Sample records for homogeneous forming technology

  1. Homogenization of metasurfaces formed by random resonant particles in periodical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Petrov, Mihail


    In this paper we suggest a simple analytical method for description of electromagnetic properties of a geometrically regular two-dimensional subwavelength arrays (metasurfaces) formed by particles with randomly fluctuating polarizabilities. We propose an analytical homogenization method applicable...

  2. Development of homogeneous mixing technology of dispersion nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, P. W.; Mun, S. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)


    The measurement methods of homogeneity of dispersion fuel were analyzed. The effects of mixing method, rotating speed, particle shape, particle size and moisture content on homogeneity of U{sub 3}Si/Al powder mixture were characterized by the apparent density measurement. The effects of fuel particle shape on green properties and optimum compaction conditions were investigated in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al powder compacts. 3 kinds of measurement method on the homogeneity were analyzed by apparent density measurement method, x-ray image contrast method and image analysis method of mixed powders or fuel rods. The homogeneity of dispersed fuel powder mixture was analyzed using three kinds of mixing, by apparent density measurements method. The homogeneity of powder mixture increased with rotating speed of the V-shape tumbler mixer. The comminuted irregular shaped particles and smaller particle size of fuel powders showed homogeneity improved of powder mixture due to adsorbed layer bonding. The homogeneity of powder mixtures increased to a minimum at approximately 0.10 wt% moisture and then decrease with moisture content. The relative density of the compacts increased with increasing the compacting pressure. The compressibility of comminuted powder compacts was larger than that of the atomized powder compacts due to the fragmentation of comminuted particles. The green strength of comminuted powder compacts is higher than that of the atomized powder compact. It is suggested that the compacting condition required to fabricate the atomized powder compacts is over the 350MPa. 76 refs., 44 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  3. Oscillation estimates relative to p-homogeneous forms and Kato measures data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biroli


    Full Text Available We state pointwise estimate for the positive subsolutions associated to a p-homogeneous form and nonnegative Radon measures data. As a by-product we establish an oscillation’s estimate for the solutions relative to Kato measures data.

  4. A theorem on homogeneous functions and extended Cobb-Douglas forms. (United States)

    Charnes, A; Cooper, W W; Schinnar, A P


    A form for homogeneous functions is presented which shows them to be a very simple extension of the wellknown Cobb-Douglas functions with similar properties in production (and distribution) economics. This form thus suggests new possibilities for interpreting a wide variety of empirical and theoretical results in economics; it also provides contact with developments in other fields, such as information theory and geometric programming.

  5. Properties of lotus seed starch-glycerin monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization. (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong


    Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high pressure homogenization (HPH) process, and the effect of HPH on the physicochemical properties of LS-GMS complexes was investigated. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and complex index analysis showed that LS-GMS complexes were formed at 40MPa by HPH and the complex index increased with the increase of homogenization pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed LS-GMS complexes present more nest-shape structure with increasing homogenization pressure. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that V-type crystalline polymorph was formed between LS and GMS, with higher homogenization pressure producing an increasingly stable complex. LS-GMS complex inhibited starch granules swelling, solubility and pasting development, which further reduced peak and breakdown viscosity. During storage, LS-GMS complexes prepared by 70-100MPa had higher Avrami exponent values and lower recrystallization rates compared with native starch, which suggested a lower retrogradation trendency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesomechanical aspects of computational modeling for non-homogeneous materials joined by forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Prawoto


    Full Text Available The metal forming and joining industries are constantly evolving to adapt to new materials and alloys and to meet customers’ needs. However, the size of the companies in this segment is typically small. Therefore, the progress of the mesomechanical modeling on non-homogeneous materials is relatively slow. This article aims to contribute to the advancement of such computational idea. The industries and academics alike may benefit the mesomechanical aspects of computational modeling for materials joined by forming using the established theories known in the field of mechanics. It may be used as an introductory for the society of joining by forming. This article reviews the basic concept of the finite element method, the fundamental mechanics and highlights some common problems in joining by forming, namely contact problems, local variations and interfacial cracking. This article aims to disseminate the meso/micro-mechanics approach to the field of joining by forming, which currently is dominated by experimental works and macroscopic modeling. Using the simple approaches discussed in this article, researchers with little or no background in computational mechanics can implement the concepts.

  7. Harnack inequality for harmonic functions relative to a nonlinear p-homogeneous Riemannian Dirichlet form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Biroli


    Full Text Available We consider a measure valued map α(u defined on D where D is a subspace of L^p(X,m with X a locally compact Hausdorff topological space with a distance under which it is a space of homogeneous type. Under assumptions of convexity, Gateaux differentiability and other assumptions on α which generalize the properties of the energy measure of a Dirichlet form, we prove the Holder continuity of the local solution u of the problem  ∫Xµ(u,v(dx = 0  for each v belonging to a suitable space of test functions, where µ(u,v =< α'(u,v >.

  8. A new criterion to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral images of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacré, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Lebrun, Pierre [Arlenda S.A., Avenue de l’Hopital, 1, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chavez, Pierre-François; Bleye, Charlotte De; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Rozet, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Klinkenberg, Régis; Streel, Bruno [Galéphar Research Center M/F, rue du Parc Industriel 39, 6900 Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium); Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium)


    Highlights: • DHI has been developed to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral maps. • This criterion has been tested with simulated maps of different homogeneity. • A linear relationship is observed between homogeneity and DHI value. • DHI methodology has been applied on real samples. • A linear relationship is observed between DHI and content uniformity values. - Abstract: During galenic formulation development, homogeneity of distribution is a critical parameter to check since it may influence activity and safety of the drug. Raman hyperspectral imaging is a technique of choice for assessing the distributional homogeneity of compounds of interest. Indeed, the combination of both spectroscopic and spatial information provides a detailed knowledge of chemical composition and component distribution. Actually, most authors assess homogeneity using parameters of the histogram of intensities (e.g. mean, skewness and kurtosis). However, this approach does not take into account spatial information and loses the main advantage of imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new criterion: Distributional Homogeneity Index (DHI). DHI has been tested on simulated maps and formulation development samples. The distribution maps of the samples were obtained without validated calibration model since different formulations were under investigation. The results obtained showed a linear relationship between content uniformity values and DHI values of distribution maps. Therefore, DHI methodology appears to be a suitable tool for the analysis of homogeneity of distribution maps even without calibration during formulation development.

  9. New metastable form of ice and its role in the homogeneous crystallization of water. (United States)

    Russo, John; Romano, Flavio; Tanaka, Hajime


    The homogeneous crystallization of water at low temperature is believed to occur through the direct nucleation of cubic (Ic) and hexagonal (Ih) ices. Here, we provide evidence from molecular simulations that the nucleation of ice proceeds through the formation of a new metastable phase, which we name Ice 0. We find that Ice 0 is structurally similar to the supercooled liquid, and that on growth it gradually converts into a stacking of Ice Ic and Ih. We suggest that this mechanism provides a thermodynamic explanation for the location and pressure dependence of the homogeneous nucleation temperature, and that Ice 0 controls the homogeneous nucleation of low-pressure ices, acting as a precursor to crystallization in accordance with Ostwald's step rule of phases. Our findings show that metastable crystalline phases of water may play roles that have been largely overlooked.

  10. Ceramic Product Forming Technologies Research Based on 3D Printing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Mingchun; Yang, Ling


    This paper describes two ceramic-forming technologies based on 3-D printing. One technology forms the product with 3-D printing indirectly, while the other technology forms the product directly with 3-D printing...

  11. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.


    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  12. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.


    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  13. Analytical form of current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers with homogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)


    The elementary processes taking place in the formation of charged particles and their flow in parallel-plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry cases of ionization chamber are considered. On the basis of particles and charges balance a differential equation describing the distribution of current densities in the ionization chamber volume is obtained. As a result of the differential equation solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of an ionization chamber with homogeneous ionization is obtained. For the parallel-plane case comparision with experimental data is performed.

  14. A novel high-pressure precipitation tandem homogenization technology for drug nanocrystals production - a case study with ursodeoxycholic acid. (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Yong; Yue, Peng-Fei; Hu, Peng-Yi; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Yuan, Hai-Long


    To overcome the limitations of the conventional particle size reduction technologies, a novel combinative particle size reduction method for the effective production of homogeneous nanosuspensions was investigated. Ursodeoxycholic acid, a poorly soluble drug representative, was tried to prepare nanosuspension by homogenization technology and high-pressure precipitation tandem homogenization technology. It was shown that the combinative approach could significantly improve the particle size reduction effectiveness over conventional homogenization approach. The Box-Behnken design analysis for process optimization revealed that the acceptable UDCA-NS was obtained wherein the optimal values of A, B, C and D were 10%, 500 bar, 0.125 and 600 bar, respectively. SEM results demonstrated that no significant aggregation or crystals growth could be observed in the freeze-dried UDCA nanocrystals. The DSC and XRD results showed that UDCA remained in a crystalline state. Dissolution velocities of the freeze-dried UDCA-NS powder were distinctly superior compared to those of the crude powder and physical mixture. The high-pressure precipitation tandem homogenization technology can be a good choice for nanosuspension preparation of poorly soluble UDCA, due to high efficiency of particle size reduction.

  15. Precise construction of oligonucleotide-Fab fragment conjugate for homogeneous immunoassay using HaloTag technology. (United States)

    Päkkilä, Henna; Peltomaa, Riikka; Lamminmäki, Urpo; Soukka, Tero


    The use of oligonucleotide-protein conjugates enables the development of novel types of bioanalytical assays. However, convenient methods for producing covalent and stoichiometric oligonucleotide-protein conjugates are still rare. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, covalent conjugation of DNA oligonucleotide to Fab fragments with a 1:1 ratio using HaloTag self-labeling technology. The oligonucleotide coupling was carried out while the Fab was attached to protein G matrix, thereby enabling straightforward production of covalent conjugates. Furthermore, it allowed convenient purification of the product because the unreacted components were easily removed before the elution of the high-purity conjugate. The prepared conjugate was employed in a homogeneous immunoassay where prostate-specific antigen was used as a model analyte. Switchable lanthanide luminescence was used for detection, and the obtained limit of detection was 0.27 ng/ml. In the future, the developed method for covalent conjugation and successive purification in protein G column could also be applied for introducing other kinds of modifications to Fab fragments in a simple and site-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The stability of bubbles formed from supersaturated solutions, and homogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles from solution, both revisited. (United States)

    Goldman, Saul


    The solution of the problem of the relative stability of all possible equilibrium bubble states that can form from a closed, finite, supersaturated gas-liquid solution, maintained at a fixed temperature and a fixed external pressure is given. The supersaturated solution may contain any number of dissolved volatile solutes. The full solution to this problem has remained elusive for decades, because of the complication of pressure inequalities between the bubbles and the constant external (or reservoir) pressure. The method of solution is one that had been used previously to solve the related problem of the stability of a liquid droplet in a supersaturated vapor, where the same complication occurred. The derived equations were found to reduce correctly when simplified; they were consistent with experiment, and the system Gibbs free energy appropriately obeyed the Law of Corresponding States. The expressions were used in the context of transition state theory to provide semiempirical predictions of the rate of homogeneous bubble formation from a supersaturated solution, and the "critical pressure for homogeneous nucleation (P(crit))". The nucleation Gibbs free energy expression derived here had a lower barrier height and resulted in a reduction of P(crit) values, relative to what was obtained from the basis of a pre-existing approximate expression taken from the literature. Applications to chemical engineering and human decompression modeling are briefly described.

  17. Kinetics of soybean oil epoxidation with peracetic acid formed in situ in the presence of an ion exchange resin: Pseudo-homogeneous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Milovan


    Full Text Available A kinetic model was proposed for the epoxidation of vegetable oils with peracetic acid formed in situ from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an acidic ion exchange resin as a catalyst. The model is pseudo-homogeneous with respect to the catalyst. Besides the main reactions of peracetic acid and epoxy ring formation, the model takes into account the side reaction of epoxy ring opening with acetic acid. The partitioning of acetic acid and peracetic acid between the aqueous and organic phases and the change in the phases’ volumes during the process were considered. The temperature dependency of the apparent reaction rate coefficients is described by a reparameterized Arrhenius equation. The constants in the proposed model were estimated by fitting the experimental data obtained for the epoxidations of soybean oil conducted under defined reaction conditions. The highest epoxy yield of 87.73% was obtained at 338 K when the mole ratio of oil unsaturation:acetic acid:hydrogen peroxide was 1:0.5:1.35 and when the amount of the catalyst Amberlite IR-120H was 4.04 wt.% of oil. Compared to the other reported pseudo-homogeneous models, the model proposed in this study better correlates the change of double bond and epoxy group contents during the epoxidation process. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45022

  18. Linking biotic homogenization to habitat type, invasiveness and growth form of naturalized alien plants in North America (United States)

    Hong Qian; Qinfeng. Guo


    Aim Biotic homogenization is a growing phenomenon and has recently attracted much attention. Here, we analyse a large dataset of native and alien plants in North America to examine whether biotic homogenization is related to several ecological and biological attributes. Location North America (north of Mexico). Methods We assembled...

  19. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang


    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  20. Request for Information from entities interested in commercializing Laboratory-developed homogeneous catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Miranda Huang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Many industrial catalysts used for homogeneous hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of unsaturated substrates are derived from metal complexes that include (air-sensitive) ligands that are often expensive and difficult to synthesize. In particular, catalysts used for many hydrogenations are based on phosphorus containing ligands (in particular PNP pincer systems). These ligands are often difficult to make, are costly, are constrained to having two carbon atoms in the ligand backbone and are susceptible to oxidation at phosphorus, making their use somewhat complicated. Los Alamos researchers have recently developed a new and novel set of ligands that are based on a NNS (ENENES) skeleton (i.e. no phosphorus donors, just nitrogen and sulfur).

  1. Economic homogenization and heterogenization in the EU with the EMU - technological, sectoral and regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard


    Traditional the arguments for the EMU have been founded in arguments from the theory of optimal currency unions. Even if that should be the case there would still be problems if technological development are characterized by increasing returns. In that case growing economic differences according...... to sector, technology and region will be the result....



    Niculae MARIN; Victor GHIZDAVU


    The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN


    Full Text Available The explosive forming represents a technological alternative for obtaining small-lot parts,with inexpensive and efficient manufacturing preparation. The explosive forming processing methodspresent a series of important advantages, being recommended for the wide-scale application in theaerospace industry. The economic benefit varies from case to case, independent from the part type,manufacturing series and user.

  4. Modern technology homogenizes enological traits of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais, a traditional wine in China. (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Xue, Julan


    In this study, we performed a pilot-scale evaluation of the enological characteristics of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais, a traditional Chinese wine produced by a unique technology of boiling grape juice prior to spontaneous fermentation. Technical and sensory characteristics of top ten indigenous strains previously identified by us by screening a collection of 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains (Zhu et al. 2016) were assayed in a traditional craft workshop (TCW) and a modern plant (MP). The use of these strains reduced the spontaneous fermentation (Spo F) period by 6-15 days, and resulted in higher sugar and lower alcohol content in TCW Msalais than in MP Msalais. Sensory scores of Msalais fermented by the ten strains were higher than those of wine produced with a commercial strain cy3079, varying in TCW fermentations and significantly different from Spo F, but homogenous for all MP fermentations. Four strains were extensively screened for use in industrial Msalais production. We conclude that modern technology homogenizes enological traits of indigenous strains while traditional craftsmanship maintains their enological diversity. Some strains domesticated in the course of both processes are suitable for industrial Msalais production.

  5. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung


    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  6. Evaluation of metrology technologies for free form surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arámbula, K.; Siller, H.R.; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This research work describes a novel approach for comparing different technologies for free form surface metrology: computerized tomography (CT), photogrammetry and coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The comparison has the aim of providing relevant information for the selection of metrology...... also deals with costs issues, required standards, and necessary additional information when selecting inspection equipment....

  7. Research Status on the Heterogeneous Sheet Connection Forming Technology

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    SHI Wen-yong


    Full Text Available The heterogeneous sheet connection forming is one of the effective ways to realize lightweight in many fields,such as equipment manufacturing and transportation. However, there are obvious differences in the material properties,when using the traditional connection methods,there is a certain technical bottlenecks. In this paper, the technological characteristics and research status of the welding method and mechanical connection method are discussed in detail,such as the TIC welding and the laser welding. The advantages and development potential of the technology are introduced in the field of the heterogeneous sheet connection,in combination with the industry development and the use demand,the development of the heterogeneous sheet connection technology is expected,to provide the technical support for the research and development of new heterogeneous sheet connection technology.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis Of Technological And Material Parameters In Roll Forming (United States)

    Gehring, Albrecht; Saal, Helmut


    Roll forming is applied for several decades to manufacture thin gauged profiles. However, the knowledge about this technology is still based on empirical approaches. Due to the complexity of the forming process, the main effects on profile properties are difficult to identify. This is especially true for the interaction of technological parameters and material parameters. General considerations for building a finite-element model of the roll forming process are given in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on base of a statistical design approach in order to identify the effects and interactions of different parameters on profile properties. The parameters included in the analysis are the roll diameter, the rolling speed, the sheet thickness, friction between the tools and the sheet and the strain hardening behavior of the sheet material. The analysis includes an isotropic hardening model and a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. All jobs are executed parallel to reduce the overall time as the sensitivity analysis requires much CPU-time. The results of the sensitivity analysis demonstrate the opportunities to improve the properties of roll formed profiles by adjusting technological and material parameters to their optimum interacting performance.

  9. Roll forming technology for manufacturing axisymmetric automotive components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.; Bieh, T.G.; Yang, H.s.; Brown, K.R.; Kaibyshev, R.O.; Petrov, E.N.


    A unique roll forming technology that permits complex axisymmetric components, such as automobile wheels and turbine disks, to be formed in a single forming operation, has been developed by two Russian Institute, the Institute of Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center and the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems. This process was used to fabricate automobile wheels from a Russian AVT alloy, a 6010 aluminum alloy equivalent. The process included steps of isothermal roll forming of preforms into wheels shapes, all at 430C for the AVT alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated at various locations in the finished wheels by optical metallography and tensile testing at elevated temperatures. Tensile properties were obtained by stain-rate change tests and tensile tests to failure at high strain rates. Microstructure and mechanical propertied of the preforms and blanks were also evaluated. The results indicate that dynamically recovered microstructures were developed during the processing, which showed relatively high strain rate sensitivity and rendered sufficiently plasticity at the elevated temperature for wheel fabrication process.

  10. Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond cryogenic barrier technology demonstration: Pre-barrier subsurface hydrology and contaminant transport investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moline, G.R.


    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes that has since been drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by a tributary that empties into Melton Branch Creek and that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily {sup 90}Sr. Because of the proximity of the tributary to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the tributary, it is hypothesized that the HRE Pond is a source of contamination to he creek. As a means for temporary containment of contaminants within the impoundment, a cryogenic barrier technology demonstration was initiated in FY96 with a background hydrologic investigation that continued through FY97. Cryogenic equipment installation was completed in FY97, and freezing was initiated in September of 1997. This report documents the results of a hydrologic and geologic investigation of the HRE Pond/cryogenic barrier site. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the impoundment in order to meet the following objectives: (1) to provide a pre-barrier subsurface hydrologic baseline for post-barrier performance assessment; (2) to confirm that the impoundment is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments; and (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the impoundment. The methods of investigation included water level and temperature monitoring in a network of wells and standpipes in and surrounding the impoundment, a helium tracer test conducted under ambient flow conditions, and geologic logging during the drilling of boreholes for installation of cryogenic probes and temperature monitoring wells.

  11. On-line Technology Information System (OTIS): Solid Waste Management Technology Information Form (SWM TIF) (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriguez, Luis


    Contents include the following: What is OTIS? OTIS use. Proposed implementation method. Development history of the Solid Waste Management (SWM) Technology Information Form (TIF) and OTIS. Current development state of the SWM TIF and OTIS. Data collection approach. Information categories. Critiques/questions/feedback.

  12. Laser formed intentional firearm microstamping technology: counterinsurgency intelligence gathering tool (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.


    Warfare relies on effective, accurate and timely intelligence an especially critical task when conducting a counterinsurgency operation [1]. Simply stated counterinsurgency is an intelligence war. Both insurgents and counterinsurgents need effective intelligence capabilities to be successful. Insurgents and counterinsurgents therefore attempt to create and maintain intelligence networks and fight continuously to neutralize each other's intelligence capabilities [1][2]. In such an environment it is obviously an advantage to target or proactively create opportunities to track and map an insurgent movement. Quickly identifying insurgency intelligence assets (Infiltrators) within a host government's infrastructure is the goal. Infiltrators can occupy various areas of government such as security personnel, national police force, government offices or military units. Intentional Firearm Microstamping offers such opportunities when implemented into firearms. Outfitted within firearms purchased and distributed to the host nation's security forces (civilian and military), Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) marks bullet cartridge casings with codes as they are fired from the firearm. IFM is incorporated onto optimum surfaces with the firearm mechanism. The intentional microstamp tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes that identify the firearm. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing which is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of a firefight or engagement, the technology will provide forensic intelligence allowing the mapping and tracking of small arms traffic patterns within the host nation or identify insurgency force strength and pinpoint firearm sources, such as corrupt/rogue military units or police force. Intentional Firearm Microstamping is a passive mechanical trace technology that can be outfitted or retrofitted to semiautomatic handguns and

  13. Development of fi lm forming formulation and technology of polymeric fi lm coating on Indotril tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko


    for nature of studied filming agents. Homogeneity in bulk of coated “Indotril” tablets also did not differ significantly as for filming agents’ nature. Divergence in mass of coated tablets did not differ significantly from uncoated ones; it testifies identity of filming process over all tablets surface. Strength of coated “Indotril” tablets as compared with uncoated ones increases in average on 15-20 H. Variance analysis of experimental data concerning tablets disintegration resistance showed that there was no significant difference between studied filming agents. While defining disintegration time statistical significance of filming agents’ nature was determined. Ranking is the following: 6% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 603 > 5% solution of Opadray II WHITE > 5% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 606 > 4% solution of HPMC Pharmacoat 615. But the difference between filming agents’ nature is not more than 2 minutes. Opadray II WHITE has been chosen for further study; it comes to the enterprise (“Arterium” Corporation where the results of investigation are planned to be introduced for the manufacture of other tablet dosage forms. On the next stage of our investigation we defined optimal values of quantitative factors, notably the influence of air temperature under gas distribution grid, concentration of film forming suspension and film thickness on the properties of coated “Indotril” tablets. Conclusion. Influence of filming agent nature on properties of coated tablets «Indotril» was studied, namely on appearance, homogeneity in bulk, mechanical strength, disintegration time. Opadray II WHITE was proposed for coating “Indotril” tablets by protective polymeric coat in pseudo-fluidized layer. Worked out formulation of filming agent solution and technology of its application were included into technological regulation of «Indotril» tablets production.

  14. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail:


    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  15. Innovative cold joining technologies based on tube forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Luis M.


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on innovative cold joining technologies for connecting tubes and fixing tubes to sheets. The proposed technologies are based on the utilization of plastic instability waves in thin-walled tubes subjected to axial compression and may be seen as an alternative to conventional joining technologies based on mechanical fixing with fasteners, welding and structural adhesive bonding. Besides allowing connecting dissimilar materials and being successfully employed in fixture conditions that are difficult and costly to achieve by means of conventional joining the new proposed technologies also cope with the growing concerns on the demand, lifecycle and recycling of materials.

  16. Engaging ArcForm in Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allsopp, Benjamin Brink

    ArcForm is a non-linear form of general-purpose human language. It is designed as an alternative to paragraphs of text for intellectual collaboration (Allsopp 2013). It combines three areas of notational value. 1) It is similar to natural language (NL): both in its expressiveness and in the way...

  17. Forms of Knowledge Representation in Enterprise Information Technologies


    Dovgan, Svitlana


    In today's conditions of data saturation and economical globalization, decision making occurs in organizations more frequently. Effective actions rely on decisions that are both informed and knowledgeable. To remain competitive, organizations must effectively create, locate, capture, and share their knowledge and expertise. This requires application of new information technology ? knowledge management.

  18. The Technology of Forming of Innovative Content for Engineering Education (United States)

    Kayumova, Lilija A.; Savva, Lubov I.; Soldatchenko, Aleksandr L.; Sirazetdinov, Rustem M.; Akhmetov, Linar G.


    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the modernization of engineering education aimed at specialists' training to solve engineering and economic problems effectively. The goal of the paper is to develop the technology of the innovative content's formation for engineering education. The leading method to the study of this problem is a…

  19. Technological homogeneity within the Arabian Nubian Complex: Comparing chert and quartzite assemblages from central and southern Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamandú H. Hilbert


    Full Text Available Nubian Levallois technology is the defining characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic or Middle Stone Age technocomplex known as the Nubian Complex. Until recently, this technocomplex was found exclusively in northeastern Africa; however, archaeological surveys conducted across the Arabian Peninsula in the last decade have expanded the known distribution of this technological phenomenon. Since 2009, researchers from separate archaeological missions have mapped sites yielding Nubian cores and debitage, and by extension Nubian technology, in the southern, central and northernmost parts of the Arabia Peninsula. Nubian Complex artifacts in central and southern Arabia were made using different raw materials: in Al-Kharj (central Saudi Arabia Middle Paleolithic industries were made exclusively on quartzite, while in Dhofar (southern Oman chert was the only knappable material available for use. Given these differences, we sought to examine the influence of raw material variability on core morphology and size. Contrary to initial hypothesis, this study finds that the differences recorded are not a function of raw material properties. In both areas, Nubian cores were reduced using the same technological systems producing a set of preferential blanks. Rather, the recorded differences from raw material constrains were primarily due to knapping accidents, which occur in higher proportions at quartzite-based assemblages from Al-Kharj (specifically the siret fracture compared with the chert assemblages from Dhofar. In sum, we argue that raw material had little effect on Nubian Levallois core technology and was not a constraint on Nubian Complex artisans.

  20. Problems forming innovative-technological image of russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova


    Full Text Available In this paper, actual problems of innovative-technological image as a key element of the mechanism of the healing sources of socioeconomic development of the Russian regionsare considered. The author gives an assessment of the level of differentiation of subjects of the Russian Federation on the potential for innovative development. Trends in spatial transformations of thescientific and technical and innovation capacities of the country are analyzedand reasons of low innovational activity of Russian enterprises are disclosed. Basic conditions for the success of actions to create an attractive image of innovative-technological territory are formulated. Special attention is paid to the position of regions as participants in the innovational processes, creating preconditions for creativity, harmonization of spatial priorities of innovation, technological and socio-economic development, support for the development of new high-tech industries, improvement of inter-budgetary relations. There are proved priority areas of state policy to reduce barriers to the realization of an innovative paradigm for development of Russian society and effective inclusion of local communities in the implementation of innovative changes.

  1. Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamediarov N.N.


    Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha M. Havrylenko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of readiness forming technology for the use of information and communication technologies by future teachers of English at the professional activity. The aim of this article is to ground and analyze suggested technology. The actuality of the research is caused by the necessity to train competitive specialist under the conditions of modern educational information environment. The essence of technology for readiness forming of mentioned activity is considered in the article, the strategies, aspects and levels are underlined, the functions of feedback are denoted as well as the main characteristics are analyzed. Pedagogic conditions which ensure the effectiveness of readiness forming technology for the use of information and communication technologies by future teachers are denoted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Drapaliuk


    Full Text Available In the paper main points of technology of semi-dry forming of the ferroconcrete articles of hydraulic engineering purposes are presented. The semi-dry forming of the modified concrete mixes enables to avoid the heat treatment of articles due to the activation effect development and the thermos soaking during 75 min.

  4. Exploring How Technology Mediates the Types of Relationships Formed in Sociotechnical Systems (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai


    This work presents an exploratory study of how technology mediates the different types of relationships that are formed in sociotechnical systems. More people each day are connecting with each other through social networks, online communities, and other forms of virtual environments. Whether for education, information seeking, friendship,…

  5. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)


    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  6. Manufacturing Solid Dosage Forms from Bulk Liquids Using the Fluid-bed Drying Technology. (United States)

    Qi, Jianping; Lu, Y I; Wu, Wei


    Solid dosage forms are better than liquid dosage forms in many ways, such as improved physical and chemical stability, ease of storage and transportation, improved handling properties, and patient compliance. Therefore, it is required to transform dosage forms of liquid origins into solid dosage forms. The functional approaches are to absorb the liquids by solid excipients or through drying. The conventional drying technologies for this purpose include drying by heating, vacuum-, freeze- and spray-drying, etc. Among these drying technologies, fluidbed drying emerges as a new technology that possesses unique advantages. Fluid-bed drying or coating is highly efficient in solvent removal, can be performed at relatively low temperatures, and is a one-step process to manufacture formulations in pellet forms. In this article, the status of the art of manufacturing solid dosage forms from bulk liquids by fluid-bed drying technology was reviewed emphasizing on its application in solid dispersion, inclusion complexes, self-microemulsifying systems, and various nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  7. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian


    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  8. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matysiak


    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  9. Assessment of the Cast Stone Low-Temperature Waste Form Technology Coupled with Technetium Removal - 14379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Rapko, Brian M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Cozzi, Alex; Fox, Kevin M.; Mccabe, Daniel J.; Nash, C. A.; Wilmarth, William R.


    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing low-temperature waste forms for immobilization of DOE aqueous waste streams, including technetium removal as an implementing technology. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the Cast Stone waste immobilization and technetium removal projects at Hanford. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) conducting performance assessments and risk assessments of waste form and disposal system performance, and 2) technetium chemistry in tank wastes and separation of technetium from waste processing streams. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps were identified and an initial sequencing priority was suggested. A subset of research was initiated in 2013 to begin addressing the most significant science and technology gaps. The purpose of this paper is to report progress made towards closing these gaps and provide notable highlights of results achieved to date.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.


    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing low-temperature waste forms for immobilization of DOE aqueous waste streams, including technetium removal as an implementing technology. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the Cast Stone waste immobilization projects at Hanford. Science and technology needs were identified for work associated with 1) conducting performance assessments and risk assessments of waste form and disposal system performance, and 2) technetium chemistry in tank wastes and separations of technetium from waste processing streams. Technical approaches to address the science and technology needs were identified and an initial sequencing priority was suggested. The following table summarizes the most significant science and technology needs and associated approaches to address those needs. These approaches and priorities will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Implementation of a science and technology program that addresses these needs by pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with near-term decisions regarding supplemental immobilization at Hanford. Longer term, the work has the potential for cost savings and for providing a strong technical foundation for future


    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.


    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  12. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tom-Aba

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions.

  13. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo


    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  14. Local markets and digital technologies: Among e-commerce and new forms of conviviality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Robles


    Full Text Available Virtual storefronts, online sales, the enhancement of short and agroecological circuits of production through effective communication policies in social networks, are strategies that many small businesses are now using to value their traditional expertise, paradoxically based on proximity and direct treatment. this article analyzes the role of digital technologies in the re-signification and re-activation of small businesses and traditional markets. the use of digital technologies challenges Internet as an agent of deterritorialization and creation of global culture, in front of the presence of new forms of localization based on the emergence of new forms of conviviality, agroecology and healthy eating.

  15. CMOS technology: a critical enabler for free-form electronics-based killer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers batch manufacturability by ultra-large-scaleintegration (ULSI) of high performance electronics with a performance/cost advantage and profound reliability. However, as of today their focus has been on rigid and bulky thin film based materials. Their applications have been limited to computation, communication, display and vehicular electronics. With the upcoming surge of Internet of Everything, we have critical opportunity to expand the world of electronics by bridging between CMOS technology and free form electronics which can be used as wearable, implantable and embedded form. The asymmetry of shape and softness of surface (skins) in natural living objects including human, other species, plants make them incompatible with the presently available uniformly shaped and rigidly structured today’s CMOS electronics. But if we can break this barrier then we can use the physically free form electronics for applications like plant monitoring for expansion of agricultural productivity and quality, we can find monitoring and treatment focused consumer healthcare electronics – and many more creative applications. In our view, the fundamental challenge is to engage the mass users to materialize their creative ideas. Present form of electronics are too complex to understand, to work with and to use. By deploying game changing additive manufacturing, low-cost raw materials, transfer printing along with CMOS technology, we can potentially stick high quality CMOS electronics on any existing objects and embed such electronics into any future objects that will be made. The end goal is to make them smart to augment the quality of our life. We use a particular example on implantable electronics (brain machine interface) and its integration strategy enabled by CMOS device design and technology run path. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is

  16. CMOS technology: a critical enabler for free-form electronics-based killer applications (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hanna, Amir


    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers batch manufacturability by ultra-large-scaleintegration (ULSI) of high performance electronics with a performance/cost advantage and profound reliability. However, as of today their focus has been on rigid and bulky thin film based materials. Their applications have been limited to computation, communication, display and vehicular electronics. With the upcoming surge of Internet of Everything, we have critical opportunity to expand the world of electronics by bridging between CMOS technology and free form electronics which can be used as wearable, implantable and embedded form. The asymmetry of shape and softness of surface (skins) in natural living objects including human, other species, plants make them incompatible with the presently available uniformly shaped and rigidly structured today's CMOS electronics. But if we can break this barrier then we can use the physically free form electronics for applications like plant monitoring for expansion of agricultural productivity and quality, we can find monitoring and treatment focused consumer healthcare electronics - and many more creative applications. In our view, the fundamental challenge is to engage the mass users to materialize their creative ideas. Present form of electronics are too complex to understand, to work with and to use. By deploying game changing additive manufacturing, low-cost raw materials, transfer printing along with CMOS technology, we can potentially stick high quality CMOS electronics on any existing objects and embed such electronics into any future objects that will be made. The end goal is to make them smart to augment the quality of our life. We use a particular example on implantable electronics (brain machine interface) and its integration strategy enabled by CMOS device design and technology run path.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Beskorsa


    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of functioning features of computer technology while forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence whose relevance is proved by the increasing role of a foreign language as a means of communication and modernization of foreign language education. There is a great deal of publications devoted to the issue of foreign language learning at primary school by N. Biriukevych, O. Kolominova, O. Metolkina, O. Petrenko, V. Redko, S. Roman. Implementing of innovative technology as well as computer one is to intensify the language learning process and to improve young learners’ communicative skills. The aim of the article is to identify computer technology functioning features while forming primary schoolchildren communicative competence. In this study we follow the definition of the computer technology as an information technology whose implementation may be accompanied with a computer as one of the tools, excluding the use of audio and video equipment, projectors and other technical tools. Using computer technologies is realized due to a number of tools which are divided into two main groups: electronic learning materials; computer testing software. The analysis of current textbooks and learning and methodological complexes shows that teachers prefer authentic electronic materials to the national ones. The most available English learning materials are on the Internet and they are free. The author of the article discloses several on-line English learning tools and depict the opportunities to use them while forming primary schoolchildren’s communicative competence. Special attention is also paid to multimedia technology, its functioning features and multimedia lesson structure. Computer testing software provides tools for current and control assessing results of mastering language material, communicative skills, and self-assessing in an interactive way. For making tests for assessing English skill

  18. Homogeneity and thermodynamic identities in geometrothermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Hernando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Rome (Italy); Quevedo, Maria N. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Bogota (Colombia); Sanchez, Alberto [CIIDET, Departamento de Posgrado, Queretaro (Mexico)


    We propose a classification of thermodynamic systems in terms of the homogeneity properties of their fundamental equations. Ordinary systems correspond to homogeneous functions and non-ordinary systems are given by generalized homogeneous functions. This affects the explicit form of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Euler's identity. We show that these generalized relations can be implemented in the formalism of black hole geometrothermodynamics in order to completely fix the arbitrariness present in Legendre invariant metrics. (orig.)

  19. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain


    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  20. Tubular House - Form Follows Technology, Concrete Shell Structure with Inner Thermal Insulation (United States)

    Idem, Robert; Kleczek, Paweł; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Chudoba, Piotr


    The aim of this paper is the theoretical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of using an unconventional technology and the original architectural form stemming from it – the building with external construction and internal insulation. In Central European climatic conditions, the traditional solution for the walls of heated buildings relies on using external thermal insulation. This stems from building physics: it prevents interstitial condensation of water vapour in the wall. Internal insulation is used exceptionally. This is done e.g. in historical buildings undergoing thermal modernization (due to the impossibility of interfering with facade). In such cases, a thermal insulation layer is used on the internal wall surface, along with an additional layer of vapour barrier. The concept of building concerns the intentional usage of an internal insulation. In this case, the construction is a tight external reinforced concrete shell. The architectural form of such building is strongly interrelated with the technology, which was used to build it. The paper presents the essence of this concept in descriptive and drawing form. The basic elements of such building are described (the external construction, the internal insulation and ventilation). As a case study, authors present a project of a residential building along with the description of the applied materials and installation solutions, and the results obtained from thermal, humidity and energetic calculations. The discussion presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed concept. The basic advantage of this solution is potentially low building cost. This stems from minimizing the ground works, the simplicity of the joints and the outer finish, as well as from the possibility of prefabrication of the elements. The continuity of the thermal insulation allows to reduce the amount of thermal bridges. The applied technology and form are applicable most of all for small buildings, due to limited

  1. Automated inspection of gaps on the free-form shape parts by laser scanning technologies (United States)

    Zhou, Sen; Xu, Jian; Tao, Lei; An, Lu; Yu, Yan


    In industrial manufacturing processes, the dimensional inspection of the gaps on the free-form shape parts is critical and challenging, and is directly associated with subsequent assembly and terminal product quality. In this paper, a fast measuring method for automated gap inspection based on laser scanning technologies is presented. The proposed measuring method consists of three steps: firstly, the relative position is determined according to the geometric feature of measuring gap, which considers constraints existing in a laser scanning operation. Secondly, in order to acquire a complete gap profile, a fast and effective scanning path is designed. Finally, the range dimension of the gaps on the free-form shape parts including width, depth and flush, correspondingly, is described in a virtual environment. In the future, an appliance machine based on the proposed method will be developed for the on-line dimensional inspection of gaps on the automobile or aerospace production line.

  2. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng


    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  3. Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Vesentini, E


    This title includes: S.G. Gindikin, I.I. Pjateckii-Sapiro, E.B. Vinberg: Homogeneous Kahler manifolds; S.G. Greenfield: Extendibility properties of real submanifolds of Cn; W. Kaup: Holomorphische Abbildungen in Hyperbolische Raume; A. Koranyi: Holomorphic and harmonic functions on bounded symmetric domains; J.L. Koszul: Formes harmoniques vectorielles sur les espaces localement symetriques; S. Murakami: Plongements holomorphes de domaines symetriques; and E.M. Stein: The analogues of Fatous' theorem and estimates for maximal functions.

  4. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf


    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  5. 2D arrays device for calcaneus bone transmission: an alternative technological solution using crossed beam forming. (United States)

    Defontaine, M; Bonneau, S; Padilla, F; Gomez, M A; Nasser Eddin, M; Laugier, P; Patat, F


    In the context of manned space flight with the European Space Agency, a quantitative ultrasound device for transmission imaging through the calcaneus bone has been developed. It includes two matrix transducers of 576 elements each in order to electronically perform the scanning and the focusing of the 500 kHz ultrasonic beam. This device called the BEAM scanner, provides two parametric images of attenuation (BUA, broadband ultrasonic attenuation) and velocity (SOS, speed of sound) of the investigated skeletal site. The cost and complexity of such a device has motivated the study of an alternative solution, less demanding in terms of technology, based on a crossed beam former [H. Ermert et al., A new concept for a real-time ultrasound transmission camera, in: IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 2000, pp. 1611-1614]. It consists in forming two perpendicular cylindrically focused planes, one in emission, one in reception, instead of two spherically focused apertures. The crossing line of the two planes replaces the focused beam. The 2D beam forming technological challenge is moved to a 1D simpler and cheaper architecture. In this work the two solutions have been compared for in vivo measurements. Data sets have been acquired using all spatial combinations of emission and reception single elements of the matrix. Then signals have been processed using either the cylindrical or the spherical focussing mode. For cylindrical focussing, the increased level of the side lobes caused severe artefacts. Several apodization techniques have been implemented to reduce these artefacts, resulting in encouraging results. After a brief description of this new ultrasonic method for bone quantitative assessment, several reconstructed images using both processing schemes are presented. Corresponding statistical results obtained in 29 subjects are also provided.

  6. The Scary Promise of Technology : Developing New Forms of Audience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Joke Hermes


    Hoofdstuk 12 uit deel III: Uses of cultural technologies. The essays in this volume discuss both the culture of technology that we live in today, and culture as technology. Within the chapters of the book cultures of technology and cultural technologies are discussed, focussing on a variety of

  7. Investigation of Flat Clinching Process Combined with Material Forming Technology for Aluminum Alloy. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Shengdun; Han, Xiaolan; Wang, Yongfei; Zhao, Xuzhe


    In recent years, the use of aluminum alloy has tended to increase for building lightweight automobiles to reduce their automotive weight, which is helpful to save energy and protect the environment. In order to join aluminum alloy, a flat-clinching process combined with material forming technology was investigated to join aluminum alloy sheets using an experimental and a numerical method. Al1060 was chosen as the material of the sheet, and DEFORM-2D software was used to build the numerical model. After the numerical model was validated by the experimental results, the influences of punch diameter and holder force on the materials deforming behavior of the clinched joint were analyzed using the numerical model. Then, the material flow, joining ability, and joining quality were investigated to assess the clinched joint. The results showed that an increase in punch diameter could give rise to an increase in neck thickness and interlocking length, while an increase in blank holder force induced a decrease in interlocking length and an increase in neck thickness. The joining quality could be increased by increasing the forming force. It can be concluded that a clinched joint has better joining quality for joining light-weight sheets onto automotive structures.

  8. Advantages and limitations of using a server cluster for Server Appliances (specifically, X - Web Form Manager by Avain Technologies Oy)


    Mikhailov, Alexei


    This thesis describes some general concepts and logic behind server clusters, as well as gives a few examples on technologies available as of 2009. It also depicts a certain problems that can occur when using clustering environment in a certain situations. As an example, a test of X-Web Form Manager application by Avain Technologies is presented. The objective of this paper was to find out the basics of clustering technologies and to try out X–WFM in a new environment.

  9. The Scary Promise of Technology: Developing New Forms of Audience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Joke Hermes


    The essays in this volume discuss both the culture of technology that we live in today, and culture as technology. Within the chapters of the book cultures of technology and cultural technologies are discussed, focussing on a variety of examples, from varied national contexts. The book brings

  10. Leveraging the Habit-Forming Aspects of Technology to Increase Levels of Physical Activity (United States)

    Rotich, Willy Kipkemboi


    The use of technology to promote physical activity has been rapidly gaining popularity as technological advances find ever-broadening applications. Though some technology aspects (i.e., on-screen video games) were for long perceived to be incompatible with efforts to diminish physical inactivity, evolving technology has made incorporating newer…

  11. Urban Form and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Findings, Strategies, and Design Decision Support Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael West Mehaffy


    Full Text Available The research reported in this dissertation contains three complementary and overlapping parts:One, “findings”: It assesses the factors of urban morphology that contribute to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions per capita, and the ways they interact. It finds a significant but underrepresented set of factors, distinct from but relating the factors at the individual building scale and the scale of regional transportation systems.Two, “strategies”: It assesses the methodologies by which such findings might be put to use in identifying and achieving reductions through changes in urban design, and proposes new strategies to do so using innovative forms of design decision support tools.Three, “design decision support tools”: It then proposes a specific new technology, namely a new class of open-source scenario-modelling tool, embodied in new prototype software. The tool utilizes a new kind of “federated” web-based wiki technology incorporating design pattern languages, which was developed in collaboration with the software engineer and wiki inventor Ward Cunningham.As part of this research, it has been necessary to examine fundamental methodological questions, and to account for limitations of current data as well as current significant gaps in research. In the process, this research has made a modest contribution to the state of knowledge about additional research needed.For me, this work has also highlighted the need for urgent and effective reforms to current “business as usual” practices. The need is all the more urgent given unprecedented rates of urbanisation – much of it sprawling and resource-inefficient – taking place in many parts of the world today.

  12. Homogeneity and Entropy (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.


    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  13. The matrix as a transitory form: the evolution of FMC technologies 2001–2016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worren, Nicolay


    .... However, observations of the structure of firms do not always confirm this view.The paper describes the evolution of FMC Subsea, a large division of the global technology firm FMC Technologies (now TechnipFMC).During the 2001...

  14. Switching the chirality of a ferroelectric vortex in designed nanostructures by a homogeneous electric field (United States)

    Van Lich, Le; Shimada, Takahiro; Wang, Jie; Dinh, Van-Hai; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Kitamura, Takayuki


    Polarization vortices that typically form in ferroelectric nanostructures are fundamental polar topological structures characterized by a curling polarization around a stable core. The control of vortex chirality by conventional fields including homogeneous electric field is a key to the utilization of vortices in technological applications. However, an effective control of the vortex chirality by such an electric field remains elusive since the toroidal moment of ferroelectric vortex is conjugated to a curled electric field rather than the homogeneous electric field. Here we demonstrate the control of vortex chirality by homogeneous electric field in free-standing nanodots with rationally designed nanostructures. The nanodots are designed by including a notch or an antinotch in the rectangular structure of nanodots. The results show that the chirality of polarization vortex is deterministically switched by a homogeneous electric field through the control of depolarization distribution by designed structures. The evolution path under homogeneous electric field in antinotched nanodot takes place in the opposite direction in comparison with that in notched nanodot. We further demonstrate that the designed nanostructures break the symmetry of electrostatic field in the ferroelectric systems, where the depolarization field concentrates at the notch but scatters at the antinotch. Such a symmetry breaking of electrostatic field results in the opposite evolution paths in the notched and antinotched nanodots under homogeneous electric field and provides the fundamental reason that allows such control. The present study suggests a new route on the practical control of the vortex domain pattern in ferroelectric nanostructures by homogeneous electric field.

  15. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel


    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  16. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta


    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  17. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. We write D for the complex unit disc and G for the Möbius group, the group of holo- morphic self-maps of D. A bounded operator T on a Hilbert space H is said to be homogeneous if its spectrum is contained in ¯D and for every g in G there exists a unitary operator U(g) such that g(T ) = U(g). −1. T U (g).

  18. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren


    The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...... or shrink by accretion or evaporation of monomers only but also by an exponentially declining change in cluster size per time step equal to the cluster distribution in the supersaturated gas....

  19. Homogenization of dislocation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Hassan; Monneau, Regis, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [CERMICS, ENPC, 6 and 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cite Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne-la-Valle Cedex 2 (France)


    In this paper we consider the dynamics of dislocations with the same Burgers vector, contained in the same glide plane, and moving in a material with periodic obstacles. We study two cases: i) the particular case of parallel straight dislocations and ii) the general case of curved dislocations. In each case, we perform rigorously the homogenization of the dynamics and predict the corresponding effective macroscopic elasto-visco-plastic flow rule.

  20. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  1. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik


    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  2. Homogenization Effects of Variable Speed Limits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Garcia-Castro; Andres Monzon


    ... and their results This study also presents a key indicator which measures the speed homogeneity and a methodology to obtain the data based on floating cars and GPS technology applying it to a case study on a section of the M30 urban motorway in Madrid (Spain). It also presents the relation between this indicator and road performance and emissions values.

  3. Development of technology for hot-drape forming of large torus sections (United States)


    Compound-contoured sheet metal structure development is aided by hot-drape forming, a method combining hot-stretch forming, die quenching, and age forming. It permits in-process control of material gage thin-out through a flexible process of heat zone control.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.


    , sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for

  5. Modeling of forming technological errors in processing by gear shaping machine (United States)

    Khusainov, R. M.; Khaziev, R. R.


    In the paper, the mathematical model for evaluation the accuracy of the cut gear depending on the initial error of the technological system, is presented. The model is based on the coordinate transformation matrices, variations matrices and considers the deviations of the base and the real surfaces. The technique allows evaluating the possibilities of the technological system to achieve the specified accuracy.

  6. Homogeneous Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shaoqiang


    "Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc


    King, L.D.P.


    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  8. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer


    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11-14...

  9. Using Graphing Software to Teach about Algebraic Forms: A Study of Technology-Supported Practice in Secondary-School Mathematics (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth; Deaney, Rosemary; Hennessy, Sara


    From preliminary analysis of teacher-nominated examples of successful technology-supported practice in secondary-school mathematics, the use of graphing software to teach about algebraic forms was identified as being an important archetype. Employing evidence from lesson observation and teacher interview, such practice was investigated in greater…

  10. Forming of maintenance elektivnykh courses on informatics and of informative-communication technologies for philological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Лагашина


    Full Text Available In the article is examined model of selection of maintenance of electives courses on an informatics and of informative-communication technologies with the purpose of professional self-determination of senior pupils.

  11. Organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning culture as mean of physical fitness improvement of 5 form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Deineko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze influence of organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning’s culture of five form pupils in process of physical education; to test experimentally methodic of formation of motor functioning’s culture by means of general gymnastic in physical education system of comprehensive schools’ pupils. Material: The research was conducted in comprehensive school № 67, Kharkov. 57 pupils of five forms (5-А form - 30 pupils, 5-B - 27 pupils participated in the research. Results: we worked out organizational-pedagogic technology of formation of motor functioning’s culture “Main gymnastic at school”, which positively influenced on development of physical fitness of experimental groups’ pupils. Conclusions: it was established that under influence of selected exercises of main gymnastic and introduced competitiveness elements pupils’ movements became more accurate, plastic, acquired higher amplitude, coordination.

  12. Pseudoconvex and Disprisoning Homogeneous Sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Riego, L D


    The pseudoconvex and disprisoning conditions for geodesics of linear connections are extended to the solution curves of general homogeneous sprays. The main result is that pseudoconvexity and disprisonment are jointly stable in the fine topology on the space of all homogeneous sprays of any degree of homogeneity.

  13. Higher dimensional homogeneous cosmology in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assuming a homogeneous perfect fluid with ρ = ρ() and = (), we have obtained exact solutions for cosmological models in higher-dimension based on Lyra geometry. Depending on the form of metric chosen, the model is similar to FRW type. The explicit solutions of the scale factor are found via the assumption of an ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Nahornyi


    Full Text Available In order to choose a rational piggyback technology there was offered a method that envisages the automated system improvement by giving it a heuristic nature. The automated system is based on a set of methods, techniques and strategies aimed at creating optimal resource saving technologies, which makes it possible to take into account with maximum efficiency the interests of all the participants of the delivery process. When organizing the piggyback traffic there is presupposed the coordination of operations between the piggyback traffic participants to minimize the cargo travel time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Gavrilova


    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The concept of professional competence has become a major criterion of preparing students for professional activities. The issue of the article is relevant as the competence approach has become a basis of implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training. The authors give a detailed analysis of implementing computer technologies into musical education. The special attention is paid to using a computer in musical education and making electronic pedagogical resources. The aim of the article is to outline the directions of national art research in the process of implementing computer tools that is one of the most efficient ways of updating process of future music teachers’ training. The article reveals theoretical aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence by computer technology tools. The authors point out that implementing musical and computer technologies into music art practice is realized in some directions: using a computer as a new musical instrument in composers, sound engineers, and arrangers’ activities; using a computer for studying the quality of music sound, analysing sounds and music compositions, spectral analysis of acoustic characteristics of singers’ voice; studying ancient music manuscripts due to digital technology; developing hardware and software for music education. A distinct direction of research is the pedagogical aspect of using a computer in music education (music and the use of special software for recording and editing music, the use of multimedia to enhance visibility in education, development of e-learning resources, etc.. The authors conclude that implementing computer technologies into future music teachers’ training makes this process more efficient. In the authors’ opinion the widespread introduction of distance learning


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Kulakin


    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the impact analysis, as well as innovation activities of enterprises and organizations engaged in technological innovation. The main task - to identify the most productive group of organizations engaged in innovation processes.

  17. Knowledge Management Systems: On the Promise and Actual Forms of Information Technologies. (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly; Samoff, Joel


    Explains that as globalization expands the forces of the market, information technologies are pervading the educational arena. States that one instance, the Knowledge Management System (KMS), proposes to produce retrievable materials via the Internet and hypertext and seeks to provide highly selected and targeted knowledge. Includes references.…

  18. Technology Transfer as a Form of Co-creation for Future Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu; Van Belle, Jean-Poul; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens


    to technology transfer. Although we make explicit the purpose of co-creation, which is to enable the formation of future markets, we spend little effort on explicating what the objective of this exercise is. Our preoccupation at this stage is primarily trying to explain co-creation and not so much the objective...

  19. Function, form, and technology - The evolution of Space Station in NASA (United States)

    Fries, S. D.


    The history of major Space Station designs over the last twenty-five years is reviewed. The evolution of design concepts is analyzed with respect to the changing functions of Space Stations; and available or anticipated technology capabilities. Emphasis is given to the current NASA Space Station reference configuration, the 'power tower'. Detailed schematic drawings of the different Space Station designs are provided.

  20. Wood volume distribution as an indicatorof stand homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Milivoj


    Full Text Available The results of stand homogeneity definition are analyzed based on the percentage ratio of the distribution of tree number and the distribution of volume per diameter degrees. Homogeneity is defined based on homogeneity index (H and Lorenz’s curve. Homogeneous stand is the hypothetical stand whose trees have equal volumes. Real stands, depending on their silvicultural form and treatment, as well as the development stage, are more or less distant from the absolutely homogenous state. The effect of the diameter degree width on the accuracy of homogeneity index calculation was determined and the possibility of applying the homogeneity index as an additional parameter for the assessment of site quality of selection stands was analyzed.

  1. Metal forming technology for the fabrication of seamless Superconducting radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Vincenzo


    Full Text Available The world of Particle accelerators is rather unique, since in a few high-energy Physics great laboratories, such at CERN for example, there have been built the largest technological installations ever conceived by humankind. The Radiofrequency resonant cavities are the pulsing heart of an accelerator. In case of superconducting accelerators, bulk niobium cavities, able to perform accelerating gradients up to 40 MeV/m, are just a jewel of modern technology. The standard fabrication technology foresees the cutting of circular blanks, their deep-drawing into half-cells, and its further joining by electron beam welding under ultra high vacuum environment that takes several hours. However, proposals such as the International Linear Collider, to which more than 900 scientists from all over the world participate, foresee the installation of 20.000 cavities. In numbers, it means the electron beam weld one by one under Ultra High Vacuum of 360,000 hemi-cells. At a cost of 500 €/Kg of high purity Niobium, this will mean a couple of hundreds of millions of Euros only for the bare material. In this panorama it is evident that a cost reducing approach must be considered. In alternative the author has proposed a seamless and low cost fabrication method based on spinning of fully resonators. Preliminary RF tests at low temperatures have proved that high accelerating gradients are achievable and that they are not worse than those obtainable with the standard technology. Nevertheless up to when the next accelerator will be decided to be built there is still room for improvement.

  2. Using innovative interactive technologies for forming linguistic competence in global mining education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakova Galina


    Full Text Available Globalization of mining education imposes new requirements for mining engineer competence. Nowadays linguistic competence is one of the most demanded. It guarantees technical university graduates the possibility of global employment, on the one hand, and the chance of getting cutting edge education in leading training centers of the world, on the other hand. Distance education is actively developing all over the world and is widely used in technical colleges and universities, as well. Interactive method that involves active engagement of students appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning. The paper presents step-by-step implementation of several interactive technologies (jigsaw, case study, brainstorming, and role-play that can be used in distance education in the process of teaching subjects in foreign languages with the help of information and communication technologies. In response to the changes in the conditions of educational process, the implementation of the methods has been transformed to a combination of traditional (in-class and distance (online learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bondarenko


    Full Text Available The article singles out modern scientific and methodological approaches to forming future technology teachers’ professional image in the educational process at the university. The basic position and acmeological and axiological approaches are analyzed. They are the basis for the system of the future technology teachers’ professional image forming and they will ensure its effectiveness. The personal “terminal” values of vocational and professional development and cultural identity of a future technology teacher are classified. The internal “terminal” values (the components of the image “I” as a person and professional and external “terminal” values (the components of the image of external characteristics are determined. From axiological position all target reference points of the future technology teachers’ vocational and professional and cultural identity as terminal values are classified into three groups: 1 values – aims of the competence level; 2 values – aims of the basic cultural level (this includes professional image values; 3 values – aims of the acmeological level. The second group is determined as the key values, these are the aims, the core of which is the category of “technology teacher’s basic professional culture”. Acmeological approach allows to identify a set of methodologically educated future technology teacher’s competences, which should be the new components of his image of "I" as a professional at the highest level of his/her development: the ability to self-actualization and self-realization in professional pedagogical and social activities; the ability to realize the highest meaning of the technology teacher’s pedagogical activity with the phenomenological reduction tools; readiness for the continuous humanization of technology lessons; ability to professional pedagogical reflection at the conceptual level; polymodality of pedagogical thinking, the ability to master artistic and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Жураковская


    Full Text Available The article offers a review of the activities of the cathedral basic educational institutions (KBOU - Lyceum Istra, Moscow region, which implements one of the scientific and methodological areas of activity - the introduction of new educational technologies and principles of the organization of the educational process to ensure effective implementation of key provisions of the federal state educational standards basic general education. The paper proposed a structure of didactic games and one of its examples, focused on becoming a high school student individuality.Purchase on > Buy now

  5. Design and evaluation of novel barrier layer technologies for controlling venlafaxine hydrochloride release from tablet dosage form. (United States)

    Malewar, Nikhil; Avachat, Makarand; Kulkarni, Shirish; Pokharkar, Varsha


    Venlafaxine Hydrochloride (VH) is a highly soluble and highly permeable antidepressant compound. Thus controlling VH release from tablet dosage form over a prolonged period is a challenge. The objective of this work was to study the effect of various barrier layer formulation compositions, its orientations and manufacturing technology on release profile of highly soluble VH. Different barrier compositions and orientations were established on the same extended release formulations of VH using compression as well as film coating technologies. Barrier effectiveness in reducing the VH release was verified through in vitro dissolution studies. The "belly band" portion of the tablets was successfully oriented in different ways to develop bilayer as well as trilayer tablets. The compression technology had substantially reduced the VH release up to 16% in various compositions and orientation as compared to core tablet. The film coating technology had reduced the VH release up to 14% effectively; thereby shifting the dissolution curve to downside. The explored "belly band" portion of the tablets had reduced the VH release substantially. These innovatively created different barrier orientation technologies hold the great promise of commercialization in future.

  6. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology. (United States)

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji


    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim


    Full Text Available Interest to research in the development of new formulations of antituberculosis drugs due to the high incidence of tuberculosis in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation nowadays, including with acquired drug resistance. The reason for the development of acquired drug resistance is to interrupt the treatment of patients is the high toxicity of antituberculosis drugs. The improving the efficiency of antituberculosis therapy remains one of the most pressing.The aim this study was to review the dosage forms of antituberculosis drugs currently used and the ways to improve them.Methods. The study was conducted on the basis of scientific analysis (eLibrary database, PubMed, Cyberleninca, patent (kzpatents, reference (Klifar, Drugs register and technical literature.Results. It was revealed that the antituberculosis drugs are available in the form of tablets, capsules, granules for oral use and injection solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of oral dosage forms of antituberculosis drugs: tablets, capsules, granules, syrups, suspensions are described. The importance of the development and implementation in practice of pediatric formulations of antituberculosis drugs is mentioned. The state of current research inhaled formulations for the treatment of tuberculosis is described. The prospects of directional inhalation exposure by immobilization of antituberculosis drugs in liposomes, niosomes, nanocapsules, micelles, micro- and nanoparticles are mentioned. The prospect of the rectal formulations use is described. The increase in interest in the molecular encapsulation of medicinal substances with cyclodextrins in connection with the possibility of increasing the bioavailability of active ingredients, reduce the harmful effects on the gastrointestinal tract, extension, elimination of interaction of incompatible components in combination preparations, the protection of unstable substances is

  8. Homogeneous Functionalization of Methane. (United States)

    Gunsalus, Niles Jensen; Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Park, Sae Hume; Bischof, Steven M; Hashiguchi, Brian G; Periana, Roy A


    One of the remaining "grand challenges" in chemistry is the development of a next generation, less expensive, cleaner process that can allow the vast reserves of methane from natural gas to augment or replace oil as the source of fuels and chemicals. Homogeneous (gas/liquid) systems that convert methane to functionalized products with emphasis on reports after 1995 are reviewed. Gas/solid, bioinorganic, biological, and reaction systems that do not specifically involve methane functionalization are excluded. The various reports are grouped under the main element involved in the direct reactions with methane. Central to the review is classification of the various reports into 12 categories based on both practical considerations and the mechanisms of the elementary reactions with methane. Practical considerations are based on whether or not the system reported can directly or indirectly utilize O2 as the only net coreactant based only on thermodynamic potentials. Mechanistic classifications are based on whether the elementary reactions with methane proceed by chain or nonchain reactions and with stoichiometric reagents or catalytic species. The nonchain reactions are further classified as CH activation (CHA) or CH oxidation (CHO). The bases for these various classifications are defined. In particular, CHA reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane that result in a discrete methyl intermediate where the formal oxidation state (FOS) on the carbon remains unchanged at -IV relative to that in methane. In contrast, CHO reactions are defined as elementary reactions with methane where the carbon atom of the product is oxidized and has a FOS less negative than -IV. This review reveals that the bulk of the work in the field is relatively evenly distributed across most of the various areas classified. However, a few areas are only marginally examined, or not examined at all. This review also shows that, while significant scientific progress has been made

  9. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  10. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.


    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  11. Zinc finger nuclease technology: A stable tool for high efficiency transformation in bloodstream form T. brucei. (United States)

    Schumann, Gabriela; Kangussu-Marcolino, Monica M; Doiron, Nicholas; Käser, Sandro; de Assis Burle-Caldas, Gabriela; DaRocha, Wanderson D; Teixeira, Santuza M; Roditi, Isabel


    In Trypanosoma brucei, the generation of knockout mutants is relatively easy compared to other organisms as transfection methods are well established. These methods have their limitations, however, when it comes to the generation of genome-wide libraries that require a minimum of several hundred thousand transformants. Double-strand breaks with the meganuclease ISce-I dramatically increase transformation efficiency, but are not widely in use as cell lines need to be generated de novo before each transfection. Here we show that zinc finger nucleases are a robust and stable tool that can enhance transformation in bloodstream forms by more than an order of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers (United States)

    Schick, C.; Androsch, R.; Schmelzer, J. W. P.


    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Strachan, Denis M.


    This report examines and ranks a total of seven materials processing techniques that may be potentially utilized to consolidate the undissolved solids from nuclear fuel reprocessing into a low-surface area form. Commercial vendors of processing equipment were contacted and literature researched to gather information for this report. Typical equipment and their operation, corresponding to each of the seven techniques, are described in the report based upon the discussions and information provided by the vendors. Although the report does not purport to describe all the capabilities and issues of various consolidation techniques, it is anticipated that this report will serve as a guide by highlighting the key advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The processing techniques described in this report were broadly classified into those that employed melting and solidification, and those in which the consolidation takes place in the solid-state. Four additional techniques were examined that were deemed impractical, but were included for completeness. The techniques were ranked based on criteria such as flexibility in accepting wide-variety of feed-stock (chemistry, form, and quantity), ease of long-term maintenance, hot cell space requirements, generation of additional waste streams, cost, and any special considerations. Based on the assumption of ~2.5 L of waste to be consolidated per day, sintering based techniques, namely, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, were ranked as the top-3 choices, respectively. Melting and solidification based techniques were ranked lower on account of generation of volatile phases and difficulties associated with reactivity and containment of the molten metal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Puzanov


    Full Text Available Testing on the manufacturability with ensuring the functionality requirements of the product determines the analysis of a large number of designs. The paper proposed a method of forming CAE models from CAD models, taking into account simplification models (with the exception of nonfunctional elements, the use of symmetry, etc., add the missing data (including the use of the properties of materials differ from the CAD model, the possibility of a multidisciplinary analysis in one or more software systems. An example of design and technological elaboration of the plunger of forced hydraulic machine is shown.

  15. The Analogue Technology of S: Exploring Narrative Form and the Encoded Mystery of the Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Wocke


    Full Text Available The 2013 publication of S, J.J. Abrams’ and Doug Dorst’s “love letter to the written word,” represents a particular intervention in the debates surrounding the future of the book and the relationship between analogue and digital publication. In S we see how the analogue nature of this particular book drives much of the narrative structure of the text, indeed the physical presentation of the book informs much of the imaginative contents of the narrative. In this article I would like to consider the theoretic bounds of this novel and its form, from the question of marginal (and fragmented writing that is evoked in the work of Jacques Derrida, to the importance of the medium and the message that it carries as described by Marshall McLuhan. One could furthermore consider the manner in which S integrates itself into the imagination of the reader both in textual and in literal terms in light of Umberto Eco’s notion of the “open work.”


    Busey, H.M.


    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    of RCRA storage regulations, reduce costs for waste management by nearly 50 percent, and create a viable method for final treatment and disposal of these waste forms that does not impact retrieval project schedules. This paper is intended to provide information to the nuclear and environmental clean-up industry with the experience of CH2M HILL and ORP in managing these highly difficult waste streams, as well as providing an opportunity for sharing lessons learned, including technical methods and processes that may be applied at other DOE sites.

  18. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA


    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  19. Alternative Manufacturing Concepts for Solid Oral Dosage Forms From Drug Nanosuspensions Using Fluid Dispensing and Forced Drying Technology. (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael


    Flexible manufacturing technologies for solid oral dosage forms with a continuous adjustability of the manufactured dose strength are of interest for applications in personalized medicine. This study explored the feasibility of using microvalve technology for the manufacturing of different solid oral dosage form concepts. Hard gelatin capsules filled with excipients, placebo tablets, and polymer films, placed in hard gelatin capsules after drying, were considered as substrates. For each concept, a basic understanding of relevant formulation parameters and their impact on dissolution behavior has been established. Suitable matrix formers, present either on the substrate or directly in the drug nanosuspension, proved to be essential to prevent nanoparticle agglomeration of the drug nanoparticles and to ensure a fast dissolution behavior. Furthermore, convection and radiation drying methods were investigated for the fast drying of drug nanosuspensions dispensed onto polymer films, which were then placed in hard gelatin capsules. Changes in morphology and in drug and matrix former distribution were observed for increasing drying intensity. However, even fast drying times below 1 min could be realized, while maintaining the nanoparticulate drug structure and a good dissolution behavior. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Shear Strength of RC Beams with Multiple Interfaces Formed before Initial Setting Using 3D Printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongjin Kim


    Full Text Available With the recent development of 3D printing technology, concrete materials are sometimes used in 3D printing. Concrete structures based on 3D printing have been characterized to have the form of multiple layer build-up. Unlike general concrete structures, therefore, the 3D-printed concrete can be regarded as an orthotropic material. The material property of the 3D-printed concrete’s interface between layers is expected to be far different from that of general concrete bodies since there are no aggregate interlocks and weak chemical bonding. Such a difference finally affects the structural performance of concrete structures even though the interfaces are formed before initial setting of the concrete. The current study mainly reviewed the changes in fracture energy (toughness with respect to various environmental conditions of such interface. Changes in fracture energies of interfaces between concrete layers were measured using low-speed Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD closed loop concrete fracture test. The experimental results indicated reduction in fracture energy as well as tensile strengths. To improve the tensile strength of interfaces, the use of bridging materials is suggested. Since it was assumed that reduction in fracture energy could be a cause of shear strength, to evaluate the reduced structural performance of concrete structure constructed with multiple interfaces by 3D printing technology, the shear strength of RC beam by 3D printing technology was predicted and compared with that of plain RC beam. Based on the fracture energy measured in this study, Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT theory-applied Vector 2 program was employed to predict the degree of reduction in shear strength without considering stirrups. Reduction factors were presented based on the obtained results to predict the reduction in shear strength due to interfaces before initial setting of the concrete.

  1. G3-homogeneous gravitational instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourliot, F; Petropoulos, P M [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS-UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Estes, J [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, CNRS-UMR 8549, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Spindel, Ph, E-mail: bourliot@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: estes@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: marios@cpht.polytechnique.f, E-mail: [Service de Mecanique et Gravitation, Universite de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium)


    We provide an exhaustive classification of self-dual four-dimensional gravitational instantons foliated with three-dimensional homogeneous spaces, i.e. homogeneous self-dual metrics on four-dimensional Euclidean spaces admitting a Bianchi simply transitive isometry group. The classification pattern is based on the algebra homomorphisms relating the Bianchi group and the duality group SO(3). New and general solutions are found for Bianchi III.

  2. G3-homogeneous gravitational instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Bourliot, F; Petropoulos, P M; Spindel, Ph


    We provide an exhaustive classification of self-dual four-dimensional gravitational instantons foliated with three-dimensional homogeneous spaces, i.e. homogeneous self-dual metrics on four-dimensional Euclidean spaces admitting a Bianchi simply transitive isometry group. The classification pattern is based on the algebra homomorphisms relating the Bianchi group and the duality group SO(3). New and general solutions are found for Bianchi III.

  3. Homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide. (United States)

    Klein, D H; Smith, M D; Driy, J A


    The rate of homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide has been determined as a function of solution concentration, using a quasi-homogeneous precipitation technique and electronic particle counting. The nucleation rate becomes measurable at super-saturations of about 4, and is dependent on the 33rd power of the product aMgaOH(2). The experimental results are consistent with nucleation theory. The nucleus-solution interfacial energy is calculated to be 115 erg/cm(2).

  4. [Obtaining ribosome crystals in homogenates]. (United States)

    Bersani, F; Longo, I; Fanti, M; Pettazzoni, P


    Chick embryos are homogenized in order to analyse ribosome crystallization. Ribosome crystallization has been induced by hypothermic treatment in chick embryos homogenate. Tetramers and crystals were produced by gradually inducing the temperature over a span of 10 h to 4 degrees C. It has been observed that the concentration of KCl in the buffer is a critical point. It is suggested that the nuclear fraction is engaged in ribosome crystallization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Horobets


    Full Text Available The issues of forming future primary school teachers’ health-preserving technologies and implementing them into the educational process are discussed in the article. Motivational, information and knowledgeable, and operational and instrumental components are singled out as main ones in teachers’ training. Filling the components takes place during the theoretical training while teaching natural, psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, as well as during practical pedagogical training. One of the main tasks of practical pedagogical training is students’ independent work in school hygiene. Methodological recommendations to the independent work are made by the authors; the list of tasks is given. Doing tasks in school hygiene, students assess hygienic conditions for pupils’ work: determine the air-thermal regime, lighting, room equipment, analyze the working mode of a school and a timetable. Unfavorable social and economic problems in contemporary Ukraine, the difficult ecological situation, overloads of information and intensification of educational process cause the tendencies to schoolchildren’s health impairment. Primary school teacher plays an especially important part in organization of preserving and strengthening children’s health that is caused by young learners’ age peculiarities. Primary school teacher, as a main organizer of the educational process, should systematically and effectively influence his/her pupils’ healthy development. Nowadays the problem of preserving pupils’ health is studied by R. Aizman, H. Zaitsev, V. Kabanov, O. Yazlovetska; the ways of preserving and strengthening pupils’ health through implementing health-preserving technologies are disclosed by A. Akhutina, V. Kovalko, V.Lozynskyi, M. Smirnov; the approaches to organizing the holistic educational process as the basis of forming, preserving and incipiency of pupils’ health are developed by M. Bezrukikh, P. Bohdan, V

  6. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 2: Data handling, communications (E-2). A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2) (United States)


    Technologies required to support the stated OAST thrust to increase information return by X1000, while reducing costs by a factor of 10 are identified. The most significant driver is the need for an overall end-to-end data system management technology. Maximum use of LSI component technology and trade-offs between hardware and software are manifest in most all considerations of technology needs. By far, the greatest need for data handling technology was identified for the space Exploration and Global Services themes. Major advances are needed in NASA's ability to provide cost effective mass reduction of space data, and automated assessment of earth looking imagery, with a concomitant reduction in cost per useful bit. A combined approach embodying end-to-end system analysis, with onboard data set selection, onboard data processing, highly parallel image processing (both ground and space), low cost, high capacity memories, and low cost user data distribution systems would be necessary.

  7. Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis (United States)

    Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard


    Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko


    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  9. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan


    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  10. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels. (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg


    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  11. Genetic Homogenization of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on numerical studies of electromagnetic properties of composite materials used for the construction of small airplanes. Discussions concentrate on the genetic homogenization of composite layers and composite layers with a slot. The homogenization is aimed to reduce CPU-time demands of EMC computational models of electrically large airplanes. First, a methodology of creating a 3-dimensional numerical model of a composite material in CST Microwave Studio is proposed focusing on a sufficient accuracy of the model. Second, a proper implementation of a genetic optimization in Matlab is discussed. Third, an association of the optimization script and a simplified 2-dimensional model of the homogeneous equivalent model in Comsol Multiphysics is proposed considering EMC issues. Results of computations are experimentally verified.

  12. Homogeneous Chaos, p-Forms, Scaling and the Feynman Integral (United States)


    4 i l . . . . i = 1_ 2 t i = p where the next to last equality is an easy consequence of the Fubini Theorem for the Bochner integral [4, Theorem ...integrable dominating function which is independent 12k+l .... p 27 of N. The fourth equality in (3.23) follows from the Fubini Theorem for the Bochner...coefficients (ai ..... allows us to use the Fubini Theorem on the inner sums in (3.33) and obtain fp a i =lU,...j ’l p l ’ k+v’ Jk+v’ i2(k+v)+l . pJP2(k

  13. Elastodynamic single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation: Theory and examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Reinicke Urruticoechea, C.


    The homogeneous Green’s function is the Green’s function minus its timereversal. Many wavefield imaging applications make use of the homogeneous Green’s function in form of a closed boundary integral. Wapenaar et al. (2016a) derived an accurate single-sided homogeneous Green’s function

  14. Research on homogeneous deformation of electromagnetic incremental tube bulging


    Cui, Xiaohui; Mo, Jianhua; Li, Jianjun


    The electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF) method is used for tube forming process. Suitable 2D FE models are designed to predict the forming process with a moving coil. In comparison with experimental values, simulation method can obtain accurate results. Then, effect factors named overlapping ration of adjacent discharge positions, discharge voltage, forming sequence and die dimension on tube homogeneous deformation are discussed. The result demonstrates that it is feasib...

  15. Homogenization in chemical reactive flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conca


    Full Text Available This paper concerns the homogenization of two nonlinear models for chemical reactive flows through the exterior of a domain containing periodically distributed reactive solid grains (or reactive obstacles. In the first model, the chemical reactions take place on the walls of the grains, while in the second one the fluid penetrates the grains and the reactions take place therein. The effective behavior of these reactive flows is described by a new elliptic boundary-value problem containing an extra zero-order term which captures the effect of the chemical reactions.

  16. Modelling steel’s homogenization during argon purging


    J. Pieprzyca; Z. Kudliński; K. Michalek; K. Gryc; Tkadlečková, M.


    Purpose: One of the primary tasks that put the steel producers to the test is to reduce production costs while maintaining high quality. This objective is achieved among others through the optimization of conducted technological processes. Commonly used technology of steel homogenization with inert gases is an important stage in the production of steel in which that objective can be accomplished.Design/methodology/approach: Tests of hydrodynamic processes occurring during the steel blowing wi...

  17. Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-Efficacy Using Rasch Analysis (United States)

    Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard


    Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in "Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education." State University of New…

  18. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Jackson, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Barrat, Jean-Alix, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Université Européenne de Bretagne, Université de Brest, CNRS UMR 6538 (Domaines Océaniques), I.U.E.M., Place Nicolas Copernic, F-29280 Plouzané Cedex (France)


    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  19. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert


    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  20. Optimizing homogenization by chaotic unmixing? (United States)

    Weijs, Joost; Bartolo, Denis


    A number of industrial processes rely on the homogeneous dispersion of non-brownian particles in a viscous fluid. An ideal mixing would yield a so-called hyperuniform particle distribution. Such configurations are characterized by density fluctuations that grow slower than the standard √{ N}-fluctuations. Even though such distributions have been found in several natural structures, e.g. retina receptors in birds, they have remained out of experimental reach until very recently. Over the last 5 years independent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that periodically driven suspensions can self-assemble hyperuniformally. Simple as the recipe may be, it has one important disadvantage. The emergence of hyperuniform states co-occurs with a critical phase transition from reversible to non reversible particle dynamics. As a consequence the homogenization dynamics occurs over a time that diverges with the system size (critical slowing down). Here, we discuss how this process can be sped up by exploiting the stirring properties of chaotic advection. Among the questions that we answer are: What are the physical mechanisms in a chaotic flow that are relevant for hyperuniformity? How can we tune the flow parameters such to obtain optimal hyperuniformity in the fastest way? JW acknowledges funding by NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) through a Rubicon Grant.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  2. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min


    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  3. Learners' Attention to Input during Focus on Form Listening Tasks: The Role of Mobile Technology in the Second Language Classroom (United States)

    de la Fuente, María José


    This study explores the differential effects of medium of delivery of aural input during listening tasks on learners noticing and type of comprehension (top-down and bottom-up) of Spanish object pronouns during focus on form listening tasks. Twenty-two college students enrolled in second year Spanish in a technology-enhanced classroom participated…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Liskovich


    Full Text Available The article considers approaches to the definition of information competence, investigated the possibility of elective courses in physics for the formation of information competence through the use of modern information and communication technologies.

  5. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These vehicles have widely different static and dynamic characteristics. The traffic is also very different from homogeneous traffic which primarily consists of motorized vehicles. Homogeneous traffic follows strict lane discipline as compared to non-homogeneous traffic. Western traffic planning methodologies mostly address ...

  6. Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Borreman, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; van Etten, Wim


    Optical ring resonators (ORRs) are good candidates to provide continuously tunable delay in optical beam forming networks (OBFNs) for phased array antenna systems. Delay and splitting/combining elements can be integrated on a single optical chip to form an OBFN. A state-of-the-art ring resonator-

  7. Projective duality and homogeneous spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tevelev, E A


    Projective duality is a very classical notion naturally arising in various areas of mathematics, such as algebraic and differential geometry, combinatorics, topology, analytical mechanics, and invariant theory, and the results in this field were until now scattered across the literature. Thus the appearance of a book specifically devoted to projective duality is a long-awaited and welcome event. Projective Duality and Homogeneous Spaces covers a vast and diverse range of topics in the field of dual varieties, ranging from differential geometry to Mori theory and from topology to the theory of algebras. It gives a very readable and thorough account and the presentation of the material is clear and convincing. For the most part of the book the only prerequisites are basic algebra and algebraic geometry. This book will be of great interest to graduate and postgraduate students as well as professional mathematicians working in algebra, geometry and analysis.

  8. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  9. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  10. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  11. New geometry and technology of face-gear forming with circle line of teeth on CNC milling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Frąckowiak


    Full Text Available Different types of geometric models of face-gear with circle line of teeth have been shown in the paper. Generation of a new geometrical of a face-gear is performed on CNC milling machine. The basic direction of the development geometrical of a face-gear and technology is in the search of new trends and methods focused on improving the quality of products, shortening the production cycles, their mechanizations, automation and implementation of a high-precision technology.

  12. Prooxidant effects of ferrous iron, hemoglobin, and ferritin in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates are different from those in raw-meat homogenates. (United States)

    Ahn, D U; Kim, S M


    Oil emulsion and raw and cooked tissue homogenates were used to determine the mechanisms of various iron forms on the catalysis of lipid peroxidation. Flax oil (0.25 g) was blended with 160 mL maleate buffer (0.1 M, pH 6.5) to prepare an oil emulsion. Raw or cooked turkey leg meat was used to prepare meat homogenates. Samples were prepared by adding iron from each of the various sources, reactive oxygen species, or enzyme (xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase) systems into the oil emulsion or meat homogenates. In oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates, ferrous iron and hemoglobin had strong prooxidant effects, but ferritin became prooxidant only when ascorbate was present. Hemoglobin and ferritin had no prooxidant effect in raw-meat homogenates. The status of heme iron and the released iron from hemoglobin had little effect on the prooxidant effect of hemoglobin in oil emulsion and cooked meat homogenate systems. The prooxidant effect of ferrous iron in oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates disappeared in the presence of superoxide (.O2-), H2O2, or xanthine oxidase systems. In raw-meat homogenates, however, ferrous had strong prooxidant effects even in the presence of .O2-, or H2O2. The status of free iron was the most important factor in the oxidation of oil emulsion and cooked-meat homogenates but the impact in raw-meat homogenates was small.

  13. The Effect of the Use of Technological Lubricants Based on Vegetable Oils on the Process of Titanium Sheet Metal Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więckowski W.


    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the drawability of titanium sheet metal Grade 2, with the focus on friction conditions that are present in the sheet metal forming process. The study aims to present the results of the examinations of the friction coefficient during a strip drawing test. The focus of the experiment was on lubricants based on vegetable oils i.e. rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and olive oil. Boric acid was used to improve the lubricating properties of vegetable oils. The results of numerical simulations of the process of forming a cover with stiffening components made of grade 2 titanium sheet metal was also presented. The numerical simulation was carried out using the FEM method with PAMStamp 2G software. The effect of conditions of friction between the sheet metal and tool parts and pressure force of the blank holder on the forming process were investigated. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration for the phenomenon of material strain hardening and anisotropy of plastic properties of the sheet metal formed. The analysis of the deformations and reduction in wall thickness of the drawn parts can be used for determination of the effect of changes in selected parameters on the process of drawn part forming. The quality of drawn parts was assessed based on the shape inaccuracy determined during simulation of forming. The inaccuracy depended on the conditions of the process and strength properties of the titanium sheet metal.

  14. Using the Technology of Critical Thinking Development (CTD) as a Means of Forming Competencies of Students Majoring in "Life Safety" (United States)

    Kayumova, Leysan R.; Morozova, Marina A.


    The relevance of the research problem is caused by the need to use various teaching methods and techniques in training students majoring in pedagogical specialties while implementing the competency approach in education. Information about the technology of critical thinking development (CTD) in future teachers training is limited, and the…

  15. Legal regulation of information and communications technologies as specific forms of production factor for capital in food industry


    D. Šálková; A. Hes


    Information and communication technologies are one of factors that markedly influence agricultural primary production and food industry as well as all other branches of the national economy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse an effect of Community legal regulations for electronic transactions on resource utility.

  16. Theoretical and technological basis of structuring the pedagogical model of forming the motivation to the systematic physical training for the pupils of secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanchenko L.P.


    Full Text Available Theoretical and organizational pedagogical bases of structuring of pedagogical model of forming are expounded for the students of motivation of athletic health and sporting activity. Principles of the practical functioning of this model are resulted in educationally-educate space. The necessity of systematic and conscious employments is rotined by a physical culture. Technology of correction of motivational necessary sphere of students is presented. Going is developed near realization of lessons of physical education, forms extracurricular sporting mass and to athletic-health-improvement works.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich


    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  18. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna


    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  19. Oil/Water Emulsion and Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Treatment Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone Technology (United States)


    of Defense EPA Environmental Protection Agency FOG Fats, Oils and Grease FFTF Fire Fighting Training Facilities gpm Gallons per minute HP Horsepower...unit and a high equipment cost. An alternative technology to remove oil is froth floatation. Since hydrocarbon oils are hydrophobic in nature , froth...allowed the oil/water separator to be re-filled to 800 gallons. The ASH system wastewater feed pump was used to circulate the water between the sludge

  20. Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus of Nano-Structured Fluorinated Surfaces, Formed by Different Methods of Ion-Plasma Technology. (United States)

    Elinson, V M; Didenko, L V; Shevlyagina, N V; Avtandilov, G A; Gaidarova, A Kh; Lyamin, A N


    Colonization of fluorinated surfaces produced by ion-plasma technology by Staphylococcus aureus was studied by scanning electron microscopy and surface energy analysis. It was shown that the intensity of colonization was determined by the surface relief and fluorine content. Formation of nanostructured surfaces accompanied by a sharp decrease in the surface energy prevented adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus cells to the fluorine-containing surface.

  1. Computer face-matching technology using two-dimensional photographs accurately matches the facial gestalt of unrelated individuals with the same syndromic form of intellectual disability. (United States)

    Dudding-Byth, Tracy; Baxter, Anne; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hackett, Anna; O'Donnell, Sheridan; White, Susan M; Attia, John; Brunner, Han; de Vries, Bert; Koolen, David; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Ratwatte, Seshika; Riveros, Carlos; Brain, Steve; Lovell, Brian C


    Massively parallel genetic sequencing allows rapid testing of known intellectual disability (ID) genes. However, the discovery of novel syndromic ID genes requires molecular confirmation in at least a second or a cluster of individuals with an overlapping phenotype or similar facial gestalt. Using computer face-matching technology we report an automated approach to matching the faces of non-identical individuals with the same genetic syndrome within a database of 3681 images [1600 images of one of 10 genetic syndrome subgroups together with 2081 control images]. Using the leave-one-out method, two research questions were specified: 1) Using two-dimensional (2D) photographs of individuals with one of 10 genetic syndromes within a database of images, did the technology correctly identify more than expected by chance: i) a top match? ii) at least one match within the top five matches? or iii) at least one in the top 10 with an individual from the same syndrome subgroup? 2) Was there concordance between correct technology-based matches and whether two out of three clinical geneticists would have considered the diagnosis based on the image alone? The computer face-matching technology correctly identifies a top match, at least one correct match in the top five and at least one in the top 10 more than expected by chance (P technology and clinicians, with higher accuracy of the technology when results were discordant (P computer face-matching technology was tested on images of individuals with known syndromic forms of intellectual disability, the results of this pilot study illustrate the potential utility of face-matching technology within deep phenotyping platforms to facilitate the interpretation of DNA sequencing data for individuals who remain undiagnosed despite testing the known developmental disorder genes.

  2. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg


    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  3. Interorganisational networking as the principal form of technological, innovative and research cooperation between Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev Oleg


    Full Text Available This article concerns the role that international cooperation in research, technology, and innovation plays in ensuring innovative development and producing an innovative model of the Russian economy. One of the key objectives of the country’s integration into international research, technological, and innovative space is the development of Russia-EU cooperation in the Baltic region. It is established that, with the development of integration connections and regionalization processes, interorganizational networking takes on special importance in the organization and development of the innovative space. The authors analyze the existing typologies of forms of cooperation in the field of research, technology, and innovation, within which cases of networking are identified. The article gives a definition of interorganizational networks in view of the spatial and structural components of networking. The authors introduce the notion of international interorganizational networks as a special form of international cooperation. A study into the spatial form of interorganizational networks helps explain the effect of different levels and types of economic integration. Key areas of research on international interorganizational networks are identified in view of the features of integration processes in the development of network processes and in the framework of network approach in general.

  4. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  5. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.


    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  7. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.


    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  8. Advancing Homogeneous Antimicrobial Glycoconjugate Vaccines. (United States)

    Adamo, Roberto


    Since 2004, when the first synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine against the pneumonia and meningitis causing bacterium Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) approved for human use in Cuba was reported, 34 million doses of the synthetic vaccine have been already distributed in several countries under the commercial name of Quimi-Hib. However, despite the success of this product, no other synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine has been licensed in the following 13 years. As well as avoiding the need to handle pathogens, synthetic glycoconjugates offer clear advantages in terms of product characterization and the possibility to understand the parameters influencing immunogenicity. Nevertheless, large scale application of synthetic sugars has been perceived as challenging because of manufacturing costs and process complexity compared to natural polysaccharides. Chemoenzymatic approaches, one-pot protocols, and automated solid-phase synthesis are rendering carbohydrate production considerably more attractive for industrialization. Here we identify three areas where chemical approaches can advance this progress: (i) chemical or enzymatic methods enabling the delivery of the minimal polysaccharide portion responsible for an effective immune response; (ii) site-selective chemical or enzymatic conjugation strategies for the exploration of the conjugation point in immune responses against carbohydrate-based vaccines, and the consistent preparation of more homogeneous products; (iii) multicomponent constructs targeting receptors responsible for immune response modulation in order to control its quality and magnitude. We discuss how synthesis of bacterial oligosaccharides is useful toward understanding the polysaccharide portion responsible for immunogenicity, and for developing robust and consistent alternatives to natural heterogeneous polysaccharides. The synthesis of sugar analogues can lead to the identification of hydrolytically more stable versions of oligosaccharide antigens. The

  9. Application of interdisciplinary connections and information technologies for development of motor skills in light athletic of girls - senior form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Baset Al-Ravashdeh


    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and substantiate technologies of motor and intellectual aspects’ integral impact on process of training of light athletic’ throws and run techniques of 15-16 years old girls. Material: in the research 2 groups of pupils participated: control group (n = 22 and experimental group (n = 21. Results: Methodic of run, jumps and throws techniques’ training of senior school girl-pupils has been worked out. The methodic implies mastering of basic light athletic movements on the base of analogies with rational and economic movements in animate nature and laws of mechanic It conditions application of knowledge from physics, biology, mathematic for receiving of more complete understanding of light athletic movements’ correct technique. Conclusions: we have shown that application of interdisciplinary connections permits to make the process of movements’ training more effective in comparison with mastering material of purely physical education.

  10. Geometric classifications of homogeneous production functions


    Chen, Bang-Yen; Vilcu, Gabriel Eduard


    In this paper, we completely classify homogeneous production functions with an arbitrary number of inputs whose production hypersurfaces are flat. As an immediate consequence, we obtain a complete classification of homogeneous production functions with two inputs whose production surfaces are developable.

  11. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use ...

  12. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in term...

  13. Synthesis of silica nanosphere from homogeneous and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Silica nanosphere was synthesized using homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, respectively. In homogeneous system, silica spheres were synthesized without cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr), which gave bimodal particle size and lower yield (77%). To improve the yield, CTABr was added and ...

  14. Homogeneous nucleation and the Ostwald step rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, P.R. ten; Frenkel, D.


    We compare the pathways for homogeneous nucleation in a number of different systems. In most cases, the simulations show that the nucleation pathways are markedly different from what is assumed in classical nucleation theory. We find that homogeneous nucleation exhibits, at the microscopic level,

  15. Klucel™ EF and ELF polymers for immediate-release oral dosage forms prepared by melt extrusion technology. (United States)

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Singh, Abhilasha; Deng, Weibin; Murthy, Narasimha S; Pinto, Elanor; Tewari, Divya; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A


    The objective of this research work was to evaluate Klucel™ hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) EF and ELF polymers, for solubility enhancement as well as to address some of the disadvantages associated with solid dispersions. Ketoprofen (KPR), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug with poor solubility, was utilized as a model compound. Preliminary thermal studies were performed to confirm formation of a solid solution/dispersion of KPR in HPC matrix and also to establish processing conditions for hot-melt extrusion. Extrudates pelletized and filled into capsules exhibited a carrier-dependent release with ELF polymer exhibiting a faster release. Tablets compressed from milled extrudates exhibited rapid release owing to the increased surface area of the milled extrudate. Addition of mannitol (MNT) further enhanced the release by forming micro-pores and increasing the porosity of the extrudates. An optimized tablet formulation constituting KPR, MNT, and ELF in a 1:1:1 ratio exhibited 90% release in 15 min similar to a commercial capsule formulation. HPC polymers are non-ionic hydrophilic polymers that undergo polymer-chain-length-dependent solubilization and can be used to enhance solubility or dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Dissolution/release rate could be tailored for rapid-release applications by selecting a suitable HPC polymer and altering the final dosage form. The release obtained from pellets was carrier-dependent and not drug-dependent, and hence, such a system can be effectively utilized to address solubility or precipitation issues with poorly soluble drugs in the gastrointestinal environment.

  16. Eye Gaze Technology as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: Experiences of Families in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Townend, Gillian S; Marschik, Peter B; Smeets, Eric; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Berg, Mariёlle; Curfs, Leopold M G

    This paper provides a brief report on families' experiences of eye gaze technology as one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and the advice, training and support they receive in relation to this. An online survey exploring communication and AAC was circulated to 190 Dutch families; of the 67 questionnaires that were returned, 63 had answered questions relating to eye gaze technology. These 63 were analysed according to parameters including: experiences during trial periods and longer-term use; expert knowledge, advice and support; funding; communicative progress; and family satisfaction. 20 respondents were using or had previous experience of using an eye gaze system at the time of the survey, 28 of those with no prior experience wanted to try a system in the future. Following a trial period, 11 systems had been funded through health insurance for long-term use and two families had decided a system was not appropriate for them. Levels of support during trials and following long-term provision varied. Despite frustrations with the technology, satisfaction with the systems was higher than satisfaction with the support. The majority of families reported progress in their child's skills with longer term use. These findings suggest that although eye gaze technologies offer potential to individuals with RTT and their families, greater input from suppliers and knowledgeable AAC professionals is essential for individuals and families to benefit maximally. Higher levels of training and support should be part of the 'package' when an eye gaze system is provided.

  17. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp


    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.


    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  19. Efficacy of application technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment to reduce school anxiety first form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Smirnova


    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the need to improve the mental state of first-graders and the possibility of achieving this goal, the lesson of physical culture at the expense of proper use of musical accompaniment exercise. Material : participated in the experiment experimental, control and background group (only 55 students of first class. Results : argues that music has a regulating effect on mental and physiological state of a person. It is noted that the combined effects of exercise and music on the body and psyche of a child reduces total anxiety in school. Also reduces the fear in a meaningful situation knowledge test. Found that the effect of exercise without music and with various embodiments use musical accompaniment in the lesson to address interpersonal relations student and the teacher has no significant difference. Conclusions : as a result of the pedagogical experiment to identify significantly positive, confirming the effectiveness of the technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment for the performance of most indicators of school anxiety.

  20. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering


    , this book offers both inspiration to teaching form and a systematic framework for pedagogical and didactical reflection on this topic. In this sense, it shapes and professionalizes design teaching, and contributes to the development of the double-professionalism, which is so essential for teachers in modern...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... in this book that they are highly interested in both the declarative and formative dimension of making form. Methodologically, the courses described in the contributions have a strong focus on student-centered experiential activities, thereby implicitly claiming that students must learn to make form...

  1. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)


    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  2. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks. (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M


    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels.

  3. Homogenization of precipitation data in Pannonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Nenad Đ.


    Full Text Available Testing the homogeneity of data of meteorological occurrences is very important for ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the data that will later be used in a variety of research related to the assessment and prediction of future trends of climate changes. This paper presents the verification of homogeneity of data on average annual precipitations from 19 meteorological stations in the Pannonian region. For this purpose, it has been used four different statistical tests that are applied on each meteorological station individually. It was found that 4 out of 19 meteorological stations or in 21% of the cases there are in homogeneities of precipitation data.

  4. Shocks in homogeneous and heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail:


    A system subject to a point process of shocks is considered. Shocks occur in accordance with a non-homogeneous Poisson process. Different criterions of system failures are discussed in a homogeneous case. Two natural settings are analyzed. Heterogeneity is modeled by an unobserved univariate random variable (frailty). It is shown that reliability (safety) analysis for a heterogeneous case can differ dramatically from that for a homogeneous setting. A shock burn-in procedure for a heterogeneous population is described. The corresponding bounds for the failure rates are obtained.

  5. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)


    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  6. Production Technology Requirements with Respect to Agile Manufacturing - A survey on how the metal forming industry can adapt to volatile times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Oswald


    Full Text Available Agile manufacturing is a production concept that was originally developed at the Iaccoca Institute of Lehigh University (USA. The purpose was to develop a proposal on how the US could regain its supremacy in manufacturing. The objective of this thesis is to apply the agile manufacturing concept to the metal forming industry and to develop a recommendation of action how the press manufacturers can support their customers in dealing with volatile markets in an efficient way. For that reason production technology requirements are developed that should highlight characteristics of a production line that is essential to become “agile”. As a point of departure a literature research has been carried out to determine what has already been published about “agile” production requirements and how other industries deal with volatile markets. In a next step interviews with industry experts have been carried out to verify the findings of the literature review. The findings were documented in case studies which where the basis for the derivation of the production technology requirements that are relevant for the metal forming industry

  7. Magnetic stimulation for non-homogeneous biological structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic stimulation has gained relatively wide application in studying nervous system structures. This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action. It has become clinically accepted modality for brain stimulation. However, theoretical and practical solutions for assessment of induced current distribution need more detailed and accurate consideration. Some possible analyses are proposed for distribution of the current induced from excitation current contours of different shape and disposition. Relatively non-difficult solutions are shown, applicable for two- and three-dimensional analysis. Methods The boundary conditions for field analysis by the internal Dirichlet problem are introduced, based on the vector potential field excited by external current coils. The feedback from the induced eddy currents is neglected. Finite element modeling is applied for obtaining the electromagnetic fields distribution in a non-homogeneous domain. Results The distributions were obtained in a non-homogeneous structure comprised of homogeneous layers. A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain. Current density concentrations occur at the boundary between layers, suggesting the possibility for focusing on, or predicting of, a zone of stimulation. Conclusion The theoretical basis and simplified approach for generation of 3D FEM networks for magnetic stimulation analysis are presented, applicable in non-homogeneous and non-linear media. The inconveniences of introducing external excitation currents are avoided. Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

  8. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe


    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  9. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing


    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  10. Homogeneous operators and projective representations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  11. Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Drosophila melanogaster; inversion polymorphism; Southeast Asia; genetic homogeneity; balancing selection. Abstract. East Asian Drosophila melanogaster are known for great variation in morphological and physiological characters among populations, variation that is believed to be maintained by genetic drift.

  12. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla


    of internal factors to the blend e.g. the particle size distribution. The relation between particle size distribution and the variation in drug content in blend and tablet samples is discussed. A central problem is to develop acceptance criteria for blends and tablet batches to decide whether the blend......In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials....... Some methods have a focus on exploratory analysis where the aim is to investigate the spatial distribution of drug content in the batch. Other methods presented focus on describing the overall (total) (in)homogeneity of the blend. The overall (in)homogeneity of the blend is relevant as it is closely...

  13. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.


    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  14. Layout optimization using the homogenization method (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru


    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  15. Climate Data Homogenization Using Edge Detection Algorithms (United States)

    Hammann, A. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.


    The problem of climate data homogenization has predominantly been addressed by testing the likelihood of one or more breaks inserted into a given time series and modeling the mean to be stationary in between the breaks. We recast the same problem in a slightly different form: that of detecting step-like changes in noisy data, and observe that this problem has spawned a large number of approaches to its solution as the "edge detection" problem in image processing. With respect to climate data, we ask the question: How can we optimally separate step-like from smoothly-varying low-frequency signals? We study the hypothesis that the edge-detection approach makes better use of all information contained in the time series than the "traditional" approach (e.g. Caussinus and Mestre, 2004), which we base on several observations. 1) The traditional formulation of the problem reduces the available information from the outset to that contained in the test statistic. 2) The criterion of local steepness of the low-frequency variability, while at least hypothetically useful, is ignored. 3) The practice of using monthly data corresponds, mathematically, to applying a moving average filter (to reduce noise) and subsequent subsampling of the result; this subsampling reduces the amount of available information beyond what is necessary for noise reduction. Most importantly, the tradeoff between noise reduction (better with filters with wide support in the time domain) and localization of detected changes (better with filters with narrow support) is expressed in the well-known uncertainty principle and can be addressed optimally within a time-frequency framework. Unsurprisingly, a large number of edge-detection algorithms have been proposed that make use of wavelet decompositions and similar techniques. We are developing this framework in part to be applied to a particular set of climate data from Greenland; we will present results from this application as well as from tests with

  16. Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers (United States)

    Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.


    Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

  17. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on different matrices of food supplements. (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; García-González, Antonio; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna


    There is a growing demand for food supplements containing high amounts of vitamins, phenolic compounds and mineral content that provide health benefits. Those functional compounds have different solubility properties, and the maintenance of their compounds and the guarantee of their homogenic properties need the application of novel technologies. The quality of different drinkable functional foods after thermal processing (0.1 MPa) or high-pressure homogenization under two different conditions (80 MPa, 33 ℃ and 120 MPa, 43 ℃) was studied. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities were evaluated throughout the six months of accelerated storage at 40 ℃ and 75% relative humidity (RH). Aroma and color were better maintained in high-pressure homogenization-treated samples than the thermally treated ones, which contributed significantly to extending their shelf life. The small particle size obtained after high-pressure homogenization treatments caused differences in turbidity and viscosity with respect to heat-treated samples. The use of high-pressure homogenization, more specifically, 120 MPa, provided active ingredient homogeneity to ensure uniform content in functional food supplements. Although the effect of high-pressure homogenization can be affected by the food matrix, high-pressure homogenization can be implemented as an alternative to conventional heat treatments in a commercial setting within the functional food supplement or pharmaceutical industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The legal regulation of information and communications technologies as specific forms of a production factor for capital in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Hes


    Full Text Available Information and communications technologies (ICT are usually given attention primarily from the standpoint of the technical aspects. However the legal aspects of this specific area cannot be forgotten, as they significantly influence the efficacy and usefulness to entrepreneurial subjects i.e. the conditions for making business transactions. ICT are one of the factors that markedly influence agricultural primary production and the food industry as well as all other branches of the economy. Therefore it is necessary to analyse the effect Community legal regulations for electronic transactions have on resource utility. The aim of the paper is to analyse the state of the legal regulation of information and communication technologies in the food industry in the CR in comparison with Community law. Currently a basic overall source of law for the ICT area does not exist in the CR in an integral form. This branch of law is regulated complementarily in a whole number of varying legal regulations. With regards to the specifics of the media used in the ICT framework it is essential to resolve certain issues differently from the general regulations.The paper has resulted from the institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 “The Economics of Resources from Czech Agriculture and their Efficient Use in the Framework of Multifunctional Agri-food Systems“.

  19. Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Sergey; Dannberg, Peter; Gebhardt, Andreas


    LED-optics for homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas - as required for reading lamps or lighting of imagers - employ a primary optics which acts as collimator and a secondary optics for beam shaping, homogenization and relaying the light onto the illuminated plane. Efficient primary optics are realized by concentrators which are either simple reflecting or combined refractivereflective devices. Different design algorithms based on the modelling of the concentrators by Bezier splines were developed: A modification of the edge-ray principle allows the formulation of the merit function in geometrical terms (for instance the divergence after collimator), while a more general algorithm with direct Powell optimization allows for combined optimization criteria like efficiency and homogeneity in near- and/or farfield. Concentrator prototypes were realized by direct diamond-turning into PMMA. Telecentric, homogeneous illumination of rectangular areas is achieved by a subsequent secondary optics with tandem lens array integrators. We describe design rules for array integrator optics derived from a simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential real raytracing is used for the actual optics system design and analysis of aberrations, which deteriorate homogeneity and useful system transmission. We realized miniaturized array integrators with monolithic tandem microlens arrays, which remarkably reduce overall system length compared to light-pipe approaches. Double-sided cylindrical microlens arrays with large fill-factor over 99%, realized by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses, relax system assembly by shifting critical adjustment steps into element manufacturing.

  20. Harmonic analysis on spaces of homogeneous type

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Donggao


    The dramatic changes that came about in analysis during the twentieth century are truly amazing. In the thirties, complex methods and Fourier series played a seminal role. After many improvements, mostly achieved by the Calderón-Zygmund school, the action today is taking place in spaces of homogeneous type. No group structure is available and the Fourier transform is missing, but a version of harmonic analysis is still available. Indeed the geometry is conducting the analysis. The authors succeed in generalizing the construction of wavelet bases to spaces of homogeneous type. However wavelet bases are replaced by frames, which in many applications serve the same purpose.

  1. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  2. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  3. Homogenization-Based Numerical Mathods, Homogenization, Asymptotic Analysis, Asymptotic Expansion, Numerical Simulation


    Frenod, Emmanuel


    In this note, a classification of Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods and (in particular) of Numerical Methods that are based on the Two-Scale Convergence is done. In this classification stand: Direct Homogenization-Based Numerical Methods; H-Measure-Based Numerical Methods; Two-Scale Numerical Methods and TSAPS: Two-Scale Asymptotic Preserving Schemes.

  4. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu


    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature and methanol characteristics (oil molar ratio; catalyst type, concentration and agitation) controlled the ester convers-ion. ... The fuel properties of biodiesels and blends were analysed quantitati-vely, and the biodiesel produced by homogeneous catalysis compared favourably with conventional diesel fuel.

  6. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is constructed. It is used to derive Einstein's planetary equation of motion and photon equation of motion in the vicinity of the rotating homogeneous spherical mass.

  7. On horizons in homogeneous isotropic universes (United States)

    Patzelt, Harald


    In homogeneous isotropic universes the particle horizon defines causally connected regions. For inflationary universes it is known that microphysics can interact coherently only on a much smaller scale. Here an interaction horizon is introdued that allows this scale to be determined for Robertson-Walker models. During inflation its upper bound is the event horizon.

  8. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  9. Reduced-order modelling numerical homogenization. (United States)

    Abdulle, A; Bai, Y


    A general framework to combine numerical homogenization and reduced-order modelling techniques for partial differential equations (PDEs) with multiple scales is described. Numerical homogenization methods are usually efficient to approximate the effective solution of PDEs with multiple scales. However, classical numerical homogenization techniques require the numerical solution of a large number of so-called microproblems to approximate the effective data at selected grid points of the computational domain. Such computations become particularly expensive for high-dimensional, time-dependent or nonlinear problems. In this paper, we explain how numerical homogenization method can benefit from reduced-order modelling techniques that allow one to identify offline and online computational procedures. The effective data are only computed accurately at a carefully selected number of grid points (offline stage) appropriately 'interpolated' in the online stage resulting in an online cost comparable to that of a single-scale solver. The methodology is presented for a class of PDEs with multiple scales, including elliptic, parabolic, wave and nonlinear problems. Numerical examples, including wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and solute transport in unsaturated porous media, illustrate the proposed method. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional dispersion analysis of homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of wave propagation in an infinite, homogeneous, transversely isotropic thermo elastic polygonal cross-sectional bar immersed in fluid is studied using Fourier expansion collocation method, with in the framework of linearized, three dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Three displacement potential functions ...

  11. Predictive modeling in homogeneous catalysis: a tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado, A.G.; Rothenberg, G.


    Predictive modeling has become a practical research tool in homogeneous catalysis. It can help to pinpoint ‘good regions’ in the catalyst space, narrowing the search for the optimal catalyst for a given reaction. Just like any other new idea, in silico catalyst optimization is accepted by some


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effects of aqueous homogenates of avocado pear (Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves co-administered with anti-tuberculosis drug on liver enzymes of albino rats. Twenty (20) albino rats were divided into five (5) groups (of four rats each).

  13. On homogeneous skewness of unimodal distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Shubhabrata; Mandal, Pranab K.; Ghosh, Diptesh


    We introduce a new concept of skewness for unimodal continuous distributions which is built on the asymmetry of the density function around its mode. The asymmetry is captured through a skewness function. We call a distribution homogeneously skewed if this skewness function is consistently positive

  14. Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces


    Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.


    In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.

  15. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend


    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  16. Global Well-posedness of the Spatially Homogeneous Kolmogorov-Vicsek Model as a Gradient Flow (United States)

    Figalli, Alessio; Kang, Moon-Jin; Morales, Javier


    We consider the so-called spatially homogenous Kolmogorov-Vicsek model, a non-linear Fokker-Planck equation of self-driven stochastic particles with orientation interaction under the space-homogeneity. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to the equation. We also show that weak solutions exponentially converge to a steady state, which has the form of the Fisher-von Mises distribution.

  17. Fluorine-ion conductivity of different technological forms of solid electrolytes R 1- y M y F3- y (LaF3 Type ) ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R Are Rare Earth Elements) (United States)

    Sorokin, N. I.; Sobolev, B. P.


    We have investigated the conductivity of some representatives of different technological forms of fluoride-conducting solid electrolytes R 1- y M y F3- y ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R are rare earth elements) with an LaF3 structure: single crystals, cold- and hot-pressing ceramics based on a charge prepared in different ways (mechanochemical synthesis, solid-phase synthesis, and fragmentation of single crystals), polycrystalline alloys, etc. It is shown (by impedance spectroscopy), that different technological forms of identical chemical composition ( R, M, y) exhibit different electrical characteristics. The maximum conductivity is observed for the single-crystal form of R 1- y M y F3- y tysonite phases, which provides (in contrast to other technological forms) the formation of true volume ion-conducting characteristics.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M M Hasan; M M Rahman; K Kadirgama


      Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines employ a relatively new mode of combustion technology, in which auto-ignition occurs when the lean mixture of air and fuel reaches its chemical activation energy...

  19. Feasibility Study of Aseptic Homogenization: Affecting Homogenization Steps on Quality of Sterilized Coconut Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phungamngoen Chanthima


    Full Text Available Coconut milk is one of the most important protein-rich food sources available today. Separation of an emulsion into an aqueous phase and cream phase is commonly occurred and this leads an unacceptably physical defect of either fresh or processed coconut milk. Since homogenization steps are known to affect the stability of coconut milk. This work was aimed to study the effect of homogenization steps on quality of coconut milk. The samples were subject to high speed homogenization in the range of 5000-15000 rpm under sterilize temperatures at 120-140 °C for 15 min. The result showed that emulsion stability increase with increasing speed of homogenization. The lower fat particles were generated and easy to disperse in continuous phase lead to high stability. On the other hand, the stability of coconut milk decreased, fat globule increased, L value decreased and b value increased when the high sterilization temperature was applied. Homogenization after heating led to higher stability than homogenization before heating due to the reduced particle size of coconut milk after aggregation during sterilization process. The results implied that homogenization after sterilization process might play an important role on the quality of the sterilized coconut milk.

  20. Efficiency measures for a non-homogeneous group of family farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes


    Full Text Available DEA models assume the homogeneity of the units under evaluation (DMUs. However,in some cases, the DMUs use different production technologies. In such cases, they should be evaluated separately. In this paper we evaluate the efficiency of family farmers from the Brazilian Eastern Amazon, who use different agricultural production systems. We propose an alternative algorithm to assess the global efficiency, taking into account the non-homogeneity. The results show that the farmers that use the classical technology are more efficient than those considered "environmental friendly", as we took into account only the economic point of view.

  1. Implementation of concurrent electrolytic generation of two homogeneous mediators under widened potential conditions to facilitate removal of air-pollutants. (United States)

    Govindan, Muthuraman; Bond, Alan M; Moon, Il-Shik


    Electro-scrubbing is being developed as a futuristic technology for the removal of air-pollutants. To date, only one homogeneous mediator for the removal of air pollutants has been generated in each experiment using a divided electrolytic flow cell in an acidic medium. This paper reports the concurrent generation of two homogenous mediators, one at the anodic half-cell containing an acidic solution and the other at the cathodic half-cell containing a basic solution. The concept was inspired by the change in pH that occurs during water electrolysis in a divided cell. A 10 M KOH electrolyte medium assisted in the electrochemical generation of low valent 14% Co1+ ([CoI(CN)5]4-) mediator formed from reduction of [CoII(CN)5]3- which was accompanied by a change in the solution 'oxidation reduction potential' (ORP) of -1.05 V Simultaneously, 41% of Co3+ was generated from oxidation of CoIISO4 in the anodic half-cell. No change in the solution ORP was observed at the cathodic half-cell when both half-cells contain 5 M H2SO4, and Co3+ was formed in the anodic half-cell. An electro-scrubbing approach based on the above principles was developed and tested on gaseous-pollutants, CH3CHO and CCl4, by Co3+ and Co1+, respectively, with 90 and 96% removal achieved, respectively.

  2. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...... anthropology engages groups of people within collaborative, interdisciplinary, inter-organizational design processes and co-analytic activities vs. the individual anthropologist conducting studies of people. In doing anthropology by means of design as Gatt and Ingold (2013) have shown, design is considered...

  3. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry


    We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

  4. Coherent Eigenmodes in Homogeneous MHD Turbulence (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    The statistical mechanics of Fourier models of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is discussed, along with their relevance for dissipative magnetofluids. Although statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation, i.e., we have coherent structure. We use eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density function to explain this phenomena in terms of `broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We provide examples from 2-D and 3-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from long-time simulations of MHD turbulence with and without a mean magnetic field

  5. Kinematical uniqueness of homogeneous isotropic LQC

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan


    In a paper by Ashtekar and Campiglia, invariance under volume preserving residual diffeomorphisms has been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). In this paper, we use invariance under all residual diffeomorphisms to single out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of homogeneous isotropic LQC for both the standard configuration space $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$, as well as for the Fleischhack one $\\mathbb{R} \\sqcup \\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$. We first determine the scale invariant Radon measures on these spaces, and then show that the Haar measure on $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$ is the only such measure for which the momentum operator is hermitian w.r.t. the corresponding inner product. In particular, the measure is forced to be identically zero on $\\mathbb{R}$ in the Fleischhack case, so that for both approaches, the standard kinematical LQC-Hilbert space is singled out.

  6. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor


    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  7. Einstein-Cartan gravitational collapse of a homogeneous Weyssenhoff fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Sepangi, Hamid Reza [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vargas Moniz, Paulo [Universidade da Beira Interior, Departamento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes (CMA-UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Ranjbar, Arash [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Centro de Estudios Cientficos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile)


    We consider the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric homogeneous matter distribution consisting of a Weyssenhoff fluid in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Our aim is to investigate the effects of torsion and spin averaged terms on the final outcome of the collapse. For a specific interior space-time setup, namely the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW metric, we obtain two classes of solutions to the field equations where depending on the relation between spin source parameters, (i) the collapse procedure culminates in a space-time singularity or (ii) it is replaced by a non-singular bounce. We show that, under certain conditions, for a specific subset of the former solutions, the formation of trapped surfaces is prevented and thus the resulted singularity could be naked. The curvature singularity that forms could be gravitationally strong in the sense of Tipler. Our numerical analysis for the latter solutions shows that the collapsing dynamical process experiences four phases, so that two of which occur at the pre-bounce and the other two at post-bounce regimes. We further observe that there can be found a minimum radius for the apparent horizon curve, such that the main outcome of which is that there exists an upper bound for the size of the collapsing body, below which no horizon forms throughout the whole scenario. (orig.)

  8. Correlated equilibria in homogenous good Bertrand competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jann, Ole; Schottmüller, Christoph


    We show that there is a unique correlated equilibrium, identical to the unique Nash equilibrium, in the classic Bertrand oligopoly model with homogenous goods and identical marginal costs. This provides a theoretical underpinning for the so-called "Bertrand paradox'' as well as its most general f...... formulation to date. Our proof generalizes to asymmetric marginal costs and arbitrarily many players in the following way: The market price cannot be higher than the second lowest marginal cost in any correlated equilibrium....

  9. A homogeneous model of spinfoam cosmology (United States)

    Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David


    We examine spinfoam cosmology by use of a simple graph adapted to homogeneous cosmological models. We calculate dynamics in the isotropic limit, and provide the framework for the anisotropic case. We calculate the transition amplitude between holomorphic coherent states on a single node graph and find that the resultant dynamics is peaked on solutions which have no support on the zero volume state, indicating that big bang type singularities are avoided within such models. Communicated by P Singh

  10. Hypersurface-homogeneous space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.


    We propose a new method to build exact solutions of Einstein field equations in case of ''hypersurface-homogeneous space-times.'' The energy-momentum tensor is of perfect fluid type. Starting from SE solutions we are able to build new classes of solutions which add to the rare solutions not satisfying the equation of state p = (..gamma..-1) We study the geometrical and physical properties of some of the solutions obtained.

  11. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi


    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  12. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk. (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C


    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the homogenization kinetics of as-cast U-10wt% Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie, E-mail: [Computational Mathematics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Joshi, Vineet [Energy Processes & Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hu, Shenyang [Reactor Materials & Mechanical Design, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Paxton, Dean [Nuclear Engineering and Analysis Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lavender, Curt [Energy Processes & Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Nuclear Engineering and Analysis Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)


    Low-enriched U-22at% Mo (U–10Mo) alloy has been considered as an alternative material to replace the highly enriched fuels in research reactors. For the U–10Mo to work effectively and replace the existing fuel material, a thorough understanding of the microstructure development from as-cast to the final formed structure is required. The as-cast microstructure typically resembles an inhomogeneous microstructure with regions containing molybdenum-rich and -lean regions, which may affect the processing and possibly the in-reactor performance. This as-cast structure must be homogenized by thermal treatment to produce a uniform Mo distribution. The development of a modeling capability will improve the understanding of the effect of initial microstructures on the Mo homogenization kinetics. In the current work, we investigated the effect of as-cast microstructure on the homogenization kinetics. The kinetics of the homogenization was modeled based on a rigorous algorithm that relates the line scan data of Mo concentration to the gray scale in energy dispersive spectroscopy images, which was used to generate a reconstructed Mo concentration map. The map was then used as realistic microstructure input for physics-based homogenization models, where the entire homogenization kinetics can be simulated and validated against the available experiment data at different homogenization times and temperatures.

  14. Modeling the Homogenization Kinetics of As-Cast U-10wt% Mo alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Joshi, Vineet; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Paxton, Dean M.; Lavender, Curt A.; Burkes, Douglas


    Low-enriched U-22at% Mo (U-10Mo) alloy has been considered as an alternative material to replace the highly enriched fuels in research reactors. For the U-10Mo to work effectively and replace the existing fuel material, a thorough understanding of the microstructure development from as-cast to the final formed structure is required. The as-cast microstructure typically resembles an inhomogeneous microstructure with regions containing molybdenum-rich and -lean regions, which may affect the processing and possibly the in-reactor performance. This as-cast structure must be homogenized by thermal treatment to produce a uniform Mo distribution. The development of a modeling capability will improve the understanding of the effect of initial microstructures on the Mo homogenization kinetics. In the current work, we investigated the effect of as-cast microstructure on the homogenization kinetics. The kinetics of the homogenization was modeled based on a rigorous algorithm that relates the line scan data of Mo concentration to the gray scale in energy dispersive spectroscopy images, which was used to generate a reconstructed Mo concentration map. The map was then used as realistic microstructure input for physics-based homogenization models, where the entire homogenization kinetics can be simulated and validated against the available experiment data at different homogenization times and temperatures.

  15. High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity. (United States)

    Kang, Kibum; Xie, Saien; Huang, Lujie; Han, Yimo; Huang, Pinshane Y; Mak, Kin Fai; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Muller, David; Park, Jiwoong


    The large-scale growth of semiconducting thin films forms the basis of modern electronics and optoelectronics. A decrease in film thickness to the ultimate limit of the atomic, sub-nanometre length scale, a difficult limit for traditional semiconductors (such as Si and GaAs), would bring wide benefits for applications in ultrathin and flexible electronics, photovoltaics and display technology. For this, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which can form stable three-atom-thick monolayers, provide ideal semiconducting materials with high electrical carrier mobility, and their large-scale growth on insulating substrates would enable the batch fabrication of atomically thin high-performance transistors and photodetectors on a technologically relevant scale without film transfer. In addition, their unique electronic band structures provide novel ways of enhancing the functionalities of such devices, including the large excitonic effect, bandgap modulation, indirect-to-direct bandgap transition, piezoelectricity and valleytronics. However, the large-scale growth of monolayer TMD films with spatial homogeneity and high electrical performance remains an unsolved challenge. Here we report the preparation of high-mobility 4-inch wafer-scale films of monolayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten disulphide, grown directly on insulating SiO2 substrates, with excellent spatial homogeneity over the entire films. They are grown with a newly developed, metal-organic chemical vapour deposition technique, and show high electrical performance, including an electron mobility of 30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and 114 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 90 K for MoS2, with little dependence on position or channel length. With the use of these films we successfully demonstrate the wafer-scale batch fabrication of high-performance monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors with a 99% device yield and the multi-level fabrication of vertically stacked transistor devices for three

  16. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin


    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  17. Path homogeneity along a horizontal line-of-sight path during the FESTER experiment: First results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, W.H.; Maritz, B.; Koago, M.; Wainman, C.K.; Gardener, M.E.; February, F.; Eijk, A.M.J. van


    The First European South African Experiment (FESTER) was conducted over about a 10 month period at the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in False Bay, South Africa. One of the important goals was the establishment of the air-sea temperature difference (ASTD) homogeneity along the main

  18. Reverse-flow adsorption for process-integrated recycling of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marras, F.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Supramolecular strategies, based on hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions, were investigated as tools for the recovery and recycling of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts by using reverse-flow adsorption (RFA) technology. The association (in solution) and adsorption (on support) of new

  19. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g Pada Lingkungan Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati


    Full Text Available Telecommunication technology and applications have developed fast recently. Hence this development will take energy consumption significantly. Many studies have been done on energy efficiency on cellular network. The studies are more focused on energy usage of the base station, as the base station is the component of cellular station which takes the most energy consumption. Therefore this study analyzes energy efficiency on homogeneous network of WCDMA/3G for outdoor environment. Energy consumption of three macro base stations is compared with energy consumption of 12 micro base stations. This comparison analysis has been conducted on the same Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE. The results show that the macro base stations are more efficient for energy usage than the micro base stations. However based on ASE requirements, the micro base stations are more efficient than the macro base stations on both busy hours and non-busy hour.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hairuddin


    Full Text Available Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine technology is relatively new and has not matured sufficiently to be commercialised compared with conventional engines. It can use spark ignition or compression ignition engine configurations, capitalizing on the advantages of both: high engine efficiency with low emissions levels. HCCI engines can use a wide range of fuels with low emissions levels. Due to these advantages, HCCI engines are suitable for use in a hybrid engine configuration, where they can reduce the fuel consumption even further. However, HCCI engines have some disadvantages, such as knocking and a low to medium operating load range, which need to be resolved before the engine can be commercialised. Therefore, a comprehensive study has to be performed to understand the behaviour of HCCI engines.

  1. Diffusion piecewise homogenization via flux discontinuity factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Richard; Zmijarevic, Igor, E-mail:, E-mail: [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)


    We analyze the calculation of flux discontinuity factors (FDFs) for use with piecewise subdomain assembly homogenization. These coefficients depend on the numerical mesh used to compute the diffusion problem. When the mesh has a single degree of freedom on subdomain interfaces the solution is unique and can be computed independently per subdomain. For all other cases we have implemented an iterative calculation for the FDFs. Our numerical results show that there is no solution to this nonlinear problem but that the iterative algorithm converges towards FDFs values that reproduce subdomains reaction rates with a relatively high precision. In our test we have included both the GET and black-box FDFs. (author)

  2. Homogenization of structured metasurfaces and uniaxial wire medium metamaterials for microwave applications (United States)

    Kaipa, Chandra S. R.

    In recent years, the study of electromagnetic wave interaction with artificial media has been the subject of intense research interest due to their extraordinary properties such as negative refraction, partial focusing, enhanced transmission, and spatial filtering, among others. Artificial media are crystals of various periodic metallic inclusions with dimensions of the order of λ/10 - λ/4. When compared to natural materials, the inclusions are, thus, not as small in terms of the wavelength, even in the optical band. Therefore, one should expect the electrodynamics of these media to be inherently non-local, characterized by strong spatial dispersion effects. The dissertation includes two parts and focuses on the electromagnetic wave propagation in metamaterials formed by stacked metasurfaces and structured wire media. In the first part, we propose physical systems that mimic the observed behavior of stacked metal-dielectric layers at optical frequencies, but in the microwave region of the spectrum using stacked metascreens, and at low-THz using graphene-dielectric stack. The analysis is carried out using simple analytical circuit model or transfer matrix method with the homogenized impedance for the metasurfaces. The physical mechanisms of the observed behavior is clearly explained in terms of the open/coupled Fabry-Pérot resonators. The methodology can be useful in the design of wideband planar filters based on these metasurfaces with a specific response. The second part focuses on the development of homogenization models for wire medium loaded with arbitrary impedance insertions and metallic patches, to characterize negative refraction, partial focusing, and subwavelength imaging. We propose a new concept of suppressing the spatial dispersion effects in the wire media by employing lumped inductive loads. Based on the proposed concept, we demonstrate an ultra-thin structure which exhibits indefinite dielectric response, all-angle negative refraction and high

  3. Barriers and solutions for the application and development of renewable energy technologies


    Dinica, V.


    Renewable electricity technologies have overwhelmingly higher advantages over conventional fuel-systems. Nevertheless, after more than three decades since their conceptualization their presence in electricity systems is hardly visible, except for few success stories in the US and several European countries. The main reason for this slow development is that renewables-based systems have often been regarded as forming a homogenous group of technologies that can be diffused into the current elec...

  4. Surface energy, elasticity and the homogenization of rough surfaces (United States)

    Mohammadi, P.; Liu, L. P.; Sharma, P.; Kukta, R. V.


    The concept of surface energy is widely used to understand numerous aspects of material behavior: fracture, self-assembly, catalysis, void formation, microstructure evolution, and size-effect exhibited by nanostructures. Extensive work exists on deriving homogenized constitutive responses for macroscopic composites—relating effective properties to various microstructural details. In the present work, we focus on homogenization of surfaces. Indeed, elucidation of the effect of surface roughness on the surface energy, stress, and elastic behavior is relatively under-studied and quite relevant to the behavior of both nanostructures and bulk material where surfaces are involved in some form or fashion. We present derivations that relate both periodic and random roughness to the effective surface elastic behavior. We find that the residual surface stress is hardly affected by roughness while the superficial elastic properties are dramatically altered and, importantly, they may also change sign—this has significant ramifications in the interpretation of sensing based on frequency measurement changes. Interestingly, even if the bare surface has a zero surface elasticity modulus, roughness is seen to endow it with one. Using atomistic calculations, we verify the qualitative validity of the obtained theoretical insights. We show, through an illustrative example, that the square of resonance frequency of a cantilever beam with rough surface can decrease almost by a factor of two compared to a flat surface.

  5. Homogenizing Indonesian Islam: Persecution of the Shia Group in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin


    Full Text Available This article studies “the homogenizing movement” in Indonesian Islam propagated by conservative Sunni groups in the form of persecuting minorities. However, this paper particularly focuses on the case of a Shia intellectual group in Yogyakarta called Rausyan Fikr which was persecuted by the radical Indonesian Jihad Front (FJI group in November and December 2013. This paper finds that the scenario to terrorize the Rausyan was not an isolated incident, but the case is part of a grand homogenizing movement in the country. In addition, the anti-Shia propaganda was planned by local perpetrators and national actors: local radicals who persecuted the Shia and conservative activists who propagated anti-Shia ideology in national level. This paper offers fresh accounts of the two new forces which played vital roles in the Rausyan incident: the activists of the Council of Young Intellectual Ulama of Indonesia (MIUMI, who propagated anti-Shia sentiment, and the radical group FJI, which was directly responsible for terrorizing the Shia in Yogyakarta.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v24i1.3354

  6. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian


    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  7. Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent E Eskridge

    Full Text Available Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment.

  8. Numerical homogenization: survey, new results, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Antoine


    Full Text Available These notes give a state of the art of numerical homogenization methods for linear elliptic equations. The guideline of these notes is analysis. Most of the numerical homogenization methods can be seen as (more or less different discretizations of the same family of continuous approximate problems, which H-converges to the homogenized problem. Likewise numerical correctors may also be interpreted as approximations of Tartar’s correctors. Hence the convergence analysis of these methods relies on the H-convergence theory. When one is interested in convergence rates, the story is different. In particular one first needs to make additional structure assumptions on the heterogeneities (say periodicity for instance. In that case, a crucial tool is the spectral interpretation of the corrector equation by Papanicolaou and Varadhan. Spectral analysis does not only allow to obtain convergence rates, but also to devise efficient new approximation methods. For both qualitative and quantitative properties, the development and the analysis of numerical homogenization methods rely on seminal concepts of the homogenization theory. These notes contain some new results. Ces notes de cours dressent un état de l’art des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique pour les équations elliptiques linéaires. Le fil conducteur choisi est l’analyse. La plupart des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique s’interprète comme des discrétisations (plus ou moins différentes d’une même famille de problèmes continus approchés qui H-converge vers le problème homogénéisé. De même, le concept de correcteur numérique s’interprète comme une approximation des correcteurs introduits par Tartar. Ainsi l’analyse de convergence repose essentiellement sur la théorie de la H-convergence. Si on s’intéresse aux estimations quantitatives d’erreur, il faut faire des hypothèses supplémentaires de structure sur les hétérogénéités (périodicité par

  9. Social enterprise in health organisation and management: hybridity or homogeneity? (United States)

    Millar, Ross


    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on social enterprise as an organisational form in health organisation and management. The paper presents a critique of the underlying assumptions associated with social enterprise in the context of English health and social care. The rise of social enterprise models of service provision reflects increasingly hybrid organisational forms and functions entering the health and social care market. Whilst at one level this hybridity increases the diversity of service providers promoting innovative and responsive services, the paper argues that further inspection of the assumptions associated with social enterprise reveal an organisational form that is symbolic of isomorphic processes pushing healthcare organisations toward greater levels of homogeneity, based on market-based standardisation and practices. Social enterprise forms part of isomorphic processes moving healthcare organisation and management towards market norms". In line with the aim of the "New Perspectives section", the paper aims to present a provocative perspective about developments in health and social care, as a spur to further debate and research in this area.

  10. Experience and advantages in implementation of educational program in network form at Department «Closed nuclear fuel cycle Technologies» of National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI» (United States)

    Beygel‧, A. G.; Kutsenko, K. V.; Lavrukhin, A. A.; Magomedbekov, E. P.; Pershukov, V. A.; Sofronov, V. L.; Tyupina, E. A.; Zhiganov, A. N.


    The experience of implementation of the basic educational program of magistracy on direction «Nuclear Physics and Technologies» in a network form is presented. Examples of joint implementation of the educational process with employers organizations, other universities and intranet mobility of students are given.

  11. A method for testing the cosmic homogeneity with Shannon entropy (United States)

    Pandey, Biswajit


    We propose a method for testing cosmic homogeneity based on the Shannon entropy in Information theory and test the potentials and limitations of the method on Monte Carlo simulations of some homogeneous and inhomogeneous 3D point process in a finite region of space. We analyse a set of N-body simulations to investigate the prospect of determining the scale of homogeneity with the proposed method and show that the method could serve as an efficient tool for the study of homogeneity.

  12. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy saving metal forming technology (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / sho energy gata shin process ni yoru kinzoku seikei gijutsu no kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Out of the development of metal forming technology by a new energy saving process, the paper described the fiscal 1997 result. In the development of high-hard tool steels by composite carbide dispersion carburization (CDC) method, high speed steels containing V and Mo were manufactured to observe the texture and measure the hardness. From carburized materials, the texture in which more homogeneous and finer carbide disperses than from dissolved materials can be obtained. Hardness of CDC materials is dependent on alloy concentration and texture, and specimens exceeding the maximum Vickers hardness, 1000, were manufactured. The texture of carburized materials is predictable from the calculation state chart, and a relational equation was introduced of the crystal grain growth of the particle dispersion texture. After carburization, quenching and tempering were conducted under various conditions, and the maximum Vickers hardness, 1000, was almost achieved. The large ball mill which enables mechanical alloying was newly installed. High temperature rotating bending fatigue experimental equipment was installed. The sintering method was established, and spattering target for trial manufacture was manufactured. The joining experiment using various inserting materials was carried out, appropriate joining conditions and inserting materials were selected, and the joining experiment on ion gun parts. 9 refs., 89 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Homogenization of granular pipe flow by means of helical inner-wall texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbücheln Felix


    Full Text Available The homogenization of granular flows through narrow pipes is important for a broad range of technological and industrial applications. Here we show, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, that such homogenization can be achieved by adding a helical inner-wall texture to the pipe, without the need for energy input from any external source. By using such a texture, jamming is prevented and the granular flux can be predicted using a modified Beverloo equation that accounts for the wavelength of the helical texture.

  14. Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien


    In thin magnetic layers with structural inversion asymmetry and spin-orbit coupling, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arises at the interface. When a spin-wave current jm flows in a system with a homogeneous magnetization m, this interaction produces an effective fieldlike torque of the form TFLm×(z×jm) as well as a dampinglike torque, TDLm×[(z×jm)×m], the latter only in the presence of spin-wave relaxation (z is normal to the interface). These torques mediated by the magnon flow can reorient the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can be efficient in the case of magnons driven by a thermal gradient.

  15. Homogeneous Nucleation of Methane Hydrate in Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations. (United States)

    Sarupria, Sapna; Debenedetti, Pablo G


    We report atomistically detailed molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrate in bulk aqueous phase in the absence of any interface. Subcritical clusters of water and methane molecules are formed in the initial segment of the simulations, which then aggregate to give the critical hydrate nucleus. This occurs over time scales of several hundred nanoseconds, indicating that the formation and aggregation of subcritical clusters can contribute significantly to the overall rate of hydrate nucleation. The clusters have elements of sI hydrate structure, such as 5(12) and 5(12)6(2) cages as well as other uncommon 5(12)6(3) and 5(12)6(4) cages, but do not possess long-range order. Clusters are dynamic in nature and undergo continuous structural rearrangements.

  16. Homogeneous spaces and transitive actions by Polish groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mill, J.


    We prove that for every homogeneous and strongly locally homogeneous Polish space X there is a Polish group admitting a transitive action on X. We also construct an example of a homogeneous Polish space which is not a coset space and on which no separable metrizable topological group acts

  17. Homogenization of the lipid profile values. (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Brotons, Carlos; Esteban-Salán, Margarita; García-Lerín, Aurora; Pintó, Xavier; Lekuona, Iñaki; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi


    Analytical reports from the clinical laboratory are essential to guide clinicians about what lipid profile values should be considered altered and, therefore, require intervention. Unfortunately, there is a great heterogeneity in the lipid values reported as "normal, desirable, recommended or referenced" by clinical laboratories. This can difficult clinical decisions and be a barrier to achieve the therapeutic goals for cardiovascular prevention. A recent international recommendation has added a new heterogeneity factor for the interpretation of lipid profile, such as the possibility of measuring it without previous fasting. All this justifies the need to develop a document that adapts the existing knowledge to the clinical practice of our health system. In this regard, professionals from different scientific societies involved in the measurement and use of lipid profile data have developed this document to establish recommendations that facilitate their homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Sojourning with the Homogeneous Poisson Process. (United States)

    Liu, Piaomu; Peña, Edsel A


    In this pedagogical article, distributional properties, some surprising, pertaining to the homogeneous Poisson process (HPP), when observed over a possibly random window, are presented. Properties of the gap-time that covered the termination time and the correlations among gap-times of the observed events are obtained. Inference procedures, such as estimation and model validation, based on event occurrence data over the observation window, are also presented. We envision that through the results in this paper, a better appreciation of the subtleties involved in the modeling and analysis of recurrent events data will ensue, since the HPP is arguably one of the simplest among recurrent event models. In addition, the use of the theorem of total probability, Bayes theorem, the iterated rules of expectation, variance and covariance, and the renewal equation could be illustrative when teaching distribution theory, mathematical statistics, and stochastic processes at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This article is targeted towards both instructors and students.

  19. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.


    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in apple and carrot juices using high pressure homogenization and nisin. (United States)

    Pathanibul, Panchalee; Taylor, T Matthew; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico


    High pressure homogenization has been of growing interest as a nonthermal technology for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit and vegetable juices. Cells of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, used as surrogates for foodborne pathogens, were inoculated into apple or carrot juice (approximately 7 log(10) CFU/ml) containing 0 or 10 IU/ml nisin and subjected to 350 to 0 MPa high pressure homogenization. At 50 MPa homogenization pressure intervals, juice samples were collected, immediately cooled to 5 log reduction of cells was achieved following exposure to pressures in excess >250 MPa. In contrast, little inactivation was observed for L. innocua with pressure innocua. Results indicate that high pressure homogenization processing is a promising technology to achieve pathogen decontamination in fruit and vegetable juices.

  1. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)


    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. A Many-Atom Cavity QED System with Homogeneous Atom-Cavity Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongmin; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A


    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  3. Darboux integrability of 2-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with homogenous potentials of degree 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Valls, Claudia, E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)


    We provide a characterization of all Hamiltonian systems of the form H=(p{sub 1}{sup 2}+p{sub 2}{sup 2})/2+V(q{sub 1},q{sub 2}), where V is a homogenous polynomial of degree 3 which are completely integrable with Darboux first integrals.

  4. Determination of the stability constants for cobalt, nickel and palladium homogeneous catalyst complexes containing triphenylphosphine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djekic, T.; Zivkovic, Z.; van der Ham, A.G.J.; de Haan, A.B.


    Homogeneous catalysts are complex compounds that are always in equilibrium with their free metal, free ligand and other forms of complexes. The ratios between different species are defined by the stability constants, which are influenced by different parameters such as the type of metal, ligand,

  5. Homogeneous spaces, multi-moment maps and (2,3)-trivial algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. B.; Swann, A.


    For geometries with a closed three-form we briefly overview the notion of multi-moment maps. We then give concrete examples of multi-moment maps for homogeneous hypercomplex and nearly Kahler manifolds. A special role in the theory is played by Lie algebras with second and third Betti numbers equal...

  6. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav


    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  7. Is it possible to homogenize resonant chiral metamaterials ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten


    Homogenization of metamaterials is very important as it makes possible description in terms of effective parameters. In this contribution we consider the homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for some metamaterials there is an optimal meta-atom size which depends on the coupling...... between meta-atoms. We introduce numerical criterion of homogeneity on the basis of the Bloch modes dispersion diagram calculation and a tool to predict the homogeneity limit. We show that some metamaterials with strong coupling between meta-atoms cannot be considered as homogeneous at all...

  8. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server


    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  9. Technology-based programs to support forms of leisure engagement and communication for persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies. (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa; Oliva, Doretta; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Biancardi, Emma M; Di Nuovo, Santo


    To extend the assessment of technology-based programs for promoting stimulus choice and staff/caregiver calls or radio operation and text messaging. In Study I, the program involved a portable computer, commercial software, and a microswitch to allow a man with motor impairment and moderate intellectual disability to choose among preferred stimuli (e.g., songs and film clips) and persons to call. In Study II, the programs involved (a) a radio device and an electronic control unit or (b) a net-book computer and a global system for mobile communication. A woman with blindness and moderate intellectual disability used a microswitch to operate the radio or send and listen to text messages. The participants succeeded in using the technology-aided programs through simple microswitch activations involving partial hand closure (Study I) or hand pressure (Study II). Technology-based programs can provide persons with multiple disabilities relevant leisure and communication opportunities.

  10. Forming technology motivational-valued attitudes toward healthy appearance and lifestyle for students institutes of higher Ministry of internal affairs of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko B.A.


    Full Text Available Directions of forming healthy lifestyle are considered for students. 62 students took part in experiment. New conception of the health physical training is grounded high-quality for students. Tests are developed as evaluated by the measure of formed of healthy lifestyle for students. Offered approach to the maintainance of professional health, level of physical preparedness at the change of appearance and lifestyle. It is set that the author program forms for students motivational-valued attitude toward the healthy lifestyle.

  11. Determination of optimum parameters of the technological process for plates forming from V95 and V-1461 alloys in creep applied in aircrafts constructed by “Sukhoi design bureau” (United States)

    Raevskaya, G. A.; Zakharchenko, K.; Larichkin, A.


    The research is devoted to the scientific justification of metal processing by pressure with the help of thick monolithic plates forming (thickness 40 mm) from the V95 (analog 7475) (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) and V-1461 (analog 2099) (Al-Cu-Li-Zn) alloys in creep and close-to-superplasticity. Optimum parameters of the technological process of plate forming are described. The effect of temperature on the magnitude of mechanical stresses (relaxation) during the tests of materials on pure bending is experimentally determined. Forming of thick plates (40 mm) on the UFP-1M unit, and the control of the obtained surface, in comparison with the given electronic model, made it possible to experimentally determine the time and number of forming stages. Mechanical properties of the material after the technological process and heat treatment are preliminary evaluated. The efficiency of using the obtained parameters of the technological process and treatment of metals by pressure in such methods in general is shown.

  12. Identification and properties of the fundamental expansion functions for neutron transport in an infinite homogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milgram, Michael S. [P.O. Box 1484, Deep River, Ont., K0J 1P0 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    Starting from the basic expression for the neutron flux due to a point source in an infinite homogeneous scattering and absorbing medium, the first few fundamental expansion functions corresponding to successive collisions are identified, and their analytic properties are presented, in spherical and plane geometry. Various representations of the functions are obtained in the form of power series, an expansion in a series of exponential integrals, and other integrals. The adequacy of traditional asymptotic forms is considered.

  13. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking (United States)

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.


    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  14. Comparison between the new G'/G expansion method and the extended homogeneous balance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gozukizil


    some modifications using the Riccati equation and the reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation, respectively, the new G'/G expansion method is straightforward and concise, and taking special values for parameters and using some hyperbolic identities, all the solutions obtained by the extended homogeneous balance method coincide with the solutions obtained by the new G'/G expansion method. Moreover, the new G'/G expansion method gives the general form of solutions and is applied to nonlinear partial differential equations directly without using tedious calculation instead of the extended homogeneous balance method.

  15. Homogeneous LED-illumination using microlens arrays (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Kudaev, Serge; Dannberg, Peter; Zeitner, Uwe D.


    Efficient homogeneous illumination of rectangular or circular areas with LEDs is a promising application for doublesided microlens arrays. Such illumination schemes employ a primary optics - which can be realized with a concentrator or a collimation lens - and a secondary optics with one or more double-sided microlens arrays and a collection optics for superposing the light from the individual array channels. The main advantage of this design is the achievable short system length compared to integrating lightpipe designs with subsequent relay optics. We describe design rules for the secondary optics derived from simple ABCD-matrix formalism. Based on these rules, sequential raytracing is used for the actual optics system design. Double-sided arrays are manufactured by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. With cylindrical lens arrays we assembled high-brightness RGB-illumination systems for rectangular areas. Hexagonal packed double-sided arrays of spherical lenslets were applied for a miniaturized circular spotlight. Black matrix polymer apertures attached to the lens array helped to avoid unwanted straylight.

  16. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao


    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  17. Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Srivastava


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.

  18. Vortex stretching in a homogeneous isotropic turbulence (United States)

    Hirota, M.; Nishio, Y.; Izawa, S.; Fukunishi, Y.


    Stretching vortices whose sizes are in the inertial subrange of a homogeneous isotropic turbulence are picked up, and the geometric relations with the neighboring vortices whose scales are twice larger are studied. Hierarchical vortices are extracted using a Fourier band-pass filter, and each extracted vortex is reconstructed as a set of short cylindrical segments along the vortex axis to discuss the vortex interactions. As a result, it is shown that the directions of larger vortices near the segments of the fast stretching vortices tend to be orthogonal to the direction of the stretching segments, and the locations of the larger vortices that contribute most to the stretching of smaller vortex segments are likely to be found in the direction with the relative angle of 45° from the axes of the stretching vortex segments. And, the vortices with the second highest contributions tend to be in the directions 45° from the stretching segments’ axes and orthogonal to the directions of the highest contributing vortices.

  19. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa


    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  20. Plasmons on Separated Particles: Homogenization and Applications (United States)

    McPhedran, Ross

    In this chapter, we discuss localized plasmons in optical systems containing metallic particles, clusters of metallic particles, or periodic arrays of metallic particles, separated in all cases by a background dielectric material or matrix. We begin with a brief discussion of the equations governing electromagnetic propagation in structured or composite systems containing metal particles in a matrix. A full electromagnetic solution for a periodic array of particles or a finite cluster of them is possible, but much can be learned from treatments in the quasistatic approximation, where properties of the particles are subsumed in effective dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities, and these are used in Maxwells' equations for a homogeneous material to calculate reflection and transmission properties. The two most important equations used to calculate effective dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities are the Maxwell-Garnett formula and Bruggeman's effective medium formulae. We compare these in Sect. 6.3, and look at applications in Sect. 6.4 to the field of selective absorbers for photothermal and photovoltaic energy applications. In the next section, we go on to consider collections of particles and their resonant properties, which can be exploited to deliver strong local concentrations of electromagnetic fields. These are used in Sects. 6.6 and 6.7 to discuss cloaking using plasmonic resonance, and spasers, devices which can overcome through amplification the propagation losses associated with plasmons.

  1. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase. (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra


    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  2. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato


    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  3. Homogeneous and isotropic calorimetry for space experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N., E-mail: [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Adriani, O. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Basti, A. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bonechi, S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bongi, M. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brogi, P. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Detti, S.; Lenzi, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Papini, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); and others


    Calorimetry plays an essential role in experiments observing high energy gamma and cosmic rays in space. The observational capabilities are mainly limited by the geometrical dimensions and the mass of the calorimeter. Since deployable mass depends on the design of the detector and the total mass of the payload, it is important to optimize the geometrical acceptance of the calorimeter for rare events, its granularity for particle identification, and its absorption depth for the measurement of the particle energy. A design of a calorimeter that could simultaneously optimize these characteristics assuming a mass limit of about 1.6 t has been studied. As a result, a homogeneous calorimeter instrumented with cesium iodide (CsI) crystals was chosen as the best compromise given the total mass constraint. The most suitable geometry found is cubic and isotropic, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance; granularity is obtained by filling the cubic volume with small cubic CsI crystals. The total radiation length in any direction is very large, and allows for optimal electromagnetic particle identification and energy measurement, while the interaction length is at least sufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of hadronic showers. Optimal values for the size of the crystals and spacing among them have been studied. Two prototypes have been constructed and preliminary tests with high energy ion and muon beams are reported.

  4. Effects of geometry homogenization on the HTR-10 criticality calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng-Jen [Center for Energy and Environmental Research, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peir, Jinn-Jer, E-mail: [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liang, Jenq-Horng [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    This study performs an investigation of geometry homogenization simulation using MCNP5 v1.51 and SCALE6 on the HTR-10 criticality calculations and focusing on the impact of geometry homogenization on k{sub eff} and neutron spectrum. The data libraries employed in this work are both continuous ENDF/B-VI respectively in MCNP5 and SCALE6. Six models, which are Model 1 – heterogeneous model, Model 2 – TRISO coating and graphite matrix homogenized model, Model 3 – TRISO homogenized model, Model 4 – fuel zone of fuel ball homogenized model, Model 5 – fuel ball homogenized model, and Model 6 – core homogenized model, are performed correspondingly by using MCNP5 and SCALE6 on the homogeneous effect analysis in HTR-10. The results revealed that the differences of k{sub eff} between MCNP5 and SCALE6 are all less than 300 pcm. The small differences of k{sub eff}, neutron spectra, and also the consistent discrepancies of neutron spectra between each homogenized model (Model 2–6) and Model 1 show the good agreement of MCNP5 with SCALE6 in the geometry homogenization.

  5. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.


    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  6. The Effect of pH and High-Pressure Homogenization on Droplet Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Pis Yong


    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to revisit the effect of high pressure on homogenization and the influence of pH on the emulsion droplet sizes. The high-pressure homogenization (HPH involves two stages of processing, where the first stage involves in blending the coarse emulsion by a blender, and the second stage requires disruption of the coarse emulsion into smaller droplets by a high-pressure homogenizer. The pressure range in this review is in between 10-500 MPa. The homogenised droplet sizes can be reduced by increasing the homogenization recirculation, and there is a threshold point beyond that by applying pressure only, the size cannot be further reduced. Normally, homogenised emulsions are classified by their degree of kinetic stability. Dispersed phase present in the form of droplets while continuous phase also known as suspended droplets. With a proper homogenization recirculation and pressure, a more kinetically stable emulsion can be produced. The side effects of increasing homogenization pressure are that it can cause overprocessing of the emulsion droplets where the droplet sizes become larger rather than the expected smaller size. This can cause kinetic instability in the emulsion. The droplet size is usually measured by dynamic light scattering or by laser light scattering technique. The type of samples used in this reviews are such as chocolate and vanilla based powders; mean droplet sizes samples; basil oil; tomato; lupin protein; oil; skim milk, soymilk; coconut milk; tomato homogenate; corn; egg-yolk, rapeseed and sunflower; Poly(4-vinylpyridine/silica; and Complex 1 until complex 4 approaches from author case study. A relationship is developed between emulsion size and pH. Results clearly show that lower pH offers smaller droplet of emulsion and the opposite occurs when the pH is increased.

  7. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in cirrus cloud formation – monodisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona


    Full Text Available We present a parameterization of cirrus cloud formation that computes the ice crystal number and size distribution under the presence of homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing. The parameterization is very simple to apply and is derived from the analytical solution of the cloud parcel equations, assuming that the ice nuclei population is monodisperse and chemically homogeneous. In addition to the ice distribution, an analytical expression is provided for the limiting ice nuclei number concentration that suppresses ice formation from homogeneous freezing. The parameterization is evaluated against a detailed numerical parcel model, and reproduces numerical simulations over a wide range of conditions with an average error of 6±33%. The parameterization also compares favorably against other formulations that require some form of numerical integration.

  8. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Civil and Architectural Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of. Technology, Illinois, Chicago ..... parametric test, i.e., the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, compared between observed and derived densities. ..... istics related to freeway design, vehicle performance, and the traffic stream on passenger-car equivalents for heavy ...

  9. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F.


    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  10. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application. (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S


    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Macchioni, Alceo


    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  12. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures. (United States)

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A


    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions.

  13. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2013 ... The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric.

  14. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet is an insecure open network and its use and connectivity have witnessed a significant growth, and this has made it vulnerable to all forms of attacks. A threat to a network can cause harm or interrupt the network. In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using asymmetric cryptography, with ...

  15. Oxygen Reduction by Homogeneous Molecular Catalysts and Electrocatalysts. (United States)

    Pegis, Michael L; Wise, Catherine F; Martin, Daniel J; Mayer, James M


    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a key component of biological processes and energy technologies. This Review provides a comprehensive report of soluble molecular catalysts and electrocatalysts for the ORR. The precise synthetic control and relative ease of mechanistic study for homogeneous molecular catalysts, as compared to heterogeneous materials or surface-adsorbed species, enables a detailed understanding of the individual steps of ORR catalysis. Thus, the Review places particular emphasis on ORR mechanism and thermodynamics. First, the thermochemistry of oxygen reduction and the factors influencing ORR efficiency are described to contextualize the discussion of catalytic studies that follows. Reports of ORR catalysis are presented in terms of their mechanism, with separate sections for catalysis proceeding via initial outer- and inner-sphere electron transfer to O 2 . The rates and selectivities (for production of H 2 O 2 vs H 2 O) of these catalysts are provided, along with suggested methods for accurately comparing catalysts of different metals and ligand scaffolds that were examined under different experimental conditions.

  16. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi


    Full Text Available Engine and car manufacturers are experiencing the demand concerning fuel efficiency and low emissions from both consumers and governments. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI is an alternative combustion technology that is cleaner and more efficient than the other types of combustion. Although the thermal efficiency and NOx emission of HCCI engine are greater in comparison with traditional engines, HCCI combustion has several main difficulties such as controlling of ignition timing, limited power output, and weak cold-start capability. In this study a literature review on HCCI engine has been performed and HCCI challenges and proposed solutions have been investigated from the point view of Ignition Timing that is the main problem of this engine. HCCI challenges are investigated by many IC engine researchers during the last decade, but practical solutions have not been presented for a fully HCCI engine. Some of the solutions are slow response time and some of them are technically difficult to implement. So it seems that fully HCCI engine needs more investigation to meet its mass-production and the future research and application should be considered as part of an effort to achieve low-temperature combustion in a wide range of operating conditions in an IC engine.

  17. The effect of homogenization and milk fat fractions on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese. (United States)

    Rowney, M K; Hickey, M W; Roupas, P; Everett, D W


    Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from milk containing either a low (olein) or a high (stearin) melting point fraction of milk fat or anhydrous milk fat. The fat was dispersed into skim milk by homogenization at 2.6 MPa before being manufactured into cheese. The melting point of the milk fat did not affect the size or shape of the fat globules, nor was there any effect of homogenization on the polymorphic state of the milk fat. There were no changes in milk fat globule size and shape concomitant with the amount of free oil formed. The polymorphic state of the milk fat did affect the amount of free oil formed and the apparent viscosity of the cheese. The lower melting point fraction yielded a larger amount of free oil. The higher melting point fraction yielded a higher viscosity of melted cheese at 60 degrees C. Mozzarella cheese was also manufactured from homogenized milk, nonhomogenized milk, and a 1:1 ratio of the two, without altering the milk fat composition. Increasing the proportion of homogenized milk yielded a lower free oil content and higher viscosity of the cheese.

  18. Markov Chain Computation for Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous Data: MARCH 1.1 Users Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Berchtold


    Full Text Available MARCH is a free software for the computation of different types of Markovian models including homogeneous Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Double Chain Markov Models (DCMMs. The main characteristic of this software is the implementation of a powerful optimization method for HMMs and DCMMs combining a genetic algorithm with the standard Baum-Welch procedure. MARCH is distributed as a set of Matlab functions running under Matlab 5 or higher on any computing platform. A PC Windows version running independently from Matlab is also available.

  19. Positioning Charter Schools in Los Angeles: Diversity of Form and Homogeneity of Effects (United States)

    Lauen, Douglas Lee; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke


    The debate over charter school effectiveness relies largely on neoclassical logic: individual parents or students express demand for a widening array of school types and then experience variable levels of organizational quality. We argue that market-like behavior is nested in segments of local organizational fields with different types of charter…

  20. Methodic of skills’ formation of light athletics motor actions with the help of inter-disciplinary communications and informational technologies, worked out for senior form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina


    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and substantiate technologies of motor and intellectual aspects’ integral influence on development of basic light athletics movements’ technique. Material: in the research 2 groups of schoolchildren participated: control group (n = 34 and experimental group (n = 33. Results: it was determined that main direction of motor skills’ development in light athletics trainings is a holistic approach. Such approach implies mastering of principal movements of light athletics on the base of analogies with rational and economical movements in Nature and on the base of laws of mechanics. Conclusions: it is recommended to consider in trainings the fact that improvement of motor skills’ mastering facilitates strengthening of demand in motor functioning. This demand is a condition of organism functioning’s improvement.

  1. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study. (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J


    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  2. Higher dimensional homogeneous cosmology in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ρ´tµ and p p´tµ, we have obtained exact solutions for cosmological models in higher-dimension based on Lyra geometry. Depending on the form of metric chosen, the model is similar to FRW type. The explicit solutions of the scale factor are found via the assumption of an equation of state p mρ, where m is a constant. Some.

  3. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These data should be hydro- logically and statistically reliable for later hydrological, meteorological, climate change modelling and forecasting studies. For this reason, Standard Normal. Homogeneity Test (SNHT), (Swed–Eisenhart) Runs Test and Pettitt homogeneity tests were applied for the annual total precipitation data ...

  4. The negative effects of homogeneous traffic on merging sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Bart; van Berkum, Eric C.


    Homogeneous traffic flows are believed to be better in absorbing disturbances, raise capacity and stimulate traffic safety. Measures to make traffic more homogeneous are therefore often taken to increase capacity. This paper shows that the ability of a traffic flow to deal with traffic coming from

  5. Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels


    We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....

  6. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel


    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Choi


    Full Text Available Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology category depending on patent information. Furthermore, we empirically measure technology convergence degree based on co-classification analysis and estimate its diffusion trend at the entire technology domain level by using overall 1,476,967 of patents filed to the KIPO (Korean Intellectual Property Office from 1998 to 2010. As a result, potential size and growth rate of technology convergence are varied by both technology and type of technology convergence, i.e., inter-field and inter-sector technology convergence. Diffusion pattern of inter-sector technology convergence appears as the more various form than that of inter-field technology convergence. In a relationship between potential size and growth rate of technology convergence, growth rate of technology convergence is in inverse proportion to potential size of technology convergence in general. That is, the faster the growth rate of technology convergence, the smaller the potential size of technology convergence. In addition, this paper found that technology convergence of the instrument and chemistry sector is actively progressing in both inter-field and inter-sector convergence, while the technologies related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT in electrical engineering sector have relatively mature progress of technology convergence, especially in inter-sector technology convergence.

  8. Homogeneous Entropy-Driven Amplified Detection of Biomolecular Interactions. (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino


    While a range of artificial biochemical circuits is likely to play a significant role in biological engineering, one of the challenges in the field is the design of circuits that can transduce between biomolecule classes (e.g., moving beyond nucleic acid only circuits). Herein, we design a transduction mechanism whereby a protein signal is transduced into an amplified nucleic acid output using DNA nanotechnology. In this system, a protein is recognized by nucleic acid bound recognition elements to form a catalytic complex that drives a hybridization/displacement reaction on a multicomponent nucleic acid substrate, releasing multiple target single-stranded oligonucleotides in an amplified fashion. Amplification power and simple one-pot reaction conditions lead us to apply the scheme in an assay format, achieving homogeneous and rapid (∼10 min) analyte detection that is also robust (operable in whole blood and plasma). In addition, we demonstrate the assay in a microfluidic digital assay format leading to improved quantification and sensitivity approaching single-molecule levels. The present scheme we believe will have a significant impact on a range of applications from fundamental molecular interaction studies to design of artificial circuits in vivo to high-throughput, multiplexed assays for screening or point-of-care diagnostics.

  9. Homogeneous nucleation in liquid nitrogen at negative pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baidakov, V. G., E-mail:; Vinogradov, V. E.; Pavlov, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Thermal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)


    The kinetics of spontaneous cavitation in liquid nitrogen at positive and negative pressures has been studied in a tension wave formed by a compression pulse reflected from the liquid–vapor interface on a thin platinum wire heated by a current pulse. The limiting tensile stresses (Δp = p{sub s}–p, where p{sub s} is the saturation pressure), the corresponding bubble nucleation frequencies J (10{sup 20}–10{sup 22} s{sup –1} m{sup –3}), and temperature induced nucleation frequency growth rate G{sub T} = dlnJ/dT have been experimentally determined. At T = 90 K, the limiting tensile stress was Δp = 8.3 MPa, which was 4.9 MPa lower than the value corresponding to the boundary of thermodynamic stability of the liquid phase (spinodal). The measurement results were compared to classical (homogeneous) nucleation theory (CNT) with and without neglect of the dependence of the surface tension of critical bubbles on their dimensions. In the latter case, the properties of new phase nuclei were described in terms of the Van der Waals theory of capillarity. The experimental data agree well with the CNT theory when it takes into account the “size effect.”.

  10. Computing homogeneous models with finite volume upwind schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herard, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF/DRD/DMFTT), 78 - Chatou (France); Universite de Provence, Centre de Mathematiques et d' Informatique, L.A.T.P. - UMR CNRS 6632, 13 - Marseille (France); Kokh, S. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/SFME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    We provide in this paper some algorithms to deal with homogeneous equilibrium models on any type of mesh. These schemes rely on the exact Godunov scheme or on some rough Godunov schemes. We first recall some basic ideas which were recently introduced in the 1D framework. We then turn to the 2D framework, and define a class of first order schemes which enable to improve the accuracy on coarse unstructured 2D meshes. We have also tried to underline that current computing power does not enable to perform accurate enough computations for reasonable CPU time, in a few situations including sharp contact discontinuities; this is due in some sense to some kind of loss of pressure consistency between PDE and numerical schemes in conservative form. We have also indicated that some specific remedies available in the literature are not adequate for nuclear safety problems, both in a one dimensional framework (owing to EOS), and in the two dimensional framework (due to differences between mesh interfaces and waves fronts). Comments pertaining to other hybrid schemes are then made. The last part of the paper will focus on computations of three dimensional gas-liquid flows including sharp interfaces. (authors)

  11. Realization of strong backscattering homogeneous regions with known backscattering coefficient in synthetic aperture radar images (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Kaizhi; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Xingzhao


    The strong backscattering homogeneous region, i.e., a uniform region with a high and constant backscattering coefficient, is important for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image quality assessment and SAR radiometric calibration, which, however, is difficult to realize in practice with a known backscattering coefficient. We realize a strong backscattering homogeneous region with a known backscattering coefficient in SAR images by utilizing designed metal grids. First, we propose a manmade grid-structure target and realize it with aluminum in practice, which is named the metal grid. Then, the backscattering coefficient of the designed metal grid is simulated in the computer simulation technology (CST) microwave studio and measured by a radar cross-section (RCS) measurement instrument in a microwave anechoic chamber. Both CST simulation results and RCS measurement results confirm the strong backscattering property of the designed target. In addition, by utilizing the designed target, we realize a test field consisting of several strong backscattering homogeneous regions with different sizes at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. The spaceborne experiments have been carried out by the TerraSAR-X sensor over the test field in two flight campaigns in X-band with VV polarization. Experimental results demonstrate the strong backscattering property and homogeneity of the realized regions.

  12. Magnetodielectric and Metalomagnetic 1D Photonic Crystals Homogenization: ε-μ Local Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Rodríguez Mora


    Full Text Available A theory for calculating the effective optic response of photonic crystals with metallic and magnetic inclusions is reported, for the case when the wavelength of the electromagnetic fields is much larger than the lattice constant. The theory is valid for any type of Bravais lattice and arbitrary form of inclusions in the unitary cell. An equations system is obtained for macroscopic magnetic field and magnetic induction components expanding microscopic electromagnetic fields in Bloch waves. Permittivity and permeability effective tensors are obtained comparing the equations system with an anisotropic nonlocal homogenous medium. In comparison with other homogenization theories, this work uses only two tensors: nonlocal permeability and permittivity. The proposal showed here is based on the use of permeability equations, which are exact and very simple. We present the explicit form of these tensors in the case of binary 1D photonic crystals.

  13. Hierarchy compensation of non-homogeneous intermittent atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.


    In this work a study both the internal turbulence energy cascade intermittency evaluated from wind speed series in the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as the role of external or forcing intermittency based on the flatness (Vindel et al 2008)is carried out. The degree of intermittency in the stratified ABL flow (Cuxart et al. 2000) can be studied as the deviation, from the linear form, of the absolute scaling exponents of the structure functions as well as generalizing for non-isotropic and non-homogeneous turbulence, even in non-inertial ranges (in the Kolmogorov-Kraichnan sense) where the scaling exponents are not constant. The degree of intermittency, evaluated in the non-local quasi-inertial range, is explained from the variation with scale of the energy transfer as well as the dissipation. The scale to scale transfer and the structure function scaling exponents are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres. The turbulent diffusivity could also be estimated and compared with Richardson's law. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the time and spatial integral length scales obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions, and we compare these results with both theoretical and laboratory data. We develop a theoretical description of how to measure the different levels of intermittency following (Mahjoub et al. 1998, 2000) and the role of locality in higher order exponents of structure function analysis. Vindel J.M., Yague C. and Redondo J.M. (2008) Structure function analysis and intermittency in the ABL. Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 915-929. Cuxart J, Yague C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler M R, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen H E, Rees J M, Vilá J, Redondo J M, Cantalapiedra R and Conangla L (2000): Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98): a report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96, 337-370 Mahjoub O

  14. An inverse approach to the center-focus problem for polynomial differential system with homogenous nonlinearities (United States)

    Llibre, Jaume; Ramírez, Rafael; Ramírez, Valentín


    We consider polynomial vector fields X with a linear type and with homogenous nonlinearities. It is well-known that X has a center at the origin if and only if X has an analytic first integral of the form H =1/2 (x2 +y2) + ∑ j = 3 ∞Hj, where Hj =Hj (x , y) is a homogenous polynomial of degree j. The classical center-focus problem already studied by H. Poincaré consists in distinguishing when the origin of X is either a center or a focus. In this paper we study the inverse center-focus problem. In particular for a given analytic function H defined in a neighborhood of the origin we want to determine the homogenous polynomials in such a way that H is a first integral of X and consequently the origin of X will be a center. We study the particular case of centers which have a local analytic first integral of the form H =1/2 (x2 +y2) (1 + ∑ j = 1 ∞ϒj) , in a neighborhood of the origin, where ϒj is a convenient homogenous polynomial of degree j, for j ≥ 1. These centers are called weak centers, they contain the class of center studied by Alwash and Lloyd, the uniform isochronous centers and the isochronous holomorphic centers, but they do not coincide with the class of isochronous centers. We give a classification of the weak centers for quadratic and cubic vector fields with homogenous nonlinearities.

  15. Comparison of Ethylene/1-Hexene Copolymers Microstructures Synthesized by Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Metallocene Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ahmadjo


    Full Text Available The substituted (bis-2-PhIndZrCl2 and non-substituted (bis-IndZrCl2 indenylbased metallocene catalysts were synthesized and used in homogenous and heterogeneous forms for copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene. The MCM-41 nano silica was used as support in heterogenization of the catalysts. The substituted (bis-2-PhIndZrCl2 metallocene catalyst in homogenous and heterogeneous forms showed lower activities in comparison to non-substituted (bis-IndZrCl2 metallocene catalyst. The microstructures of the obtained copolymers were investigated by techniques such as DSC, CNMR and TRRF. The kinetic study showed that the decay index (DI was decreased for both homogeneous catalysts due to unstable kinetic behaviors. However, the decay index contents approached one, using heterogeneous forms of catalyst which was an indication of stable kinetic behaviors. The kinetic results also displayed negative effect on the catalysts activities both in the homogeneous and heterogeneous forms by addition of comonomer on the polymerization. The triad distributions of obtained polymer by NMR technique exhibited the higher ratio of EEH, EHE, EEE triads than the other triads. The comonomer incorporationacceptability of substituted metallocene catalyst (bis-2-PhIndZrCl2 was higher than non-substituted catalyst (bis-IndZrCl2 as its comonomer acceptability increased from 1.3% to 5.4% by substitution mechanism. Microstructures of copolymers obtained by supported metallocene catalyst showed more non-uniform comonomer distribution in comparison with unsupported catalyst. The lamella thickness distributions for polymer obtained by supported substituted metallocene catalyst (bis-2-PhIndZrCl2 were in the ranges (3-8 . However, for supported metallocene non-substituted catalysts (bis-IndZrCl2 the lamella thickness were in the ranges (3-16 .

  16. Crystallinity and microchemistry of Nassarius reticulatus (Caenogastropoda) statoliths : towards their structure stability and homogeneity


    Oliveira, Susana Galante; Marçal, Raquel; Guimarães, Fernanda M. G.; Soares, Jorge; Lopes,José Carlos; Machado, Jorge; Barroso, Carlos


    Gastropod statoliths are spherical biocarbonates formed during their lifespan. The stability and homogeneity of these structures’ mineral matrix was characterised along their radiuses, using Nassarius reticulatus as a model. Generally, they were proved to be bimineralic. Two of the three CaCO3 crystalline polymorphs occurring in biocarbonates – aragonite and calcite – coexist along statolith radiuses, aragonite being unequivocally the most abundant phase. The presence of a diffuse...

  17. Feasibility Study: Moving Non-Homogeneous Teams in Congested Video Game Environments


    Ma, Hang; Yang, Jingxing; Cohen, Liron; Kumar, T. K. Satish; Koenig, Sven


    Multi-agent path finding (MAPF) is a well-studied problem in artificial intelligence, where one needs to find collision-free paths for agents with given start and goal locations. In video games, agents of different types often form teams. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of MAPF algorithms from artificial intelligence for moving such non-homogeneous teams in congested video game environments.

  18. CO2-assisted high pressure homogenization: a solvent-free process for polymeric microspheres and drug-polymer composites. (United States)

    Kluge, Johannes; Mazzotti, Marco


    The study explores the enabling role of near-critical CO(2) as a reversible plasticizer in the high pressure homogenization of polymer particles, aiming at their comminution as well as at the formation of drug-polymer composites. First, the effect of near-critical CO(2) on the homogenization of aqueous suspensions of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) was investigated. Applying a pressure drop of 900 bar and up to 150 passes across the homogenizer, it was found that particles processed in the presence of CO(2) were generally of microspherical morphology and at all times significantly smaller than those obtained in the absence of a plasticizer. The smallest particles, exhibiting a median x(50) of 1.3 μm, were obtained by adding a small quantity of ethyl acetate, which exerts on PLGA an additional plasticizing effect during the homogenization step. Further, the study concerns the possibility of forming drug-polymer composites through simultaneous high pressure homogenization of the two relevant solids, and particularly the effect of near-critical CO(2) on this process. Therefore, PLGA was homogenized together with crystalline S-ketoprofen (S-KET), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, at a drug to polymer ratio of 1:10, a pressure drop of 900 bar and up to 150 passes across the homogenizer. When the process was carried out in the presence of CO(2), an impregnation efficiency of 91% has been reached, corresponding to 8.3 wt.% of S-KET in PLGA; moreover, composite particles were of microspherical morphology and significantly smaller than those obtained in the absence of CO(2). The formation of drug-polymer composites through simultaneous homogenization of the two materials is thus greatly enhanced by the presence of CO(2), which increases the efficiency for both homogenization and impregnation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  20. Microstructure evolution of the 1469 Al–Cu–Li–Sc alloy during homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Min, E-mail:; Zheng, Ziqiao, E-mail:; Gong, Zhu, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The formation of the W phase (AlCuSc) was found in the 1469 Al-Cu–Li–Sc alloy. • The W phase formed during the homogenization process. • We model the formation process of the W phase. • The formation of the W phase consumes lots of Cu and Sc atoms. - Abstract: The present work aims to clarify the formation of the W phase (AlCuSc) and its formation time in the high Cu content alloy with Sc addition. The microstructure evolution during the two-step homogenization annealing process was investigated in the 1469 Al–Cu–Li–Sc alloy. No evidences of the Al{sub 3}Sc phase and the W phase were found in the solidification structure. The arrays of the W phases were found to form after homogenization. The AlCu phases with traces of Sc that formed during solidification suppose to be the precursor of the W phases, and then transform into the W phases by consuming the Sc atoms that fixed in the supersaturate solid solution. The formation of the W phase inhibits the precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc phase. A corresponding model of the W phase formation mechanism is proposed.

  1. Contradictions in Expansive Learning: Towards a Critical Analysis of Self-dependent Forms of Learning in Relation to Contemporary Socio-technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Langemeyer


    Full Text Available Current policies to expand and "flexibilise" labour markets are encapsulated in the drive to ensure "employability". To achieve this "employability", workers and the unemployed are encouraged to participate in "life-long learning". In this context, the traditional understanding of education as instructional pedagogy is increasingly replaced by learner-centred approaches which allow more autonomy and individuality within the actual learning process and demand greater personal (learner responsibility for progress and success. Such self-dependent learning might seem to provide a promising alternative to traditional schooling—which often proves contradictory in producing a rather passive attitude among the learners by undermining motivation. But the challenges of those "new" forms of learning have turned out to be contradictory as well. This article seeks to clarify how to take account of these contradictions. Theoretically, it proceeds on the basis of a discussion of Klaus HOLZKAMP's "subject science of learning" and Yrjö ENGESTRÖM's activity theory. Both approaches are centred around an idea of "expansive learning", and each stresses the interrelation between individual learning processes and external development as a route towards extending action possibilities and one's power to act. But they differ significantly on the matter of contradictions. For HOLZKAMP contradictions are considered an obstruction or hindrance for learning, while for ENGESTRÖM they are a starting point for problem solving and development. In the blank spaces within and between these theories, however, a slightly different approach to expansive learning is developed. Two case studies, that were part of a larger enquiry on a vocational training program for IT-specialists (LANGEMEYER 2005a, are used to enhance the comprehension of contradictions in relation to learning, and to exemplify an analysis of the current changes in education processes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs

  2. Incremental Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Blaga


    Full Text Available This paper comprises an experimental study for a complex geometry part obtained by incremental forming. Due to the process complexity (the presence of forces on three directions—a vertical one and two in the blank's plane, a three axes CNC milling machine, capable of describing the complex paths covered by the punch for obtaining the truncated cone-shaped parts, has been chosen. To obtain a truncated cone, three different trajectories were selected: in first and second variants after each vertical press having a constant step, the punch covers a circular path. The differences show that the following circular trajectory can start at the same point or can be shifted at an angle of 90° from the previous press point. In the last variant, the punch performs a spatial spiral trajectory. The main objective of our study was to determine the optimal forming strategy, by shifting the press position of the punch and the path it follows to obtain a truncated cone through single point incremental forming. Thus, the strain distribution can be homogeneous, and the thickness reduction and the process forces are minimal.

  3. [Nasal submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract preparation technology research based on phase transfer of solute technology]. (United States)

    Shi, Ya-jun; Shi, Jun-hui; Chen, Shi-bin; Yang, Ming


    Based on the demand of nasal drug delivery high drug loadings, using the unique phase transfer of solute, integrating the phospholipid complex preparation and submicron emulsion molding process of Scutellariae Radix extract, the study obtained the preparation of the high drug loadings submicron emulsion of Scutellariae Radix extract. In the study of drug solution dispersion method, the uniformity of drug dispersed as the evaluation index, the traditional mixing method, grinding, homogenate and solute phase transfer technology were investigated, and the solute phase transfer technology was adopted in the last. With the adoption of new technology, the drug loading capacity reached 1.33% (phospholipid complex was 4%). The drug loading capacity was improved significantly. The transfer of solute method and timing were studied as follows,join the oil phase when the volume of phospholipid complex anhydrous ethanol solution remaining 30%, the solute phase transfer was completed with the continued recycling of anhydrous ethanol. After drug dissolved away to oil phase, the preparation technology of colostrum was determined with the evaluation index of emulsion droplet form. The particle size of submicron emulsion, PDI and stability parameters were used as evaluation index, orthogonal methodology were adopted to optimize the submicron emulsion ingredient and main influential factors of high pressure homogenization technology. The optimized preparation technology of Scutellariae Radix extract nasal submicron emulsion is practical and stable.

  4. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz


    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  5. An iterative homogenization technique that preserves assembly core exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondot, Ph. [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developement, SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France); Sanchez, R. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Etudes Nucleaires, Service Etude des Reacteurs et de Modelisations Avancees, 91 - Gilf sur Yvette (France)


    A new interactive homogenization procedure for reactor core calculations is proposed that requires iterative transport assembly and diffusion core calculations. At each iteration the transport solution of every assembly type is used to produce homogenized cross sections for the core calculation. The converged solution gives assembly fine multigroup transport fluxes that preserve macro-group assembly exchanges in the core. This homogenization avoids the periodic lattice-leakage model approximation and gives detailed assembly transport fluxes without need of an approximated flux reconstruction. Preliminary results are given for a one-dimensional core model. (authors)

  6. A Monte Carlo Study of Seven Homogeneity of Variance Tests


    Howard B. Lee; Gary S. Katz; Alberto F. Restori


    Problem statement: The decision by SPSS (now PASW) to use the unmodified Levene test to test homogeneity of variance was questioned. It was compared to six other tests. In total, seven homogeneity of variance tests used in Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) were compared on robustness and power using Monte Carlo studies. The homogeneity of variance tests were (1) Levene, (2) modified Levene, (3) Z-variance, (4) Overall-Woodward Modified Z-variance, (5) OBrien, (6) Samiuddin Cube Root and (7) F-Max....

  7. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g pada Lingkungan Indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riawanto Tambun


    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan yang besar dari penggunaan Information and Communication Technology (ICT menyebabkan konsumsi energi meningkat drastis. Kenaikan tak terduga konsumsi energi ICT terjadi karena industri seluler telah menyebarkan lebih dari empat juta base station (BS untuk pengguna/user, masing-masing mengkonsumsi sekitar 25 MWh per tahun. Efisiensi energi pada BS menjadi pertimbangan utama dalam merancang jaringan seluler yang lebih baik. Salah satunya yaitu efisiensi energi jaringan homogeneous WCDMA/3G pada lingkungan indoor dengan mengevaluasi power consumption. Analisis dilakukan dengan mengamati dan membandingkan konsumsi daya atau kebutuhan energi antara dua sistem peletakan BS yaitu sistem dengan 3 macro BS dan sistem 12 micro BS untuk menjangkau pengguna yang berada di dalam ruangan atau lingkungan indoor. Konsumsi daya yang diamati dan dibandingkan adalah konsumsi daya berdasarkan luas area cakupan yang sama dan konsumsi daya berdasarkan kebutuhan area spectral efficiency (ASE dan juga area power consumption (APC pada kondisi busy hour maupun non busy hour sehingga ditemukan jarak optimal peletakan BS. Penelitian dilakukan dengan bantuan RUNE Matlab Toolbox. Dari hasil perhitungan diperoleh bahwa konsumsi daya per BS pada micro BS lebih rendah dibandingkan konsumsi daya per BS pada macro BS. Namun, untuk menjangkau luas area yang sama konsumsi daya total untuk penggunaan 3 macro BS lebih efisien dengan persentase sebesar 16,98%, dibandingkan penggunaan 12 micro BS pada kondisi beban atau penggunaan energi maksimal (load=1. Selain itu, dari hasil simulasi diperoleh bahwa, intersite distance mempengaruhi ASE dan APC. Selanjutnya diperoleh penggunaan micro BS lebih efisien dibandingkan macro BS baik pada kondisi busy hour maupun non busy hour pada target  kebutuhan ASE 6 bits/s/Hz/km2 hingga 12 bits/s/Hz/km2.

  8. Homogeneous catalysts for stereoregular olefin polymerization (United States)

    Marks, T.J.; Eisen, M.S.; Giardello, M.A.


    The synthesis, and use as precatalysts of chiral organozirconium complexes for olefin polymerization are disclosed, having the structure (C[sub 5]R[prime][sub 4[minus]x]R*[sub x])-A-(C[sub 5]R[double prime][sub 4[minus]y]R[prime][double prime][sub y])-M-Q[sub p], where x and y represent the number of unsubstituted locations on the cyclopentadienyl ring; R[prime], R[double prime], R[prime][double prime], and R* represent substituted and unsubstituted alkyl groups having 1--30 carbon atoms and R* is a chiral ligand; A is a fragment containing a Group 13, 14, 15, or 16 element of the Periodic Table; M is a Group 3, 4, or 5 metal of the Periodic Table; and Q is a hydrocarbyl radical, or halogen radical, with 3 [alkylation of the corresponding dichlorides. In the presence of methylalumoxane or triarylborane cocatalysts, these complexes form cation-like'' species which are highly active for olefin polymerization. In combination with a Lewis acid cocatalyst, propylene or other [alpha]-olefin polymerization can be effected with very high efficiency and isospecificity. 1 fig.

  9. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    , - in short modernity - have taken away from human existence. What old technology has removed now comes back through new technology promoting a better humanity. The present article investigates how digital technology and affects are presented and combined, with examples from everyday imagery, e.g. TV...... or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization......Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...

  10. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, Roland [U.S. Department of Energy' s Vehicle Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Maronde, Carl [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Gehrke, Chris [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Fiveland, Scott [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)


    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well

  11. Engineered CHO cells for production of diverse, homogeneous glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Wang, Shengjun; Halim, Adnan


    Production of glycoprotein therapeutics in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is limited by the cells' generic capacity for N-glycosylation, and production of glycoproteins with desirable homogeneous glycoforms remains a challenge. We conducted a comprehensive knockout screen of glycosyltransferase...

  12. Bridging heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis concepts, strategies, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Can


    This unique handbook fills the gap in the market for an up-to-date work that links both homogeneous catalysis applied to organic reactions and catalytic reactions on surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts.

  13. Nomograms for calculating the safety factor of homogeneous earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Nomograms, safety factor, homogeneous earth dams. INTRODUCTION ... based on variations of the main properties in the long- term stability ... 2002; Duncan, 2005), the value of the density of these materials is chosen as the ...

  14. Einstein-Cartan gravitational collapse of a homogeneous Weyssenhoff fluid


    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Moniz, Paulo Vargas; Ranjbar, Arash; Sepangi, Hamid Reza


    We consider the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric homogeneous matter distribution consisting of a Weyssenhoff fluid in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. Our aim is to investigate the effects of torsion and spin averaged terms on the final outcome of the collapse. For a specific interior spacetime setup, namely the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW metric, we obtain two classes of solutions to the field equations where depending on the relation between spin source ...

  15. Orbits in Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Gravitational Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.


    Full Text Available The generalized Lagrangian in general relativistic homogeneous oblate spheroidal gravitational fields is constructed and used to study orbits exterior to homogenous oblate spheroids. Expressions for the conservation of energy and angular momentum for this gravitational field are obtained. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion of a photon in the vicinity of an oblate spheroid are derived. These equations have additional terms not found in Schwarzschild's space time.

  16. Treatment of Pesticides in Wastewater by Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalysis


    Stan, Catalina Daniela; Cretescu, Igor; Pastravanu, Cristina; Poulios, Ioannis; Drăgan, Maria


    The effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic systems on the oxidative degradation of mepiquat chloride in aqueous solutions was investigated. In the case of heterogeneous reactions, the influence of five factors was studied: the type of catalyst, photocatalyst concentration, pH, pesticide concentration, and the presence of H2O2 and/or Fe3+. For homogeneous catalysis, other factors were studied: the oxidising agent and the light source. Nearly complete degradation of me...

  17. Homogenization of aligned “fuzzy fiber” composites

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George


    The aim of this work is to study composites in which carbon fibers coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes are embedded in a matrix. The effective properties of these composites are identified using the asymptotic expansion homogenization method in two steps. Homogenization is performed in different coordinate systems, the cylindrical and the Cartesian, and a numerical example are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum Depletion of a Homogeneous Bose-Einstein Condensate (United States)

    Lopes, Raphael; Eigen, Christoph; Navon, Nir; Clément, David; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran


    We measure the quantum depletion of an interacting homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate and confirm the 70-year-old theory of Bogoliubov. The observed condensate depletion is reversibly tunable by changing the strength of the interparticle interactions. Our atomic homogeneous condensate is produced in an optical-box trap, the interactions are tuned via a magnetic Feshbach resonance, and the condensed fraction is determined by momentum-selective two-photon Bragg scattering.

  19. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavis, Bora [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni2+ precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni2+ form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni2+. On the other hand, presence of Al3+ facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni2+ in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator™, Version 1.01) lets the user change

  20. Homogeneity revisited: analysis of updated precipitation series in Turkey (United States)

    Bickici Arikan, Bugrayhan; Kahya, Ercan


    Homogeneous time series of meteorological variables are necessary for hydrologic and climate studies. Dependability of historical precipitation data is subjected to keen evaluation prior to every study in water resources, hydrology, and climate change fields. This study aims to characterize the homogeneity of long-term Turkish precipitation data in order to ensure that they can be reliably used. The homogeneity of monthly precipitation data set was tested using the standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand test, Von Neumann ratio test, and Pettitt test at the 5% significance level across Turkey. Our precipitation records including the most updated observations, extracted from 160 meteorological stations, for the periods 1974-2014 were analyzed by all the four homogeneity tests. According to the results of all tests, five out of 160 stations have an inhomogeneity. With regard to our strict confirmation rule, 44 out of 160 stations are said to be inhomogeneous since they failed from at least one of the four tests. The breaks captured by the Buishand and Pettitt tests usually tend to appear in the middle of the precipitation series, whereas the ability of standard normal homogeneity test is in favor of identifying inhomogeneities mostly at the beginning or at the end of the records. Our results showed that 42 out of 44 inhomogeneous stations passed all the four tests after applying a correction procedure based on the double mass curve analysis. Available metadata was used to interpret the detected inhomogeneity.

  1. When individual behaviour matters: homogeneous and network models in epidemiology. (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Grenfell, Bryan T; Meyers, Lauren Ancel


    Heterogeneity in host contact patterns profoundly shapes population-level disease dynamics. Many epidemiological models make simplifying assumptions about the patterns of disease-causing interactions among hosts. In particular, homogeneous-mixing models assume that all hosts have identical rates of disease-causing contacts. In recent years, several network-based approaches have been developed to explicitly model heterogeneity in host contact patterns. Here, we use a network perspective to quantify the extent to which real populations depart from the homogeneous-mixing assumption, in terms of both the underlying network structure and the resulting epidemiological dynamics. We find that human contact patterns are indeed more heterogeneous than assumed by homogeneous-mixing models, but are not as variable as some have speculated. We then evaluate a variety of methodologies for incorporating contact heterogeneity, including network-based models and several modifications to the simple SIR compartmental model. We conclude that the homogeneous-mixing compartmental model is appropriate when host populations are nearly homogeneous, and can be modified effectively for a few classes of non-homogeneous networks. In general, however, network models are more intuitive and accurate for predicting disease spread through heterogeneous host populations.

  2. Trend and Homogeneity Analysis of Precipitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Javari


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine trend and homogeneity through the analysis of rainfall variability patterns in Iran. The study presents a review on the application of homogeneity and seasonal time series analysis methods for forecasting rainfall variations. Trend and homogeneity methods are applied in the time series analysis from collecting rainfall data to evaluating results in climate studies. For the homogeneity analysis of monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall, homogeneity tests were used in 140 stations in the 1975–2014 period. The homogeneity of the monthly and annual rainfall at each station was studied using the autocorrelation (ACF, and the von Neumann (VN tests at a significance level of 0.05. In addition, the nature of the monthly and seasonal rainfall series in Iran was studied using the Kruskal-Wallis (KW test, the Thumb test (TT, and the least squares regression (LSR test at a significance level of 0.05. The present results indicate that the seasonal patterns of rainfall exhibit considerable diversity across Iran. Rainfall seasonality is generally less spatially coherent than temporal patterns in Iran. The seasonal variations of rainfall decreased significantly throughout eastern and central Iran, but they increased in the west and north of Iran during the studied interval. The present study comparisons among variations of patterns with the seasonal rainfall series reveal that the variability of rainfall can be predicted by the non-trended and trended patterns.

  3. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanger, Keith James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-α-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by 31P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]4, [Rh(COD)2]+BF4-, [Rh(COD)Cl]2, and RhCl3• 3H2O, adsorbed on SiO2 are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H2 at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO2 are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH2)3s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh3) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  4. A conceptual translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis: homogeneous-like heterogeneous gold nanoparticle catalyst induced by ceria supporter. (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Xue, Wei; Guan, Bing-Tao; Shi, Fu-Bo; Shi, Zhang-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chun-Hua


    Translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis is a promising solution to green and sustainable development in chemical industry. For this purpose, noble metal nanoparticles represent a new frontier in catalytic transformations. Many challenges remain for researchers to transform noble metal nanoparticles of heterogeneous catalytic active sites into ionic species of homogeneous catalytic active sites. We report here a successful design on translating homogeneous gold catalysis into a heterogeneous system with a clear understanding of the catalytic pathway. This study initiates a novel concept to immobilize a homogeneous catalyst based on electron transfer between supporting base and supported nanoparticles. Meanwhile, on the basis of theoretical calculation, it has deepened the understanding of the interactions between noble metal nanoparticles and the catalyst support.

  5. Analytical solutions of time-fractional models for homogeneous Gardner equation and non-homogeneous differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola


    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions of homogeneous time-fractional Gardner equation and non-homogeneous time-fractional models (including Buck-master equation using q-Homotopy Analysis Method (q-HAM. Our work displays the elegant nature of the application of q-HAM not only to solve homogeneous non-linear fractional differential equations but also to solve the non-homogeneous fractional differential equations. The presence of the auxiliary parameter h helps in an effective way to obtain better approximation comparable to exact solutions. The fraction-factor in this method gives it an edge over other existing analytical methods for non-linear differential equations. Comparisons are made upon the existence of exact solutions to these models. The analysis shows that our analytical solutions converge very rapidly to the exact solutions.

  6. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin


    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  7. The 13th International Symposium on Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis -- AnIntroduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.


    Over forty years, there have been major efforts to aim at understanding the properties of surfaces, structure, composition, dynamics on the molecular level and at developing the surface science of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Since most catalysts (heterogeneous, enzyme and homogeneous) are nanoparticles, colloid synthesis methods were developed to produce monodispersed metal nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range and controlled shapes to use them as new model catalyst systems in two-dimensional thin film form or deposited in mezoporous three-dimensional oxides. Studies of reaction selectivity in multipath reactions (hydrogenation of benzene, cyclohexene and crotonaldehyde) showed that reaction selectivity depends on both nanoparticle size and shape. The oxide-metal nanoparticle interface was found to be an important catalytic site because of the hot electron flow induced by exothermic reactions like carbon monoxide oxidation.

  8. Qualitative Modelling of Quasi-homogeneous Effects in ERK and STAT Interaction Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valko Petrov


    Full Text Available On the basis of qualitative analysis of author's model published in previous paper, the stability and temporal behaviour of quasi-homogeneous distributions of ERK-protein concentrations are analyzed in terms of corresponding reaction-diffusion problem. The stable quasi-homogeneous distributions are treated as a dynamical basis of pathway compartmentalization. It is also shown, that a crowding effect exists in the form of loss of pathway stability. An experimentally verifiable issue for possible existence of protein scaffolding mechanism is derived on the basis of its qualitative correspondence with the pattern formation and molecular crowding effects inherent to the considered model. Moreover, it is demonstrated, that the predicted ERK and STAT pathway instability can be interpreted as traveling wave propagation of molecular concentration drop and jump from the nucleus membrane to the cell one and vice versa.

  9. Remarks on the quasistatic problem of viscoelasticity: Existence, uniqueness and homogenization (United States)

    Ebenfeld, Stefan

    This article is devoted to the problem (1.1) of quasistatic viscoelasticity. It turns out that (1.1) can be rewritten as an initial value problem of the form (1.2). In Sect. 2 we consider the general initial value problem (1.3). We prove existence and uniqueness of solutions, and stability with respect to the data. In Sects. 3 and 4 we apply our results to the viscoelastic problem (1.1). In Sect. 3 we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the n-dimensional problem. In Sect. 4 we develop a stochastic homogenization theory for the 1-dimensional problem. Finally, we close our discussion with some remarks on the homogenization of the n-dimensional problem.

  10. Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in ice cloud formation – polydisperse ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona


    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive ice cloud formation parameterization that computes the ice crystal number, size distribution, and maximum supersaturation from precursor aerosol and ice nuclei. The parameterization provides an analytical solution of the cloud parcel model equations and accounts for the competition effects between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, and, between heterogeneous freezing in different modes. The diversity of heterogeneous nuclei is described through a nucleation spectrum function which is allowed to follow any form (i.e., derived from classical nucleation theory or from observations. The parameterization reproduces the predictions of a detailed numerical parcel model over a wide range of conditions, and several expressions for the nucleation spectrum. The average error in ice crystal number concentration was −2.0±8.5% for conditions of pure heterogeneous freezing, and, 4.7±21% when both homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing were active. The formulation presented is fast and free from requirements of numerical integration.

  11. Impact of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux in Jeffrey Fluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional stretched flow of Jeffrey fluid in view of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is addressed. Effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are also considered. Suitable transformations are used to form ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are computed. Impact of significant parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration and skin friction coefficient is addressed. Analysis of thermal relaxation is made. The obtained results show that ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number have inverse relation for velocity profile. Temperature distribution has decreasing behavior for Prandtl number and thermal relaxation time. Also concentration decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter.

  12. Waste forms technology and performance: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Waste Forms Technology and Performance; National Research Council


    "The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) is responsible for cleaning up radioactive waste and environmental contamination resulting from five decades of nuclear weapons production and testing...

  13. Snell's law for particles moving on piecewise homogeneous two dimensional surface with linear boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrekar, Pratik


    We study the properties of least time trajectories for particles moving on a two dimensional surface which consists of piecewise homogeneous regions. The particles are assumed to move with different constant speeds on different regions and on the boundary between regions. The speed of the particle is assumed to be highest when it moves along the edges formed by the boundary of two regions. We get an analogous behavior to Snell's Law of light refraction, but in a more generalized form. The model could be used for studying properties of animal and insect trails which tend to form predominantly along edges. The model predicts three types of behavior for the trajectories near a corner forming edge: fully edge following, partial edge following and complete avoidance of the edge, which are indeed observed in natural ant trails.

  14. Multiplexed homogeneous proximity ligation assays for high throughput protein biomarker research in serological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Martin; Thorsen, Stine Buch; Assarsson, Erika


    specificity, even in multiplex, by its dual recognition feature, its proximity requirement, and most importantly by using unique sequence specific reporter fragments on both antibody-based probes. To illustrate the potential of this protein detection technology, a pilot biomarker research project......A high throughput protein biomarker discovery tool has been developed based on multiplexed proximity ligation assays (PLA) in a homogeneous format in the sense of no washing steps. The platform consists of four 24-plex panels profiling 74 putative biomarkers with sub pM sensitivity each consuming...

  15. Peptide Binding to HLA Class I Molecules: Homogenous, High-Throughput Screening, and Affinity Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Lamberth, Kasper


    present a homogenous, proximity-based assay for detection of peptide binding to HLA class I molecules. It uses a conformation-dependent anti-HLA class I antibody, W6/32, as one tag and a biotinylated recombinant HLA class I molecule as the other tag, and a proximity-based signal is generated through...... the luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassay technology (abbreviated LOCI and commercialized as AlphaScreen (TM)). Compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based peptide-HLA class I binding assay, the LOCI assay yields virtually identical affinity measurements, although having a broader dynamic range...

  16. Through-Thickness Homogenization in Thin Slab Direct Rolling of Nb Microalloyed Steels (United States)

    Pereda, B.; Uranga, P.; López, B.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J. M.; Stalheim, D.; Barbosa, R.; Rebellato, M. A.

    Thick gauge strip production using thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) technologies show important challenges due to the lack of high total reduction from slab to final strip. In these cases, a correct design of the reductions in the first rolling passes is an important tool to achieve an optimized through-thickness homogenization in the final product. There are metallurgically key thicknesses where an optimized per pass reduction should be taken to result in an optimized homogenization of the through-thickness austenite grain (austenite conditioning) setting up the stage for the final metallurgy and ferrite grain transformation. This proper per pass reduction design can be called taking a "critical reduction at a critical thickness". This paper shows how the combination of finite element analysis and microstructural evolution models help understand the strain distribution after each rolling pass and the improvement in strain penetration to the centerline area when an optimum reduction schedule is selected. The analysis, applied to a niobium microalloyed grade, provides useful information for, not only mean grain size refinement in the centerline area, but also an improvement in the homogenization of the grain size distribution. Following these concepts of taking a "critical reduction at a critical thickness", an improvement in both strength and toughness properties could be achieved in the final TSDR rolled product. In fact this very basic metallurgical principle can and has been applied to the metallurgy of producing plate, traditional hot strip coil and long product section sizes.

  17. Rapid homogeneous immunoassay for cardiac troponin I using switchable lanthanide luminescence. (United States)

    Päkkilä, Henna; Malmi, Eeva; Lahtinen, Satu; Soukka, Tero


    Homogeneous assays are advantageous because of their simplicity and rapid kinetics but typically their performance is severely compromised compared to heterogeneous assay formats. Here, we report a homogeneous immunoassay utilizing switchable lanthanide luminescence for detection and site-specifically labeled recombinant antibody fragments as binders to improve the assay performance. Switchable lanthanide luminescence enabled elimination of assay background due to division of the luminescent lanthanide chelate into two non-luminescent label moieties. Simultaneous biomolecular recognition of model analyte cardiac troponin I by two antibody fragments brought the label moieties together and resulted in self-assembly of luminescent mixed chelate complex. The assay was very rapid as maximal signal-to-background ratios were achieved already after 6 min of incubation. Additionally, the limit of detection was 0.38 ng/mL (16 pM), which was comparable to the limit of detection for the heterogeneous reference assay based on the same binders (0.26 ng/mL or 11 pM). This is the first study to apply switchable lanthanide luminescence in immunoassays and demonstrates the versatile potential of the technology for rapid and sensitive homogeneous assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof


    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  19. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor


    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  20. Homogeneous solutions of minimal massive 3D gravity (United States)

    Charyyev, Jumageldi; Deger, Nihat Sadik


    In this paper, we systematically construct simply transitive homogeneous spacetime solutions of the three-dimensional minimal massive gravity (MMG) model. In addition to those that have analogs in topologically massive gravity, such as warped AdS and p p waves, there are several solutions genuine to MMG. Among them, there is a stationary Lifshitz metric with the dynamical exponent z =-1 and an anisotropic Lifshitz solution where all coordinates scale differently. Moreover, we identify a homogeneous Kundt-type solution at the chiral point of the theory. We also show that in a particular limit of the physical parameters in which the Cotton tensor drops out from the MMG field equation, homogeneous solutions exist only at the merger point in the parameter space if they are not conformally flat.

  1. Homogenization of CZ Si wafers by Tabula Rasa annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meduna, M., E-mail: mjme@physics.muni.c [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Caha, O.; Kubena, J.; Kubena, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ-61662 Brno (Czech Republic)


    The precipitation of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski grown silicon has been investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy, chemical etching, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction after application of homogenization annealing process called Tabula Rasa. The influence of this homogenization step consisting in short time annealing at high temperature has been observed for various temperatures and times. The experimental results involving the interstitial oxygen decay in Si wafers and absorption spectra of SiO{sub x} precipitates during precipitation annealing at 1000 deg. C were compared with other techniques for various Tabula Rasa temperatures. The differences in oxygen precipitation, precipitate morphology and evolution of point defects in samples with and without Tabula Rasa applied is evident from all used experimental techniques. The results qualitatively correlate with prediction of homogenization annealing process based on classical nucleation theory.

  2. Treatment of Pesticides in Wastewater by Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Daniela Stan


    Full Text Available The effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic systems on the oxidative degradation of mepiquat chloride in aqueous solutions was investigated. In the case of heterogeneous reactions, the influence of five factors was studied: the type of catalyst, photocatalyst concentration, pH, pesticide concentration, and the presence of H2O2 and/or Fe3+. For homogeneous catalysis, other factors were studied: the oxidising agent and the light source. Nearly complete degradation of mepiquat chloride was obtained after about 180 minutes in the presence of an acid medium (pH3 using a UV-A lamp and TiO2P-25 catalyst (0.5 g/L, for an initial pesticide concentration of 10 ppm. Degradation rates corresponding to homogeneous photocatalysis were lower compared to those corresponding to the use of TiO2 as the photocatalyst.

  3. Modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films surface with gradient roughness and homogenous surface chemistry by dielectric barrier discharge plasma (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Sun, Liqun; Guo, Ying; Shi, Jianjun; Zhang, Jing


    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films with gradient roughness and homogenous surface chemistry. Based on asymmetric electrode arrangement, the spatial distribution of the plasma on the films surface was non-uniform, leading to the formation of typical three discharge regions (central zone, boundary zone and diffuse zone). The experimental results showed that the plasma induced significant morphological and chemical changes onto the surfaces. Furthermore, a gradient surface roughness from central zone to diffuse zone was formed, while surface chemistry was relatively homogenous in these regions, which can be explained by theoretical plasma-etching mechanism.

  4. Stochastic model of milk homogenization process using Markov's chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov


    Full Text Available The process of development of a mathematical model of the process of homogenization of dairy products is considered in the work. The theory of Markov's chains was used in the development of the mathematical model, Markov's chain with discrete states and continuous parameter for which the homogenisation pressure is taken, being the basis for the model structure. Machine realization of the model is implemented in the medium of structural modeling MathWorks Simulink™. Identification of the model parameters was carried out by minimizing the standard deviation calculated from the experimental data for each fraction of dairy products fat phase. As the set of experimental data processing results of the micrographic images of fat globules of whole milk samples distribution which were subjected to homogenization at different pressures were used. Pattern Search method was used as optimization method with the Latin Hypercube search algorithm from Global Optimization Тoolbox library. The accuracy of calculations averaged over all fractions of 0.88% (the relative share of units, the maximum relative error was 3.7% with the homogenization pressure of 30 MPa, which may be due to the very abrupt change in properties from the original milk in the particle size distribution at the beginning of the homogenization process and the lack of experimental data at homogenization pressures of below the specified value. The mathematical model proposed allows to calculate the profile of volume and mass distribution of the fat phase (fat globules in the product, depending on the homogenization pressure and can be used in the laboratory and research of dairy products composition, as well as in the calculation, design and modeling of the process equipment of the dairy industry enterprises.

  5. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series (United States)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah


    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  6. Some aspects of industrial homogeneous liquid-phase oxidations and emerging oxidation systems; Catalyse homogene d'oxydation. Quelques aspects des reactions industrielles et des nouveaux systemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.M.; Launay, F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)


    This brief account considers recent developments of some catalytic systems in selective liquid-phase oxidations. Radical chain auto-oxidations which lead to some large-scale specialities are presented: i) the two-stage processes to Nylone intermediates (cyclohexane to cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone mixtures and nitric acid oxidation to adipic acid); ii) Amoco oxidation based on MC catalysts to prepare terephthalic acid with p-xylene as the raw material. Homogeneous catalytic processes with hetero-lytic reactions are illustrated first by the Arco-Lyndell method, which uses a molybdenum catalyst that epoxidizes propylene by transferring an oxygen atom from tert-butyl hydroperoxide. All new propylene oxide technologies focus on co product-free routes. Novel results with hydrogen peroxide and titanium, rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum oxo-peroxo species are presented with catalytic oxidations of organic substrates under mild conditions. Significant results appear in the modelling enzyme active sites (bio-mimetic oxidations) and on non-metal catalysts for homogeneous oxidations. These new systems could compete with transition-metal-based systems for fine chemicals. (authors)

  7. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao


    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  8. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue


    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  9. Influence of temperature and homogenization on honey crystallization


    Lucília Carolina Vardenski Costa; Elaine Kaspchak; Marise Bonifácio Queiroz; Mareci Mendes de Almeida; Ernesto Quast; Leda Battestin Quast


    SummaryThis work aimed to verify the influence of prior homogenization and storage temperature on the crystallization of honey. Honeys from Campos Gerais, PR Brazil, were used for the experiments. The samples were subjected to homogenization at 0, 180, 360 and 540 rpm for 15 minutes and stored at 15 °C or 25 °C. Crystallization was monitored by the colour, absorbance at 660 nm and moisture analysis. At the end of the experiment, the crystal sizes were determined by optical microscopy and lase...

  10. Volatile loss during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Zhang, Youxue; Guan, Yunbin


    Volatile abundances in lunar mantle are critical factors to consider for constraining the model of Moon formation. Recently, the earlier understanding of a ;dry; Moon has shifted to a fairly ;wet; Moon due to the detection of measurable amount of H2O in lunar volcanic glass beads, mineral grains, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions. The ongoing debate on a ;dry; or ;wet; Moon requires further studies on lunar melt inclusions to obtain a broader understanding of volatile abundances in the lunar mantle. One important uncertainty for lunar melt inclusion studies, however, is whether the homogenization of melt inclusions would cause volatile loss. In this study, a series of homogenization experiments were conducted on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the sample 74220 to evaluate the possible loss of volatiles during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions. Our results suggest that significant loss of H2O could occur even during minutes of homogenization, while F, Cl and S in the inclusions remain unaffected. We model the trend of H2O loss in homogenized melt inclusions by a diffusive hydrogen loss model. The model can reconcile the observed experimental data well, with a best-fit H diffusivity in accordance with diffusion data explained by the ;slow; mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in olivine. Surprisingly, no significant effect for the low oxygen fugacity on the Moon is observed on the diffusive loss of hydrogen during homogenization of lunar melt inclusions under reducing conditions. Our experimental and modeling results show that diffusive H loss is negligible for melt inclusions of >25 μm radius. As our results mitigate the concern of H2O loss during homogenization for crystalline lunar melt inclusions, we found that H2O/Ce ratios in melt inclusions from different lunar samples vary with degree of crystallization. Such a variation is more likely due to H2O loss on the lunar surface, while heterogeneity in their lunar mantle source is also a possibility. A

  11. The effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous review pairs on student achievement and attitude when utilizing computer-assisted instruction in middle-level Earth science classes (United States)

    Lyon, Ellen Beth


    This research project investigated the influence of homogeneous (like-ability) review pairs coupled with heterogeneous (mixed-ability) cooperative learning groups using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on academic achievement and attitude toward science in eighth grade Earth science students. Subjects were placed into academic quartiles (Hi, Med-Hi, Med-Lo, and Lo) based on achievement. Cooperative learning groups of four (one student from each academic quartile) were formed in all classes, within which students completed CAI through a software package entitled Geoscience Education Through Interactive Technology, or GETITspTM. Each day, when computer activities were completed, students in the experimental classes were divided into homogeneous review pairs to review their work. The students in the control classes were divided into heterogeneous review pairs to review their work. The effects of the experimental treatment were measured by pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest measures, by pre- and post-student attitude scales, and by evaluation of amendments students made to their work during the time spent in review pairs. Results showed that student achievement was not significantly influenced by placement in homogeneous or heterogeneous review pairs, regardless of academic quartile assignment. Student attitude toward science as a school subject did not change significantly due to experimental treatment. Achievement retention of students in experimental and control groups within each quartile showed no significant difference. Notebook amendment patterns showed some significant differences in a few categories. For the Hi quartile, there were significant differences in numbers of deletion amendments and substitution amendments between the experimental and the control group. In both cases, subjects in the experimental group (homogeneous review pairs) made greater number of amendments then those in the control group (heterogeneous review pairs). For the Lo quartile

  12. The stability of a homogeneous suspension of chemotactic bacteria (United States)

    Subramanian, G.; Koch, Donald L.; Fitzgibbon, Sean R.


    The linear stability of a homogeneous dilute suspension of chemotactic bacteria in a constant chemoattractant gradient is analyzed. The bacteria execute a run-and-tumble motion, typified by the species E. coli, wherein periods of smooth swimming (runs) are interrupted by abrupt uncorrelated changes in swimming direction (tumbles). Bacteria tumble less frequently when swimming toward regions of higher chemoattractant concentration, leading to a mean bacterial orientation and velocity in the base state. The stability of an unbounded suspension, both with and without a chemoattractant, is controlled by coupled long wavelength perturbations of the fluid velocity and bacterial orientation fields. In the former case, the most unstable perturbations have their wave vector oriented along the chemoattractant gradient. Chemotaxis reduces the critical bacteria concentration, for the onset of collective swimming, compared with that predicted by Subramanian and Koch ["Critical bacterial concentration for the onset of collective swimming," J. Fluid Mech. 632, 359 (2009)] in the absence of a chemoattractant. A part of this decrease may be attributed to the increase in the mean tumbling time in the presence of a chemoattractant gradient. A second destabilizing influence comes from the ability of the shearing motion, associated with a velocity perturbation in which the velocity and chemical gradients are aligned, to sweep prealigned bacteria into the local extensional quadrant thereby creating a stronger destabilizing active stress than in an initially isotropic suspension. The chemoattractant gradient also fundamentally alters the unstable spectrum for any finite wavenumber. In suspensions of bacteria that do not tumble, Saintillan and Shelley ["Instabilities and pattern formation in active particle suspensions: Kinetic theory and continuum simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 178103 (2008); "Instabilities, pattern formation and mixing in active suspensions," Phys. Fluids 20

  13. A highly tunable silicone-based magnetic elastomer with nanoscale homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Benjamin A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Elon University, CB 2625, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Fiser, Briana L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Prins, Willem J.; Rapp, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Elon University, CB 2625, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Shields, Adam R. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, US Naval Research Laboratory, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Glass, Daniel R. [Department of Physics, Elon University, CB 2625, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Superfine, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Magnetic elastomers have been widely pursued for sensing and actuation applications. Silicone-based magnetic elastomers have a number of advantages over other materials such as hydrogels, but aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within silicones is difficult to prevent. Aggregation inherently limits the minimum size of fabricated structures and leads to non-uniform response from structure to structure. We have developed a novel material that is a complex of a silicone polymer (polydimethylsiloxane-co-aminopropylmethylsiloxane) adsorbed onto the surface of magnetite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles 7-10 nm in diameter. The material is homogenous at very small length scales (<100 nm) and can be crosslinked to form a flexible magnetic material, which is ideally suited for the fabrication of micro- to nanoscale magnetic actuators. The loading fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the composite can be varied smoothly from 0 to 50 wt% without loss of homogeneity, providing a simple mechanism for tuning actuator response. We evaluate the material properties of the composite across a range of nanoparticle loading, and demonstrate a magnetic-field-induced increase in compressive modulus as high as 300%. Furthermore, we implement a strategy for predicting the optimal nanoparticle loading for magnetic actuation applications, and show that our predictions correlate well with experimental findings. - Highlights: > Silicone-magnetite elastomer with nanoscale homogeneity. > Iron content tunable from 0 to 50 wt% without aggregation. > Elastic modulus increases in magnetic field. > Model and experiment show maximal actuation for microstructures near 40 wt% iron.

  14. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng


    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  15. Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high-pressure-homogenized tomato puree and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility. (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Colle, Ines; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Nguyen, Tuyen Thi My; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann


    High-pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures, assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high-pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process-induced barrier. In this context, cell wall-degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzymatic treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzymatic treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers; however, no further significant increase in lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. A process-induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high-pressure homogenization. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The pharmaceutical technology landscape: a new form of technology roadmapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, Robert; Tierney, R.; Hermina, W.; Walsh, Steven Thomas


    Practitioners are finding it increasingly difficult to develop effective roadmapping efforts for many new products and innovations. We argue that this difficulty stems from the fundamental differences between many of today's innovations and earlier ones. Many current innovations are: using

  17. Molecular simulation of homogeneous nucleation of crystals of an ionic liquid from the melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaoxia; Shen, Yan [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Hung, Francisco R., E-mail: [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Santiso, Erik E. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)


    The homogeneous nucleation of crystals of the ionic liquid [dmim{sup +}][Cl{sup −}] from its supercooled liquid phase in the bulk (P = 1 bar, T = 340 K, representing a supercooling of 58 K) was studied using molecular simulations. The string method in collective variables [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] was used in combination with Markovian milestoning with Voronoi tessellations [Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2589–2594 (2009)] and order parameters for molecular crystals [E. E. Santiso and B. L. Trout, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064109 (2011)] to sketch a minimum free energy path connecting the supercooled liquid and the monoclinic crystal phases, and to determine the free energy and the rates involved in the homogeneous nucleation process. The physical significance of the configurations found along this minimum free energy path is discussed with the help of calculations based on classical nucleation theory and with additional simulation results obtained for a larger system. Our results indicate that, at a supercooling of 58 K, the liquid has to overcome a free energy barrier of the order of 60 kcal/mol and to form a critical nucleus with an average size of about 3.6 nm, before it reaches the thermodynamically stable crystal phase. A simulated homogeneous nucleation rate of 5.0 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} s{sup −1} was obtained for our system, which is in reasonable agreement with experimental and simulation rates for homogeneous nucleation of ice at similar degrees of supercooling. This study represents our first step in a series of studies aimed at understanding the nucleation and growth of crystals of organic salts near surfaces and inside nanopores.

  18. Crystallinity and microchemistry of Nassarius reticulatus (Caenogastropoda) statoliths: towards their structure stability and homogeneity. (United States)

    Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Marçal, Raquel; Guimarães, Fernanda; Soares, Jorge; Lopes, José Carlos; Machado, Jorge; Barroso, Carlos


    Gastropod statoliths are spherical biocarbonates formed during their lifespan. The stability and homogeneity of these structures' mineral matrix was characterised along their radiuses, using Nassarius reticulatus as a model. Generally, they were proved to be bimineralic. Two of the three CaCO3 crystalline polymorphs occurring in biocarbonates - aragonite and calcite - coexist along statolith radiuses, aragonite being unequivocally the most abundant phase. The presence of a diffuse organic matrix was also perceived by the detection of a weak Raman band between 2800 and 3000 cm(-1) consistently observed along radiuses. Beyond the apparent stability and homogeneity, different crystalline orientations were disclosed by Raman spectroscopy. A change in the intensity pattern of the features related to the lattice and bending modes of aragonite between different radiuses give new insights for a possible spherulitic-like growth of these structures. As expected from the relative homogeneity of both mineral and organic signals, there was no pattern on the distribution of Ca, O, Na and S along radiuses. However, a higher concentration of Sr occurs in growth rings (known as winter tags), corroborating the already described negative correlation between the concentration of this element in statoliths and temperature. Despite the apparent stability and homogeneity of the matrix during its lifespan, the periodic distribution of Sr potentially influences a dissimilar incorporation of trace elements in increments and growth rings. Since gastropod statolith elemental fingerprinting was recently suggested as a new tool to monitor marine environmental changes, the pressing need for further studies on the incorporation of traces in these structures is highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.


    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  20. Marital Happiness among Mixed and Homogeneous Marriages in Israel. (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; Rofe, Yacov


    Wives (N=298) completed two marital happiness questionnaires and other measures. Found no significant differences in marital happiness dimensions between mixed and homogeneous marriages. Women of Asian or African origin reported less marital happiness than did women of Western descent. Differences became nonsignificant when socioeconomic levels…

  1. Torus quotients of homogeneous spaces of the general linear group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 1. Torus Quotients of Homogeneous Spaces of the General Linear Group and the Standard Representation of Certain Symmetric Groups. S S Kannan Pranab Sardar. Volume 119 Issue 1 February ...

  2. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe


    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...

  3. Atomic Homogeneity: A semantic strategy for the determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of a particular semantic agreement strategy, what I will here call Atomic Homogeneity, has been argued to determine plurality in complex noun phrases. If the denotational properties of a complex noun phrase can be distributed to its smallest, atomic subset then plural agreement is the result. This paper ...

  4. Radiation Resistance and Gain of Homogeneous Ring Quasi-Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.


    that increases uniformly along the circle. Such quasi-arrays are azimuthally omnidirectional, and the radiated field will be mainly horizontally polarized and concentrated around the plane of the circle. In this paper expressions are obtained for the radiation resistance and the gain of homogeneous ring quasi...

  5. Homogenization of zinc distribution in vertical Bridgman grown Cd0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.96Zn0.04Te material, is to achieve homogenization of the high axial variation of Zn concentration, caused by the larger than unity segregation coefficient of Zn in CdTe. This is achieved in our crystals. by thermal annealing of the CdZnTe crystal, ...

  6. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther


    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...

  7. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; van der Neut, J.R.; Slob, E.C.


    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green’s function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because

  8. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English (United States)

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra


    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  9. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 1. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered and disordered Sr2FeMoO6. Dinesh Topwal U Manju Sugata Ray S Raj D D Sarma S R Krishnakumar M Bertolo S La Rosa G Cautero. Volume 118 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 87-92 ...

  10. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula. (United States)

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D


    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  11. Maximum absorption by homogeneous magneto-dielectric sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvig, Michael Forum; Breinbjerg, Olav; Willatzen, Morten


    n order to obtain a benchmark for electromagnetic energy harvesting, we investigate the maximum absorption efficiency by a magneto-dielectric homogeneous sphere illuminated by a plane wave, and we arrive at several novel results. For electrically small spheres we show that the optimal relative pe...

  12. Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence (United States)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.


    Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.

  13. Influence of temperature and homogenization on honey crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Carolina Vardenski Costa


    Full Text Available SummaryThis work aimed to verify the influence of prior homogenization and storage temperature on the crystallization of honey. Honeys from Campos Gerais, PR Brazil, were used for the experiments. The samples were subjected to homogenization at 0, 180, 360 and 540 rpm for 15 minutes and stored at 15 °C or 25 °C. Crystallization was monitored by the colour, absorbance at 660 nm and moisture analysis. At the end of the experiment, the crystal sizes were determined by optical microscopy and laser diffraction. It could be observed that the samples kept at 15 °C and homogenized by agitation at 360 or 540 rpm showed crystal formation after 7 days of storage, while all the samples stored at 25 °C showed crystal formation after 20 days. It was also observed that the effect of temperature was much more pronounced than that of mechanical agitation during homogenization. All the samples stored at 15 °C developed crystals that were smaller than 20 μm.

  14. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts. (United States)

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently…

  15. EPR spectroscopy as a tool in homogeneous catalysis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goswami, M.; Chirila, A.; Rebreyend, C.; de Bruin, B.


    In the context of homogeneous catalysis, open-shell systems are often quite challenging to characterize. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most frequently applied tool to characterize organometallic compounds, but NMR spectra are usually broad, difficult to interpret and often

  16. ANOVA and the variance homogeneity assumption: Exploring a better gatekeeper. (United States)

    Kim, Yoosun Jamie; Cribbie, Robert A


    Valid use of the traditional independent samples ANOVA procedure requires that the population variances are equal. Previous research has investigated whether variance homogeneity tests, such as Levene's test, are satisfactory as gatekeepers for identifying when to use or not to use the ANOVA procedure. This research focuses on a novel homogeneity of variance test that incorporates an equivalence testing approach. Instead of testing the null hypothesis that the variances are equal against an alternative hypothesis that the variances are not equal, the equivalence-based test evaluates the null hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls outside or on the border of a predetermined interval against an alternative hypothesis that the difference in the variances falls within the predetermined interval. Thus, with the equivalence-based procedure, the alternative hypothesis is aligned with the research hypothesis (variance equality). A simulation study demonstrated that the equivalence-based test of population variance homogeneity is a better gatekeeper for the ANOVA than traditional homogeneity of variance tests. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, Joris


    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous

  18. Tandem fluid queues fed by homogeneous on-off sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Aalto, Samuli


    We consider a tandem fluid model with multiple consecutive buffers. The input of buffer j+1 is the output from buffer j, while the first buffer is fed by a, possibly infinite, number of independent homogeneous on–off sources. The sources have exponentially distributed silent periods and generally

  19. The delineation of plant communities in relatively homogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A relatively homogenous area of grassland was sampled by means of 2204 systematically place 0.5 m squared quadrats for the presence or absence of all vascular plants this data was processed by the method of normal association analysis which provided an hierarchical subdivision of the vegetation. This subdivision ...

  20. Temporal homogenization of linear ODEs, with applications to parametric super-resonance and energy harvest


    Tao, Molei; Owhadi, Houman


    We consider the temporal homogenization of linear ODEs of the form $\\dot{x}=Ax+\\epsilon P(t)x+f(t)$, where $P(t)$ is periodic and $\\epsilon$ is small. Using a 2-scale expansion approach, we obtain the long-time approximation $x(t)\\approx \\exp(At) \\left( \\Omega(t)+\\int_0^t \\exp(-A \\tau) f(\\tau) \\, d\\tau \\right)$, where $\\Omega$ solves the cell problem $\\dot{\\Omega}=\\epsilon B \\Omega + \\epsilon F(t)$ with an effective matrix $B$ and an explicitly-known $F(t)$. We provide necessary and sufficien...

  1. Analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position quantum walk with decoherent position (United States)

    Annabestani, Mostafa


    We have derived an analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position decoherent quantum walk with general form of noise on its position, and have shown that, while the quadratic (t^2) term of variance never changes by position decoherency, the linear term ( t) does and always increases the variance. We study the walker with ability to tunnel out to d nearest neighbors as an example and compare our result with former studies. We also show that, although our expression has been derived for asymptotic case, the rapid decay of time-dependent terms causes the expressions to be correct with a good accuracy even after dozens of steps.

  2. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor


    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  3. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor


    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  4. Software Design of SMD LEDs for Homogeneous Distribution of Irradiation in the Model of Dark Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Liner


    Full Text Available This article describes wireless optical data networks using visible spectra of optical radiation with a focus on interior areas with direct line of sight LOS (line-of-sight. This type of network represents progressively evolving area of information technologies. Development of lightning technologies based on white power LED was the impulse for wireless optical data networks based on visible spectra of optical radiation (VLC development. Its basic advantage is the flexibility of users. Users don’t have to stay on one place during the data sharing anymore. Wireless optical data networks represent an alternative solution for metallic and fiber networks [1], [2]. This paper deals with the software simulation of homogeneous distribution of optical irradiation in dark room model, carrying out in LightTools software. First, in previous simulations, the optical source composed from 9 SMD LED’s type LW G6SP-EAFA-JKQL-1 was designed. In various simulations, various numbers and distributions of LED’s were used. These were placed at the ceiling of the dark room. At last, the results of optical irradiation homogeneity are compared.

  5. The oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride under hydrocarbon-rich conditions: The role of homogeneous and of mixed homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarini, N.; Cortelli, C.; Pierelli, F.; Trifiro, F. [Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Bologna (Italy); Cavani, F. [INSTM, Research Unit of Bologna (Italy); Fumagalli, C.; Mazzoni, G. [Lonzagroup, Scanzorosciate (Italy)


    The reactivity of vanadyl pyrophosphate, catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, was examined under n-butane-rich conditions. A lower selectivity to maleic anhydride was found with respect to the hydrocarbon-lean conditions, due to (i) the higher selectivity to carbon oxides and (ii) the formation of C{sub 8} by-products: tetrahydrophthalic and phthalic anhydrides. The latter compounds formed under conditions of total oxygen conversion by a consecutive reaction of maleic anhydride with butadiene, intermediate in n-butane transformation, due to the decreased oxidizing property of the vanadyl pyrophosphate. A relevant contribution of radicalic, homogeneous reactions was also observed, which led to the formation of carbon oxides and olefins. This contribution decreased in the presence of the catalyst, which acted as a radical scavenger, but nevertheless remained important at temperatures higher than 400 C even in the presence of the catalyst. When conditions were used under which the conversion of oxygen was not total, olefins generated in the gas phase reacted at the catalyst surface yielding maleic anhydride. This homogeneously-initiated, heterogeneous process led to an unusual effect, of a relevant increase of maleic anhydride yield over 400 C. (orig.)

  6. Technical Note: Determination of Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D₃) in Standard Reference Material 3532 Calcium-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. (United States)

    Burdette, Carolyn Q


    Vitamin D is an important nutrient for many areas of human health and well-being, including improved bone strength, muscle movement, cognitive function, and immune health. The National Institute of Standards and Technology, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, has developed SRM 3532 Calcium-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form to help address the analytical challenges seen by the dietary supplement communities for the determination of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and elements. Described here is the process to assess the homogeneity and stability of the material, as well as the value assignment of the vitamin D3 levels.

  7. Democratization of philosophy of technologies


    Arun Kumar Tripathi


    Technology is a form of culture. Technology is shaping the theoretical framework of our social existence. The technological form of life is part and parcel of culture, just as culture in the human sense inescapably implies technologies. There are unfathomable effects of technology on human culture and society. This paper presents the background and the editorial introduction to the special issue: symposium on Education, Technology, & Democracy: Democratization of Technologies.

  8. In situ forming nimodipine depot system based on microparticles for the treatment of posthemorrhagic cerebral vasospasm. (United States)

    Bege, Nadja; Renette, Thomas; Endres, Thomas; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Hänggi, Daniel; Kissel, Thomas


    The present study was conducted to examine the feasibility of nimodipine-loaded PLGA microparticles suspended in Tisseel fibrin sealant as an in situ forming depot system. This device locally placed can be used for the treatment of vasospasm after a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Microparticles were prepared via spray-drying by using the vibration mesh spray technology of Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Spherically shaped microparticles with different loadings and high encapsulation efficiencies of 93.3-97.8% were obtained. Depending on nimodipine loading (10-40%), the particle diameter ranged from 1.9 ± 1.2 μm to 2.4 ± 1.3 μm. Thermal analyses using DSC revealed that nimodipine is dissolved in the PLGA matrix. Also, fluorescent dye loaded microparticles were encapsulated in Tisseel to examine the homogeneity of particles. 3D-pictures of the in situ forming devices displayed uniform particle homogeneity in the sealant matrix. Drug release was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometry which demonstrated a drug release proportional to the square root of time. A prolonged drug release of 19.5h was demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Overall, the nimodipine in situ forming device could be a promising candidate for the local treatment of vasospasm after a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-Nonmetal Transition and Homogeneous Nucleation of Mercury Vapour (United States)

    Uchtmann, H.; Rademann, K.; Hensel, F.

    The paper presents ionization potentials of mercury clusters obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy which provide evidence that a size-dependent gradual transition from van der Waals-type to metallic interaction occurs in Hgx-clusters for × > 13. In order to probe the role of this nonmetal to metal transition in the homogeneous nucleation process of supersaturated mercury vapour we have determined the supersaturation necessary for homogeneous condensation of mercury vapour in the temperature range 250 to 320 K. The measurements were made using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber. The results demonstrate that none of the current theories for homogeneous nucleation satisfactorily predict the observed critical supersaturations. The measured values are about 3 orders of magnitude lower than the values predicted by the conventional Becker-Döring-Zeldovitch-theory.Translated AbstractMetall-Nichtmetallübergang und homogene Keimbildung bei QuecksilberdampfEs werden photoelektronenspektroskopische Messungen der Ionisationspotentiale von im Molekularstrahl synthetisierten Quecksilberclustern als Funktion der Größe beschrieben. Sie zeigen, daß ein größenabhängiger kontinuierlicher Übergang von van der Waals-Bindung zu metallischer Bindung für Cluster mit mehr als 13 Hg-Atomen auftritt. Um erste Informationen über den Einfluß dieses Übergangs von nichtmetallischem zu metallischem Verhalten auf den Keimbildungsprozeß in übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen zu erhalten, werden zusätzlich Untersuchungen der homogenen Kondensation von übersättigten Quecksilberdämpfen im Temperaturbereich zwischen 250 bis 320 K mit einer Diffusionsnebelkammer berichtet. Die erhaltenen Ergebnisse können mit keiner der existierenden Theorien für die homogene Kondensation beschrieben werden. Die beobachteten Werte für die die homogene Kondensation auslösende kritische Übersättigung sind um drei Größenordnungen größer als die mit der klassischen Becker

  10. Mathematical homogenization of inelastic dissipative materials: a survey and recent progress (United States)

    Charalambakis, Nicolas; Chatzigeorgiou, George; Chemisky, Yves; Meraghni, Fodil


    In this paper, a review of papers on mathematical homogenization of dissipative composites under small strains and on the interplay between homogenization procedure and dissipation due to mechanical work is presented. Moreover, a critical survey on the links between mathematical homogenization and computational homogenization is attempted.

  11. 75 FR 16227 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements (United States)


    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... countermeasures; and key advantages and disadvantages associated with various countermeasures. Description of the...

  12. Emergence of Space-Time from Topologically Homogeneous Causal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro


    In this paper we study the emergence of Minkowski space-time from a causal network. Differently from previous approaches, we require the network to be topologically homogeneous, so that the metric is derived from pure event-counting. Emergence from events has an operational motivation in requiring that every physical quantity---including space-time---be defined through precise measurement procedures. Topological homogeneity is a requirement for having space-time metric emergent from the pure topology of causal connections, whereas physically corresponds to the universality of the physical law. We analyze in detail the case of 1+1 dimension. Coordinate systems are established via an Einsteinian protocol, and lead to a digital version of the Lorentz transformations. In a computational analogy, the foliation construction can also be regarded as the synchronization with a global clock of the calls to independent subroutines (corresponding to the causally independent events) in a parallel distributed computation, ...

  13. Homogenization of the critically spectral equation in neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaire, G. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique; Bal, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    We address the homogenization of an eigenvalue problem for the neutron transport equation in a periodic heterogeneous domain, modeling the criticality study of nuclear reactor cores. We prove that the neutron flux, corresponding to the first and unique positive eigenvector, can be factorized in the product of two terms, up to a remainder which goes strongly to zero with the period. On terms is the first eigenvector of the transport equation in the periodicity cell. The other term is the first eigenvector of a diffusion equation in the homogenized domain. Furthermore, the corresponding eigenvalue gives a second order corrector for the eigenvalue of the heterogeneous transport problem. This result justifies and improves the engineering procedure used in practice for nuclear reactor cores computations. (author)

  14. Homogenization of some evolution problems in domains with small holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bituin Cabarrubias


    Full Text Available This article concerns the asymptotic behavior of the wave and heat equations in periodically perforated domains with small holes and Dirichlet conditions on the boundary of the holes. In the first part we extend to time-dependent functions the periodic unfolding method for domains with small holes introduced in [6]. Therein, the method was applied to the study of elliptic problems with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes, recovering the homogenization result with a "strange term" originally obtained in [11] for the Laplacian. In the second part we obtain some homogenization results for the wave and heat equations with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes. The results concerning the wave equation extend those obtained in [12] for the case where the elliptic part of the operator is the Laplacian.

  15. Exploring the Kibble-Zurek mechanism with homogeneous Bose gases

    CERN Document Server

    Beugnon, J


    Out-of-equilibrium phenomena is a subject of considerable interest in many fields of physics. Ultracold quantum gases, which are extremely clean, well-isolated and highly controllable systems, offer ideal platforms to investigate this topic. The recent progress in tailoring trapping potentials now allows the experimental production of homogeneous samples in custom geometries, which is a key advance for studies of the emergence of coherence in interacting quantum systems. Here we review recent experiments in which temperature quenches have been performed across the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phase transition in an annular geometry and in homogeneous 3D and quasi-2D gases. Combined, these experiments give a comprehensive picture of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scenario through complementary measurements of correlation functions and topological defects density. They also allow the measurement of KZ scaling laws, the direct confirmation of the "freeze-out" hypothesis that underlies the KZ theory, and the extractio...

  16. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects on nuclear resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J.D.; Herling, G


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Moessbauer effect in isomers like {sup 107}Ag with a half-life of 44s. It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus the Moessbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Moessbauer experiments, unless the radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width {gamma}{sub H} which exceeds the natural width {gamma}, and the inhomogeneous width {delta}, the Moessbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}/{gamma}{sub H}.

  17. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects onnuclear resonance experiments (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J. D.; Herling, G.


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Mössbauer effect in isomers like 107Ag with a half-life of 44s.It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus theMössbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Mössbauer experiments, unless the radiative width ΓΓ also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width Γ_H which exceeds the natural width Γ, and the inhomogeneous width Δ, the Mössbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of Γγ/Γ H.

  18. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization. (United States)

    Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F


    We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139

  20. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  1. Fabric Defect Detection Using Local Homogeneity Analysis and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rebhi


    Full Text Available In the textile manufacturing industry, fabric defect detection becomes a necessary and essential step in quality control. The investment in this field is more than economical when reduction in labor cost and associated benefits are considered. Moreover, the development of a wholly automated inspection system requires efficient and robust algorithms. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we present a new fabric defect detection scheme which uses the local homogeneity and neural network. Its first step consists in computing a new homogeneity image denoted as H-image. The second step is devoted to the application of the discrete cosine transform (DCT to the H-image and the extraction of different representative energy features of each DCT block. These energy features are used by the back-propagation neural network to judge the existence of fabric defect. Simulations on different fabric images and different defect aspects show that the proposed method achieves an average accuracy of 97.35%.

  2. A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A microspectroscopic study of the electronic homogeneity of ordered and disordered Sr2FeMoO6. DINESH TOPWAL,1 U MANJU,1 SUGATA RAY,1,a S RAJ,1,b D D SARMA,1,*. S R KRISHNAKUMAR2,c, M BERTOLO,3 S LA ROSA3 and G CAUTERO3. 1Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  3. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method


    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin


    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any se...

  4. Eigenview on Jones matrix models of homogeneous anisotropic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkov S.


    Full Text Available The polarization of light when it passes through optical medium can change as a result of change in the amplitude (dichroism or phase shift (birefringence of the electric vector. The anisotropic properties of media can be determined from these two optical effects. Our main concern here is to revisit the factor of eigenpolarizations and eigenvalues in modeling of polarization properties of homogeneous media and elucidate certain new features in polarization behavior of birefringent and dichroic media.

  5. New mechanistic aspects of the asymmetric homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes. (United States)

    Brown, J M; Giernoth, R


    Progress in homogeneous catalysis depends upon an understanding of the reaction mechanism; in asymmetric catalysis this entails an insight into the origins of enantioselectivity. Significant advances have been made in the area of alkene reduction catalyzed by rhodium or ruthenium complexes, which has been in tandem with the development of new, more effective ligands for the reaction. The combination of quantum chemical calculations and direct spectroscopic observation of catalytic intermediates has proved powerful in this regard.

  6. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A


    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  7. Homogeneity evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells based on electrotaxis analysis


    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Dohyun; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul


    Stem cell therapy that can restore function to damaged tissue, avoid host rejection and reduce inflammation throughout body without use of immunosuppressive drugs. The established methods were used to identify and to isolate specific stem cell markers by FACS or by immunomagnetic cell separation. The procedures for distinguishing population of stem cells took a time and needed many preparations. Here we suggest an electrotaxis analysis as a new method to evaluate the homogeneity of mesenchyma...

  8. Homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate parabolic differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nandakumaran


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the homogenization of the nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation $$ partial_t b({x /varepsilon},u_varepsilon - mathop{ m div} a({x /varepsilon},{t /varepsilon}, u_varepsilon,abla u_varepsilon=f(x,t, $$ with mixed boundary conditions(Neumann and Dirichlet and obtain the limit equation as $varepsilon o 0$. We also prove corrector results to improve the weak convergence of $abla u_varepsilon$ to strong convergence.

  9. Examination of genome homogeneity in prokaryotes using genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Bohlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA word frequencies, normalized for genomic AT content, are remarkably stable within prokaryotic genomes and are therefore said to reflect a "genomic signature." The genomic signatures can be used to phylogenetically classify organisms from arbitrary sampled DNA. Genomic signatures can also be used to search for horizontally transferred DNA or DNA regions subjected to special selection forces. Thus, the stability of the genomic signature can be used as a measure of genomic homogeneity. The factors associated with the stability of the genomic signatures are not known, and this motivated us to investigate further. We analyzed the intra-genomic variance of genomic signatures based on AT content normalization (0(th order Markov model as well as genomic signatures normalized by smaller DNA words (1(st and 2(nd order Markov models for 636 sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Regression models were fitted, with intra-genomic signature variance as the response variable, to a set of factors representing genomic properties such as genomic AT content, genome size, habitat, phylum, oxygen requirement, optimal growth temperature and oligonucleotide usage variance (OUV, a measure of oligonucleotide usage bias, measured as the variance between genomic tetranucleotide frequencies and Markov chain approximated tetranucleotide frequencies, as predictors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regression analysis revealed that OUV was the most important factor (p<0.001 determining intra-genomic homogeneity as measured using genomic signatures. This means that the less random the oligonucleotide usage is in the sense of higher OUV, the more homogeneous the genome is in terms of the genomic signature. The other factors influencing variance in the genomic signature (p<0.001 were genomic AT content, phylum and oxygen requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic homogeneity in prokaryotes is intimately linked to genomic GC content, oligonucleotide usage bias (OUV and aerobiosis, while

  10. When individual behaviour matters: homogeneous and network models in epidemiology


    Bansal, Shweta; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel


    Heterogeneity in host contact patterns profoundly shapes population-level disease dynamics. Many epidemiological models make simplifying assumptions about the patterns of disease-causing interactions among hosts. In particular, homogeneous-mixing models assume that all hosts have identical rates of disease-causing contacts. In recent years, several network-based approaches have been developed to explicitly model heterogeneity in host contact patterns. Here, we use a network perspective to qua...

  11. Classification of compact homogeneous spaces with invariant G(2)-structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Munir, M.


    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2012), s. 303-328 ISSN 1615-715X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact homogeneous space * G(2)-structure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.371, year: 2012 xml


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nagel


    Full Text Available Recently (Nagel and Weiss, 2005, the class of homogeneous random tessellations that are stable under the operation of iteration (STIT was introduced. In the present paper this model is reviewed and new results for the mean values of essential geometric features of STIT tessellations in two and three dimensions are provided and proved. For the isotropic model, these mean values are compared with those ones of the Poisson-Voronoi and of the Poisson plane tessellations, respectively.

  13. [Homogeneous dose distribution in the moving-strip technic]. (United States)

    Chiecchio, A; Torrengo, S; Barboni, G; Giordana, C; Malinverni, G


    The moving-strip technique employing a 60Co beam, is used in radiotherapy for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian tumours and lymphomas. With this technique the spread of received dose from single strip, around an average value, is very high. Our paper suggest a computerized method for a more homogeneous dose distribution in central strips and a lower dose in out-side tissues.

  14. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem. (United States)

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M


    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  15. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether


    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper


    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio...

  16. Homogenization of monthly precipitation time series in Croatia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rasol, D.; Cindric, K.; Štěpánek, Petr


    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3671-3682 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : homogenization * Croatia * precipitation * inhomogeneities * break points Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2014

  17. Homogeneity Property of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schneider


    Full Text Available We consider the classical Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces defined via differences and prove a homogeneity property for functions with bounded support in the frame of these spaces. As the proof is based on compact embeddings between the studied function spaces, we present also some results on the entropy numbers of these embeddings. Moreover, we derive some applications in terms of pointwise multipliers.

  18. Spatial distribution and ethnic homogenization of population in Serbia


    Raduški Nada


    In the article is going to presented the ethnic picture of the population of the Serbia and the ethnodemographic changes in period 1991-2002, caused by migration, natural movement, changed declaration on national affiliation, as well as some political and socio-economic factors. Ethnocentric migrations (voluntary and forced) primarily influenced on the change of ethnic structure of the Serbia, in the sense of creating nationally more homogeneous region, having in mind the national struc...

  19. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles (United States)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)


    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  20. Tokunaga self-similarity for symmetric homogeneous Markov chains (United States)

    Kovchegov, Y.; Zaliapin, I.


    Hierarchical branching organization is ubiquitous in nature. It is readily seen in river basins, drainage networks, bronchial passages, botanical trees, and snowflakes, to mention but a few. Empirical evidence suggests that one can describe many natural hierarchies by so-called Tokunaga self-similar trees (SSTs) [Shreve, 1969; Tokunaga, 1978; Ossadnik, 1992; Peckham, 1995; Newman et al., 1997; Pelletier and Turcotte, 2000]; Tokunaga SST have been proven to describe the Galton-Watson critical branching [Burd et al., 2000] and a general particle coagulation process [Gabrielov et al., 1999]. Tokunaga SSTs form a special two-parametric class of SSTs that preserves its statistical properties under the operation of pruning, i.e., cutting the leaves. It has been conjectured (Webb and Zaliapin, 2009; Zaliapin et al. 2009) that Tokunaga self-similarity is a characteristic property of the inverse aggregation (coagulation) process. This study provides further evidence in support of this hypothesis by focusing on trees that describe the topological structure of level sets of a time series, so-called level-set trees (LST). We prove that the LST for a symmetric homogeneous Markov chain (HMC) is a Tokunaga SST with the same parameters as the famous Shreve tree and critical Galton-Watson tree. We show, furthermore, that the Tokunaga property holds for any transformation F[X(G(t))] of a symmetric HMC X(t), where F and G are monotone increasing functions, and as a result - for the regular Brownian motion. At the same time, the Tokunaga property does not hold in general in asymmetric HMCs, a Brownian motion with a drift, ARMA, and some other conventional models. We discuss the relation of our results to the Tokunaga self-similarity of the nearest-neighbor trees for random point sets. References: 1. Gabrielov, A., W.I. Newman, D.L. Turcotte (1999) An exactly soluble hierarchical clustering model: inverse cascades, self-similarity, and scaling. Phys. Rev. E, 1999, 60, 5293-5300. 2

  1. Stress homogenization effect in multicore fiber optic bending sensors. (United States)

    Capilla-Gonzalez, G; May-Arrioja, D A; Lopez-Cortes, D; Guzman-Sepulveda, J R


    In this work we study the particular case of an optical fiber subjected to compression-bending load, the most common loading configuration for testing fiber optic bending sensors. Our analysis is based on the foundations of column theory and reveals a progressive stress homogenization across the optical fiber with increasing bending. This effect is general to any optical fiber subjected to this load configuration and it is of particular interest for structures with multiple cores since the state of stress experienced by each core can significantly differ even for a condition of constant load. The approach outlined here captures relevant features observed in experiments with multicore fiber optic bending sensors. Also, this approach can be incorporated into coupled-mode theory for assessing the performance of spectrally operated fiber sensors based on multicore coupled structures under realistic conditions commonly encountered in the experiments and without the need of performing computationally expensive simulations. The progressive stress homogenization, as well as the regime of homogeneous stress dominated by the bending contribution, is experimentally demonstrated using a multicore optical fiber with three coupled cores. Our observations are similar to those reported in recent experiments using other multicore fibers with different number of cores.

  2. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert


    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  3. Homogeneous UVA system for corneal cross-linking treatment (United States)

    Ayres Pereira, Fernando R.; Stefani, Mario A.; Otoboni, José A.; Richter, Eduardo H.; Ventura, Liliane


    The treatment of keratoconus and corneal ulcers by collagen cross-linking using ultraviolet type A irradiation, combined with photo-sensitizer Riboflavin (vitamin B2), is a promising technique. The standard protocol suggests instilling Riboflavin in the pre-scratched cornea every 5min for 30min, during the UVA irradiation of the cornea at 3mW/cm2 for 30 min. This process leads to an increase of the biomechanical strength of the cornea, stopping the progression, or sometimes, even reversing Keratoconus. The collagen cross-linking can be achieved by many methods, but the utilization of UVA light, for this purpose, is ideal because of its possibility of a homogeneous treatment leading to an equal result along the treated area. We have developed a system, to be clinically used for treatment of unhealthy corneas using the cross-linking technique, which consists of an UVA emitting delivery device controlled by a closed loop system with high homogeneity. The system is tunable and delivers 3-5 mW/cm2, at 365nm, for three spots (6mm, 8mm and 10mm in diameter). The electronics close loop presents 1% of precision, leading to an overall error, after the calibration, of less than 10% and approximately 96% of homogeneity.

  4. Multiscale modeling of lymphatic drainage from tissues using homogenization theory. (United States)

    Roose, Tiina; Swartz, Melody A


    Lymphatic capillary drainage of interstitial fluid under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions is important for tissue fluid balance, cancer metastasis, and immunity. Lymphatic drainage function is critically coupled to the fluid mechanical properties of the interstitium, yet this coupling is poorly understood. Here we sought to effectively model the lymphatic-interstitial fluid coupling and ask why the lymphatic capillary network often appears with roughly a hexagonal architecture. We use homogenization method, which allows tissue-scale lymph flow to be integrated with the microstructural details of the lymphatic capillaries, thus gaining insight into the functionality of lymphatic anatomy. We first describe flow in lymphatic capillaries using the Navier-Stokes equations and flow through the interstitium using Darcy's law. We then use multiscale homogenization to derive macroscale equations describing lymphatic drainage, with the mouse tail skin as a basis. We find that the limiting resistance for fluid drainage is that from the interstitium into the capillaries rather than within the capillaries. We also find that between hexagonal, square, and parallel tube configurations of lymphatic capillary networks, the hexagonal structure is the most efficient architecture for coupled interstitial and capillary fluid transport; that is, it clears the most interstitial fluid for a given network density and baseline interstitial fluid pressure. Thus, using homogenization theory, one can assess how vessel microstructure influences the macroscale fluid drainage by the lymphatics and demonstrate why the hexagonal network of dermal lymphatic capillaries is optimal for interstitial tissue fluid clearance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)


    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  6. Mathematical Structure of Loop Quantum Cosmology: Homogeneous Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bojowald


    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of homogeneous loop quantum cosmology is analyzed, starting with and taking into account the general classification of homogeneous connections not restricted to be Abelian. As a first consequence, it is seen that the usual approach of quantizing Abelian models using spaces of functions on the Bohr compactification of the real line does not capture all properties of homogeneous connections. A new, more general quantization is introduced which applies to non-Abelian models and, in the Abelian case, can be mapped by an isometric, but not unitary, algebra morphism onto common representations making use of the Bohr compactification. Physically, the Bohr compactification of spaces of Abelian connections leads to a degeneracy of edge lengths and representations of holonomies. Lifting this degeneracy, the new quantization gives rise to several dynamical properties, including lattice refinement seen as a direct consequence of state-dependent regularizations of the Hamiltonian constraint of loop quantum gravity. The representation of basic operators - holonomies and fluxes - can be derived from the full theory specialized to lattices. With the new methods of this article, loop quantum cosmology comes closer to the full theory and is in a better position to produce reliable predictions when all quantum effects of the theory are taken into account.

  7. Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz homogenization formulas for binary lattice metamaterials (United States)

    Sozio, Valentina; Vallecchi, Andrea; Albani, Matteo; Capolino, Filippo


    Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz formulas are developed for the effective parameters of binary lattice metamaterials composed of a periodic arrangement of electric and/or magnetic inclusions. The proposed homogenization approach is based on a dual dipole approximation for the induced currents. The obtained formulas for the metamaterial effective electric and magnetic characteristics duly consider both electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the inclusions and completely describe the effects of frequency and spatial dispersion. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the general applicability of the proposed formulas to different types of binary lattices and inclusions. It is shown that the proposed effective parameters have the capability of providing a physically sound and accurate description of wave propagation in the metamaterials in an extended range of frequencies in contrast to the equivalent parameters that can be defined in the absence of impressed sources and assuming a local anisotropic constitutive model, which hides inherent spatial dispersion effects and nonphysical features. To gain further insight into the metamaterial response and the physical meaningfulness of calculated effective parameters, the power flow of metamaterial supported modes is analyzed and its homogenized representation is compared to the complete description. A correspondence between the power flow due to the microscopic field and the effect of spatial dispersion in the homogenized parameters is established.

  8. Assessment of Theories for Free Vibration Analysis of Homogeneous and Multilayered Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Carrera


    Full Text Available This paper assesses classical and advanced theories for free vibrational response of homogeneous and multilayered simply supported plates. Closed form solutions are given for thick and thin geometries. Single layer and multilayered plates made of metallic, composite and piezo-electric materials, are considered. Classical theories based on Kirchhoff and Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are compared with refined theories obtained by enhancing the order of the expansion of the displacement fields in the thickness direction z. The effect of the Zig-Zag form of the displacement distribution in z as well as of the Interlaminar Continuity of transverse shear and normal stresses at the layer interface were evaluated. A number of conclusions have been drawn. These conclusions could be used as desk-bed in order to choose the most valuable theories for a given problem.

  9. Assessment of agronomic homogeneity and compatibility of soils in the Vladimir Opolie region (United States)

    Shein, E. V.; Kiryushin, V. I.; Korchagin, A. A.; Mazirov, M. A.; Dembovetskii, A. V.; Il'in, L. I.


    Complexes of gray forest soils of different podzolization degrees with the participation of gray forest podzolized soils with the second humus horizon play a noticeable role in the soil cover patterns of Vladimir Opolie. The agronomic homogeneity and agronomic compatibility of gray forest soils in automorphic positions ("plakor" sites) were assessed on the test field of the Vladimir Agricultural Research Institute. The term "soil homogeneity" implies in our study the closeness of crop yield estimates (scores) for the soil polygons; the term "soil compatibility" implies the possibility to apply the same technologies in the same dates for different soil polygons within a field. To assess the agronomic homogeneity and compatibility of soils, the statistical analysis of the yields of test crop (oats) was performed, and the spatial distribution of the particular parameters of soil hydrothermic regime was studied. The analysis of crop yields showed their high variability: the gray forest soils on microhighs showed the minimal potential fertility, and the maximal fertility was typical of the soils with the second humus horizon in microlows. Soils also differed significantly in their hydrothermic regime, as the gray forest soils with the second humus horizon were heated and cooled slower than the background gray forest soils; their temperature had a stronger lag effect and displayed a narrower amplitude in seasonal fluctuations; and these soils were wetter during the first weeks (40 days) of the growing season. Being colder and wetter, the soils with the second humus horizons reached their physical ripeness later than the gray forest soils. Thus, the soil cover of the test plot in the automorphic position is heterogeneous; from the agronomic standpoint, its components are incompatible.

  10. Densified waste form and method for forming (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina


    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  11. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco


    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  12. HOMPRA Europe - A gridded precipitation data set from European homogenized time series (United States)

    Rustemeier, Elke; Kapala, Alice; Meyer-Christoffer, Anja; Finger, Peter; Schneider, Udo; Venema, Victor; Ziese, Markus; Simmer, Clemens; Becker, Andreas


    Reliable monitoring data are essential for robust analyses of climate variability and, in particular, long-term trends. In this regard, a gridded, homogenized data set of monthly precipitation totals - HOMPRA Europe (HOMogenized PRecipitation Analysis of European in-situ data)- is presented. The data base consists of 5373 homogenized monthly time series, a carefully selected subset held by the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The chosen series cover the period 1951-2005 and contain less than 10% missing values. Due to the large number of data, an automatic algorithm had to be developed for the homogenization of these precipitation series. In principal, the algorithm is based on three steps: * Selection of overlapping station networks in the same precipitation regime, based on rank correlation and Ward's method of minimal variance. Since the underlying time series should be as homogeneous as possible, the station selection is carried out by deterministic first derivation in order to reduce artificial influences. * The natural variability and trends were temporally removed by means of highly correlated neighboring time series to detect artificial break-points in the annual totals. This ensures that only artificial changes can be detected. The method is based on the algorithm of Caussinus and Mestre (2004). * In the last step, the detected breaks are corrected monthly by means of a multiple linear regression (Mestre, 2003). Due to the automation of the homogenization, the validation of the algorithm is essential. Therefore, the method was tested on artificial data sets. Additionally the sensitivity of the method was tested by varying the neighborhood series. If available in digitized form, the station history was also used to search for systematic errors in the jump detection. Finally, the actual HOMPRA Europe product is produced by interpolation of the homogenized series onto a 1° grid using one of the interpolation schems operationally at GPCC

  13. Study of LED modulation effect on the photometric quantities and beam homogeneity of automotive lighting (United States)

    Koudelka, Petr; Hanulak, Patrik; Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Latal, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir


    This paper discusses the implementation of a light emitting diode based visible light communication system for optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications in road safety applications. The widespread use of LEDs as light sources has reached into automotive fields. For example, LEDs are used for taillights, daytime running lights, brake lights, headlights, and traffic signals. Future in the optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications will be based on an optical wireless communication technology that using LED transmitter and a camera receiver (OCI; optical communication image sensor). Utilization of optical V2V communication systems in automotive industry naturally brings a lot of problems. Among them belongs necessity of circuit implementation into the current concepts of electronic LED lights control that allows LED modulation. These circuits are quite complicated especially in case of luxury cars. Other problem is correct design of modulation circuits so that final vehicle lightning using optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication meets standard requirements on Photometric Quantities and Beam Homogeneity. Authors of this article performed research on optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication possibilities of headlight (Jaguar) and taillight (Skoda) in terms of modulation circuits (M-PSK, M-QAM) implementation into the lamp concepts and final fulfilment of mandatory standards on Photometric Quantities and Beam Homogeneity.

  14. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva


    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  15. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase of chicken muscle changes during development from a hybrid to a homogeneous enzyme. (United States)

    Tsim, K W; Randall, W R; Barnard, E A


    The asymmetric (20S) form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in 1-day-old chick muscle is a hybrid enzyme containing both AChE (110 kd) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, 72 kd) catalytic subunits. However, we now report that the asymmetric AChE extracted or immunopurified from older adult chicken muscles, where it is the endplate form, shows a progressive developmental loss of the BuChE subunit and its activities, centred around 4 weeks of age, while the AChE and collagenous subunits remain. In confirmation, using differential labelling and co-sedimentation it was shown that the hybrid 20S AChE/BuChE form of 1-day chick muscle is gradually and completely replaced during muscle maturation by a 21.3S form, also collagen-tailed but otherwise homogeneous in AChE catalytic subunits. Two other changes occur concomitantly. Firstly, the AChE catalytic subunit of the adult form has a lower apparent mol. wt in gel electrophoresis, by 5 kd, than the same subunit in the 1-day hybrid enzyme; this difference does not reside in the carbohydrate attachments. Secondly, the collagen tail changes, in that some conformation-dependent epitopes on it disappear in the same period. Hence, a major reorganization of the asymmetric AChE, involving all three types of subunit, occurs in the course of muscle development.

  16. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller


    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies......This paper develops an international trade model where firms in a duopoly may diversify their technologies for strategic reasons. The firms face the same set of technologies given by a tradeoff between marginal costs and fixed costs, but depending on trade costs firms may choose different...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....



    Amita Verma


    Tablet that disintegrate rapidly in the mouth are convenient for patient who have difficulty in swallowing conventional dosages forms. Although various formulation technologies like Zydis Technology, Durasolve Technology, Orasolve Technology, Flash Dose Technology, Wow Tab Technology, Flash Tab Technology, Quicksolv Technology, Lyos Technology, Fast Melt Technology and Zip-lets Technology are used. This review highlights numerous techniques to explain the phenomenon of preparing mouth disinte...

  18. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups (United States)

    Das, S.; Cunnane, C.


    In regional flood frequency estimation, a homogeneous pooling group of sites leads to a reduction in the error of quantile estimators which is the main aim of a regional flood frequency analysis. Examination of the homogeneity of regions/pooling groups is usually based on a statistic that relates to the formulation of a frequency distribution model, e.g. the coefficient of variation (Wiltshire, 1986; Fill and Stedinger, 1995) and/or skew coefficient, their L-moment equivalents (Chowdhury et al., 1991; Hosking and Wallis, 1997) or of dimensionless quantiles such as the 10-yr event (Dalrymple, 1960; Lu and Stedinger, 1992). Hosking andWallis (1993, 1997) proposed homogeneity tests based on L-moment ratios such as L-CV alone (H1) and L-CV & L-skewness jointly (H2) which were also recently investigated by Viglione et al. (2007). In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group, which satisfies the 5T rule (FEH, 1999, 3, p. 169) for the 100 yr quantile. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2) in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have all their t2 values within the confidence limits, while 7, 33 and 44 of them have 1, 2 or 3 or more, t2 values outside the confidence limits. The outcomes are also compared with the

  19. Drying regimes in homogeneous porous media from macro- to nanoscale (United States)

    Thiery, J.; Rodts, S.; Weitz, D. A.; Coussot, P.


    Magnetic resonance imaging visualization down to nanometric liquid films in model porous media with pore sizes from micro- to nanometers enables one to fully characterize the physical mechanisms of drying. For pore size larger than a few tens of nanometers, we identify an initial constant drying rate period, probing homogeneous desaturation, followed by a falling drying rate period. This second period is associated with the development of a gradient in saturation underneath the sample free surface that initiates the inward recession of the contact line. During this latter stage, the drying rate varies in accordance with vapor diffusion through the dry porous region, possibly affected by the Knudsen effect for small pore size. However, we show that for sufficiently small pore size and/or saturation the drying rate is increasingly reduced by the Kelvin effect. Subsequently, we demonstrate that this effect governs the kinetics of evaporation in nanopores as a homogeneous desaturation occurs. Eventually, under our experimental conditions, we show that the saturation unceasingly decreases in a homogeneous manner throughout the wet regions of the medium regardless of pore size or drying regime considered. This finding suggests the existence of continuous liquid flow towards the interface of higher evaporation, down to very low saturation or very small pore size. Paradoxically, even if this net flow is unidirectional and capillary driven, it corresponds to a series of diffused local capillary equilibrations over the full height of the sample, which might explain that a simple Darcy's law model does not predict the effect of scaling of the net flow rate on the pore size observed in our tests.

  20. Comparison of different homogenization approaches for elastic-viscoplastic materials (United States)

    Mercier, S.; Molinari, A.; Berbenni, S.; Berveiller, M.


    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic and non-linear viscoplastic composite materials is considered in this paper. First, we compare two homogenization schemes based on the Mori-Tanaka method coupled with the additive interaction (AI) law proposed by Molinari et al (1997 Mech. Mater. 26 43-62) or coupled with a concentration law based on translated fields (TF) originally proposed for the self-consistent scheme by Paquin et al (1999 Arch. Appl. Mech. 69 14-35). These methods are also evaluated against (i) full-field calculations of the literature based on the finite element method and on fast Fourier transform, (ii) available analytical exact solutions obtained in linear viscoelasticity and (iii) homogenization methods based on variational approaches. Developments of the AI model are obtained for linear and non-linear material responses while results for the TF method are shown for the linear case. Various configurations are considered: spherical inclusions, aligned fibers, hard and soft inclusions, large material contrasts between phases, volume-preserving versus dilatant anelastic flow, non-monotonic loading. The agreement between the AI and TF methods is excellent and the correlation with full field calculations is in general of quite good quality (with some exceptions for non-linear composites with a large volume fraction of very soft inclusions for which a discrepancy of about 15% was found for macroscopic stress). Description of the material behavior with internal variables can be accounted for with the AI and TF approaches and therefore complex loadings can be easily handled in contrast with most hereditary approaches.

  1. Generation and control of wide area, homogenous atmospheric pressure discharges for industrial coating applications. (United States)

    Hynes, Alan; Walter, Castagna; Carr, Kieran; O'Shea, Sean; Herbert, Tony


    Dow Corning Plasma Solutions use diffuse atmospheric pressure plasma technology combined with a unique precursor delivery system for a new coatings approach: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition. Operating at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature this process allows the use of a wide range of liquid precursors delivering high chemical functionality onto flexible substrates. Patented APPLD equipment enables plasma deposition onto wide area substrates up to 1.6m width in true reel-to-reel conditions at industrial line speeds up to 30m/min. Substrates can be either electrically insulating or conducting. Recent engineering developments addressing issues in electrode design, liquid delivery and gas retention and distribution, have significantly enhanced the stability and homogeneity of the plasma chemistry and coating performance. The process is controlled through monitoring and control of key plasma chemistry and process parameters. The process hardware and process control package will be described in detail with particular emphasis on plasma chemistry and process control tools.

  2. Warm Forming of Mg Sheets: From Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming (United States)

    Ulacia, Ibai; Galdos, Lander; Esnaola, Jon Ander; Larrañaga, Jon; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Hurtado, Iñaki


    Magnesium alloys are generating interest in the automotive and aeronautic industries due to their low density and potential to reduce gross vehicular weight. However, the formability of these alloys is poor and they are very difficult to be formed at room temperature due to their strong basal texture in rolled form. In this paper, the potential of magnesium alloy sheets to be processed at warm conditions is studied for four different forming technologies: incremental forming (IF), deep drawing (DD), hydroforming (HF), and electromagnetic forming (EMF). Forming mechanisms and process window are experimentally characterized by monitoring different process parameters. Special focus is made on the influence of the forming temperature and the strain rate. Thus, experiments at temperatures from room to 523 K (250 °C) and a wide range of strain rates, between 10-3 up to 103 s-1 according to each process nature and scope, are conducted. It is observed that, even the inherent forming rate range of each process vary considerably, increasing forming temperature increases formability for all of these forming processes. In the other hand, an opposing effect of the strain rate is observed between the quasi-static processes (IF, DD, and HF) and the high speed process (EMF). Thus, a detrimental effect on formability is observed when increasing strain rate for quasi-static processes, while a mild increase is observed for EMF.

  3. Suitable ligands for homogeneous ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of esters


    Engelen, Marcel Chr. van; Teunissen, Herman T.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Elsevier, Cornelis J.


    Effective hydrogenolysis of dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol has been obtained using a catalyst prepared in situ from Ru(acac)3 with the facially coordinating tridentate phosphine ligand CH3C(CH2PPh2)3. This catalyst enabled full and selective conversion in 16 h at [S]/[Ru] = 500 at 80–100 bar hydrogen pressure at 120 °C. This catalyst is far more active than any known homogeneous catalyst able to hydrogenate dimethyl oxalate to ethylene glycol. Several mono-, di- and tridentate P- and N-l...

  4. Electronic homogeneity of nanowire heterostructure Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (United States)

    Selcu, Camelia; May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    In addition to low defect densities and great tunability bandgap within a single heterostructure, the possibility of growing (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire heterostructure LEDs on different substrates while maintaining their high electronic and optical properties makes them very attractive. We investigated the electronic homogeneity of the (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire ensemble by acquiring current maps at certain applied biases using conductive AFM. By taken IVs on individual nanowires, we found that different wires have different turn on voltages and that some of the nanowires degrade due to the applied bias.

  5. Homogenization of a double porosity model in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Ainouz


    Full Text Available The article addresses the homogenization of a family of micro-models for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid in a poroelastic matrix containing periodically distributed poroelastic inclusions, with low permeabilities and with imperfect contact on the interface. The micro-models are based on Biot's system for consolidation processes in each phase, with interfacial barrier formulation. Using the two-scale convergence technique, it is shown that the derived system is a general model of that proposed by Aifantis, plus an extra memory term.

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL


    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  7. Homogeneous 1-based structures and interpretability in random structures


    Koponen, Vera


    Let $V$ be a finite relational vocabulary in which no symbol has arity greater than 2. Let $M$ be countable $V$-structure which is homogeneous, simple and 1-based. The first main result says that if $M$ is, in addition, primitive, then it is strongly interpretable in a random structure. The second main result, which generalizes the first, implies (without the assumption on primitivity) that if $M$ is "coordinatized" by a set with SU-rank 1 and there is no definable (without parameters) nontri...

  8. Chemical kinetics of homogeneous atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Sander, S. P.; Seinfeld, J. H.


    A systematic evaluation of known homogeneous SO2 reactions which might be important in air pollution chemistry is carried out. A mechanism is developed to represent the chemistry of NOx/hydrocarbon/SO2 systems, and the mechanism is used to analyze available experimental data appropriate for quantitative analysis of SO2 oxidation kinetics. Detailed comparisons of observed and predicted concentration behavior are presented. In all cases, observed SO2 oxidation rates cannot be explained solely on the basis of those SO2 reactions for which rate constants have been measured. The role of ozone-olefin reactions in SO2 oxidation is elucidated.

  9. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough


    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  10. Operator-based homogeneous coordinates: application in camera document scanning (United States)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.


    An operator-based approach for the study of homogeneous coordinates and projective geometry is proposed. First, some basic geometrical concepts and properties of the operators are investigated in the one- and two-dimensional cases. Then, the pinhole camera model is derived, and a simple method for homography estimation and camera calibration is explained. The usefulness of the analyzed theoretical framework is exemplified by addressing the perspective correction problem for a camera document scanning application. Several experimental results are provided for illustrative purposes. The proposed approach is expected to provide practical insights for inexperienced students on camera calibration, computer vision, and optical metrology among others.

  11. The General Theory of Homogenization A Personalized Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tartar, Luc


    Homogenization is not about periodicity, or Gamma-convergence, but about understanding which effective equations to use at macroscopic level, knowing which partial differential equations govern mesoscopic levels, without using probabilities (which destroy physical reality); instead, one uses various topologies of weak type, the G-convergence of Sergio Spagnolo, the H-convergence of Francois Murat and the author, and some responsible for the appearance of nonlocal effects, which many theories in continuum mechanics or physics guessed wrongly. For a better understanding of 20th century science,

  12. Homogenous asymmetric hydrogenation: Recent trends and industrial applications. (United States)

    Palmer, Andreas M; Zanotti-Gerosa, Antonio


    Recent advances in the field of homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation are presented in this review. An analysis of academic literature published in the past 2 years highlights significant advances in the asymmetric hydrogenation of functional groups that previously were considered difficult to hydrogenate, as well as the emergence of novel concepts in catalysis, such as the use of non-traditional metals, phosphine-free catalysts and chiral counterions. An analysis of industry publications from 2009 and 2010 highlights more established applications of asymmetric hydrogenation reactions; these are discussed with a particular focus on practical aspects, such as catalyst selection, experimental conditions and the removal of metal residues.

  13. Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence (United States)

    Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto


    The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.

  14. Homogenized Elastic Properties of Graphene for Small Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica Sorić


    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide the quantification of the linear and non-linear elastic mechanical properties of graphene based upon the judicious combination of molecular mechanics simulation results and homogenization methods. We clarify the influence on computed results by the main model features, such as specimen size, chirality of microstructure, the effect of chosen boundary conditions (imposed displacement versus force and the corresponding plane stress transformation. The proposed approach is capable of explaining the scatter of the results for computed stresses, energy and stiffness and provides the bounds on graphene elastic properties, which are quite important in modeling and simulation of the virtual experiments on graphene-based devices.

  15. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.


    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  16. Electromagnetic cloaking of conducting cylinders using homogeneous and isotropic media (United States)

    Gana, Usman M.


    Scattering characteristics of cloaked conducting cylinders is investigated. An attempt is made in replacing the difficult anisotropic material properties required of a cloack with simple ones. The anisotropic material parameters of the cylindrical cloaking shell was approximated by homogeneous, isotropic layers and effective medium approximation was employed in determining the parameters of the layers. Scattering of both polarized (TM & TE) and un-polarized plane electromagnetic waves was studied in the far field. Scattering cross sections of different kinds of cylindrical cloaks are presented and the merits of their structures outlined. Significant reductions in scattering cross sections, compared with bare cylinders, were realized by some of the structures studied.

  17. Non-Homogenous Moral Space (from Bentham toSen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr (Peter Boltuc


    Full Text Available The notion of moral space covers all thin (universal and thick (particular characteristics that may plausibly be seen as morally relevant. In this paper, I investigate certain properties of moral space so defined. These properties are not easily visible if we analyze moral characteristics individually, but become clear once we consider them collectively. In particular, following Amartya Sen, I claim that the value of moral properties is, in part, a function of positional characteristics. I call this notion the non-homogeneity of moral space.

  18. Transport equation for plasmas in a stationary-homogeneous turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie, E-mail: [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    For a plasma in a stationary homogeneous turbulence, the Fokker-Planck equation is derived from the nonlinear Vlasov equation by introducing the entropy principle. The ensemble average in evaluating the kinetic diffusion tensor, whose symmetry has been proved, can be computed in a straightforward way when the fluctuating particle trajectories are provided. As an application, it has been shown that a mean parallel electric filed can drive a particle flux through the Stokes-Einstein relation, independent of the details of the fluctuations.

  19. Loyalty inducing programs and competition with homogeneous goods


    Nicolás Figueroa; Ronald Fischer; Sebastian Infante


    We analyze a market where two firms producing a homogenous good compete by means of two mechanisms: prices and a loyalty bonus. We assume that firms act simultaneously when posting their loyalty bonus and prices. Consumers who purchase from a firmin the first period must return the bonus in case they switch providers in the second period. They fully anticipate the effects on future prices of accepting the bonus and maximize their total surplus over both periods. We first show that there is no...

  20. Homogeneous Poisson Structures on Loop Spaces of Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Pickrell


    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to [Caine A., Pickrell D., Int. Math. Res. Not., to appear, arXiv:0710.4484], where we studied the Hamiltonian systems which arise from the Evens-Lu construction of homogeneous Poisson structures on both compact and noncompact type symmetric spaces. In this paper we consider loop space analogues. Many of the results extend in a relatively routine way to the loop space setting, but new issues emerge. The main point of this paper is to spell out the meaning of the results, especially in the SU(2 case. Applications include integral formulas and factorizations for Toeplitz determinants.

  1. Matter collineations of spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Camci, U


    The spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type spacetimes which have four classes of metrics are studied according to their matter collineations. The results obtained are compared with Killing vectors and Ricci collineations. It is found that these spacetimes have an infinite number of matter collineations in the degenerate case, i.e. det(T sub a sub b) = 0, and do not admit proper matter collineations in the non-degenerate case, i.e. det(T sub a sub b) not = 0. The degenerate case has the new constraints on the parameters m and w which characterize the causality features of the Gödel-type spacetimes.

  2. Cosmology the homogeneous universe and the evolution of structures

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    In my course I will first give and introduction to standard cosmology. I discuss the equations of the homogeneous and isotropic universe and I'll briefly summarize its thermal history. After that I want to concentrate on the fluctuations in the universe. We will study anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, fluctuations of the matter density and the velocity field and weak lensing. I want to explain especially new cosmological data which are coming up right now and their implication for the cosmological model. N.B. This lecture series will be held in the Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 27, 28, 30, 31 January and in the Council room on 29 January.

  3. An experiment study of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion and emission in a gasoline engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianyong


    Full Text Available Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI technology has exhibited high potential to reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions over normal spark ignition engines significantly. Optimized kinetic process (OKP technology is implemented to realize HCCI combustion in a port fuel injection gasoline engine. The combustion and emission characteristics are investigated with variation of intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rate and intake air pressure. The results show that intake air temperature has great influence on HCCI combustion characteristic. Increased intake air temperature results in advance combustion phase, shorten combustion duration, and lower indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP. Increased EGR rate retards combustion start phase and prolongs combustion duration, while maximum pressure rising rate and NOx emission are reduced with increase of EGR rate. In the condition with constant fuel flow quantity, increased air pressure leads to retarded combustion phase and lower pressure rising rate, which will reduce the engine knocking tendency. In the condition with constant air fuel ratio condition, fuel injection quantity increases as intake air pressure increases, which lead to high heat release rate and high emission level. The optimal intake air temperature varies in different operating area, which can be tuned from ambient temperature to 220℃ by heat management system. The combination of EGR and air boost technology could expand operating area of HCCI engine, which improve indicated mean effective pressure from maximum 510kPa to 720kPa.

  4. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization improves oxidative stability and interfacial properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions. (United States)

    Fernandez-Avila, C; Trujillo, A J


    Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (100-300MPa) has great potential for technological, microbiological and nutritional aspects of fluid processing. Its effect on the oxidative stability and interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4% (w/v) of soy protein isolate and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) were studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (15MPa). Emulsions were characterized by particle size, emulsifying activity index, surface protein concentration at the interface and by transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were evaluated in emulsions upon storage. Emulsions with 20% oil treated at 100 and 200MPa exhibited the most oxidative stability due to higher amount of oil and protein surface load at the interface. This manuscript addresses the improvement in oxidative stability in emulsions treated by UHPH when compared to conventional emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Homogeneous immunoconjugates for boron neutron-capture therapy: Design, synthesis, and preliminary characterization (United States)

    Guan, Lufeng; Wims, Letitia A.; Kane, Robert R.; Smuckler, Mark B.; Morrison, Sherie L.; Hawthorne, M. Frederick


    The application of immunoprotein-based targeting strategies to the boron neutron-capture therapy of cancer poses an exceptional challenge, because viable boron neutron-capture therapy by this method will require the efficient delivery of 103 boron-10 atoms by each antigen-binding protein. Our recent investigations in this area have been focused on the development of efficient methods for the assembly of homogeneous immunoprotein conjugates containing the requisite boron load. In this regard, engineered immunoproteins fitted with unique, exposed cysteine residues provide attractive vehicles for site-specific modification. Additionally, homogeneous oligomeric boron-rich phosphodiesters (oligophosphates) have been identified as promising conjugation reagents. The coupling of two such boron-rich oligophosphates to sulfhydryls introduced to the CH2 domain of a chimeric IgG3 has been demonstrated. The resulting boron-rich immunoconjugates are formed efficiently, are readily purified, and have promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Encouragingly, these studies showed subtle differences in the properties of the conjugates derived from the two oligophosphate molecules studied, providing a basis for the application of rational design to future work. Such subtle details would not have been as readily discernible in heterogeneous conjugates, thus validating the rigorous experimental design employed here. PMID:9789066

  6. A Method for Ferulic Acid Production from Rice Bran Oil Soapstock Using a Homogenous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Thi Truong


    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is widely used as an antioxidant, e.g., as a Ultraviolet (UV protectant in cosmetics and in various medical applications. It has been produced by the hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol found in rice bran oil soapstock. In this study, the base-catalyzed, homogenous hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol was conducted using various ratios of potassium hydroxide (KOH to γ-oryzanol, initial concentrations of γ-oryzanol in the reaction mixture, and ratios of ethanol (EtOH (as cosolvent/ethyl acetate (EtOAc (γ-oryzanol solution. Acceleration of the reaction using a planar type of ultrasound sonicator (78 and 130 kHz at different reaction temperatures was explored. By using a heating method, the 80% yield of FA was attained at 75 °C in 4 h under homogeneous conditions (initial concentration of γ-oryzanol 12 mg/mL, the KOH/γ-oryzanol ratio (wt/wt 10/1, and EtOH/EtOAc ratio (v/v 5/1. With the assistance of 78 and 130 kHz irradiation, the yields reached 90%. The heating method was applied for the γ-oryzanol-containing extract prepared from rice bran oil soapstock. From soapstock, the 74.3% yield of FA was obtained, but 20% of the trans-FA in the reaction mixture was transformed into cis-form within one month.

  7. Simulation and quantitative assessment of homogeneous and inhomogeneous particle distributions in particulate metal matrix composites. (United States)

    Yang, N.; Boselli, J.; Sinclair, I.


    Reinforcement distributions play an important role in various aspects of the processing and final mechanical behaviour of particulate metal matrix composites (PMMCs). Methods for quantifying spatial distribution in such materials are, however, poorly developed, particularly in relation to the range of particle size, shape and orientation that may be present in any one system. The present work investigates via computer simulations the influences of particle morphology, homogeneity and inhomogeneity on spatial distribution measurements obtained by finite-body tessellation. Distribution inhomogeneity was simulated both by the segregation of particles away from specified regions within a microstructure and by generating point density peaks at random locations within a microstructure. Both isotropic and anisotropic inhomogeneous distributions were considered to simulate distribution patterns in PMMCs before and after mechanical working. It was found that the coefficient of variation of the mean near-neighbour distance (COV(dmean)), derived from particle interfaces using finite-body tessellation, was essentially independent of particle shape, size distribution, orientation and area fraction in homogeneous (random) distributions, but showed great sensitivity to inhomogeneity. Increased values of COV(dmean) were seen for both forms of inhomogeneous distributions considered here, with little influence of particle morphology. The COV(dmean) was also seen to be sensitive to anisotropic clustering, the presence of which was identified via nearest-neighbour angles and cell orientations. Although generally formulated for PMMCs, the present results may be generalized to other systems containing low aspect ratio finite bodies of low to moderate area fraction.

  8. Molecular simulation of homogeneous crystal nucleation of n-alkane melts (United States)

    Yi, Peng; Rutledge, Gregory


    One of the most important phenomena in molecular systems is homogeneous nucleation of the crystal phase from a melt. This phenomenon is particularly interesting for chain molecules due to their strong anisotropy and their conformational flexibility. In this work we report the results of molecular simulations of homogeneous crystal nucleation of n-eicosane (C20) from the melt. A realistic united atom force field was employed. The crystal phase and melting behavior were first determined by ramping temperature in a set of MD simulations. The nucleation trajectory was then sampled using MD simulations at about 20% supercooling; and the nucleation free energy was sampled using Monte Carlo umbrella sampling method for three temperatures, ranging from 10% to 20% supercooling. A first-passage time technique was used to determine the critical nucleus and the nucleation rate. Detailed examination of the simulations reveals the critical nucleus to be a bundle of stretched segments about 8 CH2 groups long, organized into a cylindrical shape. The remaining CH2 groups form a disordered interfacial layer. By fitting the nucleation free energy curve to the cylindrical nucleus model, the crystal-melt interfacial free energies are calculated to be about 10 mJ/m2 for the side surface and 4 mJ/m2 for the end surface. We also discussed the effect of using different nucleus definitions

  9. Probing the degradation and homogeneity of embedded perovskite semiconducting layers in photovoltaic devices by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hooper, K E A; Lee, H K H; Newman, M J; Meroni, S; Baker, J; Watson, T M; Tsoi, W C


    The key challenges for perovskite solar cells include their poor stability and film homogeneity. Studying the degradation and homogeneity of perovskite layers within device structures can be challenging but critical to the understanding of stability and effect of processing in real life conditions. We show that Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a unique and powerful method (simple and fast) to probe the degradation of the perovskite film within the device structure and image perovskite formation. We demonstrate that RS can be used to directly probe chemical (PbI2) and physical (dihydrated phase) degradation of a perovskite film, and estimate the relative amount of the degradation species formed, mapping its distribution with ∼1 μm spatial resolution. This has been applied to mapping a large area perovskite module to characterise the efficacy of PbI2 to perovskite conversion. We also use RS to study the degradation species and kinetics under diverse accelerated degradation conditions (temperature and humidity) in situ. These capabilities are difficult to achieve with other methods, presenting RS as an important tool to gain understanding of the degradation and effect of processing on perovskite-based photovoltaic devices.

  10. A task-specific validation of homogeneous non-linear optimisation approaches. (United States)

    Jinha, A; Ait-Haddou, R; Kaya, M; Herzog, W


    In biomechanics, musculoskeletal models are typically redundant. This situation is referred to as the distribution problem. Often, static, non-linear optimisation methods of the form "min: phi(f) subject to mechanical and muscular constraints" have been used to extract a unique set of muscle forces. Here, we present a method for validating this class of non-linear optimisation approaches where the homogeneous cost function, phi(f), is used to solve the distribution problem. We show that the predicted muscle forces for different loading conditions are scaled versions of each other if the joint loading conditions are just scaled versions. Therefore, we can calculate the theoretical muscle forces for different experimental conditions based on the measured muscle forces and joint loadings taken from one experimental condition and assuming that all input into the optimisation (e.g., moment arms, muscle attachment sites, size, fibre type distribution) and the optimisation approach are perfectly correct. Thus predictions of muscle force for other experimental conditions are accurate if the optimisation approach is appropriate, independent of the musculoskeletal geometry and other input required for the optimisation procedure. By comparing the muscle forces predicted in this way to the actual muscle forces obtained experimentally, we conclude that convex homogeneous non-linear optimisation approaches cannot predict individual muscle forces properly, as force-sharing among synergistic muscles obtained experimentally are not just scaled versions of joint loading, not even in a first approximation.

  11. Anthropogenic Landscape Homogenization: Size-distribution of Wetlands in Mid-western Prairie Landscapes (Invited) (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Stunkel, K.; Van Meter, K. J.


    The Prairie Pothole Region, extending from the Des Moines Lobe in Iowa into Canada, is a landscape dotted with thousands of glacially formed depressional wetlands. Vast areas of these wetlands have been drained for agriculture. Consequent losses in ecological and hydrological services have been recognized in the recent past, and restoration efforts are underway. Effective restoration requires understanding the distribution and connectivity of the original wetland network, and the effects of human interventions in altering it. The objective of our study was to (1) understand the size-distribution and spatial organization of depressional features in the Des Moines Lobe, (2) explore the role of human impacts on the same, and (3) understand how losses have impacted aquatic ecosystem services. We found that the size-frequency relationship of the depressional features follows a power law distribution that varies based on the landform type and the size of the study area. We compared depressions based on 1m LIDAR DEM with current wetlands based on National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data to evaluate the effects of human disturbance on the landscape. The LIDAR captures the depressional areas that correspond to wetlands before the landscape was extensively tile-drained, while NWI captures the features of the existing wetlands in the area. Results show that we have preferentially drained larger and smaller wetlands, effectively homogenizing the landscape. Modeling is used to explore the role of homogenization on aquatic ecosystem responses.

  12. A Highly Tunable Silicone-Based Magnetic Elastomer with Nanoscale Homogeneity. (United States)

    Evans, Benjamin A; Fiser, Briana L; Prins, Willem J; Rapp, Daniel J; Shields, Adam R; Glass, Daniel R; Superfine, R


    Magnetic elastomers have been widely pursued for sensing and actuation applications. Silicone-based magnetic elastomers have a number of advantages over other materials such as hydrogels, but aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within silicones is difficult to prevent. Aggregation inherently limits the minimum size of fabricated structures and leads to non-uniform response from structure to structure. We have developed a novel material which is a complex of a silicone polymer (polydimethylsiloxane-co-aminopropylmethylsiloxane) adsorbed onto the surface of magnetite (γ-Fe(2)0(3)) nanoparticles 7-10 nm in diameter. The material is homogenous at very small length scales (< 100 nm) and can be crosslinked to form a flexible, magnetic material which is ideally suited for the fabrication of micro- to nanoscale magnetic actuators. The loading fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the composite can be varied smoothly from 0 - 50% wt. without loss of homogeneity, providing a simple mechanism for tuning actuator response. We evaluate the material properties of the composite across a range of nanoparticle loading, and demonstrate a magnetic-field-induced increase in compressive modulus as high as 300%. Furthermore, we implement a strategy for predicting the optimal nanoparticle loading for magnetic actuation applications, and show that our predictions correlate well with experimental findings.

  13. Lean homogenous combustion of E-diesel using external mixture formation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avinash


    Full Text Available For the past one hundred years, lots of easily accessible petroleum fuel has been burned out by humankind in inefficient engines. In this regard, present-day engine researchers face a formidable challenge to achieve the goal of significant improvements in both thermal efficiency and fuel economy. Although the direction to reach this target is critical, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI is just another combustion concept to achieve this target. By the way, this work investigates the combustion phenomena of the HCCI engine by external mixture formation technique. In a nut-shell, an endeavor has been made in this work to prepare homogeneous mixture outside the combustion chamber using a fuel vaporizer system to form a uniform fuel–air mixture. The fundamental research experiments were carried out with vaporized diesel and vaporized e-diesel blends (10% and 20% ethanol substitution by volume, and the results were compared with conventional diesel engine operation. In HCCI mode, the maximum rate of pressure rises and the maximum rate of heat-release significantly reduced with increase of ethanol concentration in diesel. The experimental outcomes exposed that when HCCI engine is operated with e-diesel blend, smooth engine operation is apparent.

  14. Directed assembly-based printing of homogeneous and hybrid nanorods using dielectrophoresis. (United States)

    Chai, Zhimin; Yilmaz, Cihan; Busnaina, Ahmed A; Lissandrello, Charles A; Carter, David J D


    Printing nano and microscale three-dimensional (3D) structures using directed assembly of nanoparticles has many potential applications in electronics, photonics and biotechnology. This paper presents a reproducible and scalable 3D dielectrophoresis assembly process for printing homogeneous silica and hybrid silica/gold nanorods from silica and gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are assembled into patterned vias under a dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating current (AC) field, and then completely fused in situ to form nanorods. The assembly process is governed by the applied AC voltage amplitude and frequency, pattern geometry, and assembly time. Here, we find out that complete assembly of nanorods is not possible without applying both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis. Therefore, a direct current offset voltage is used to add an additional electrophoretic force to the assembly process. The assembly can be precisely controlled to print silica nanorods with diameters from 20-200 nm and spacing from 500 nm to 2 μm. The assembled nanorods have good uniformity in diameter and height over a millimeter scale. Besides homogeneous silica nanorods, hybrid silica/gold nanorods are also assembled by sequentially assembling silica and gold nanoparticles. The precision of the assembly process is further demonstrated by assembling a single particle on top of each nanorod to demonstrate an additional level of functionalization. The assembled hybrid silica/gold nanorods have potential to be used for metamaterial applications that require nanoscale structures as well as for plasmonic sensors for biosensing applications.

  15. Micromechanics and homogenization of inelastic composite materials with growing cracks (United States)

    Costanzo, Francesco; Boyd, James G.; Allen, David H.


    A homogenization scheme is employed to derive the effective constitutive equations of an elastoplastic composite system with growing damage. The homogenization procedure followed herein is based on the thermodynamics of dissipative media. It is shown that when damage consists of sharps microcracks the macroscopic constitutive behavior is that of a so-called generalized standard material. The latter is a general dissipative medium whose constitutive equations are completely characterized by a single scalar convex potential function of the chosen state variables and whose evolution is completely characterized by a single convex dissipation potential function of the thermodynamic forces conjugate to the chosen internal state variables. The analysis presented is valid under the assumption that the evolution of the representative volume element at hand is unique and stable. The results of the theoretical analysis are then employed for formulating an approximate method for practically deriving the macroscopic constitutive equations. Computer software development for the application of said method is currently ongoing. A simple example of the numerical results obtained so far is presented.

  16. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation (United States)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla


    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  17. Interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts. (United States)

    Watzke, Ronny; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland; Naumann, Michael


    The aim of this study was to light microscopically evaluate the homogeneity of the cement interface of an adhesively luted glass fiber post (GFP) by using a new cement application aid compared to a conventional post cementation method. Twenty artificial root canals (n = 5) received GFP under the following experimental conditions: I = RelyX Unicem applied with a new application aid, II = RelyX Unicem, III = Panavia F 2.0 and IV = Variolink II (groups II-IV with conventional post cementation). From all specimens standardized photographs were taken perpendicularly to the post surface under a light-optical microscope from two opposite sides. The depicted cement interfaces were analysed using surface-analyzing software and related to the complete three-dimensional surface of the cement interface. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median values of the observed inhomogeneities (alpha = 5%). The median values (%) of inhomogeneities within the cement interface for the cervical, middle, and apical level of analysis were: I = 2, 2, 7; II = 15, 19, 24; III = 8, 16, 39; IV = 11, 16, 29. For the complete post length, median values (%) of inhomogeneities were: I = 4; II = 19; III = 20; IV = 18. The conventional application technique for luting endodontic post results in a large number of voids and bubbles. The combination of a flexible root-canal-shaped application aid achieves a more homogenous cement interface for the self-adhesive luting material tested.

  18. Homogeneous protein analysis by magnetic core-shell nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan


    Studying protein interactions is of vital importance both to fundamental biology research and to medical applications. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a universally applicable label-free homogeneous platform for rapid protein analysis. It is based on optically detecting changes in the rotational dynamics of magnetically agitated core-shell nanorods upon their specific interaction with proteins. By adjusting the excitation frequency, we are able to optimize the measurement signal for each analyte protein size. In addition, due to the locking of the optical signal to the magnetic excitation frequency, background signals are suppressed, thus allowing exclusive studies of processes at the nanoprobe surface only. We study target proteins (soluble domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - sHER2) specifically binding to antibodies (trastuzumab) immobilized on the surface of our nanoprobes and demonstrate direct deduction of their respective sizes. Additionally, we examine the dependence of our measurement signal on the concentration of the analyte protein, and deduce a minimally detectable sHER2 concentration of 440 pM. For our homogeneous measurement platform, good dispersion stability of the applied nanoprobes under physiological conditions is of vital importance. To that end, we support our measurement data by theoretical modeling of the total particle-particle interaction energies. The successful implementation of our platform offers scope for applications in biomarker-based diagnostics as well as for answering basic biology questions.

  19. Vaccine impact in homogeneous and age-structured models. (United States)

    Magpantay, F M G


    A general model of an imperfect vaccine for a childhood disease is presented and the effects of different types of vaccine failure on transmission were investigated using models that consider both homogeneous and age-specific mixing. The models are extensions of the standard SEIR equations with an additional vaccinated component that allows for five different vaccine parameters: three types of vaccine failure in decreasing susceptibility to infection via failure in degree ("leakiness"), take ("all-or-nothingness") and duration (waning of vaccine-derived immunity); one parameter reflecting the relative reduction in infectiousness of vaccinated individuals who get infected; and one parameter that reflects the relative reduction in reporting probability of vaccinated individuals due to a possible reduction in severity of symptoms. Only the first four parameters affect disease transmission (as measured by the basic reproduction number). The reduction in transmission due to vaccination is different for age-structured models than for homogeneous models. Notably, if the vaccine exhibits waning protection this could be larger for an age-structured model with high contact rates between young children who are still protected by the vaccine and lower contact rates between adults for whom protection might have already waned. Analytic expressions for age-specific "vaccine impacts" were also derived. The overall vaccine impact is bounded between the age-specific impact for the oldest age class and that of the youngest age class.

  20. Improvement of thermal homogenization using multiple swirling jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braikia Mohamed


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different blowing configurations of multiple swirling jets for use it in terminal units of ventilation applications. The influence of several parameters such as the inclined vanes of diffuser and the sense of rotation of the single or multiple swirling jets, their number and their arrangement on the flow resulting dynamically and thermally is experimentally investigated. Flow rate was adjusted at Reynolds numbers, Re0, ranging from 104 to 30.103. The current study is carried out under uniform heat flux condition for each diffuser at Reynolds number of 30.103, the air being the working fluid. Experiences concerning the fusion of several jets show that the resulting jet is clearly more homogenized under swirling influence. The findings of this study show that the gap between the jets and their sense of rotation relative to the central jet, affects the quality of the homogenization of ambiance. Among the studied different configuration, the one which consists of a swirling central jet controlling the behavior of six swirling jets in counter-rotation is shown to be the most effective in terms of thermal destratification.