes on top of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background model. This connects the extensive literature on Bianchi models with the more commonly-adopted perturbation approach to general relativistic cosmological evolution. Expressions for the relevant metric perturbations in familiar coordinate systems can be extracted straightforwardly. Amongst other possibilities, this allows for future analysis of anisotropic matter sources in a more general geometry than usually attempted. We discuss the geometric mechanisms by which maximal symmetry is broken in the context of these models, shedding light on the origin of different Bianchi types. When all relevant length-scales are super-horizon, the simplest Bianchi I models emerge (in which anisotropic quantities appear parallel transported). Finally we highlight the existence of arbitrarily long near-isotropic epochs in ...

  9. Affine equivalence of cubic homogeneous rotation symmetric Boolean functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W


    Homogeneous rotation symmetric Boolean functions have been extensively studied in recent years because of their applications in cryptography. Little is known about the basic question of when two such functions are affine equivalent. The simplest case of quadratic rotation symmetric functions which are generated by cyclic permutations of the variables in a single monomial was only settled in 2009. This paper studies the much more complicated cubic case for such functions. A new concept of \\emph{patterns} is introduced, by means of which the structure of the smallest group G_n, whose action on the set of all such cubic functions in $n$ variables gives the affine equivalence classes for these functions under permutation of the variables, is determined. We conjecture that the equivalence classes are the same if all nonsingular affine transformations, not just permutations, are allowed. This conjecture is verified if n < 22. Our method gives much more information about the equivalence classes; for example, in t...

  10. Homogeneous optical cloak constructed with uniform layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Liu; Luo, Yu


    The prospect of rendering objects invisible has intrigued researchers for centuries. Transformation optics based invisibility cloak design is now bringing this goal from science fictions to reality and has already been demonstrated experimentally in microwave and optical frequencies. However......, the majority of the invisibility cloaks reported so far have a spatially varying refractive index which requires complicated design processes. Besides, the size of the hidden object is usually small relative to that of the cloak device. Here we report the experimental realization of a homogenous invisibility...... cloak with a uniform silicon grating structure. The design strategy eliminates the need for spatial variation of the material index, and in terms of size it allows for a very large obstacle/cloak ratio. A broadband invisibility behavior has been verified at near-infrared frequencies, opening up new...

  11. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    an increase in engine power. The use of methanol for combustion phasing control was tested successfully in a large diesel engine with common rail, in which the piston bowls were widened to give a compression ratio of 14.5. This compression ratio still allows DI CI operation with DME, but requires...... in the combustion chamber and hence the noise emitted from the engine. The study showed that minimum exposure of the cylinder liner is critical in reducing the transmitted noise. The effect of splitting the chamber into smaller volumes was tested, by shaping piston crowns with cavities. It was found that piston......This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...

  12. Homogeneous Nucleation of Methane Hydrate in Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations. (United States)

    Sarupria, Sapna; Debenedetti, Pablo G


    We report atomistically detailed molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrate in bulk aqueous phase in the absence of any interface. Subcritical clusters of water and methane molecules are formed in the initial segment of the simulations, which then aggregate to give the critical hydrate nucleus. This occurs over time scales of several hundred nanoseconds, indicating that the formation and aggregation of subcritical clusters can contribute significantly to the overall rate of hydrate nucleation. The clusters have elements of sI hydrate structure, such as 5(12) and 5(12)6(2) cages as well as other uncommon 5(12)6(3) and 5(12)6(4) cages, but do not possess long-range order. Clusters are dynamic in nature and undergo continuous structural rearrangements.

  13. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method. (United States)

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Nature of low-frequency noise in homogeneous semiconductors. (United States)

    Palenskis, Vilius; Maknys, Kęstutis


    This report deals with a 1/f noise in homogeneous classical semiconductor samples on the base of silicon. We perform detail calculations of resistance fluctuations of the silicon sample due to both a) the charge carrier number changes due to their capture-emission processes, and b) due to screening effect of those negative charged centers, and show that proportionality of noise level to square mobility appears as a presentation parameter, but not due to mobility fluctuations. The obtained calculation results explain well the observed experimental results of 1/f noise in Si, Ge, GaAs and exclude the mobility fluctuations as the nature of 1/f noise in these materials and their devices. It is also shown how from the experimental 1/f noise results to find the effective number of defects responsible for this noise in the measured frequency range.

  15. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH


    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  16. Homogeneous Precipitation Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu


    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs of cobalt ferrite have been synthesized via a homogeneous precipitation route using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT as the precipitant. The particle size, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the synthesized particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The NPs are of cubic inverse spinel structure and nearly spherical shape. With the increase of oxidation time from 30 to 180 minutes in the reaction solution at 90∘C, the average particle size increases from ~30 nm to ~45 nm. The as-synthesized NPs ~30 nm in size show higher Ms (61.5 emu/g and moderate Hc (945 Oe and Mr/Ms (0.45 value compared with the materials synthesized by coprecipitation method using NaOH as precipitate at high pH value.

  17. Homogeneous, isotropic turbulence phenomenology, renormalization, and statistical closures

    CERN Document Server

    McComb, W David


    Fluid turbulence is often referred to as 'the unsolved problem of classical physics'. Yet, paradoxically, its mathematical description resembles quantum field theory. The present book addresses the idealised problem posed by homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, in order to concentrate on the fundamental aspects of the general problem. It is written from the perspective of a theoretical physicist, but is designed to be accessible to all researchers in turbulence, both theoretical and experimental, and from all disciplines. The book is in three parts, and begins with a very simple overview of the basic statistical closure problem, along with a summary of current theoretical approaches. This is followed by a precise formulation of the statistical problem, along with a complete set of mathematical tools (as needed in the rest of the book), and a summary of the generally accepted phenomenology of the subject. Part 2 deals with current issues in phenomenology, including the role of Galilean invariance, the physics of...

  18. Identification of Homogeneous Hydrological Regions through Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Olguín G.


    Full Text Available Hydrological regionalization is used to transfer information from gauged catchments to ungauged river basins. However, to obtain reliable results, the basins involved must have a similar hydrological behavior. The objective of this research was to identify hydrologically homogeneous regions in the Mixteca Oaxaqueña and surrounding areas. The area of study included 17 basins for which 20 climate and physiographic variables potentially useful in the prediction of flow were quantified. The applications of multivariate statistics techniques allowed us to identify three groups of basins hydrologically associated. A regional model was obtained to predict mean annual fl ow, which determined that the best predictive variables are the area and the average annual precipitation.

  19. Homogenization of a Cauchy continuum towards a micromorphic continuum (United States)

    Hütter, Geralf


    The micromorphic theory of Eringen and Mindlin, including special cases like strain gradient theory or Cosserat theory, is widely used to model size effects and localization phenomena. The heuristic construction of such theories based on thermodynamic considerations is well-established. However, the identification of corresponding constitutive laws and of the large number of respective constitutive parameters limits the practical application of such theories. In the present contribution, a closed procedure for the homogenization of a Cauchy continuum at the microscale towards a fully micromorphic continuum is derived including explicit definitions of all involved generalized macroscopic stress and deformation measures. The boundary value problem to be solved on the microscale is formulated either for using static or kinematic boundary conditions. The procedure is demonstrated with an example.

  20. Acute subendocardial ischaemia leads to homogenous prolongation in ventricular repolarization. (United States)

    Ma, Long-le; Wang, Le-Xin


    Acute transmural ischaemia often shortens ventricular repolarization and increases repolarization dispersion, leading to life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in animal models and human subjects. Experimental studies and clinical observations have shown that acute subendocardial ischaemia rarely causes serious ventricular arrhythmia. We hypothesized that the different arrhythmia outcomes between transmural and subendocardial ischaemia are largely due to the homogenous prolongation in ventricular repolarization after acute subendocardial ischaemia. Further experimental studies on a subendocardial model are required to assess the changes in ventricular repolarization and its spatial dispersion, and to investigate the role of these changes in the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias. These studies will facilitate our understanding on the mechanisms of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischaemia.

  1. Apparent genetic homogeneity of the Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edery, P.; Manach, Y.; Le Merrer, M.; Till, M.; Vignal, A.; Lyonnet, S.; Munnich, A.


    The Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCOF) or mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and hearing loss. A refined genetic linkage map of the TCOF locus was established in 8 independent families, using 12 microsatellite DNA markers of the distal 5q. Positive lod score values were obtained for all markers with a maximum at the D5S413 locus (Zmax = 3.79 at {theta} = 0%). Multipoint linkage analysis and haplotype analysis supported the location of the gene between loci D5S434 and D5S412. These results are consistent with previous linkage analyses and provide further evidence of genetic homogeneity in this syndrome. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The Homogeneity of Social Selection in Accessing Higher Ranked Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Baklanov, Nikita


    students at elite universities to their peers within the same field in non-elite institutions. Within the health sciences, demonstrating the strongest indication of stratification, we find clear evidence of social selectivity at elite institutions. The strength of additional selectivity with each new stage......This paper demonstrates the persistence of social selectivity throughout the educational ladder, with evident social reproduction at the top. By jointly modelling multiple choices of high school, university, field of study, and institutional rank of university using a multinomial transition model......, we are capable of quantifying the nature of horizontal stratification in accessing university education while controlling for vertical stratification. The results of our analysis confirm that students at the upper levels of educational attendance are increasingly homogeneous, even when comparing...

  3. On non-homogeneous tachyon condensation in closed string theory (United States)

    Giribet, Gaston; Rado, Laura


    Lorentzian continuation of the Sine-Liouville model describes non-homogeneous rolling closed string tachyon. Via T-duality, this relates to the gauged H + 3 Wess-Zumino-Witten model at subcritical level. This model is exactly solvable. We give a closed formula for the 3-point correlation functions for the model at level k within the range 0 2 in a similar way as how the Harlow-Maltz-Witten 3-point function of timelike Liouville field theory relates to the analytic continuation of the Dorn-Otto-Zamolodchikov-Zamolodchikov structure constants: we find that the ratio between both 3-point functions can be written in terms of quotients of Jacobi's θ-functions, while their product exhibits remarkable cancellations and eventually factorizes. Our formula is consistent with previous proposals made in the literature.

  4. Non-Aqueous Biocatalysis in Homogeneous Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Torres


    Full Text Available Enzymes are highly specific catalysts that typically function in aqueous solvents. However, many enzymes retain their catalytic activities at high concentrations in non- aqueous environments, including neat hydrophilic organic solvents. In fact, enzymes can be used to carry out reactions in organic solvents that are not possible in aqueous systems. Therefore, biocatalysis in homogenous non-aqueous solvents offers possibilities for producing useful chemicals and several synthetic reactions have already been developed using this type of system. The current review discusses factors that influence enzyme catalysis in non-aqueous solvents such us water content, solvent concentration, interaction of solvent with protein structure, stability and activity. Also, new strategies for non-conventional biocatalysis using extremophiles and ionic solvents are mentioned.

  5. Nature of low-frequency noise in homogeneous semiconductors (United States)

    Palenskis, Vilius; Maknys, Kęstutis


    This report deals with a 1/f noise in homogeneous classical semiconductor samples on the base of silicon. We perform detail calculations of resistance fluctuations of the silicon sample due to both a) the charge carrier number changes due to their capture-emission processes, and b) due to screening effect of those negative charged centers, and show that proportionality of noise level to square mobility appears as a presentation parameter, but not due to mobility fluctuations. The obtained calculation results explain well the observed experimental results of 1/f noise in Si, Ge, GaAs and exclude the mobility fluctuations as the nature of 1/f noise in these materials and their devices. It is also shown how from the experimental 1/f noise results to find the effective number of defects responsible for this noise in the measured frequency range.

  6. Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems. (United States)

    Krakoviack, Vincent


    The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.

  7. Ground State Properties of a Homogeneous Bose-Einstein Condensate (United States)

    Smith, Robert; Gotlibovych, Igor; Schmidutz, Tobias; Gaunt, Alex; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran


    We will present measurements of the coherence, energy and free expansion of a quasi-homogeneous atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical box potential. We have measured the ground state wave function of a trapped quasi-pure BEC in momentum space using Bragg spectroscopy and compare this with the real-space wave function. We find excellent quantitative agreement with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and also confirm the expected scaling of the momentum uncertainty with the box length. In addition, by varying the condensate atom number, we have studied the effect of interactions on the momentum distribution and mean-field energy of the condensate. Finally, we will present measurements of the evolution in time of both the mean-field energy and the momentum distribution of a freely expanding condensate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hairuddin


    Full Text Available Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine technology is relatively new and has not matured sufficiently to be commercialised compared with conventional engines. It can use spark ignition or compression ignition engine configurations, capitalizing on the advantages of both: high engine efficiency with low emissions levels. HCCI engines can use a wide range of fuels with low emissions levels. Due to these advantages, HCCI engines are suitable for use in a hybrid engine configuration, where they can reduce the fuel consumption even further. However, HCCI engines have some disadvantages, such as knocking and a low to medium operating load range, which need to be resolved before the engine can be commercialised. Therefore, a comprehensive study has to be performed to understand the behaviour of HCCI engines.

  9. Elasticity reconstruction: Beyond the assumption of local homogeneity (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E.; Vilgrain, Valerie


    Elasticity imaging is a novel domain which is currently gaining significant interest in the medical field. Most inversion techniques are based on the homogeneity assumption, i.e. the local spatial derivatives of the complex-shear modulus are ignored. This analysis presents an analytic approach in order to overcome this limitation, i.e. first order spatial derivatives of the real-part of the complex-shear modulus are taken into account. Resulting distributions in a gauged breast lesion phantom agree very well with the theoretical expectations. An in-vivo example of a cholangiocarcinoma demonstrates that the new approach provides maps of the viscoelastic properties which agree much better with expectations from anatomy.

  10. Urbanization reduces and homogenizes trait diversity in stream macroinvertebrate communities. (United States)

    Barnum, Thomas R; Weller, Donald E; Williams, Meghan


    More than one-half of the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition. We considered three levels of trait organization: individual traits, unique combinations of traits, and community metrics (functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence) and three levels of impervious surface coverage (low [10%]). The prevalence of an individual trait differed very little between low impervious surface and high impervious surface sites. The arrangement of trait combinations in community trait space for each ecoregion differed when impervious surface coverage was low, but the arrangement became more similar among ecoregions as impervious surface coverage increased. Furthermore, trait combinations that occurred only at low or medium impervious surface coverage were clustered in a subset of the community trait space, indicating that impervious surface affected the presence of only a subset of trait combinations. Functional richness declined with increasing impervious surface, providing evidence for environmental filtering. Community metrics that include abundance were also sensitive to increasing impervious surface coverage: functional divergence decreased while functional evenness increased. These changes demonstrate that increasing impervious surface coverage homogenizes the trait diversity of macroinvertebrate communities in streams, despite differences in initial community composition and stream geomorphology among ecoregions. Community

  11. Culture shapes eye movements for visually homogeneous objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly


    Full Text Available Culture affects the way people move their eyes to extract information in their visual world. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g., China display a disposition to process information holistically, whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g., Britain process information analytically. In terms of face processing, adults from Western cultures typically fixate the eyes and mouth, while adults from Eastern cultures fixate centrally on the nose region, yet face recognition accuracy is comparable across populations. A potential explanation for the observed differences relates to social norms concerning eye gaze avoidance/engagement when interacting with conspecifics. Furthermore, it has been argued that faces represent a ‘special’ stimulus category and are processed holistically, with the whole face processed as a single unit. The extent to which the holistic eye movement strategy deployed by East Asian observers is related to holistic processing for faces is undetermined. To investigate these hypotheses, we recorded eye movements of adults from Western and Eastern cultural backgrounds while learning and recognizing visually homogeneous objects: human faces, sheep faces and greebles. Both group of observers recognized faces better than any other visual category, as predicted by the specificity of faces. However, East Asian participants deployed central fixations across all the visual categories. This cultural perceptual strategy was not specific to faces, discarding any parallel between the eye movements of Easterners with the holistic processing specific to faces. Cultural diversity in the eye movements used to extract information from visual homogenous objects is rooted in more general and fundamental mechanisms.

  12. Algebraic Reynolds stress modeling of turbulence subject to rapid homogeneous and non-homogeneous compression or expansion (United States)

    Grigoriev, I. A.; Wallin, S.; Brethouwer, G.; Grundestam, O.; Johansson, A. V.


    A recently developed explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM) by Grigoriev et al. ["A realizable explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model for compressible turbulent flow with significant mean dilatation," Phys. Fluids 25(10), 105112 (2013)] and the related differential Reynolds stress model (DRSM) are used to investigate the influence of homogeneous shear and compression on the evolution of turbulence in the limit of rapid distortion theory (RDT). The DRSM predictions of the turbulence kinetic energy evolution are in reasonable agreement with RDT while the evolution of diagonal components of anisotropy correctly captures the essential features, which is not the case for standard compressible extensions of DRSMs. The EARSM is shown to give a realizable anisotropy tensor and a correct trend of the growth of turbulence kinetic energy K, which saturates at a power law growth versus compression ratio, as well as retaining a normalized strain in the RDT regime. In contrast, an eddy-viscosity model results in a rapid exponential growth of K and excludes both realizability and high magnitude of the strain rate. We illustrate the importance of using a proper algebraic treatment of EARSM in systems with high values of dilatation and vorticity but low shear. A homogeneously compressed and rotating gas cloud with cylindrical symmetry, related to astrophysical flows and swirling supercritical flows, was investigated too. We also outline the extension of DRSM and EARSM to include the effect of non-homogeneous density coupled with "local mean acceleration" which can be important for, e.g., stratified flows or flows with heat release. A fixed-point analysis of direct numerical simulation data of combustion in a wall-jet flow demonstrates that our model gives quantitatively correct predictions of both streamwise and cross-stream components of turbulent density flux as well as their influence on the anisotropies. In summary, we believe that our approach, based on a proper

  13. Homogeneous Photodynamical Analysis of Kepler's Multiply-Transiting Systems (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin

    To search for planets more like our own, NASA s Kepler Space Telescope ( Kepler ) discovered thousands of exoplanet candidates that cross in front of ( transit ) their parent stars (e.g., Twicken et al. 2016). The Kepler exoplanet data represent an incredible observational leap forward as evidenced by hundreds of papers with thousands of citations. In particular, systems with multiple transiting planets combine the determination of physical properties of exoplanets (e.g., radii), the context provided by the system architecture, and insights from orbital dynamics. Such systems are the most information-rich exoplanetary systems (Ragozzine & Holman 2010). Thanks to Kepler s revolutionary dataset, understanding these Multi-Transiting Systems (MTSs) enables a wide variety of major science questions. In conclusion, existing analyses of MTSs are incomplete and suboptimal and our efficient and timely proposal will provide significant scientific gains ( 100 new mass measurements and 100 updated mass measurements). Furthermore, our homogeneous analysis enables future statistical analyses, including those necessary to characterize the small planet mass-radius relation with implications for understanding the formation, evolution, and habitability of planets. The overarching goal of this proposal is a complete homogeneous investigation of Kepler MTSs to provide detailed measurements (or constraints) on exoplanetary physical and orbital properties. Current investigations do not exploit the full power of the Kepler data; here we propose to use better data (Short Cadence observations), better methods (photodynamical modeling), and a better statistical method (Bayesian Differential Evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo) in a homogenous analysis of all 700 Kepler MTSs. These techniques are particularly valuable for understanding small terrestrial planets. We propose to extract the near-maximum amount of information from these systems through a series of three research objectives

  14. Homogeneous linewidth and spectral diffusion in semiconductor nanocrystals (United States)

    Kruger, Sasha Dawn Tavenner

    Semiconductor nanocrystals a few nanometers in extent exhibit unique electronic and optical properties. These properties depend on the size and dimensionality of the confinement potential. The optical absorption spectrum of nanocrystals generally features a zero-phonon line (ZPL). Its width indicates the coupling of the electron to the electromagnetic vacuum and to phonons. Electron-phonon interactions are one strong source of exciton decoherence. The ZPL linewidth yields the total decoherence rate. This dissertation presents experimental studies of the decoherence rate in CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), nanorods, and PbS QDs. The spectroscopic work is accomplished by using high-resolution spectral-hole burning (SHB), which eliminates effects of inhomogeneous broadening due to nanocrystal size variations. SHB response-dependence on the measurement timescale is also used to probe spectral diffusion:random spectral shifts in the optical transition frequency due to a fluctuating local environment. These studies provide important information on decoherence processes in nanocrystals. SHB response obtained from spherical CdSe/ZnS QDs exhibits a sharp ZPL and discrete acoustic phonon sidebands due to phonon-assisted transitions. The suppression of effects of spectral diffusion in the SHB measurement leads to a ZPL homogeneous linewidth of 1.5 GHz; corresponding to a decoherence rate of 0.75 GHz, which is more than one order-of-magnitude smaller than that observed previously, still far exceeding the expected radiative linewidth. The observed acoustic phonon sidebands are in agreement with a theoretical estimate of the confined phonon modes in nanocrystals. No ZPL, however, was observed in the SHB response of PbS QDs, reflecting the strong electron-phonon interaction in these nanocrystals. The 0-D to 1-D transition is of particular interest, and is examined by comparing decoherence rates in QDs to those in nanorods. SHB response obtained from nanorods reveals a

  15. Hierarchy compensation of non-homogeneous intermittent atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.


    In this work a study both the internal turbulence energy cascade intermittency evaluated from wind speed series in the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as the role of external or forcing intermittency based on the flatness (Vindel et al 2008)is carried out. The degree of intermittency in the stratified ABL flow (Cuxart et al. 2000) can be studied as the deviation, from the linear form, of the absolute scaling exponents of the structure functions as well as generalizing for non-isotropic and non-homogeneous turbulence, even in non-inertial ranges (in the Kolmogorov-Kraichnan sense) where the scaling exponents are not constant. The degree of intermittency, evaluated in the non-local quasi-inertial range, is explained from the variation with scale of the energy transfer as well as the dissipation. The scale to scale transfer and the structure function scaling exponents are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres. The turbulent diffusivity could also be estimated and compared with Richardson's law. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the time and spatial integral length scales obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions, and we compare these results with both theoretical and laboratory data. We develop a theoretical description of how to measure the different levels of intermittency following (Mahjoub et al. 1998, 2000) and the role of locality in higher order exponents of structure function analysis. Vindel J.M., Yague C. and Redondo J.M. (2008) Structure function analysis and intermittency in the ABL. Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 915-929. Cuxart J, Yague C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler M R, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen H E, Rees J M, Vilá J, Redondo J M, Cantalapiedra R and Conangla L (2000): Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98): a report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96, 337-370 Mahjoub O

  16. A homogeneous biochemiluminescent assay for detection of influenza (United States)

    Hui, Kwok Min; Li, Xiao Jing; Pan, Lu; Li, X. J.


    Current methods of rapid detection of influenza are based on detection of the nucleic acids or antigens of influenza viruses. Since influenza viruses constantly mutate leading to appearance of new strains or variants of viruses, these detection methods are susceptible to genetic changes in influenza viruses. Type A and B influenza viruses contain neuraminidase, an essential enzyme for virus replication which enables progeny influenza viruses leave the host cells to infect new cells. Here we describe an assay method, the homogeneous biochemiluminescent assay (HBA), for rapid detection of influenza by detecting viral neuraminidase activity. The assay mimics the light production process of a firefly: a viral neuraminidase specific substrate containing a luciferin moiety is cleaved in the presence of influenza virus to release luciferin, which becomes a substrate to firefly luciferase in a light production system. All reagents can be formulated in a single reaction mix so that the assay involves only one manual step, i.e., sample addition. Presence of Type A or B influenza virus in the sample leads to production of strong, stable and easily detectable light signal, which lasts for hours. Thus, this influenza virus assay is suitable for use in point-of-care settings.

  17. Social enterprise in health organisation and management: hybridity or homogeneity? (United States)

    Millar, Ross


    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on social enterprise as an organisational form in health organisation and management. The paper presents a critique of the underlying assumptions associated with social enterprise in the context of English health and social care. The rise of social enterprise models of service provision reflects increasingly hybrid organisational forms and functions entering the health and social care market. Whilst at one level this hybridity increases the diversity of service providers promoting innovative and responsive services, the paper argues that further inspection of the assumptions associated with social enterprise reveal an organisational form that is symbolic of isomorphic processes pushing healthcare organisations toward greater levels of homogeneity, based on market-based standardisation and practices. Social enterprise forms part of isomorphic processes moving healthcare organisation and management towards market norms". In line with the aim of the "New Perspectives section", the paper aims to present a provocative perspective about developments in health and social care, as a spur to further debate and research in this area.

  18. Panaches horizontaux non-Boussinesq en milieu homog\\`ene

    CERN Document Server

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Mehaddi, Rabah; Vauquelin, Olivier; Candelier, Fabien


    The environmental impact of pollutants and effluents discharged into the atmosphere or the oceans has led researchers to conduct studies related to this issue. Several works have been carried out in this context in order to reduce the effect on the local environment. These types of ejections in nature are modeled as jets in the presence of a density gradient. In this study we treated the problem of inclined round turbulent buoyant jets and plumes ejected in a homogeneous or stratified fluid, at rest or in motion. The prediction of the flow behavior, i.e. the evolution of its variables, is first treated theoretically from a model whose formalism is valid in both the Boussinesq case as well as in the non-Boussinesq general case. Solving the equations governing the plumes is performed numerically using a Runge-Kutta 4th order. To validate the model, laboratory experiments are performed with round jets of air and helium for a wide range of densities. The confrontation theory-experience aims here to fix the limits...

  19. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application. (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S


    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Generalized Jones matrix method for homogeneous biaxial samples. (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi


    The generalized Jones matrix (GJM) is a recently introduced tool to describe linear transformations of three-dimensional light fields. Based on this framework, a specific method for obtaining the GJM of uniaxial anisotropic media was recently presented. However, the GJM of biaxial media had not been tackled so far, as the previous method made use of a simplified rotation matrix that lacks a degree of freedom in the three-dimensional rotation, thus being not suitable for calculating the GJM of biaxial media. In this work we propose a general method to derive the GJM of arbitrarily-oriented homogeneous biaxial media. It is based on the differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM), which is the three-dimensional counterpart of the conventional differential Jones matrix. We show that the dGJM provides a simple and elegant way to describe uniaxial and biaxial media, with the capacity to model multiple simultaneous optical effects. The practical usefulness of this method is illustrated by the GJM modeling of the polarimetric properties of a negative uniaxial KDP crystal and a biaxial KTP crystal for any three-dimensional sample orientation. The results show that this method constitutes an advantageous and straightforward way to model biaxial media, which show a growing relevance for many interesting applications.