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Sample records for homocysteinemic porcine aorta

  1. Layer-specific residual deformations and uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of thoracic porcine aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan A; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that the layer-separated residual stresses and mechanical properties of layer-separated thoracic aorta arteries may be dependent on arterial location of the vessel. To demonstrate any possible position differences, we measured the axial pre-stretch and opening angle and performed uniaxial and biaxial tests under physiological loads to study the mechanical behavior of both intact and layer-separated porcine aortic samples taken from thoracic region. In addition, we also provided constitutive parameters for each layer that can be used by biomedical engineers for investigating better therapies and developing artery-specific devices. We found that the opening angle for whole artery and adventitia layer are smaller and intima greater for proximal segments than for the distal thoracic ones. For the axial pre-stretch, our results showed significant increased values of the stretch ratios with location. We found that lower thoracic samples are stiffer than upper ones with the most important differences corresponding to those between the proximal and distal behaviors in the circumferential direction. The anisotropy represented by the different circumferential and longitudinal response is more remarkable in lower thoracic aorta. Finally, adventitia and intima samples present a tendency to be stiffer and more isotropic than the corresponding media samples in both directions for upper thoracic aorta and to be more anisotropic for lower thoracic aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of oxidation on the mechanical response and microstructure of porcine aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Elizabeth A; Venkatasubramaniam, Arundhathi; Good, Theresa A; Topoleski, L D Timmie

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a product of many cellular functions, has been implicated in many age-related pathophysiological processes, including cardiovascular disease. The arterial proteins collagen and elastin may also undergo structural and functional changes due to damage caused by ROS. This study examined the effect of oxidation on the mechanical response of porcine aortas and aorta elastin and the associated changes in structural protein ultrastructure as a step in exploring the role of molecular changes in structural proteins with aging on elastic artery function. We examined the change in mechanical properties of aorta samples after various oxidation times as a first step in understanding how the oxidative environment associated with aging could impact mechanical properties of arterial structural proteins. We used confocal microscopy to visualize how the microstructure of isolated elastin changed with oxidation. We find that short term oxidation of elastin isolated from aortas leads to an increase in material stiffness, but also an increase in the fiber diameter, increase in void space in the matrix, and a decrease in the fiber orientation, possibly due to fiber cross-linking. The short term effects of oxidation on arterial collagen is more complex, with increase in material stiffness seen in the collagen region of the stress stretch curve at low extents of oxidation, but not at high levels of oxidation. These results may provide insight into the relationship between oxidative damage to tissue associated with aging and disease, structure of the arterial proteins elastin and collagen, and arterial mechanical properties and function. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Meat product based on porcine hearts and aortas ameliorates serum lipid profile and inflammation in hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukha, I. M.; Kotenkova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The biological effect of porcine hearts and aortas in a hyperlipidemic rat model was confirmed. Porcine heart and aorta mixture in a 3:1 ratio was blended, canned and sterilized at 115°C and 0.23 Mpa for 40 min. Administration of experimental meat product to the animal model decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol low density lipoproteins by 31.8% (P<0.05), 28.2%, and 21.6% (P<0.05), respectively, compared to those of hyperlipidemic control rats, as well significantly reducing the serum atherogenic index by 41.3% (P<0.05) in rats fed the experimental meat product compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. Normalization of white blood cell populations was also detected. Monocyte and granulocyte counts in blood of rats fed the meat product decreased by 71.1% (P<0.05) and 57.6% (P<0.05) compared to those of the hyperlipidemic control animals. The granulocyte/leucocyte ratio was also reduced by an average of 38.6% (P<0.05) in rats fed the meat product compared with hyperlipidemic control rats. The data confirmed the hypolipidemic action of the sterilized meat product. Normalization of white blood cell populations led us to hypothesize an anti-inflammatory action of the new meat product, which, therefore, could be recommended as a part of maintenance therapy for people with lipid disorders or atherosclerosis.

  4. Circumferential variations of mechanical behavior of the porcine thoracic aorta during the inflation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsil; Baek, Seungik

    2011-07-07

    We developed an extension-inflation experimental apparatus with a stereo vision system and a stress-strain analysis method to determine the regional mechanical properties of a blood vessel. Seven proximal descending thoracic aortas were investigated during the inflation test at a fixed longitudinal stretch ratio of 1.35 over a transmural pressure range from 1.33 to 21.33 kPa. Four circumferential regions of each aorta were designated as the anterior (A), left lateral (L), posterior (P), and right lateral (R) regions, and the inflation test was repeated for each region of the aortas. We used continuous functions to approximate the surfaces of the regional aortic wall in the reference configuration and the deformed configuration. Circumferential stretch and stress at the four circumferential regions of the aorta were computed. Circumferential stiffness, defined as the tangent of the stress-stretch curve, and physiological aortic stiffness, named pressure-strain elastic modulus, were also computed for each region. In the low pressure range, the stress increased linearly with increased stretch, but the mechanical response became progressively stiffer in the high-pressure range above a transition point. At a transmural pressure of 12.00 kPa, mean values of stiffness were 416±104 kPa (A), 523±99 kPa (L), 634±91 kPa (P), and 489±82 kPa (R). The stiffness of the posterior region was significantly higher than that of the anterior region, but no significant difference was found in pressure-strain elastic modulus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper and mineral deficiency effects on porcine aortae and lung elastin crosslinks

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    Richmond, V.L.; Hansen, K. (Pacific Northwest Research Foundation, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary copper was studied in mineral-deficient and -sufficient piglets. Three groups of newborn Yorkshire piglets were fed evaporated bovine milk-based copper-deficient mineral deficient diets as follows: Group A: copper-supplemented mineral-deficient; Group B: no additions, copper-deficient mineral-deficient; Group C: copper-deficient mineral-supplemented at mg/Kg/day: Mn 0.0994; Al 0.0097; Zn 0.082; Ni 0.132. Sacular dissecting aneurysms were 50% in Group C at days 87 and 108, whereas, none occurred in Groups A or B by day 168 to 180. Histological derangement of aortic elastic fibers occurred in Groups B and C. Lysyl-derived crosslinks of lysinonorleucine (LNL) in hot alkali-extracted elastin samples were 40% in Groups B and C compared with A for both lung and aortae elastic fibers. Desmosines were also decreased. Unmodified aortae lysyl residues were increased 64% in C compared to A, suggesting additional minerals decreased lysyl oxidase activity. Elastolysis of incompletely cross-linked elastic fibers may have contributed to decreased recoveries of insoluble elastin samples in aortae and especially in lung. Effects of minerals on copper metabolism when copper is limiting may be responsible for decreased strength of extracellular matrix.

  6. The Effect Of Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure on Traumatic Brain Injury and Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Variable Aortic Control in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure On Traumatic Brain Injury And Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion Of The Aorta And Variable Aortic...Mandatory) The Effect of REBOA, Partial Aortic Occlusion and Aggressive Blood Transfusion on Traumatic Brain Injury in a Swine Polytrauma Model...Objectives: Despite clinical reports of poor outcomes, the degree to which REBOA exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. We hypothesized that

  7. [Curriculum vitae aortae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, S

    1998-12-10

    The Greek word aorta means lifter. The vessel was so termed because Aristotle, who first described it, assumed that the heart was lifted by/hanging in aorta. Leonardo da Vinci described the detailed anatomy of aorta. During the 17th century our present understanding of the aorta and the circulation of blood took form due to the descriptions given by William Harvey. The first known operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in London in 1817 by Sir Astley Cooper who ligated the infrarenal aorta above the aneurysm. Puncture with needles and application of electricity were later tried in order to induce thromboses in the aneurysm. In 1948 Albert Einstein was operated with wrapping of his abdominal aneurysm with cellophane. In 1955 he suffered rupture and died after having refused operation. In 1951 the first successful operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in Paris by Charles Dubost. With slight modifications, the same operative technique is used today.

  8. Validation of myocardial perfusion quantification by dynamic CT in an ex-vivo porcine heart model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Das, Marco; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; van Assen, Marly; Prinzen, Frits W; Stijnen, Marco; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Wildberger, Joachim E; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    To test the accuracy of quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using computed tomography (CT) in ex-vivo porcine models. Five isolated porcine hearts were perfused according to Langendorff. Hearts were perfused using retrograde flow through the aorta and blood flow, blood pressure and

  9. Tensile characterisation of the aorta across quasi-static to blast loading strain rates

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    Magnus, Danyal; Proud, William; Haller, Antoine; Jouffroy, Apolline

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic tensile failure mechanisms of the aorta during Traumatic Aortic Injury (TAI) are poorly understood. In automotive incidents, where the aorta may be under strains of the order of 100/s, TAI is the second largest cause of mortality. In these studies, the proximal descending aorta is the most common site where rupture is observed. In particular, the transverse direction is most commonly affected due to the circumferential orientation of elastin, and hence the literature generally concentrates upon axial samples. This project extends these dynamic studies to the blast loading regime where strain-rates are of the order of 1000/s. A campaign of uniaxial tensile experiments are conducted at quasi-static, intermediate (drop-weight) and high (tensile Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar) strain rates. In each case, murine and porcine aorta models are considered and the extent of damage assessed post-loading using histology. Experimental data will be compared against current viscoelastic models of the aorta under axial stress. Their applicability across strain rates will be discussed. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the conditions applied to the samples replicate in vivo conditions, employing a blood simulant-filled tubular specimen surrounded by a physiological solution.

  10. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

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    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  11. Acute spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal aorta

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    Ali Akbar beigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Aortic dissection occurs when the layers of the aorta separate as a result of extra luminal cavity of blood through an intimal tear. Dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare. Unfortunately, the appropriate management of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta is not documented yet. A 43 years old man was admitted to Al-zahra hospital in Isfahan with sudden onset of periumbilical abdominal pain. CT scan confirmed infrarenal dissection of abdominal aorta. Performing laparotomy, aorta was repaired using bifurcate collagen-coated Dacron graft. Surgical intervention with synthetic graft is recommended in patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm of infrarenal segments where the extent of dissection is limited and accessible.
    • Keywords: Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic aneurysm abdominal surgery.

  12. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

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    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  13. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

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    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented.

  14. Spiral CT-angiography of the aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Eikelboom, B. C.; van Leeuwen, M. S.; Noordzij, J.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether the new technique of CT-angiography was accurate in displaying the complex anatomy of the aorta and its major branches. METHODS: Seventeen patients with a variety of aortic pathology were examined. Using a spiral CT-scanner a volumetric scan was made during injection of

  15. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism...

  16. Platelet affinity for burro aorta collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D.

    1977-10-01

    Despite ingenious concepts, there are no unequivocal clues as to what, when, and how some undefined biochemical factor(s) or constituent(s) that localizes in the arterial wall can precipitate a thromboatheromatous lesion or arterial disease. The present study focused on the extraction, partial purification, and characterization of a collagen-active platelet stimulator from the aortas of aged burros. The aggregator moiety in the aorta extracts invariably had a higher affinity for platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma of human beings than for platelets of homologous burros. The platelet-aggregating factor(s) in the aorta extract was retained by incubation with ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. Platelet-aggregating activity was rapidly abolished after incubation with collagenase, as determined by platelet-aggregometry tests. Evidence based on light microscope and polysaccharide histochemical reactions indicates a probability that the intracellular amorphous matrix (PAS-positive) and filamentous components (PTAH-positive) expelled from smooth muscle cells disrupted during homogenization of the aorta may be a principal source of a precursor collagen species which is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation.

  17. [Ascending aorta-supraceliac++ aorta bypass. Correction of a case of atypical coarctation in the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, F; Zorita, A; Samos, R F; Vázquez, J G; Ortega, J M; Morán, C F

    1993-01-01

    A case of atypic coarctation at the aortic arch in an adult patient is described. Coarctation was surgically treated by a retrosternal bypass from the ascendant aorta to the supra-celiac aorta. After a short prelude the clinical case is summarized. Furthermore, the etiopathogenic features of the disease, the different diagnostic methods and the multiple surgical procedures are discussed. Finally, we briefly review the literature.

  18. Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy.

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    Pătruţ, G V; Jiga, L P; Tăranu, G P; Rata, A; Neamtu, C; Ionac, M

    2012-01-01

    Classically, infrarenal aortic exposure is achieved by xyphopubic or xypho-infraumbilical laparotomy, in transperitoneal approach, or through a left abdominal incision, in retroperitoneal approach. The transperitoneal approach is associated with longer intestinal activity resumption time and incisional hernias on long term, due to intestinal extracavitary mobilization and long incision. These disadvantages disappear in laparoscopic approach, but this method is extremely laborious, requires an extended period for dissection, and elicits increased difficulty in performing the anastomosis on the aorta. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy, a method that combines the excellent exposure of xypho-pubic incision with the low morbidity of laparoscopic approach. Between 07.01.2010 - 07.01.2011, we performed 37 revascularization surgeries in 36 patients with aorto-iliac occlusive disease (one patient required reintervention due to graft thrombosis), approaching the infrarenal aorta through median minilaparotomy. The sex distribution was 35 men and one woman. The average age was 61.1 years. There have been 25 aorto-bifemoral bypasses, 11 aorto-unifemoral bypasses, and one aorto-biiliac bypass. The mean aorta clamping time was 15 minutes. Average operating time was 150 minutes. We used 26 bifurcated Dacron prostheses and 11 linear ePTFEprostheses. The average intestinal activity resumption time was 32 hours. All patients included in the study were mobilized 24 hours after surgery. The average length of hospitalization was 7.7 days. 5 patients experienced complications during hospitalization and 3 patients suffered long term complications. Infrarenal abdominal aorta approach through median minilaparotomy is a viable alternative to conventional surgical techniques used in aortoiliac occlusive disease. Celsius.

  19. MR imaging and MR angiography of the aorta; Magnetresonanztomographie und -angiographie der Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Massmann, A.; Altmeyer, K.; Katoh, M.; Buecker, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes,Medizinische Fakultaet der Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    When a diseased aorta is to be imaged, the clinical picture and the urgency determine which of the various procedures available is or are used. One of the more recent techniques applied is conventional MR -imaging, and especially contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA), which is a noninvasive technique and allows for the combination of conventional imaging, acquisition of physiological parameters and 3D-angiography. In this article technical and clinical aspects of the use of CE-MRA in different diseases affecting the aorta are discussed. Topics covered include congenital malformations of the aorta, acquired disease, and inflammatory conditions. (orig.) [German] Bei der Bildgebung von Erkrankungen der Aorta koennen heute je nach Krankheitsbild und Dringlichkeit unterschiedliche Verfahren zur Anwendung kommen. Neuere Verfahren stellen die konventionelle MR-Tomographie und speziell die kontrastverstaerkte MR-Angiographie dar, die nichtinvasiv die Kombination von Anatomie, Akquisition physiologischer Parameter und 3D-Angiographie kombiniert. In diesem Artikel werden sowohl technische als auch klinische Aspekte bei der Anwendung der MR-Tomographie bei Erkrankungen der Aorta diskutiert. Inhaltlich werden sowohl angeborene Fehlbildungen, erworbene Erkrankungen wie auch entzuendliche Veraenderungen der Aorta dargestellt. (orig.)

  20. Persistent double dorsal aorta: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brandy; Gest, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Our discovery of a case of persistent double dorsal aorta prompted us to systematically review the literature of all previously reported cases of this anomaly. For our case, we present a completely separated double dorsal aorta, with the right accessory aorta arising from the abdominal aorta and ascending through the aortic hiatus to supply posterior intercostal arteries (PIAs) to the 9th-3rd spaces bilaterally. We examined and compiled data from the 10 previously reported cases, along with our observations from our cadaver, into a systematic review of all known cases of persistent double dorsal aorta. In addition to our case report and systematic review, we investigated the literature focusing on formation of the dorsal aorta in the embryo in order to postulate potential mechanisms for formation of this anomaly. Two variants of persistent double dorsal aorta have been reported in the literature. The first type is characterized by a double-lumen descending aorta with a central dividing septum, and the second features complete separation of the two dorsal aortae. The completely separated variant shows further heterogeneity in the origins of the PIAs and the iliac arteries, and the majority of the reported cases also demonstrate additional anatomical anomalies. We outline the events in embryonic dorsal aorta formation as well as discuss several potential mechanisms that could underlie persistent double dorsal aorta formation. Clin. Anat. 30:517-524, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  2. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks intr...

  3. A successful case of ascending aorta--abdominal aorta bypass for middle aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yukihiro; Mori, Yoshio; Umeda, Yukio; Imaizumi, Matsuhisa; Takiya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare disease affecting children and young adults, and it occurs in about 0.5% to 2.0% of all aortic coarctation cases. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies have been described. In the majority of cases, there is a short, isolated or diffuse tubular narrowing of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, often accompanied by ostial stenosis or occlusion of the renal and visceral branches, which leads to renovascular hypertension and visceral ischemia. Surgical treatment should be considered in cases of uncontrollable hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage such as cardiac failure, progressive renal insufficiency, or severe intermittent claudication. Several surgical treatments for this condition have been reported, including bypass grafting, graft replacement, or patch angioplasty. We report a successful case of ascending aorta-abdominal aorta bypass for MAS in a 11-year-old boy.

  4. Coil embolization of an anastomotic leak after ascending aorta replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Anders; Andersen, Lars Ib; Haahr, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    treated aneurysm in the ascending thoracic aorta complicated with an anastomotic leak. If a short prosthesis (6 cm) had been available, the anastomotic leak would have been treated with endovascular repair. In lack of this prosthesis, we were forced to treat the patient with a method not generally......Surgical treatment of diseases of the thoracic aorta (aneurysms, dissections, and ruptures) may be associated with serious postoperative complications. Endovascular repair of thoracic aorta pathology is less invasive and offers a therapeutic alternative in high-surgical-risk patients, particularly...... in the presence of previous surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. The endovascular procedure, however, is almost only possible in the descending thoracic aorta, although advances have also been made in the aortic arch as well as in the ascending aorta with branched stent grafts. We report a case of a surgically...

  5. Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity in soft biological tissue: Porcine aortic walls revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Thomas; Hummel, Regina; Katsouras, Ilias; Groen, Wilhelm A.; Nijemeisland, Marlies; Ruemmler, Robert; Schäfer, Michael K. E.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently reported piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements have proposed that porcine aortic walls are ferroelectric. This finding may have great implications for understanding biophysical properties of cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis. However, the complex anatomical structure of the aortic wall with different extracellular matrices appears unlikely to be ferroelectric. The reason is that a prerequisite for ferroelectricity, which is the spontaneous switching of the polarization, is a polar crystal structure of the material. Although the PFM measurements were performed locally, the phase-voltage hysteresis loops could be reproduced at different positions on the tissue, suggesting that the whole aorta is ferroelectric. To corroborate this hypothesis, we analyzed entire pieces of porcine aorta globally, both with electrical and electromechanical measurements. We show that there is no hysteresis in the electric displacement as well as in the longitudinal strain as a function of applied electric field and that the strain depends on the electric field squared. By using the experimentally determined quasi-static permittivity and Young's modulus of the fixated aorta, we show that the strain can quantitatively be explained by Maxwell stress and electrostriction, meaning that the aortic wall is neither piezoelectric nor ferroelectric, but behaves as a regular dielectric material.

  6. Fetal Isolated Anomalous Origin of Right Pulmonary Artery from Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA is characterized by the anomalous origin of one of the branch pulmonary arteries (PA from the ascending aorta and a normal origin of the other PA from main PA. AOPA is an extremely rare cardiac malformation. Few studies have reported fetal anomalous origin of PA from aorta with other malformation. We report a case of isolated distal anomalous origin of the right PA from the aorta that was diagnosed by fetal echocardiography at 25 weeks' of gestation. Tracing the course of PA branches is important to make diagnosis.

  7. Fetal Isolated Anomalous Origin of Right Pulmonary Artery from Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Qichang; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai

    2015-04-01

    The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) is characterized by the anomalous origin of one of the branch pulmonary arteries (PA) from the ascending aorta and a normal origin of the other PA from main PA. AOPA is an extremely rare cardiac malformation. Few studies have reported fetal anomalous origin of PA from aorta with other malformation. We report a case of isolated distal anomalous origin of the right PA from the aorta that was diagnosed by fetal echocardiography at 25 weeks' of gestation. Tracing the course of PA branches is important to make diagnosis.

  8. Porcine eperythrozoonosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansan; Yu, Jianmin; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Shengjun; Wang, Zhiliang

    2006-10-01

    Eperythrozoonosis of swine (also designated as porcine mycoplasmosis) is a disease of swine under stress, expressed as a febrile condition with development of an acute ictero-anemia. It is caused by Eperythrozoon suis and usually causes a subclinical infection with a latent carrier state that persists for extended periods. In China, this disease has gradually developed as an important intercurrent disease and an emerging swine disease that, in recent years, has spread throughout all provinces except Tibet. Classical swine fever (hog cholera), porcine influenza, swine enzootic pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (blue ear disease), streptococci, and toxoplasmosis were detected in Eperythrozoonosis-infected pig herds, and caused serious economic losses. National epidemiology surveillance in 2002 revealed that this disease caused a total morbidity of 30% and a mortality of 10-20%. Total mortality (which includes culling sick pigs) was more than 60%. The morbidity within infected herds was near 100%, has spread throughout with a total mortality rate usually over 50%. Mortality of piglets in some districts was as high as 50%. The highest infection rate on pig farms was more than 90%. The farms with higher infection rates occurred in pig-raising areas during epidemic seasons. New diagnostic tests, such as ELISA and PCR, have been developed for the detection of porcine eperythrozoonosis, but traditionally the diagnosis of the disease is still based on clinical history and optical microscopic examination of the causative agent in blood smears. Efficient preventive and control measures include the detection of carriers in pig herds and treatment of sick pigs with drugs, such as long-acting oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or aceturate of diminazene. Oxytetracyclines as feed additives have been introduced for eperythrozoonosis prevention in uninfected pig herds, and pig producers have taken measures to reduce stress and improve sanitary conditions.

  9. Aneurisma adquirido de aorta ascendente em criança Acquired neurysm of the ascending aorta in children

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    Danton R. da Rocha Loures

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available O aneurisma adquirido da aorta ascendente é uma rara condição na faixa pediátrica. Os autores apresentam 2 casos de crianças de 6 e 12 anos de idade com aneurisma sacular da aorta ascendente e estenose aórtica, os quais foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica, com sucesso.Acquired aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare condition in the pediatric age group. The authors present two cases of 6 and 12 year old boys with saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic stenosis, which underwent successful surgical correction.

  10. [Pulmonary and pleural complications of the descending aorta surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Komarov, R N; Stepanenko, A B; Gasanov, A F

    2013-01-01

    The experience of surgical treatment of 84 patients with diseases of the descending thoracic aorta was analyzed. Frequency and structure of pleura-pulmonary complications after reconstructive surgery of the descending aorta were thoroughly registered. 58.3% of the operated patints developed complications. The most frequent complication was the acute respiratory insufficiency in early postoperative period (29.76% of patients).

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  13. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  14. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10−10 M–10−5 M showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression.

  15. Monitoring changes of proteins and lipids in laser welded aorta tissue using Raman spectroscopy and basis biochemical component analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Wang, W. B.; Alimova, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Kartazayev, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    2009-02-01

    The changes of Raman spectra from ex-vivo porcine aorta tissues were studied before and after laser tissue welding (LTW). Raman spectra were measured and compared for normal and welded tissues in both tunica adventitial and intimal sides. The vibrational modes at the peak of 1301 cm-1 and the weak shoulder peak of 1264 cm-1 of amide III for the normal tissue changed to a peak at 1322cm-1 and a relative intense peak at 1264cm-1, respectively, for the welded tissue. The Raman spectra were analyzed using a linear regression fitting method and compared with characteristic Raman spectra from proteins and lipids compounds. The relative biochemical molecular composition changes of proteins (Collagen types I, III, V and Elastin) and lipids for the laser welded tissue were modeled by basis biochemical component analyses (BBCA) and compared with the normal tissue.

  16. Langerhans cells in porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K; Dawson, Harry; Toka, Felix N; Golde, William T

    2008-12-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are resident dendritic cells (DCs) of skin and mucosal epithelium. The standard for identifying skin DCs as LCs is expression of langerin (CD207), a surface protein that mediates Birbeck granule (BG) formation upon internalization. Reports of BGs in porcine skin DC are contradictory, due to lack of langerin detection. Here, we present the sequence of porcine langerin/CD207, showing that the predicted porcine protein shares 75%/86% amino acid identity/similarity with human. Langerin mRNA was detected in porcine skin DCs by PCR and langerin protein was detected in both isolated skin DCs and skin sections by immunostaining. Approximately, 50-70% of skin DCs expressed langerin, demonstrating that the majority of porcine skin DCs are LCs. The full length sequence combined with the identification of antibodies reactive with porcine langerin, facilitates the study of LCs in swine, and advances the use of swine for studying skin diseases and infectious disease processes involving skin.

  17. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  18. PIV and MRV Measurements in Human Thoracic Aorta Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Ananth; Elkins, Christopher; Draney, Mary; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan

    2004-11-01

    Aortic dissection is a non-traumatic injury to the aorta in which a flap is created inside the aorta by the separation of the inner lining of the vessel wall from its outer layers. It is hypothesized that dissections start as tears in vessels' inner lining and propagate as blood impinges through the tear into the separated part of the vessel wall. No two dissections are alike, but many share common characteristics, one of which is that tear sites occur in similar places in the aorta. In an effort to understand the origins of these tear sites and the propagation of dissections, we are studying blood flow in human aortas. To begin, we are using rigid aorta phantoms based on anatomies of healthy adults extracted from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical scans. Clear polyurethane phantoms are created by casting around water-soluble positive molds manufactured using rapid prototyping. We study steady flows with Reynolds numbers comparable to those present in the aorta during the systolic pulse and physiologically pulsatile flows. The entire three-dimensional flow is measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV), a technique based on MRI principles capable of measuring three-component mean velocities. MRV results are compared to the instantaneous and average two-component velocity fields measured in a few 2D planes with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV results provide validation for the MRV and insight into the instantaneous flow structures that may possibly lead to aortic dissection through fluid structure wall interaction.

  19. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  20. Heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized and recellularized whole porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hiroto; Yagi, Hiroshi; Tajima, Kazuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Aeba, Ryo; Kudo, Mikihiko; Kashima, Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Shinji; Hirano, Akinori; Kasai, Mio; Akamatsu, Yuta; Oka, Hidetoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    One of the final treatments for end-stage heart failure is heart transplantation. However, a shortage of donor hearts has created a long waiting list and limited benefits. Our ultimate goal is to create a whole beating heart fabricated on an organ scaffold for human heart transplantation. Here, we successfully performed the first transplantation using a decellularized whole porcine heart with mesenchymal stem cells. A porcine heart was harvested following cardiac arrest induced by a high-potassium solution and stored at -80°C for 24 h. The porcine heart was completely decellularized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1% Triton X-100 under the control of perfusion pressure (100 mmHg) and maintained at 37°C. A decellularized whole-heart scaffold was sterilized with gamma irradiation. Cultured mesenchymal stem cells were collected and either infused into the ascending aorta or injected directly into the left ventricular wall. Finally, recellularized whole-heart scaffolds were transplanted into pigs under systemic anticoagulation treatment with heparin. Coronary artery angiography of the transplanted heart graft was performed. In our decellularization method, all cellular components were removed, preserving the heart extracellular matrix. Heterotopic transplantations were successfully performed using a decellularized heart and a recellularized heart. The scaffolds were well perfused, without bleeding from the surface or anastomosis site. Coronary angiography revealed a patent coronary artery in both scaffolds. The transplanted decellularized heart was harvested on Day 3. Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed thrombosis in the coronary arteries and migrated inflammatory cells. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of the transplanted recellularized heart showed similar findings, with the exception of injected mesenchymal stem cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized whole porcine heart with

  1. Aorta Ascending Aneurysm Analysis Using CFD Models towards Possible Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD can be seen as complementary tool alongside the visualization capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and computed tomography (CT imaging for decision-making. In this research CT images of three cases (i.e., a healthy heart pilot project and two patients with complex aortic disease are used to validate and analyse the corresponding computational results. Three 3D domains of the thoracic aorta were tested under hemodynamic conditions. Under normal conditions, the flow inside the thoracic aorta is more streamlined. In the presence of ascending aortic aneurysm, large areas of blue separation zones (i.e., low velocities are identified, as well as an internal geometry deformation of the aortic wall, respectively. This flow separation is characterized by the reversal of flow and sudden drop of the wall shear stress (WSS in the aorta. Moreover, the aortic aneurysm simulations adversely affect the flow by increasing the pressure drop and flow inefficiency, due to the anatomical configuration of the ascending aorta. Altered hemodynamics led to a vortex formation and locally reversed the flow that eventually induced a low flow velocity and oscillating WSS in the thoracic aorta. Significant changes in the hemodynamic characteristics affect the normal blood circulation with strong turbulence occurrence, damaging the aortic wall, leading ultimately to the need of surgical intervention to avoid fatal events.

  2. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  3. Dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infrarrenal Spontaneous dissection of the infrarenal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Camargo Junior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A rotura da camada íntima que marca o início da dissecção aórtica se origina na maioria dos casos na aorta torácica, sendo rara a dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infra-renal. As três principais causas são: iatrogênica, traumática ou espontânea. A dor abdominal e a isquemia de membros são os sintomas mais comuns e um número significativo de pacientes e´ assintomatico. O diagnóstico tem sido feito através de métodos de imagem como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância nuclear magnética e angiografia aliados ao alto índice de suspeição. Relatamos os casos de duas pacientes que apresentaram dissecção de aorta abdominal infrarrenal com quadro de dor abdominal súbita, sem sinais de irritação peritoneal com pulsos presentes e simétricos ao exame físico que deram entrada no pronto socorro do Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro da PUC Campinas e que foram tratadas pela equipe de Cirurgia Vascular. As duas pacientes no momento do exame apresentavam-se hipertensas e ao ultrassom apresentavam alteração da conformidade da aorta abdominal que foram tratada s cirurgicamente. Uma paciente foi tratada cirurgicamente submetida a endarterectomia da placa dissecada da aorta abdominal infrarrenal de 2,2 cm de diâmetro e 2,0 cm de extensão. A outra paciente foi submetida a revascularização da aorta abdominal bi-iliaca com prótese de Dacron 16 × 8 mm por apresentar disseccao da aorta abdominal distal. As duas pacientes apresentaram boa evolução pos-operatoria tendo alta hospitalar em bom estado geral.The rupture of the intimal layer marks the beginning of the aortic dissection, which usually happens in the thoracic aorta. The spontaneous dissection of the infrarenal aorta is rare. The main causes are: iatrogenic, traumatic and spontaneous. Abdominal pain and limb ischemia are the commonest symptoms, and some patients are asymptomatics. The diagnosis is made by ultrasound, computed tomography

  4. Plural large floating thrombi in the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hisao; Soeda, Takeshi; Saitoh, Yuhei; Nakahara, Takahiro

    2016-08-01

    Floating thrombi in the ascending aorta are a very rare finding in non-aneurysmal, mildly atherosclerotic or normal aortas. We report a case of floating thrombi in a 66-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain and dyspnea. Enhanced computed tomography showed two large floating thrombi in the ascending aorta, type B aortic dissection, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. A temporary inferior vena cava filter was inserted and the subject underwent an emergency surgical intervention to remove both masses. His postoperative course was uneventful; the etiology of the thrombi is unknown. Lifelong anticoagulation therapy was started and the subject has been stable without recurrence for the last 2 years.

  5. Congenital Saccular Aneurysm of Coarctation of Aorta: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Teimouri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available True saccular aneurysm is exceptional in coarctation of aorta in children. A 6-year-old girl with headache and systemic arterial hypertension referred to our center for cardiovascular evaluation. Physical examination revealed high blood pressure and weak lower extremity pulses. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography and angiography demonstrated a saccular aneurysm of the descending aorta, 5×4 cm in size, associated with aortic coarctation. Aneurysmectomy was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. The section of the aorta containing the coarctation and the aneurysm was resected and replaced with a 15-mm woven polyester graft. Histological examination revealed a thin walled aneurysm with hyalinosis changes and decreased elastic fibers. One-year echocardiographic follow-up revealed no gradient across of Dacron tube and hypertension decreased to normal level.

  6. Giant Candida mycetoma in an ascending aorta tubular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Giuseppe; Citro, Rodolfo; Longobardi, Antonio; Mastrogiovanni, Generoso; Panza, Antonio; Iesu, Severino; Bossone, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old male hospitalized for abdominal pain and fever with history of a David procedure followed by an aortic valve replacement due to severe aortic regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and computed tomography showed a large mass floating in the aorta. After surgical excision of the vegetation, attached to the Dacron prosthesis, histological examination revealed Candida hyphae and spores confirming the diagnosis of a mycetoma in an ascending aorta tubular graft. At six-month follow-up, the patient was in good clinical condition without recurrence of the fungal mass on TEE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surgery for pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta under moderate hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare complication after cardiac surgery. Particularly, pseudoaneurysm due to postoperative infection in the ascending aorta requires surgical treatment with antibiotics. If a large sized pseudoaneurysm is located at the retrosternal space, then there is a very high risk of massive bleeding from rupture during performance of resternotomy. To avoid this risk, we performed femoro-femoral bypass under moderate hypothermia with transient circulatory arrest, and we report here on the successful result of this case.

  8. Ischemic colitis complicating reconstruction of the abdominal aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V; Christoffersen, J K; Andersen, J

    1985-01-01

    A review of 23 patients with ischemic colitis after surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta disclosed a pathogenetic heterogeneous finding. Ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, abolished collateral blood supply or nonocclusive low flow state, or both, was a common feature. An incidence...

  9. Coarctation of the Aorta, Known Yet Can Be Missed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Al Balushi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of coarctation of aorta (CoA is well known; however, it is the most common congenital heart disease in the newborn period to be missed, with significant mortality and morbidity associated with missing the diagnosis. We report a 20-day-old newborn boy who presented with congestive heart failure and weak femoral pulses. Chest X-ray (CXR showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary edema and electrocardiography (ECG showed extreme right axis deviation and absent left ventricular forces in the left precordial leads. Based on these, clinical suspicion of coarctation of aorta was made and confirmed by echocardiography. After initial stabilization with prostaglandin E2 infusion, child underwent urgent coarctation of aorta repair with uneventful post-operative course. High index of suspicion for coarctation of aorta in a newborn with such presentation is required and urgent referral to Pediatric Cardiology and cardiac surgery center is mandatory to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with missing the diagnosis.

  10. File list: NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Aorta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Aorta hg19 No description Cardiovascular Aorta SRX134730,SRX134748...,SRX190787,SRX136957,SRX347265,SRX213926,SRX136951,SRX342280,SRX347269,SRX347278,SRX213918 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.20.AllAg.Aorta.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Aorta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Aorta hg19 No description Cardiovascular Aorta SRX134730,SRX347278...,SRX347265,SRX136957,SRX134748,SRX190787,SRX342280,SRX213926,SRX136951,SRX347269,SRX213918 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.CDV.10.AllAg.Aorta.bed ...

  12. The risks of aorta impingement from pedicle screw may increase due to aorta movement during posterior instrumentation in Lenke 5C curve: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Xu, Leilei; Qiu, Yong; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhen; Shi, Benglong; Qian, Bang-ping; Zhu, Zezhang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the aorta movement following correction surgery for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis and to determine the subsequent risk of the aorta impingement for pedicle screw (PS) misplacement. Thirty-six AIS patients with a main thoracolumbar or lumbar curve were included in this study. According to the direction of the main curve, the patients were divided into Group R and Group L, with Group R comprising 16 patients with a right-sided curve and Group L comprising 20 patients with a left-sided curve. All patients underwent CT scans of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine before and after surgery. To identify the relative positions of the aorta to vertebral body, several parameters were measured from the CT images of the middle transverse planes of vertebrae from T11 to L4, including aorta-vertebra angle (α), vertebral rotation angle (β), left safety distance (LSD) and right safety distance (RSD). The risk of the aorta impingement from T11 to L4 was calculated. An intragroup comparison regarding the position of the aorta relative to the vertebral body before and after correction surgery was performed accordingly. After surgery, the aorta moved toward the vertebral body among all levels in both groups. Compared with that in Group L, the aorta in Group R was significantly closer to the entry point at all levels, especially at T11. Before surgery, the aorta in Group R was at a high risk of impingement from left PS placement regardless of the diameters of the simulated screws. While in Group L, the risk of aorta impingement was mainly caused by the right placement of 45 mm PS. After surgery, both groups had an increased risk of aorta impingement from PS insertion, especially at T11. The risk of aorta impingement from PS placement was significantly higher in Group R than in Group L. The risk of aorta impingement increased as the aorta shifted leftward after correction surgery, especially in right-sided Lenke 5C curve. Thus, preoperative risk

  13. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  14. Brief report: biomarkers of aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection in a porcine model with Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, S. N.; Tønnesen, E. K.; Jensen, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI) with Staphylococcus aureus is a feared post-operative complication. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and potential biomarkers of infection in a porcine AVPGI model. The biomarkers evaluated were: C-reactive protein (CRP......), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) density, lymphocyte CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vitro responsiveness. Sixteen pigs were included in the study, and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 4): “SHAM” pigs had their infra-renal...... aorta exposed by laparotomy; “CLEAN” pigs had an aortic graft inserted; “LOW” and “HIGH” pigs had an aortic graft inserted and, subsequently, S. aureus were inoculated on the graft material (5 × 104 colony-forming units [CFU] and 1 × 106 CFU, respectively). Biomarkers were evaluated prior to surgery...

  15. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  16. Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

  17. Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lui, George K; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C

    2013-09-01

    This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy-Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted.

  18. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  19. Panel Discussion: Session IV—Descending and Thoracoabdominal Aorta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spielvogel, David; Cambria, Richard P; Coselli, Joseph S; Griepp, Randall B; Khoynezhad, Ali; Mitchell, R. Scott; Plestis, Konstadinos A; Schepens, Marc; Schurink, Geert Willem; Svensson, Lars G; Wheatley, Grayson H

    2007-01-01

    ... the aortic arch. In other words, you do what we call a slash and grab: open the aorta, grab the graft, and clamp it. So that is what you want to have enough length for. On the other hand, for a second stage elephant trunk stent with an endograft, you don’t want it too long, because, as I pointed out, if it is too long you have got much more risk of it ...

  20. Toward Improving the Fetal Diagnosis of Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Meaghan; Peyvandi, Shabnam; Ganesan, Suguna; Moon-Grady, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is the most common ductal-dependent lesion missed on neonatal exam screening. Prenatal diagnosis of CoA improves outcomes through early initiation of prostaglandin. Fetal echocardiographic parameters including 2D and Doppler findings have been studied as predictive measures for fetal diagnosis of CoA, but diagnosis rates remain variable. A comprehensive set of predictor variables was applied to fetuses suspected of CoA to analyze which parameters were associated with postnatal CoA. UCSF Fetal Cardiovascular Program databases were queried for fetuses suspected of CoA (2008-2014). Retrospective measurements of aorta/pulmonary artery ratio (AoPA), LV/RV ratio, ascending aorta Z-score (AscAo), isthmus Z-score, isthmus/duct ratio (I/D), posterior "shelf" of descending aorta, and diastolic flow persistence at the isthmus were recorded. ROC analysis identified the parameters most predictive of postnatal CoA. Among 97 fetuses with probable CoA, 62 had complete follow-up. Of these fetuses, 45 (72.5%) had postnatal confirmation of CoA and 17 did not have CoA. The parameters most predictive of postnatal CoA included AscAo, isthmus Z-score, and I/D, with respective AUC of 0.80, 0.89, and 0.90. Diastolic flow persistence was seen more often in fetuses with postnatal CoA, but did not reach statistical significance. Combining 2D and Doppler criteria (AoPA AoPA ratio are useful predictors of CoA. Doppler information was most helpful when 2D imaging was equivocal; its addition resulted in high sensitivity in an enriched cohort referred for fetal echocardiography.

  1. CT and MR imaging of the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Cesare Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time, both CT and MRI are valuable techniques in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nowadays, CT represents the most widely employed technique for the study of the thoracic aorta. The new generation CTs show sensitivities up to 100% and specificities of 98-99%. Sixteen and wider row detectors provide isotropic pixels, mandatory for the ineludible longitudinal reconstruction. The main limits are related to the X-ray dose expoure and the use of iodinated contrast media. MRI has great potential in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nevertheless, if compared to CT, acquisition times remain longer and movement artifact susceptibility higher. The main MRI disadvantages are claustrophobia, presence of ferromagnetic implants, pacemakers, longer acquisition times with respect to CT, inability to use contrast media in cases of renal insufficiency, lower spatial resolution and less availability than CT. CT is preferred in the acute aortic disease. Nevertheless, since it requires iodinated contrast media and X-ray exposure, it may be adequately replaced by MRI in the follow up of aortic diseases. The main limitation of MRI, however, is related to the scarce visibility of stents and calcifications.

  2. Medical image of the week: coral reef aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberson L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 52-year-old woman with no past medical history presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms concerning for pneumonia. Chest x-ray showed incidental findings of a calcified aortic mass. Subsequently, a follow up computed tomography scan (CT was obtained which showed coral reef aorta (Figure 1. On physical examination, vital signs were only significant for mildly elevated blood pressure to 146/62 mmHg. She also had normal and equal pulses and pressures throughout all 4 extremities. In retrospect, patient had complaints of bilateral lower extremity claudication on strenuous exercise. Coral reef aorta, a rare condition that was first described in 1984 by Qvarfordt et al. (1 is characterized by an eccentric, heavily calcified polypoid lesion and stenosis of the juxtarenal and suprarenal aorta. The rock-hard, irregular, gritty, whitish surface of the calcification strongly resembled a coral reef. The most common presentation is severe hypertension and intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance angiogram …

  3. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MWantimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  4. Inheritance of porcine stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, J W; Christian, L L; Kuhlers, D L

    1981-01-01

    A total of 66 litters were farrowed in a Yorkshire herd of pigs selected for porcine stress syndrome (PSS) susceptibility. These litters included all possible combinations of matings between stress-susceptible, stress-carrier, and stress-resistant animals. When the data were analyzed by within-litter chi-square analysis, the null hypothesis of recessive inheritance could not be rejected (P less than 0.05). In addition, when the data were analyzed across litters, the null hypothesis of autosomal recessive inheritance could not be rejected (P less than 0.05).

  5. Failing left ventricle to ascending aorta conduit-Hybrid implantation of a melody valve and NuMed covered stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gössl, Mario; Johnson, Jonathan N; Hagler, Donald J

    2014-04-01

    We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with increasing shortness of breath, a new 3/4 diastolic murmur, and a complex history of LV outflow tract obstruction. She has undergone multiple surgeries including the replacement of her old LV apex to ascending aorta conduit with a 20-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, addition of a 24-mm homograft sutured between the conduit and the LV apex, and insertion of a 21-mm Freestyle porcine valve conduit between the Gore-Tex tube graft and allograft at age 23. The current assessment showed a failing Freestyle conduit prosthesis leading to left heart decompensation. Due to substantial surgical risk, the patient underwent successful implantation of a Melody valve into the Gore-Tex tube and exclusion of the failing Freestyle bioprosthesis with a NuMed CP stent in a hybrid procedure. The case nicely illustrates the collaborative potential of cardiovascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists in the new arena of a hybrid operating room. Complex hybrid procedures like the current one, especially those including percutaneous placements of valves, offer therapeutic options for patients that are otherwise too high risk for conventional open heart surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tribological evaluation of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaping; Ariyasinghe, Nethika; He, Xingliang; Liang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    This research studies the effects of external parameters on the friction of porcine skin. A tribometer was used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the same. The effects of DI water and body oil on porcine skin against steel and glass balls were evaluated in terms of coefficient of friction (COF). The COF dropped rapidly when DI water/body oil was introduced into the sliding system and remained stable when the volume of the liquid exceeded a certain value. The COF increased with increasing sliding speed under dry conditions and decreased in wet. Under an increasing normal force, the COF decreased regardless of the presence of liquid. The ratio of the real contact area to the nominal contact area of the skin with the steel/glass ball was found to increase with a power law as the applied force was increased. These results reveal basic tribological properties of the skin in contact with a hard slider. These properties could be used as reference for the design and development of artificial skin in prosthetic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Prabha S; Verghese S

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endo...

  8. [Surface modification of RGD peptides onto acellularized porcine aortic valve to promote cell adhesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-ming; Zeng, Xiao-fei; Ma, Rui-dong; Shang, Guan-sheng; Hao, Ming; Yi, Ding-hua

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the impact of RGD peptides on cell adhesion to acellularized procine aortic valve. The acellular porcine aorta valve (APAV) was prepared by removing the cells and cellular components from porcine aortic valve using trypsin and hyposmosis TritonX-100. With the help of epoxy chloropropane (EC), the decelluarized valve scaffolds were immobilized with YGRGDSP peptide. MFBs were seeded onto four groups [acellularized value (AV) group, EC group, glutaraldehyde+EC (GE) group and EC+ RGD group or GE+RGD group] of coupled, coated and untreated decelluarized valve scaffolds. Ninhydrin reaction, cell count and fluorescent imaging test were employed to examine the efficiency of cell adhesion. More cells were attached to the decellularized valve scaffolds when the cells were coupled with RGD peptides compared with the others. The adhesive effect was correlated with the concentration of the RGD peptide and the attaching time. With the help of EC, YGRGDSP peptides can be immobilized by covalent bonding. RGD peptides improve cell adhesion to decellularized valve scaffolds.

  9. Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Yang, F; Li, X; Xu, X; Wang, G X

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas. A material model was fitted to the biaxial experimental data to obtain constitutive parameters. Histological and mass fraction analyses were performed to investigate the underlying microstructure and dry weight percentages of elastin and collagen in the control and the diabetic aortas. No statistically significant difference was found in ultimate tensile strength between the control and the diabetic aortas. Regarding biaxial mechanical responses, the diabetic aortas exhibited significantly lower extensibility and significantly higher tissue stiffness than the control aortas. Notably, tissue stiffening occurred in both circumferential and axial directions for the diabetic aortas; however, mechanical anisotropy does not change significantly. The material model was able to fit biaxial experimental data very well. Histology showed that a number of isolated foam cells were embedded in the diabetic aortas and hyperplasia of collagen was identified. The dry weight percentages of collagen within the diabetic aortas increased significantly as compared to the control aortas, whereas no significant change was found for that of elastin. Our data suggest that the diabetes impairs elastic properties and alters microstructure of the aortas and consequently, these changes may further contribute to complex aortic wall remodeling.

  10. Early Results of Ascending Aorta and Aortic Arch Surgery in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Likaj E; Kacani A; Dumani S; Refatllari A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of aneurysms of the ascending aorta, arch aorta, or both are surgically challenging and has traditionally carried a high hospital mortality rate. The use of refined operative techniques has resulted in reduced hospital mortality rates. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent 74 surgical procedures between January 2011 and January 2014, for graft replacement of the ascending aorta or transverse aortic arch. There ...

  11. Left Ventricular Myxoma Occluding the Suprarenal Abdominal Aorta in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Takuya; Kasahara, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Shin-ichi; Kuroko, Yosuke; Kotani, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Yoshizumi, Ko; Arai, Sadahiko; Sano, Shunji

    2015-07-01

    Myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults; however, it is extremely rare in infants. Acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta by a cardiac myxoma is also rare. We report the case of an infant with acute occlusion of the suprarenal abdominal aorta by a left ventricular myxoma. The patient underwent successful catheter embolectomy of the abdominal aorta and surgical resection of the cardiac myxoma. This is a very rare case report of the combination of infantile left ventricular myxoma and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Interest for traumatic thoracic aorta rupture stems from the fact that its number continually increases, and it can be rapidly lethal. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early and long term results as well as experiences of our team in surgical treatment of traumatic thoracic aorta rupture. METHOD Our retrospective study includes 12 patients with traumatic thoracic aorta rupture treated between 1985 and 2007. There were 10 male and two female patients of average age 30.75 years (18-74. RESULTS In six cases, primary diagnosis was established during the first seven days days after trauma, while in 6 more than one month later. In 11 cases, classical open surgical procedure was performed, while endovascular treatment was used in one patient. Three (25% patients died, while two (16.6% had paraplegia. Nine patients (75% were treated without complications, and are in good condition after a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years (from one month to 22 years. CONCLUSION Surgical treatment requires spinal cord protection to prevent paraplegia, using cardiopulmonary by-pass (three of our cases or external heparin-bonded shunts (five of our cases. Cardiopulmonary by-pass is followed with lower incidence of paraplegia, however it is not such a good solution for patients with polytrauma because of hemorrhage. The endovascular repair is a safe and feasible procedure in the acute phase, especially because of traumatic shock and polytrauma which contributes to higher mortality rate after open surgery. On the other hand, in chronic postrauamatic aortic rupture, open surgical treatment is connected with a lower mortality rate and good long-term results. There have been no published data about long-term results of endovascular treatment in the chronic phase.

  13. The nonocclusive laser-assisted coronary anastomotic connector in an off-pump porcine bypass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, David; van Slochteren, Frebus J; Hoefer, Imo E; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Tulleken, Cornelis A F; van Herwerden, Lex A; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    2014-04-01

    To facilitate minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting, a simplified alternative for hand-sutured anastomoses must be developed. We assessed the feasibility and anastomotic healing of the ameliorated Excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis coronary prototype connector in an acute rabbit study (study 1) and in a long-term porcine off-pump coronary bypass study (study 2). Eighteen anastomoses were constructed on the abdominal aorta of the rabbit. In the porcine model, 15 left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending coronary artery bypasses were evaluated intraoperatively and at 4 hours, 4 and 10 days, 2, 3, and 5 weeks, and 6 months (each n = 2 anastomoses). The anastomoses were examined by angiography, flow measurements, fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, histologic features, and scanning electron microscopy. In study 1, all 18 anastomoses were patent and resisted supraphysiologic pressures (n = 12, 300 mm Hg). In study 2, the connector enabled nonocclusive and fast (7.7 ± 2.2 minutes, mean ± standard deviation) anastomosis construction. All but 1 of 15 anastomoses (owing to a technical error) were fully patent (FitzGibbon grade A) at follow-up. Histologic examination and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated complete endothelialization of the anastomoses at 10 days. At 6 months, no flow-limiting but streamline-covering intimal hyperplasia was shown (fractional flow reserve, 0.93 ± 0.07 mean ± standard deviation). The new nonocclusive coronary connector is easy to use, and the long-term results suggest favorable healing and remodeling in the porcine model. After downsizing, this anastomotic device, with its emphasis on zero ischemia and simplified prebounding of vessel walls, has intrinsic potential for minimally invasive off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spiral CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gaa, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Spiral CT angiography (CTA) was performed on 19 patients for the pre-operative assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms and in 3 post-operative renal artery bypass patients. Spiral CTA performed during intravenous contrast infusion provided a volume of data that was reconstructed at thin increments. Images were edited and reformatted either as surface rendered three-dimensional or maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays. Final images were viewed in a cine-loop presentation of quality comparable to conventional angiograms. The entire aorta can be examined from the coeliac axis to mid-pelvis with only 107 ml of 60% contrast. (orig.)

  15. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  16. The challenge in diagnosing coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Julien I

    2017-12-11

    Critical coarctation of the aorta in neonates is a common cause of shock and death. It may be the most difficult of all forms of critical congenital heart disease to diagnose because the obstruction from the coarctation does not appear until several days after birth (and after discharge from the hospital), and because there are no characteristic murmurs. Some of these patients may be detected by neonatal screening by pulse oximetry, but only a minority is so diagnosed. Older patients are usually asymptomatic but, although clinical diagnosis is easy, they are frequently undiagnosed.

  17. Medical image of the week: coral reef aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Eberson L; Ghazala S

    2017-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 52-year-old woman with no past medical history presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms concerning for pneumonia. Chest x-ray showed incidental findings of a calcified aortic mass. Subsequently, a follow up computed tomography scan (CT) was obtained which showed coral reef aorta (Figure 1). On physical examination, vital signs were only significant for mildly elevated blood pressure to 146/62 mmHg. She also had norm...

  18. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  19. Appraisal of the porcine kidney autotransplantation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; Dirkes, Marcel C.; Heger, Michal; van Loon, Johannes P. A. M.; Swildens, Bas; Huijzer, Goos M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are extensively used for transplantation related research, especially kidney transplantation. Porcine autotransplantation models are considered to be favorable regarding translatability to the human setting. The key determinants for translatability of the model are discussed,

  20. Appraisal of the porcine kidney autotransplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Ivo C J H; Dirkes, Marcel C; Heger, Michal; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Swildens, Bas; Huijzer, Goos M; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are extensively used for transplantation related research, especially kidney transplantation. Porcine autotransplantation models are considered to be favorable regarding translatability to the human setting. The key determinants for translatability of the model are discussed, comprising animal age, development, anatomy, anesthesia and surgical protocols, and perioperative care. With the detailed discussion of these determinants and the pitfalls in diagnosing animal discomfort, an attempt is made to provide a uniform porcine kidney autotransplantation model with tools to improve currently used models.

  1. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  2. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa

    2018-02-16

    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. DETECTION OF MODIFIED LIPOPROTEINS IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS OF HUMAN AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Pigarevsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Specific autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and malonic dialdehyde-(MDA-modified lipoproteins are detectable in human plasma. Immunization of rabbits with autologous, correspondingly modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs did induce autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and MDA-modified lipoproteins. In atherosclerotic lesions from hyman aorta, the epitopes have been detected that were recognized by the antibodies to acetylated, maleylated, and MDA-modified LDLs. Such antigens were detected at all atherogenesis stages, beginning with the earliest lesions (lipid spots, and their deposition pattern was quite variable.Rabbit and human autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and MDA-modified lipoproteins recognized antigens in human atherosclerotic aorta. Modified proteins were localized both intra- and extracellular in tectum, superficial and deep layers of the atherosclerotic lesions. The most typical mode of depositions for all modified proteins si represented by extracellular deposits in the cap of lipid streaks and fibrous plaques, especially in transitional “shoulder” area.The intimal deposits of modified proteins shared similar features with distribution of apo-B-containing lipoproteins, like as of lipids detectable by Oil Red staining. The areas where modified proteins and apo-B-containing lipoproteins were revealed did often coincide with foci of IgG deposits. Modified proteins were not detectable in the non-affected segments of aortic intima.

  4. Impaired distensibility of ascending aorta in patients with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zormpala Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Methods One hundred and five HIV-infected patients (86 males [82%], mean age 41 ± 0.92 years, and 124 age and sex matched HIV-1 uninfected controls (104 males [84%], mean age 39.2 ± 1.03 years were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography to determine AD and c-IMT. For all patients and controls clinical and laboratory factors associated with atherosclerosis were recorded. Results HIV- infected patients had reduced AD compared to controls: 2.2 ± 0.01 vs. 2.62 ± 0.01 10-6 cm2 dyn-1, respectively (p -6 cm2 dyn-1, p = 0.01]. In multiadjusted analysis, increasing age and exposure to HAART were independently associated with decreased AD. Conclusion HIV infection is independently associated with decreased distensibility of the ascending aorta, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Increasing age and duration of exposure to HAART are factors further contributing to decreased AD.

  5. Volumetric lattice Boltzmann simulation for blood flow in aorta arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Debanjan; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Teague, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Complicated moving boundaries pose a major challenge in computational fluid dynamics for complex flows, especially in the biomechanics of both blood flow in the cardiovascular system and air flow in the respiratory system where the compliant nature of the vessels can have significant effects on the flow rate and wall shear stress. We develop a computation approach to treat arbitrarily moving boundaries using a volumetric representation of lattice Boltzmann method, which distributes fluid particles inside lattice cells. A volumetric bounce-back procedure is applied in the streaming step while momentum exchange between the fluid and moving solid boundary are accounted for in the collision sub-step. Additional boundary-induced migration is introduced to conserve fluid mass as the boundary moves across fluid cells. The volumetric LBM (VLBM) is used to simulate blood flow in both normal and dilated aorta arteries. We first compare flow structure and pressure distribution in steady state with results from Navier-Stokes based solver and good agreements are achieved. Then we focus on wall stress within the aorta for different heart pumping condition and present quantitative measurement of wall shear and normal stress.

  6. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelija Zarkovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein, form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development.

  7. [Endovascular treatment of 4 patients with a traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkelman, M.K.; Leenen, L.P.H.; Verhagen, H.; Blankensteijn, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present our initial results with the endovascular treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. DESIGN: Retrospective. METHOD: Between April and October, 2002, 4 men between the ages of 22 and 46 were treated endovascularly for a traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. The

  8. Aortography delays surgery of CT proven acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.; Moreno, R.; Martin, V.; Iniguez, A.; Alvarez, J. (Hospital Universitario de San Carlos, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiodiagnostico, Servicio de Cirurgia Vascular, Servicio de Exploracion Cardiopulmonar, and Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos)

    1991-09-01

    A case of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed by dynamic CT. Angiographic confirmation was required, delaying surgical repair and contribution to the fatal outcome. If reliable findings of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta are shown by CT, we question the usefulness of angiographic confirmation in such cases. (orig.).

  9. Impaired Collagen Biosynthesis and Cross-linking in Aorta of Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagsater, Dick; Paloschi, Valentina; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Hultenby, Kjell; Bank, Ruud A.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Eriksson, Per

    Background-Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of developing ascending aortic aneurysm. In the present study, collagen homeostasis in nondilated and dilated aorta segments from patients with BAV was studied, with normal and dilated aortas from tricuspid aortic valve

  10. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    adrenergic drugs was studied with regard to the possible dependence on endothelium and possible release of nitric oxide (NO). Isolated rabbit thoracis aorta was used for isometric tension measurements; measurements of NO metabolites (Griess Reaction); and eNOS activity measurements (L-citrulline assay......). The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit thoracic aorta was: independent of EDTA and ascorbic acid; the same whether the physiological salt solution (PSS) was oxygenated with 95% or 21 % O2; independent of the phenylephrine-evoked precontractile tension; and did not differ in unstored or cold strored aorta...... that phenylephrine-evoked precontraction of rabbit aorta causes a basal release of NO. The amount of basally released NO is the same independent of gender and it is inactivated by oxygen radicals and divalent metal ions. The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation was uniform along the length of rabbit thoracic aorta...

  11. Effects of thapsigargin in isolated rat thoracic aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, E O; Thastrup, Ole; Christensen, S B

    1988-01-01

    a concentration related relaxation and shifted the K+-concentration response curve to the right and depressed the maximal response to K+. Removal of vascular endothelium abolished the relaxant response to Tg and increased the sensitivity of the preparations to the contractile effect of Tg. The contractile......, but had no effect on the Tg or on the calcium ionophore A 23187 evoked relaxation. Ultraviolet radiation decreased the relaxant effect of Tg and A 23187 without affecting the carbachol induced relaxations. The results showed that vascular endothelium depressed the contractile effect of Tg and that Tg like...... A 23187 had an endothelium dependent relaxant effect on rat aorta different from that of carbachol. The results indicate that Tg in vascular smooth muscle acts by stimulating the transmembranal influx of extracellular calcium....

  12. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers.

  13. Aneurisma de aorta abdominal infectado por Salmonella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Helena Fernandes de Aguiar Alioti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Os aneurismas de aorta abdominal infecciosos (AAAIs são raros e apresentam uma alta mortalidade devido à septicemia e ao risco de ruptura. A opção terapêutica consagrada consiste na correção aberta com ressecção do aneurisma, debridamento e reconstrução com veia autóloga. Mais recentemente, alguns grupos vêm relatando séries de casos nas quais se realizou tratamento endovascular. Em ambas as opções, a antibioticoterapia adjuvante é imperativa. Relatamos um caso ilustrativo em que o tratamento de escolha foi a cirurgia aberta com reconstrução utilizando-se veia autóloga.

  14. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    -aware and autonomous. The reasoning component makes them organization-aware, and their autonomy is intact because the component does not change the existing reasoning mechanisms. As such, it allows the agents to decide whether to adhere to the system’s expectations. The ability to reason about organizations has......Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework, which...

  15. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  17. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  18. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  19. Arterial wall metabolism in experimental hypertension of coarctation of the aorta of short duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, William; Kramsch, Dieter M.; Farmelant, Melvin; Madoff, Irving M.

    1968-01-01

    Coarctation of the mid-thoracic aorata was surgically produced in mongrel dogs which were sacrificed from 4-12 wk after the operation. As compared to the findings in control animals, the sodium, chloride, and water content of the hypetensive portion of the coarcted thoracic aorta was significantly elevated, whereas the electrolyte and water content of the relatively normotensive portion of the coarcted aorta was normal. The sodium, potassium, and water content of the pulmonary artery, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle of the coarcted dog was not altered. These observations suggest that an elevated arterial pressure may influence the electrolyte and water composition of the arteries. The arterial pressure also may influence the content and synthesis of acid mucopolysaccharides (MPS) in the arteries since the content of sulfated MPS and the incorporation of injected radiosulfate into sulfated MPS were significantly increased in the hypertensive portion of the coarcted thoracic aorta but were significantly reduced in the relatively normotensive (“hypotensive”) portion of the coarcted aorta. The observed increase in MPS may have been a factor directly responsible for the increase in the sodium content of the hypertensive aorta since MPS can act as polyelectrolytes and bind cations. Although the arterial pressure may influence certain metabolic functions in the arteries, it did not appear to have a direct effect on the arterial lipids since the lipid content of the hypertensive and of the relatively normotensive portions of the coarcted aorta were comparable to the values found in the normal aorta. Images PMID:5645864

  20. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changwu [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei; Du, Fang [Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Li, Cheng, E-mail: cjr.licheng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Xihai, E-mail: xihaizhao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  1. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  2. Susceptibility of human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinzi; Qi, Lin; Li, Zhiguo; Chi, Hao; Lin, Wanjun; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zesheng; Pan, Mingxin; Gao, Yi

    2013-12-01

    The risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection is a major barrier for pig-to-human xenotransplant. Porcine endogenous retrovirus, present in porcine cells, can infect many human and nonhuman primate cells in vitro, but there is no evidence available about in vitro infection of human liver cells. We investigated the susceptibility of different human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus. The supernatant from a porcine kidney cell line was added to human liver cells, including a normal hepatocyte cell line (HL-7702 cells), primary hepatocytes (Phh cells), and a liver stellate cell line (Lx-2 cells), and to human embryonic kidney cells as a reference control. Expression of the porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E in the human cells was evaluated with polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. The porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E was not expressed in any human liver cells (HL-7702, Phh, or Lx-2 cells) that had been exposed to supernatants from porcine kidney cell lines. Porcine endogenous retrovirus-specific fragments were amplified in human kidney cells. Human liver cells tested were not susceptible to infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus. Therefore, not all human cells are susceptible to porcine endogenous retrovirus.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudoaneurysm of the Ascending Aorta after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Khalil Forouzannia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nMycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is rare in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and usually caused by staphylococcus aureus. We describe a patient with a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta at the proximal vein graft anastomosis site after CABG. Culture from the sinus tract of the sternum and from the aneurysm sac was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Surgical technique was patch repair of aorta under hypothermic circulatory arrest. He is asymptomatic at 24 months follow-up.

  4. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  5. Decellularized aortic homografts for aortic valve and aorta ascendens replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Igor; Horke, Alexander; Cebotari, Serghei; Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Breymann, Thomas; Beerbaum, Philipp; Bertram, Harald; Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Theodoridis, Karolina; Bobylev, Dmitry; Cheptanaru, Eduard; Ciubotaru, Anatol; Haverich, Axel

    2016-07-01

    The choice of valve prosthesis for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in young patients is challenging. Decellularized pulmonary homografts (DPHs) have shown excellent results in pulmonary position. Here, we report our early clinical results using decellularized aortic valve homografts (DAHs) for AVR in children and mainly young adults. This prospective observational study included all 69 patients (44 males) operated from February 2008 to September 2015, with a mean age of 19.7 ± 14.6 years (range 0.2-65.3 years). In 18 patients, a long DAH was used for simultaneous replacement of a dilated ascending aorta as an extended aortic root replacement (EARR). Four patients received simultaneous pulmonary valve replacement with DPH. Thirty-nine patients (57%) had a total of 62 previous operations. The mean aortic cross-clamp time in isolated cases was 129 ± 41 min. There was 1 conduit-unrelated death. The mean DAH diameter was 22.4 ± 3.7 mm (range, 10-29 mm), the average peak gradient was 14 ± 15 mmHg and the mean aortic regurgitation grade (0.5 = trace, 1 = mild) was 0.6 ± 0.5. The mean effective orifice area (EOA) of 25 mm diameter DAH was 3.07 ± 0.7 cm(2). DAH annulus z-values were 1.1 ± 1.1 at implantation and 0.7 ± 1.3 at the last follow-up. The last mean left ventricle ejection fraction and left ventricle end diastolic volume index was 63 ± 7% and 78 ± 16 ml/m(2) body surface area, respectively. To date, no dilatation has been observed at any level of the graft during follow-up; however, the observational time is short (140.4 years in total, mean 2.0 ± 1.8 years, maximum 7.6 years). One small DAH (10 mm at implantation) had to be explanted due to subvalvular stenosis and developing regurgitation after 4.5 years and was replaced with a 17 mm DAH without complication. No calcification of the explanted graft was noticed intraoperatively and after histological analysis, which revealed extensive recellularization without inflammation. DAHs withstand systemic

  6. Improved hemodynamics with a novel miniaturized intra-aortic axial flow pump in a porcine model of acute left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabari, Farshad Raissi; George, Joggy; Cuchiara, Michael P; Langsner, Robert J; Heuring, Jason J; Cohn, William E; Hertzog, Benjamin A; Delgado, Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Currently, long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is limited to large, complex devices that require invasive, high-risk surgical implantation. These devices are mainly used in patients with late stage heart failure (HF). We are developing a novel percutaneous intra-aortic micro-axial fluid entrainment pump intended for long-term MCS in patients with earlier stage HF. This study examined the pump's hemodynamic effects in a porcine model of acute HF. In three porcine experiments, the pump was deployed in the thoracic aorta by standard cardiac catheterization techniques and was anchored with self-expanding struts. Acute cardiac dysfunction was induced by infusing esmolol continuously. Pump support increased cardiac output (+10.4%), stroke volume (+8.9%), and ejection fraction (+10.8%) while decreasing cardiac stroke work (-10.8%) and afterload (-22.7%). Furthermore, pump support significantly enhanced renal perfusion through sustained increases in both renal artery flow (+36.4%) and pressure (+73.6%). In a porcine model of acute HF, the catheter-based intra-aortic fluid entrainment pump improved hemodynamics and renal perfusion. These results suggest that the pump could improve HF outcomes and patients' quality of life by resting the heart, promoting reverse remodeling, and augmenting end-organ perfusion. Furthermore, the enhanced renal perfusion may help disrupt the cardiorenal syndrome cycle and improve HF treatment.

  7. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  8. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  9. porcine anaesthesia for advanced trauma operative management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2008-09-01

    Sep 1, 2008 ... 120. PORCINE ANAESTHESIA FOR ADVANCED TRAUMA OPERATIVE. MANAGEMENT (ATOM). H. BADDOO, F. AHIAKU, E. FORDJUOR, I. WULFF, D. AKUOKU and D. KWAMI. Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Author for correspondence: Dr Henry Baddoo.

  10. Short communication Expression profiling analyses of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    (ORF) of the porcine MuRF1 gene consisting of 354 amino acids was obtained and it shared 93% and 90% identity with those of ... Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ... identified as one of the members of the E3 ubiquitin ligases and it regulates myofibrillar protein metabolism. (Bodine et ...

  11. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  12. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314417818

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions

  13. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  14. Giant coronary cameral fistula with coarctation of aorta in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Awasthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coronary cameral fistula (CCF involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. We present a case of giant coronary cameral fistula associated with coarctation of aorta in a 13 days old neonate.

  15. Effect of chronic uremia on the transcriptional profile of the calcified aorta analyzed by RNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Gravesen, Eva; Mace, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of vascular calcification (VC) in chronic uremia (CU) is a tightly regulated process controlled by factors promoting and inhibiting mineralization. Next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful and sensitive tool for quantitative gene expression profiling...... and the detection of differentially expressed genes. In the present study, we, for the first time, used RNA-seq to examine rat aorta transcriptomes from CU rats compared with control rats. Severe VC was induced in CU rats, which lead to extensive changes in the transcriptional profile. Among the 10,153 genes...... by circulating Klotho only or if Klotho is produced locally in the vasculature. We found that Klotho was neither expressed in the normal aorta nor calcified aorta by RNA-seq. In conclusion, we demonstrated extensive changes in the transcriptional profile of the uremic calcified aorta, which were consistent...

  16. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a disturbance of hormonal homeostasis caused by ovariectomy influences the elasticity and wall structure of the abdominal aorta and whether camelina oil administration has an effect on the properties of the abdominal aorta in rats after...... the treated rats received camelina oil at doses of 5 g/kg/b.w. (OVX2) or 9 g/kg/b.w. (OVX3) once a day. The rats were euthanized 7 weeks after the surgery, and the aorta, before the right and left common iliac arteries, was removed, cut into 5 mm pieces and exposed to a series of step-wise increases...... in tension. Aortic wall elasticity was measured in duplicate. Samples of the aorta were also prepared for histology (total aortic wall thickness, thickness of tunica intima and media, thickness of adventitia) and immunohistochemistry (volume and mean fluorescence intensity of collagens I and III and elastin...

  17. Minimum Variance Signal Selection for Aorta Radius Estimation Using Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamran Svein-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies the optimum signal choice for the estimation of the aortic blood pressure via aorta radius, using a monostatic radar configuration. The method involves developing the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB for a simplified model. The CRLB for model parameters are compared with simulation results using a grid-based approach for estimation. The CRLBs are within the 99% confidence intervals for all chosen parameter values. The CRLBs show an optimal region within an ellipsoid centered at 1 GHz center frequency and 1.25 GHz bandwidth with axes of 0.5 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively. Calculations show that emitted signal energy to received noise spectral density should exceed for a precision of approximately 0.1 mm for a large range of model parameters. This implies a minimum average power of 0.4  . These values are based on optimistic assumptions. Reflections, improved propagation model, true receiver noise, and parameter ranges should be considered in a practical implementation.

  18. Role of endothelin in thrombolysis in rat abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Yao, X; Tang, C

    1998-01-01

    The endothelium of blood vessels is of great importance in maintaining blood fluidity and modulating thrombogenesis. Endothelin (ET) participates in thrombogenesis and its role in the pathogenesis of heart diseases such as acute myocardinal infarction has been proved, but little is known about the effect of ET on thrombolysis. Using a model of thrombosis in rat abdominal aorta induced by direct current-ferric trichloride, we found that the plasma ET level was 3.7 times the baseline after lysing the thrombus with urokinase (250,000 U/kg) while 5 micrograms/kg of exogenous ET prolonged the time of thrombolysis to 115% of baseline control. Plasma ET level was six times the baseline level. Incubation of a rat aortic strip in vitro with taurine (20 mmol/L) had no effect on baseline ET release, but taurine prohibited the stimulation of thrombin and A23187 of ET release in a dose-dependent way. Plasma ET decreased between 17 and 40% after injection of taurine, which also decreased by 45% the time of lysis of thrombus. From the above data it might be concluded that ET inhibits thrombolysis and that the abnormally increasing plasma ET can be attenuated by taurine, which is beneficial to thrombolysis.

  19. Minimum Variance Signal Selection for Aorta Radius Estimation Using Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, LarsErik; Hamran, Svein-Erik; Berger, Tor; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2010-12-01

    This paper studies the optimum signal choice for the estimation of the aortic blood pressure via aorta radius, using a monostatic radar configuration. The method involves developing the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for a simplified model. The CRLB for model parameters are compared with simulation results using a grid-based approach for estimation. The CRLBs are within the 99% confidence intervals for all chosen parameter values. The CRLBs show an optimal region within an ellipsoid centered at 1 GHz center frequency and 1.25 GHz bandwidth with axes of 0.5 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively. Calculations show that emitted signal energy to received noise spectral density should exceed [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] for a precision of approximately 0.1 mm for a large range of model parameters. This implies a minimum average power of 0.4 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. These values are based on optimistic assumptions. Reflections, improved propagation model, true receiver noise, and parameter ranges should be considered in a practical implementation.

  20. Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case.

  1. Migration of thoracic aorta after the anterior correction of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis without parietal pleura closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Wen-jun; Wang, Wei-jun; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Ze-zhang; Zhu, Bin; Qiu, Yong

    2011-08-01

    To compare the preoperative and postoperative relative position of the thoracic aorta to the vertebrae in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) after anterior corrective surgery without parietal pleura closure. To investigate the impact of unrepaired parietal pleura on thoracic aorta migration after anterior correction of right thoracic IS. Vascular injuries caused by vertebral screws have been reported in several studies. Recent studies showed an anteromedial shift of thoracic aorta after anterior curve correction with closure of the parietal pleura in thoracic IS. Migration of the aorta in patients with nonclosed parietal pleura has not been studied before, although it has been speculated in benefiting the transposition of the aorta and thus reduces the risk of vascular injury. Fifteen IS patients with predominant right thoracic scoliosis who underwent anterior instrumentation without parietal pleura closure were recruited for the study. There were 10 female and 5 male patients with an average age of 15.9 years. The following parameters were measured on preoperative and postoperative computed tomographic scans: angle α: aorta-vertebral angle; distance a: distance between the aorta and the left rib head; distance b: distance from aorta to vertebral body cortex. From computed tomographic measurements, the angle α from T5 to T12 ranged from 28.9 to 68.3 degrees before surgery and 18.8 to 63.2 degrees after surgery. The distance a ranged from 5.6 mm to 28.1 mm before surgery and 2.3 mm to 24.3 mm after surgery. The distance b ranged from 1.7 mm to 4.3 mm before surgery and 2.3 mm to 8.0 mm after surgery. These changes in all the parameters reached statistically significant difference at all the levels except in upper and lower end vertebrae (Ppleura closure.

  2. The anomalous origin of the branch pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Pankaj; Talwar, Sachin; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta (AOPA) is rare. We report our single-institution surgical experience with this condition. Between January 1994 and February 2011, 17 patients (age: 1 month–25 years) with AOPA underwent surgery at our institute. Thirteen patients had an anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) while four had an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) from the aorta. In patients with anomalous RPA, 11 patients had the pr...

  3. Tratamiento endovascular de la aorta torácica descendente. Tratamiento endovascular de la aorta torácica descendente.

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    Hernán G. Bertoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjetivoEl propósito de esta publicación es comunicar nuestros resultados inmediatos y a mediano plazo del tratamiento endovascular de la aorta torácica descendente mediante implante de endoprótesis.Material y métodosEntre agosto de 1999 y agosto de 2006, 74 pacientes consecutivos, 53 hombres y 21 mujeres, fueron tratados por vía endovascular con implante de una prótesis autoexpandible. La edad media fue de 60 ± 14,8 años. Las indicaciones para tratamiento fueron disección aguda (n = 8; 11%, disección crónica (n = 31; 42%, hematoma intramural (n = 5; 7%, aneurisma verdadero (n = 17; 23%, úlcerapenetrante (n = 4; 5% y seudoaneurisma traumático (n = 9; 12%.ResultadosEl implante del dispositivo fue exitoso en 73 (98,6% pacientes; no se requirió conversión quirúrgica en ninguno de ellos. Ningún paciente presentó paraplejía o déficit neurológico. La mortalidad a los 30 días fue del 8,1% (n = 6. La mediana de seguimiento fue de 33,5 meses (rango 1-79 y la sobrevida global fue del 84% (IC 69-92% y del 91% (IC 77-97%, según se incluyese o no la mortalidad temprana. El 93% (IC 84-97% de los pacientes estaban libres de complicaciones relacionadas con el procedimiento. La mayoría de las complicaciones ocurrieron durante el primer año de seguimiento.ConclusionesEl tratamiento endovascular de la aorta torácica descendente con implante de endoprótesis autoexpandible es factible y seguro. La baja incidencia de eventos en relación con las series quirúrgicas publicadas hace que este procedimiento sea de elección en pacientes seleccionados.

  4. The value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta in diagnosing neuroblastoma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavon, Jose Luiz de Oliveira; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro; Lederman, Henrique Manoel, E-mail: schiavon00@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Odone Filho, Vicente [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To determine the value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta, when present at any level or only at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, in diagnosing neuroblastoma on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in children up to 7 years of age. Materials and Methods: Imaging examinations of 66 patients were classified by consensus as for the presence of anterior aorta displacement and were compared with the pathology report. Results: We found anterior abdominal aorta displacement in 26 (39.39%) of the 66 patients evaluated. Among those 26 patients, we identified neuroblastoma in 22 (84.62%), nephroblastoma in 3 (11.54%), and Burkitt lymphoma in 1 (3.85%). The positive predictive value was 84.62%, and the specificity was 88.24%. The displacement of the aorta was at the adrenal level, contralateral to the mass, in 14 cases, all of which were attributed to neuroblastoma. Conclusion: When the abdominal aorta is displaced at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, it can be said that the diagnosis is neuroblastoma, whereas abdominal aorta displacement occurring at other abdominal levels has a positive predictive value for neuroblastoma of approximately 85%. (author)

  5. The value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta in diagnosing neuroblastoma in children

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    Jose Luiz de Oliveira Schiavon

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta, when present at any level or only at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, in diagnosing neuroblastoma on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in children up to 7 years of age. Materials and Methods: Imaging examinations of 66 patients were classified by consensus as for the presence of anterior aorta displacement and were compared with the pathology report. Results: We found anterior abdominal aorta displacement in 26 (39.39% of the 66 patients evaluated. Among those 26 patients, we identified neuroblastoma in 22 (84.62%, nephroblastoma in 3 (11.54%, and Burkitt lymphoma in 1 (3.85%. The positive predictive value was 84.62%, and the specificity was 88.24%. The displacement of the aorta was at the adrenal level, contralateral to the mass, in 14 cases, all of which were attributed to neuroblastoma. Conclusion: When the abdominal aorta is displaced at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, it can be said that the diagnosis is neuroblastoma, whereas abdominal aorta displacement occurring at other abdominal levels has a positive predictive value for neuroblastoma of approximately 85%.

  6. Evaluation of reconstruction parameters of electrical impedance tomography on aorta detection during saline bolus injection

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    Thürk Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate detection of anatomical structures in electrical impedance tomography (EIT is still at an early stage. Aorta detection in EIT is of special interest, since it would favor non-invasive assessment of hemodynamic processes in the body. Here, diverse EIT reconstruction parameters of the GREIT algorithm were systematically evaluated to detect the aorta after saline bolus injection in apnea. True aorta position and size were taken from computed tomography (CT. A comparison with CT showed that the smallest error for aorta displacement was attained for noise figure nf = 0.7, weighting radius rw = 0.15, and target size ts = 0.01. The spatial extension of the aorta was most precise for nf = 0.7, rw = 0.25, and ts = 0.07. Detection accuracy (F1-score was highest with nf = 0.6, rw = 0.15, and ts = 0.04. This work provides algorithm-related evidence for potentially accurate aorta detection in EIT after injection of a saline bolus.

  7. [Diagnostic value of transesophageal echocardiography in traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, P; Guéret, P; Lagrange, P; Laskar, M

    1994-06-01

    Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) usually occurs at the isthmus. It is rapidly lethal without early surgery and, therefore, diagnosis must not be delayed. The reference diagnostic investigation is aortography but it is invasive in a patient with multiple trauma whose haemodynamic status is often precarious. Transoesophageal echocardiography, a non-invasive investigation which can be undertaken rapidly at the bedside has been proposed recently for the diagnosis of this condition because it gives excellent views of the aortic isthmus. The authors report their experience of transoesophageal echocardiography in 3 victims of severe road traffic accidents with thoracic trauma and who were operated for traumatic rupture of the aorta. Echocardiographic diagnosis of TRA is based on the recording of the association of a thick and mobile intraluminal echo corresponding to the torn intima and media and localised dilatation of the aorta, the wall of which is reduced to the adventitia under tension. On Doppler colour flow mapping the velocities are similar on both sides of the tear but turbulence at the site of rupture may give rise to aliasing. It is important to recognise the echocardiographic features of TRA to differentiate it from dissection of the aorta. Transoesophageal echocardiography also allows diagnosis of any associated traumatic cardiovascular lesions. Its limitations are due to the inability to visualise the proximal portion of the transverse aorta and the supra aortic vessels. Aortography remains essential when a lesion of these vessels is suspected and when the echocardiographic features of the aorta are atypical.

  8. Vanadyl sulfate protects against streptozotocin-induced morphological and biochemical changes in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vanadyl sulfate on aorta tissue of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were made diabetic by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg) that was given every day for 60 days by gavage technique to rats. Under the light and transmission electron microscopes, hypertrophy of the vessel wall, focal disruption in the elastic lamellae, an increase in thickness of total aortic wall, tunica intima, subendothelial space and adventitial layer, and a disorganization in smooth muscular cells of the tunica media were observed in diabetic animals. The aorta lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly increased and the aorta glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in STZ diabetic rats. In diabetic rats administered vanadyl sulfate for 60 days, aorta LPO levels significantly decreased and the aorta GSH level significantly increased. In conclusion, in vivo treatment with vanadyl sulfate of diabetic rats prevented the morphological and biochemical changes observed in thoracic aorta of diabetic animals. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Detection of histidine decarboxylase in rat aorta and cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, A S; Davis, S V; Hayes, J R; Bryda, E C; Green, T L; Gruetter, C A

    2004-08-01

    Having previously demonstrated release of histamine from mast-cell-deficient rat aorta, the objective of this study was to determine and localize histamine synthesis capability in the aorta by detecting histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme that catalyzes histamine formation. Experiments were conducted with nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) to detect HDC mRNA and with immunofluorescence and western blot analysis to detect HDC protein in rat aorta, cultured rat aortic smooth muscle (RASMC) and endothelial cells (RAEC). Gel electrophoresis of nRT-PCR products indicated HDC mRNA in liver, aorta and RASMC but not in RAEC or kidney. Sequence analysis confirmed that the band observed in RASMC was the target HDC amplicon. Immunofluorescence indicated the presence of HDC protein in RASMC and not in RAEC. Western Blot analysis revealed HDC protein (55 kDa) in liver, aorta, RASMC but not in RAEC or kidney. The results of this study are the first to demonstrate the presence of HDC mRNA and protein in rat aorta and more specifically in RASMC, indicative of their capability to synthesize histamine. Copyright 2004 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel

  10. Microfluidic Single Cell Analysis Show Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells Improve Myocardial Function by Paracrine Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingxia; Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lee, Andrew S.; Xu, Dan; Hu, Shijun; Plews, Jordan R; Han, Leng; Huber, Bruno C.; Lee, Won Hee; Gong, Yongquan; de Almeida, Patricia E.; Lyons, Jennifer; Ikeno, Fumi; Pacharinsak, Cholawat; Connolly, Andrew J.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Robbins, Robert C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for the development of patient-specific therapies for cardiovascular disease. However, clinical translation will require preclinical optimization and validation of large animal iPSC models. Objective To successfully derive endothelial cells from porcine iPSCs and demonstrate their potential utility for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Porcine adipose stromal cells were reprogrammed to generate porcine iPSCs (piPSCs). Immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, microarray hybridization, and angiogenic assays confirmed that piPSC-derived endothelial cells (piPSC-ECs) shared similar morphological and functional properties as endothelial cells isolated from the autologous pig aorta. To demonstrate their therapeutic potential, piPSC-ECs were transplanted into mice with myocardial infarction (MI). Compared to control, animals transplanted with piPSC-ECs showed significant functional improvement measured by echocardiography (fractional shortening at week 4: 27.2±1.3% vs. 22.3±1.1%; P<0.001) and magnetic resonance imaging (ejection fraction at week 4: 45.8±1.3% vs. 42.3±0.9%; P<0.05). Quantitative protein assays and microfluidic single cell PCR profiling showed that piPSC-ECs released pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic factors in the ischemic microenvironment, which promoted neovascularization and cardiomyocyte survival, respectively. Release of paracrine factors varied significantly among subpopulations of transplanted cells, suggesting that transplantation of specific cell populations may result in greater functional recovery. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to successfully differentiate piPSCs-ECs from piPSCs and demonstrate that transplantation of piPSC-ECs improved cardiac function following MI via paracrine activation. Further development of these large animal iPSC models will yield significant insights into their therapeutic potential and accelerate the

  11. Ramos colaterais parietais e terminais da aorta abdominal em Myocastor coypus (nutria Terminal and parietal colateral branches of the abdominal aorta in Myocastor coypus (nutria

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    Paulete de Oliveira Vargas Culau

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, utilizaram-se 30 nutrias, 15 fêmeas e 15 machos, com o sistema arterial aórtico-abdominal preenchido com látex 603, pigmentado em vermelho, e fixado em uma solução aquosa de formaldeído a 20%. A aorta abdominal emitiu de sua superfície dorsal de 6 a 8 artérias lombares únicas. Das artérias renais, direita e esquerda, originaram-se as artérias frênico-abdominal para irrigar parte do diafragma e da parede abdominal lateral cranial. A aorta abdominal lançou dorsalmente, a artéria sacral mediana, cranialmente a sua bifurcação em artérias ilíacas comuns. As artérias ilíacas comuns, ramos terminais da aorta abdominal, originaram as artérias ilíacas interna e externa. A artéria ilíaca interna distribuiu-se nas vísceras da cavidade pélvica. A artéria ilíaca externa emitiu uma artéria umbilical e, antes de alcançar o anel femoral, lançou a artéria circunflexa ilíaca profunda para a parede abdominal lateral, em seus dois terços caudais. A artéria ilíaca externa lançou o tronco pudendo-epigástrico, que originou a artéria epigástrica caudal, para a parede abdominal ventral e a artéria pudenda externa, que saiu pelo canal inguinal, para irrigar a genitália externa. Os ramos parietais diretos da aorta abdominal foram as artérias lombares e a artéria sacral mediana, enquanto as artérias frênico-abdominal, circunflexa ilíaca profunda e epigástrica caudal, foram ramos colaterais parietais indiretos. Os ramos terminais da artéria aorta abdominal foram as artérias ilíacas comuns com seus ramos, as artérias ilíacas interna e externa.For this study it was used 30 nutria, 15 females and 15 males, with its abdominal aorta system full filled with latex 603, stained in red, and fixed in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde 20%. The abdominal aorta emitted from its dorsal surface 6 to 8 single lumbar arteries. From the renal arteries, left and right, it has been originated the phrenicoabdominal arteries

  12. Stenosis of the thoracic aorta in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Thomas; Kaplan, Paige; Rome, Jonathan J

    2010-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem congenital disorder affecting 1/8000 live births. Our objective was to review our experience with stenosis of the thoracic aorta (STA) in these patients. A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive WS patients at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2007. WS was diagnosed by an experienced medical geneticist and/or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Stenosis was diagnosed with either echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Freedom from intervention was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. From a total cohort of 270 patients, 37 (14%) patients with STA were identified and comprised the study group. Age at presentation was 2.1 + or - 4.0 years, and follow-up was 11.8 + or - 12.6 years (range 0-51). Long-segment STA was more common (89%) than discrete STA. Severity of STA was mild in 18, moderate in 10, and severe in 9 patients. Branch pulmonary artery stenosis was seen in 62% (23 of 37) of STA patients, and supravalvar aortic stenosis was seen in 54% (20 of 37) STA patients. Nine (24%) patients underwent intervention for STA: 8 cases were severe, and 1 case was moderate. Restenosis resulting in reintervention occurred in 5 of 9 (56%) patients, with 4 of 5 (80%) patients undergoing multiple reinterventions. Freedom from intervention was 89, 82, and 73% at 1, 5, and 20 years, respectively. One patient died. STA is common in WS and is generally the long-segment type. In patients with STA, interventions are common and usually occur by 5 years of age. Reintervention for STA occurs frequently.

  13. Morphological assessment of sucrose preservation for porcine heart valves.

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, P J; Olsen, E G; Ross, D N

    1982-01-01

    Porcine aortic valves stored in various concentrations of sucrose (50-80%) for up to 52 weeks were examined both histologically and by electron microscopy. The valves were compared with porcine aortic valves stored in a nutrient and antibiotic medium for 12 weeks. Overall preservation was better in those porcine valves stored in sucrose solution than in nutrient and antibiotic medium, the best preservation being in 50% sucrose. Despite wide separation of collagen at that concentration seen on...

  14. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  15. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1)), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3-3 μM) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 μM), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 μM), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 μM) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3-10 μM) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially

  16. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

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    Gajin Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0% of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery Clinic of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases 'Dedinje', Belgrade, three patients were treated due to abdominal aorta coarctation, two females aged 55 and 50 and a 4-year-old child. The patients were treated surgically (by-pass with a prosthetic graft and patch angioplasty and endovascular-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA with and without a stent. The follow-up period was 3-70 months. In the 50-year-old patient, angiography showed severe narrowing of the suprarenal segment of the abdominal aorta. Thoraco-abdominal bypass with a 16 mm dacronic tubular graft was performed. In the 4-year-old patient angiography also showed a suprarenal aorta narrowing. In the first act patch angioplasty was performed and after PTA of the visceral arteries was done on several occasions. In the 55-year-old patient, after diagnostic angiography, infrarenal aorta coarctation was registered. PTA was performed with stent placement. All patients were asymptomatic on control check-ups. Conclusion. Abdominal coarctation is a pathological disease which is seldom found in vascular surgery. Angiography is of major importance for setting the diagnosis and for the control of the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The combination of surgical and endovascular treatment in our patients showed very good results in the studied period.

  17. Effects of nesfatin-1 on atrial contractility and thoracic aorta reactivity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Ayşe; Tasatargil, Arda

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to examine the effects of nesfatin-1 on thoracic aorta vasoreactivity and to investigate the inotropic and chronotropic effects of nesfatin-1 on the spontaneous contractions of the isolated rat atria. Isolated right atria and thoracic aorta were used in organ baths. The reactivity of the thoracic aorta was evaluated by potassium chloride (KCl), phenylephrine (Phe), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The effects of nesfatin-1 on the spontaneous contractions of the rat atria were also examined. Nesfatin-1 (0.1-100 ng/ml) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation response in rat thoracic aorta. The relaxant responses to nesfatin-1 were inhibited by the removal of endothelium, NO synthase blocker N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-4 M), and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10-5 M). Nesfatin-1 (10 ng/ml, 30 min) increased the relaxation responses to either ACh or SNP, and the contractile response to both Phe and KCl did not significantly change in the arteries that were incubated with nesfatin-1 compared with the controls. The thoracic aorta contractions induced by the stepwise addition of Ca2+ to a high KCl solution with no Ca2+ were not significantly changed by nesfatin-1. Under calcium-free conditions, the contractions of the thoracic aorta rings incubated with nesfatin-1 in response to Phe were not significantly lower than those of the rings from the control rats. Nesfatin-1 showed positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat atria. Nesfatin-1 significantly changed the vascular responsiveness in rat thoracic aorta and produced positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat atria.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Ruptura traumática de la aorta descendente torácica Traumatic ruptura of the descending thoracic aorta

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    Gabriel González Sosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos torácicos graves (TT, ya sean abiertos o cerrados, pueden ocurrir secundarios a lesiones por arma de fuego, arma blanca, accidentes de tránsito, caídas de altura o compresiones torácicas por aplastamientos, entre otros y se han transformado en una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad, pero son las lesiones vasculares directamente responsables de un 20 a un 25 % del total de las muertes, causadas por estos traumatismos. La mayoría de los afectados por estas lesiones son personas jóvenes previamente sanas, fundamentalmente del sexo masculino. Se presenta un caso clínico de un paciente de 38 años de edad, con antecedentes de salud previos, que durante una riña, sufrió una herida en la región posterior del hemitórax derecho, por debajo del borde inferior de la escápula, penetrante en la cavidad torácica, ocasionada por un objeto corto punzante de fabricación artesanal, cuyo pedazo quedó dentro de esta cavidad, lo cual provocó una lesión de alrededor de 3 cm de longitud, aproximadamente a nivel de la aorta descendente torácica. El paciente fue intervenido quirúrgicamente de manera urgente, y se logró suturar la lesión vascular con éxito, proceder que casi nunca es posible debido al alto índice de mortalidad de este tipo de lesiones, pues la mayoría de las personas fallecen antes de su llegada a un centro especializado de salud.Severe thoracic traumatisms, either open or close, may occur secondary to injuries caused by firearms, knifes, traffic accidents, falls from height or thoracic compression due to crushing, among others. They have become an important cause of mortality and morbidity but they are vascular injuries directly responsible for 20 to 25 % of the total number of deaths caused by this type of traumatism. Most of the injuries occurred in healthy young people, mainly men. This is the case of a 38 years-old patient with a history of health problems, who in a street fight, suffered an injury

  20. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs are becoming an invaluable animal model for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Unlike traditional transgenesis, which is accomplished by randomly inserting an exogenous transgene cassette into the natural chromosomal context, targeted genome editing...... confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  1. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  2. Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Radt, B; Birngruber, R; Brinkmann, R

    2000-05-01

    New methods in refractive surgery require a considerable understanding of the material "cornea" and are often studied by theoretical modeling in order to gain insight into the procedure and an optimized approach to the technique. The quality of these models is highly dependent on the preciseness of its input parameters. Porcine cornea often is used as a model in preclinical studies because of its similarity to man and its availability. The important physical parameters for biomechanical deformation, heat conduction, and collagen denaturation kinetics have been determined for porcine cornea. Experimental methods include densitometry, calorimetry, turbidimetry, tensile tests, stress relaxation, and hydrothermal isometric tension measurements. The density of porcine cornea was measured as p = 1062+/-5 kg/m3, the heat capacity gave c = 3.74+/-0.05 J/gK. The stress-strain relation for corneal strips is represented by a third order approximation where the secant modulus yields about Esec approximately equal to 0.4 MPa for small strains less than 2%. The normalized stress relaxation is described by an exponential fit over time. The denaturation process of cornea is characterized by specific temperatures which can be related to the change of the mechanical properties. Denaturation kinetics are described according to the model of Arrhenius yielding the activation energy deltaEa = 106 kJ/mol and the phase transition entropy deltaS = 39 J/(mol x K). The established set of parameters characterizes the porcine cornea in a reliable way that creates a basis for corneal models. It furthermore gives direct hints of how to treat cornea in certain refractive techniques.

  3. Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) in Mangalitsa pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić, N.; Aleksić, S.; Di, L.; Stanimirović, Z.; Zhenhua, G.; Petrović, M.; Delić, N.; Radović, Č.; Parunović, N.; Gogić, M.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is one kind of molecular genetics defect which will cause malignant hyperthermia syndrome in pigs. It was reported that mutation of pig rynodine receptor (RYR1) gene is the main reason for PSS. The aim of this study was to test the RYR1 genotype of 10 Mangalitsa pigs using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, which is a reliable and simple method for RYR1 gene t...

  4. Spontaneous aortic thrombosis in a neonate with multiple thrombi in the main branches of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Y; Kishimoto, H; Lio, M; Ikawa, S; Kume, Y; Inamura, N; Matushita, T; Maeno, T; Nakada, T

    1995-04-01

    Spontaneous aortic thrombosis in the neonate is a rare entity with a high mortality rate. The present patient, who was diagnosed after showing haematuria and cyanosis, underwent aortic thrombectomy with a Fogarty catheter through a left thoracotomy, but died of sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure. Autopsy revealed multiple residual thrombi in the main branches of the abdominal aorta and necrosis of the abdominal organs despite a patent thoracoabdominal aorta. In patients with no blood flow in the main branches of the abdominal aorta on preoperative examination, removal of thrombi, including those in the main branches of the abdominal aorta, might be performed in a single, early and aggressive procedure.

  5. Tratamiento endovascular de las patologías de aorta -Estado del arte-: Parte 1 - Aneurismas de aorta abdominal Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies -State of the art-: Part 1 - Aneurysms of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E Uribe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el tratamiento endovascular de las patologías de aorta es una alternativa a la cirugía abierta. Éste ha demostrado ser seguro ya que arroja resultados iguales o superiores que el grupo quirúrgico. En este artículo se presenta el estado actual del tratamiento con endoprótesis de las patologías de aorta, así como las indicaciones, las contraindicaciones y el futuro del tratamiento con este tipo de dispositivos.Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies is actually an alternative to open surgery. It has proven to be safe, showing similar or better results to those achieved by surgery. In this article, treatment of aortic pathologies by means of endoprosthesis is presented, as well as its indications, contraindications and future treatment with this kind of devices.

  6. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  7. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

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    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  8. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 ( Fbn1 ) allele encoding a missense mutation ( Fbn1 C1039G/+ ), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS

  9. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Jiménez-Altayó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1 allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+, the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally

  10. Reduced expression of perlecan in the aorta of secondary hyperparathyroidism model rats with medial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Maki; Shigematsu, Takashi; Hatamura, Ikuji; Saji, Fumie; Mune, Sachiko; Kunimoto, Ken; Hanba, Yoshiyuki; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Negi, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an important complication that worsens the prognosis for dialysis patients, although its detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We produced a rat model for vascular calcification with hyperphosphatasemia and hyperparathyroidism, performing a 5/6 nephrectomy and providing a high-phosphorus, low-calcium diet for eight weeks. We examined mRNA obtained from the calcified aortae using microarray analysis, and searched for alterations in gene expression specifically in the calcified lesions. Medial calcification was demonstrated in the abdominal aorta of 12 out of 42 hyperparathyroidism rats. In the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats with vascular calcification, the genes for heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, were found to be down-regulated using microarray analysis and real time PCR. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated reduced production of perlecan in the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats. Perlecan is a major component of the vascular wall basement membrane and may play a role in protecting vascular smooth muscle cells from inflammatory cells and various toxins. It has also been reported that heparan sulfate chains may inhibit osteogenesis. Our findings indicate that perlecan may protect vascular smooth muscle cells from various factors that promote vascular calcification. It may be that reduced expression of perlecan in the calcified aortae of hyperparathyroid rats is a risk factor for vascular calcification.

  11. Safe wrapping of the borderline dilated ascending aorta during aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappainer, Ernesto; Fiorani, Vinicio; Nocchi, Andrea; Likaj, Ermal; Memishaj, Sabjan; Zogno, Mario

    2007-02-22

    Techniques of reduction aortoplasty are widely published in the literature with conflicting results. External support seems to be an important factor in preventing recurrence but, in some cases, this technique caused erosion of the aorta because of the wrinkles the prosthesis creates in the rear side of the aorta. A 73 year old patient with aortic valve stenosis and borderline dilated ascending aorta had aortic valve replacement and simple wrapping without aortoplasty. To avoid the formation of wrinkles, the dacron external support was tailored appropriately to obtain a curved, custom-made prosthesis. This custom-made prosthesis had the same diameter as the dilated aorta and, after valve replacement, fitted it properly. After 18 months neither computerized axial tomography nor ecocardiography detected wrinkles or dilatation recurrence. A safe, simple and probably new way to prepare an external wrapping is presented, which in this patient respected the shape of the aorta and prevented the formation of wrinkles in the prosthesis and possible complications such as wall erosion.

  12. Safe wrapping of the borderline dilated ascending aorta during aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappainer Ernesto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Techniques of reduction aortoplasty are widely published in the literature with conflicting results. External support seems to be an important factor in preventing recurrence but, in some cases, this technique caused erosion of the aorta because of the wrinkles the prosthesis creates in the rear side of the aorta. Case presentation A 73 year old patient with aortic valve stenosis and borderline dilated ascending aorta had aortic valve replacement and simple wrapping without aortoplasty. To avoid the formation of wrinkles, the dacron external support was tailored appropriately to obtain a curved, custom-made prosthesis. This custom-made prosthesis had the same diameter as the dilated aorta and, after valve replacement, fitted it properly. After 18 months neither computerized axial tomography nor ecocardiography detected wrinkles or dilatation recurrence. Conclusion A safe, simple and probably new way to prepare an external wrapping is presented, which in this patient respected the shape of the aorta and prevented the formation of wrinkles in the prosthesis and possible complications such as wall erosion.

  13. Anestesia en la coartación de la aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio retrospectivo de 200 pacientes operados de coartación de la aorta, en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "William Soler", en el período de 1990 a 1995. La ketamina fue el agente más utilizado en la premedicación anestésica de nuestros pacientes (190 pacientes, 95 %. En 150 pacientes se utilizó asociada con la atropina y en 40 se le adicionó además midazolam. En los 10 enfermos restantes se empleó sólo atropina. El fentanyl fue el agente más utilizado en la inducción de la anestesia (123 pacientes, 61,5 % y en el mantenimiento (186 enfermos, 92 % y aportó gran estabilidad hemodinámica. Se empleó vasodilatador en la mayoría de los pacientes (176 pacientes, 88 %, para el control de la presión arterial y dentro de éstos, los más utilizados fueron la nitroglicerina mezclada con regitina en 135 pacientes (67,5 %. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (76 pacientes, 38 % la acidosis metabólica (24 pacientes, 12 % y las arritmias cardíacas (14 pacientes, 7 %.A retrospective study of 200 patients operated on of aortic coarctation at the Cardiology Center of "William Soler" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 1995 was conducted. Ketamine was the most used agent in the anesthetic premedication of our patients (190 patients, 95 %. It was associated with atropine in 150 patients and midazolan was also added in 40 patients. In the other 10 patients atropine was only used. Fentanyl was the most administered agent in the induction of anesthesia (123 patients, 61.5 % and in the maintenance (186 patients, 92 %. It provided a great hemodynamic stability. Vasodilators were used in most of the patients (176 patients, 88 % to control arterial pressure. The most used were nitroglycerin mixed with regitine (135 patients, 67.5 %. The most frequent complications were arterial hypertension (76 patients, 38 %, metabolic acidosis (24 patients, 12 %, and cardiac arrhytmias (14

  14. Enfermedad ectasiante de la aorta abdominal: Morbilidad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia E Chércoles Cazate

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó la experiencia de 10 años de trabajo (1983 a 1992, durante los cuales se atendieron 388 pacientes en el Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, con el diagnóstico principal o asociado de aneurisma de la aorta abdominal. En el período analizado ingresaron en angiología y cirugía vascular 98 pacientes, 176 en medicina y 8 en otros servicios. Fallecieron a su llegada al cuerpo de guardia 106 por rotura del aneurisma o disección aórtica. Predominó el sexo masculino y la procedencia urbana. La hipertensión arterial fue la afección asociada más frecuente en los operados y la cardiopatía isquémica en los no operados. En los operados electivos, la complicación inmediata que más ocurrencia tuvo fue la trombosis de una rama de la prótesis y en los urgentes el sangramiento; mientras que en las mediatas, los operados electivos presentaron bronconeumonía y en los urgentes, anemia e íleo paralíticoThe experience of ten years of work (1983-1992 was presented. During that period, 388 patients with the main of associated diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm were managed at the "Saturnino Lora" Provincial Educational Hospital, at Santiago de Cuba. In the decade analyzed, 98 patients entered in angiology and vascular surgery, 176 patients entered in medicine, and 8 in other services. In arriving to the emergency room, 106 subjects deceased due to aneurystic rupture or aortic dissection. Masculine sex and urban origin were prevailing. Arterial hypertension was the disease most frequently associated in the operated patients, and ischemic cardiac disease, among the non operated. In the elective operated patients, the immediate complication with the highest occurrence was the thrombosis of a branch of the prosthesis, and bleeding in the urgent cases, while in the mediate complications, the elective operated patients presented bronchopneumonia, and the urgent cases had anemia and paralytic ileus

  15. Thrombosis of abdominal aorta during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of testicular seminoma - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrckens Ralf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of germ cell tumours are inadequately recognized to date. Case Presentation A 49 year old man with advanced seminoma underwent two courses of chemotherapy according to the PEB regimen. Upon restaging, two thrombotic deposits were noted in the descending part of the thoracic aorta and in the infrarenal abdominal aorta, respectively. Although thrombotic plaques caused aortic occlusion of about 30%, no clinical signs of malperfusion of limbs were registered. The patient was placed on anticoagulant therapy. Six months after completion of chemotherapy, thrombotic deposits had completely resolved. In the absence of other predisposing factors, it must be assumed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy represented a strong stimulus for arterial thrombosis in the aorta. Conclusions This is the first case of endo-aortic thrombosis during chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Providers of chemotherapy must be aware of arterial thrombosis even in young patients with testicular cancer.

  16. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  17. THE ROLE OF THE HEREDITARY PREDISPOSITION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AORTA COARCTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Tatarinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of examination of the families of patients with aorta coarctation the factors predisposing to this condition were established. Sixty eight patients with different localization, stenosis degree and extent of aorta coarctation were included into this study. All the patients were performed echocardiography, indirect and direct. Typical coarctation was found in 95,6% of the cases, in 55,9% it was associated with bicuspid aortic valve. The most significant predisposing factors to this anomaly development were compromised hereditary (33,8% and complications during pregnancy (57,4%. According to the received data, during the family planning it is important to examine both parents, as father’s disorders may have more marked impact on aorta coarctation development, than mother’s ones. Children with compromised heredity on congenital heart defects are recommended to be carried out echocardiographic investigation at the early period of time after birth, despite the absence of disorders on intrauterine ultrasound.

  18. Coartación de la aorta: una revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    O Ruíz Pérez; LR Méndez Duran

    2015-01-01

    La coartación de la aorta es una patología caracterizada por el estrechamiento de la arteria aorta, con la consecuente obstrucción de su flujo; localizada con mayor frecuencia a nivel de aorta torácica descendente distal al origen de la subclavia izquierda, y en la pared posterior de la arteria. Supone aproximadamente el 5,1% (3-10%) de las cardiopatías congénitas y constituye la octava malformación cardiaca por orden de frecuencia. La presentación clínica de la coartación aórtica es muy vari...

  19. Percutaneous Closure of an Iatrogenic Aorta to Right Ventricle Fistula Acquired Following Intracardiac Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Durgaprasad; Vanajakshamma, Velam; Ranganayakulu, Kummaraganti Paramathma

    2016-05-01

    Iatrogenic aortocardiac fistulae have been described rarely following intracardiac repair. This 28 year-old-male presented to our facility with dyspnea going on 20 days after closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and resection of subaortic membrane. A communication was noticed between the aorta and the right ventricle (RV) upon transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac catheterisation revealed a significant shunt and an aortogram revealed a 6 mm communication between aorta and right ventricle. Percutaneous closure of this defect was attempted under local anaesthesia through right femoral access. An alpha arteriovenous loop was formed despite repeated attempts, hence a retrograde approach for device delivery was considered. An 8 mm Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder device was deployed across the defect achieving a complete closure through an 8F delivery sheath. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an iatrogenic aorta to RV fistula occurring in a patient following an intracardiac repair which has been successfully treated percutaneously.

  20. Beat Pressure and Comparing it with Ascending Aorta Pressure in Normal and Abnormal Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Sajadi, Behrang; Zolfonoon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments. Also it is shown that pressure graph from brachial is so near to aortic pressure because of this its pressure signal is usable instead of aortic pressure. Furthermore, obstruction in ascending aorta, brachial and its effects has been showed in different figures.

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...

  2. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  3. Comparison of gene expression patterns between porcine cumulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    1 Department of Gene and Cell Engineering, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,. Beijing 100094 ... quantitative RT-PCR methods, we compared the mRNA expression patterns in porcine oocytes from two ... Keywords: Differential gene expression, DD-RT-PCR, porcine oocytes, cumulus.

  4. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or completely open latrines (p=0.035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33- 43.02) compared to enclosed latrines, and feeding potato peels to pigs (P=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis fluctuated throughout the seasons, and confined pigs...

  5. Determination of free amino acids of porcine serum responsible for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of free amino acids of porcine serum responsible for the meat quality by 1 H NMR and HPLC analyses. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The pH24h correlated well with the water holding capacity (WHC) of porcine meat, whereas a strongly negative correlation was observed between pH24h and serum ...

  6. Comparative histology and immunohistochemistry of porcine versus human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Sabine; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Laurent, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François; Dubois, Bertrand; Kanitakis, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Porcine skin is increasingly being employed as a model of human skin in various research fields, including pharmacology, toxicology and immunology, with particular interest in percutaneous permeation and organ transplantation. Porcine skin shows several anatomical and physiological similarities, but also some differences, with human skin, but few in depth comparative studies are so far available. To study the immunohistochemical properties of normal porcine skin in comparison with human skin. We performed a histological and immunohistochemical study on frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from domestic swine and normal human skin, using a panel of 93 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies recognizing various human and porcine skin cell types or structures. We found that several antibodies used to detect normal human skin cells showed equivalent immunoreactivity on normal porcine skin. However, some antibodies commonly used to detect human skin antigens remained unreactive on porcine skin. Our findings highlight the main immunohistochemical properties of porcine skin in comparison with those of human skin and provide a morphological and immunohistochemical basis useful to researchers using porcine skin.

  7. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of diltiazem in rabbits with occluded aorta Efeitos neuroprotetores do diltiazem em coelhos com oclusão da aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonguc Saba

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effect of the perfusion of the distal aorta with diltiazem and ringer lactate solution on the spinal cord. METHODS: Twenty-seven New Zealand rabbits were used in which spinal cord ischemia was provided by occlusion of the aorta for thirty minutes. Experimental animals were divided into four groups: group A (n=4, the sham operation group; group B (n=8 in which intraaortic balloon occlusion alone was applied; group C (n=7, ringer lactate group in which ringer lactate was perfused into distal aorta at a rate of 40 ml/kg, hr, following intraaortic balloon occlusion; group D (n=8 diltiazem group in which diltiazem 40 mg/kg, hr, in Ringer lactate was perfused into distal aorta following intraaortic balloon occlusion. Motor function of hind limbs was evaluated by Tarlov's scoring system. After observation, spinal cords were removed for histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: The degree of histopathological injury was well correlated with neurological function. The most severe histopathological injury and neurological dysfunction occurred in group B, followed by group C, D and A respectively. No injury or neurological dysfunction occurred in the sham group. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of diltiazem on both histopathological injury and neurological function was significant in comparison with control groups.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho é determinar o efeito protetor da perfusão na aorta distal com diltiazem e solução de Ringer lactato na medula espinal. MÉTODOS: Foram usados 27 coelhos da raça New-Zeland, nos quais se provocou isquemia da medula espinal por meio de oclusão da aorta durante 30 minutos. Os animais experimentais foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo A (n=4, o grupo de cirurgia simulada (pseudocirurgia; o grupo B (n=8 no qual se aplicou somente a oclusão do balão intraaórtico; grupo C (n=7, o grupo do Ringer lactato, no qual a solução de

  9. Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs, can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig─an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of in vitro culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

  10. Splice variants of porcine PPHLN1 encoding periphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2017-01-01

    of the periphilin-1 protein. Thus, variants Sp1 and Sp1 are the result of alternative splicing. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was mapped to chromosome 5. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was found to be differentially expressed in various porcine organs and tissues. The sequence of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA, encoding the periphilin......The periphilin-1 protein is encoded by the PPHLN1 gene. Periphilin-1 is found in the cornified cell envelope during the terminal differentiation of keratinocyte at the outer layer of epidermis. In the current study we report on the cloning and characterization of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA and two...... splice variants hereof. RT-PCR cloning using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences resulted in three PPHLN1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and two transcript variant resulting in shorter proteins. The longest encoded periphilin-1, consisting of 373 amino acids, displays a high...

  11. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine-T...

  12. Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aorta in Loeys-Dietz II Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Harris, Kevin M; Kische, Stephan; Alden, Peter; Schumacher, Clark; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-10-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is predominantly characterized by involvement of the aorta, manifesting as aneurysmal dilatation or aortic dissection. Patients with LDS manifest with spontaneous aneurysms and dissections of central and peripheral arterial beds. We present 2 cases of young male patients with Loeys-Dietz II aortopathy, who manifested with spontaneous intimal tear of descending thoracic aorta and contained aortic rupture. Both patients were managed by endovascular repair, with collaborative efforts of teams comprising interventional cardiologists and radiologists, and a vascular surgeon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rupture of vasa vasorum and intramural hematoma of the aorta: a changing paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Adamastor Humberto Pereira

    2010-01-01

    A ruptura dos vasa vasorum tem sido reconhecida como uma das causas do hematoma intramural da aorta há 90 anos. Esta breve revisão apresenta sistematicamente a fisiologia desses vasos e o seu papel na fisiopatologia das alterações parietais da aorta que ocorrem na hipertensão arterial, na arteriosclerose e na síndrome aórtica aguda. A hipótese defendida aqui é a de que a ruptura dos vasa vasorum ocorre como um fenômeno secundário e não como um dos fatores causais na fisiopatologia do hematoma...

  14. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2015-01-01

    haematoma (1000 ml) in the pericardial sac. Cardiac hypertrophy (556 g) was observed in the patient, though no other cardiovascular abnormalities were found. Histological analysis showed cystic medial necrosis of the ascending aortic wall. A ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta......Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic...

  15. Ruptured penetrating ulcer of the ascending aorta with pulmonary artery compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiwelu, Ngozichukwuka; Finn, Chris; Vanden Driesen, Rohan; Sanders, Lucas; Joshi, Pragnesh

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary artery involvement has been reported in various degrees of complicated dissection of the ascending aorta. The prognosis remains poor without high-risk surgical intervention, but conservative management can be considered in high-risk cases. We report a case of nonoperative management of an octogenarian who presented with a contained rupture of his proximal ascending aorta, likely from a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. It was complicated by extrinsic compression of the pulmonary trunk and transient pulmonary hypertension without features of acute right heart failure. He remained alive at the one-year follow-up. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Flow visualisation study of spiral flow in the aorta-renal bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, David; Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Li, Zuming; Barber, Tracie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the flow dynamics in an idealised model of the aorta-renal bifurcation using flow visualisation, with a particular focus on the effect of aorta-to-renal flow ratio and flow spirality. The recirculation length was longest when there was low flow in the renal artery and smaller in the presence of spiral flow. The results also indicate that patients without spiral flow or who have low flow in the renal artery due to the presence of stenosis may be susceptible to heightened development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  17. Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Changhee

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that are considered emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens of pigs that pose a significant economic threat to the global pork industry. Although cholesterol is known to affect the replication of a broad range of viruses in vitro, its significance and role in porcine nidovirus infection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether cellular or/and viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine nidovirus infection. Our results showed that depletion of cellular cholesterol by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) dose-dependently suppressed the replication of both nidoviruses. Conversely, cholesterol depletion from the viral envelope had no inhibitory effect on porcine nidovirus production. The addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells moderately restored the infectivity of porcine nidoviruses, indicating that the presence of cholesterol in the target cell membrane is critical for viral replication. The antiviral activity of MβCD on porcine nidovirus infection was found to be predominantly exerted when used as a treatment pre-infection or prior to the viral entry process. Furthermore, pharmacological sequestration of cellular cholesterol efficiently blocked both virus attachment and internalization and, accordingly, markedly affected subsequent post-entry steps of the replication cycle, including viral RNA and protein biosynthesis and progeny virus production. Taken together, our data indicate that cell membrane cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus entry into cells, and pharmacological drugs that hamper cholesterol-dependent virus entry may have antiviral potential against porcine nidoviruses.

  18. Diagnosis of a perforating aneurysm of the aorta as late complication of patch aortoplasty by central venous DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzmann, A.; Kreuzer, E.; Huber, R.M.; Kenn, R.W.; Pfeifer, K.J.

    1988-06-01

    11 years after patch aortoplasty due to coarctation of the aorta a 33 year-old-patient experienced two spontaneous haemoptyses. A centralvenous digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large aneurysm of the proximal descending aorta penetrating the left upper lobe of the lung. The successful emergency surgical treatment consisted of implantation of a dacron-prothesis.

  19. CA-45(2+) MOVEMENTS INDUCED BY CA2+ CHLORIDE IN ISOLATED RAT AORTA UNDER K+-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; NEBEL, U; WIRTH, A; WILFFERT, B

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtain further insight into the mechanism of this contraction Ca-45(2+) uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing

  20. 45Ca2+movements induced by Ca2+chloride in isolated rat aorta under K+-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Nebel, U.; Wirth, A.; Wilffert, B.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtained further insight into the mechanisms of this contraction45Ca2+uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing the

  1. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  2. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  3. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  4. Experiencia en el manejo endovascular para el tratamiento de la aorta torácica Experience in endovascular management for thoracic aorta treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: el tratamiento endovascular ofrece la posibilidad de cubrir el origen de la disección y evitar que progrese hasta aneurisma de la aorta, y con ello demuestra una reducción en la mortalidad hasta del 16%. Objetivo: evaluar los resultados quirúrgicos en términos de morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes sometidos a manejo endovascular de las lesiones de la aorta torácica en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia desde 2003 hasta 2005. Diseño-método: estudio longitudinal tipo descriptivo retrospectivo, en el que se evaluaron las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes sometidos a manejo endovascular de patología toracoabdominal; en éste sólo se incluyeron los pacientes con procedimientos de la aorta torácica, desde 2003 hasta 2005. El análisis de los datos se realizó en Stata/SE 8,0. Resultados: se realizaron procedimientos de aorta torácica en 16 pacientes. El 75% de los pacientes eran hombres con edad promedio de 55,9 ± 12,6 años. El 87,5% (14 pacientes presentaban disección aórtica tipo A o B; un paciente transección traumática de la aorta y un paciente aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente. Las disecciones agudas se presentaron en 78,6% (11 pacientes y las crónicas en 21,4% (3 pacientes. El promedio de endoprótesis usadas fue de 2,8 ± 1. La estancia en la unidad de cuidados intensivos fue de 3 ± 2,7 días. El 81,3% de los pacientes no presentaron complicaciones mayores. La mortalidad fue del 18,7% (3 pacientes. A todos se les realizó control post-operatorio con tomografía axial computarizada, con evolución satisfactoria. Conclusión: de acuerdo con los reportes de la literatura con mayor casuística, se considera que el manejo endovascular para el tratamiento de la disección, aneurisma o trauma aórtico es un procedimiento confiable que disminuye la morbi-mortalidad.Antecedents: endovascular treatment has the possibility of covering the dissection origin and to avoid its progression to aortic

  5. Nitric oxide transport in normal human thoracic aorta: effects of hemodynamics and nitric oxide scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall.

  6. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  7. Large mobile thrombus in non-atherosclerotic thoracic aorta as the source of peripheral arterial embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic Zoran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of thrombi in the atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmatic aorta with peripheral arterial embolism is a common scenario. Thrombus formation in a morphologically normal aorta, however, is a rare event. A 50 years old woman was admitted to the mergency department for pain, coldness, and anesthesia in the the left foot. She had a 25 years history of cigarette smoking, a history of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. An extensive serologic survey for hypercoagulability, including antiphospholipid antibodies, and vasculitis disorders was negative. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a large, pedunculated and hypermobile thrombus attached to the aortic wall 5 cm distal of the left subclavian artery. The patient was admitted to the surgery department, where a 15 cm long fresh, parietal thrombus could be removed from the aorta showing no macroscopic wall lesions or any other morphologic abnormalities. This case report demonstrates the possibility of evolving a large, pedunculated thrombus in a morphologically intact aorta in a postmenopausal woman with thrombogenic conditions such as hyperfibrinogenemia, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and HRT. For these patients, profiling the individual risk and weighing the benefits against the potential risks is warranted before prescribing HRT.

  8. Imaging of the distal ascending aorta using modified transesophageal echocardiography in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311475361

    2009-01-01

    Epiaortic ultrasound scanning of the ascending aorta is a safe and useful method to detect atherosclerosis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The use of epiaortic ultrasound can lead to modifications of the surgical technique, which effectively reduces the post-operative incidence of stroke in

  9. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and descecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  10. 198. Extubación inmediata tras cirugía de aorta ascendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Arnaldo

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La extubación inmediata en pacientes sometidos a cirugía de aorta ascendente es viable y segura, incluso en pacientes intervenidos con parada cardiocirculatoria. La necesidad de reintubación es rara, y está relacionada con el sangrado. Facilita la deambulación precoz y disminuye el tiempo de estancia en UCI.

  11. Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta as an unusual complication of coronary angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, H.; van Geel, P. P.; de Boer, R. A.

    Introduction: Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is a rare diagnosis with high mortality. Report: Percutaneous coronary intervention was complicated by bacteraemia with Staphylococcus aureus and a mycotic aortic aneurysm, an unusual complication of coronary angiography. Combining CT and PET scan showed a

  12. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on contraction and45Ca movements in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Koch, P.; Wilhelm, D.; Nebel, U.; Leidig, A.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1989-01-01

    To study the selectivity of calmodulin antagonists it was assumed that they should inhibit noradrenaline (NA)- and K+-induced contractions similarly without an accompanying inhibition of45Ca uptake. Therefore, in isolated rat aorta the effects of W-7, calmidazolium and trifluoperazine on contraction

  13. Coarctatio aortae: 40 års opfølgning efter kirurgisk korrektion - sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høimyr, Hilde; Pedersen, Thais A L; Christensen, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) was previously considered cured after surgical repair. Among 229 patients operated for CoA in Aarhus between 1965 and 1985, 14 died at surgery and 35 died during 20-40 years of follow-up, mainly due to cardiovascular disease. The mortality among CoA patients was 4...

  14. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    in tension. Aortic wall elasticity was measured in duplicate. Samples of the aorta were also prepared for histology (total aortic wall thickness, thickness of tunica intima and media, thickness of adventitia) and immunohistochemistry (volume and mean fluorescence intensity of collagens I and III and elastin...

  15. Cholesterol uptake in the mouse aorta increases during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvinsson, Marie; Tallkvist, Jonas; Nyström-Rosander, Christina; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been suggested as a stimulator of the atherosclerotic process. Mice fed a normal diet were infected intranasally with C. pneumoniae and given one intraperitoneal injection of 14C-cholesterol tracer per day for 12 days. Bacteria were demonstrated in the aorta in the early phase of infection and in lungs and liver throughout the study period of 20 days. 14C-cholesterol was not affected in the heart but increased in the blood, liver and aorta on day 4 when the infection was clinically most severe. Furthermore, on day 20 14C-cholesterol tended to be increased in the aorta. Accordingly, copper- and zinc levels and expressions of the infection biomarkers Cxcl2 and Ifng increased in the liver on day 4 with a tendency of increased of copper, zinc and Ifng on day 20. In mice where bacteria could be cultivated from the lungs, expressions of cholesterol transporters Abca1 and Idol were both increased in the liver on day 4. The increased levels of 14C-cholesterol in blood and aorta together with increased Abca1 and Idol in the liver during C. pneumoniae infection in mice fed a normal diet suggest that this pathogen may have a role in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Relationship between aneurism of ascending part of aorta and syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osovska N.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the main reasons for the development of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and predictors of its complications in patients of all ages. To determine the cause and age-associated risk factors for aneurysms there were examined 154 patients with the presence of the expansion of the root and / or ascending aorta of more than 40 mm, according to echocardiographic examination. Patients were divided into 4 categories by age: 18-29 years, 30-44 years 45-59 years 60-74 years. Instrumental methods of examination: echocardiography, ECG, ECG monitoring and blood pressure, heart rate variability, ultrasound of internal organs were used. Syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia was established according to the criteria of the working group of the British Society of Rheumatology. Joint hypermobility syndrome was determined according to the Brayton criteria. Statistical processing was carried out by methods of variation statistic program StatSoft "Statistica" v.10.0. It was established that in young and middle aged patients the cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta more often is connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. In older patients the main cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased contractile function of the heart.

  17. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waeckel, L.; Badier-Commander, C.; Damery, T.

    2015-01-01

    not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers...

  18. High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki [Jichi Medical School Hospital, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Non muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta | Ogeng'o ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of cellular composition of aortic tunica media is important to improve understanding of aortic pathology. The aorta of 6 healthy male goats was studied by electron microscopy to elucidate cell types within the tunica media. Glutaraldehyde fixed specimens were processed for durcupan embedding and sectioning, ...

  20. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material.

  1. Ultrasonographic measurement of canine aorta and aortic inlet before and after administration of Propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Assadnassab

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Induction of safe anesthesia is an important task in veterinary medicine. One of the drugs used for anesthesia is Propofol. In this study, five healthy German shepherd dogs were selected and standard echocardiographic procedure from the right parasternal axis view conducted to observe the aorta and aortic inlet in B-mode and M-mode display formats before and after anesthesia with 6 mg/kg of Propofol. In the short axis view, the dorso-ventral and transverse diameter of the aorta in B-mode display and in the long axis view, the systolic and diastolic diameter of the aortic inlet in M-mode display were measured. The average dorso-ventral and transverse diameter of aorta in normal dogs was 22.77±1.49 mm and 20.75± 1.34 mm respectively while in anesthetized dogs these figures were 22.02±0.87 mm and 20.64±1.19 mm respectively which were not significantly different from normal dogs. However, the mean diameter of aorta inlet in M-mode display during systole and diastole was 15.62±0.84 mm and 15.31±0.68 mm respectively in normal dogs and for anesthetized animals these figures were 21.60±1.23 mm during systole and 19.70±0.68 mm during diastole which were significantly different compared with the normal dogs.

  2. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  3. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Methods Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Results Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Conclusion Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure. PMID:24676223

  4. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder.

  5. [The diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the aorta. 36 cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, J; Latarjet, J; Cognet, J B; Clermont, C; Mazoyer, B; Tran, M V; Juillard, F; Neidhardt, J H

    1980-10-18

    Thirty six cases of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (TRA) were diagnosed during the hours following the accident responsible. Rupture was situated at the aortic isthmus in 32 cases, the ascending aortic in 2 cases, the arch of the aorta in 1 case and the descending sub-isthmic aorta in 1 case. Ten patients had no rib fractures. In 16 patients not undergoing surgery before 20th hour after the trauma, 10 died of secondary rupture. The course of a TRA is thus unpredictable and it is of fundamental importance to make the diagnosis and undertake appropriate surgical treatment immediately. The essential clinical sign is a difference in blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs (6 6%). Radiological signs suggestive of TRA are, in a plain PA chest film : widening of the mediastinum (92 %), poor visibility of the knuckle of the aorta (89 %), left haemothorax (67 %), deviation of the trachea to the right (55 %) and lowering of the left main bronchus (47 %). The slightest suspicion of a TRA should lead to aortic angiography preferably via an arterial approach (humeral or femoral), or intravenously. Surgical treatment should not be delayed.

  6. Comparison of in vitro flows past a mechanical heart valve in anatomical and axisymmetric aorta models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2017-06-01

    Flow characteristics past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve were measured under physiological flow conditions in a straight tube with an axisymmetric expansion, similar to vessels used in previous studies, and in an anatomical model of the aorta. We found that anatomical features, including the three-lobed sinus and the aorta's curvature affected significantly the flow characteristics. The turbulent and viscous stresses were presented and discussed as indicators for potential blood damage and thrombosis. Both types of stresses, averaged over the two axial measurement planes, were significantly lower in the anatomical model than in the axisymmetric one. This difference was attributed to the lower height-to-width ratio and more gradual contraction of the anatomical aortic sinus. The curvature of the aorta caused asymmetries in the velocity and stress distributions during forward flow. Secondary flows resulting from the aorta's curvature are thought to have redistributed the fluid stresses transversely, resulting in a more homogeneous stress distribution in the anatomical aortic root than in the axisymmetric root. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of modelling accurately the aortic geometry in experimental and computational studies of prosthetic devices. Moreover, our findings suggest that grafts used for aortic root replacement should approximate as closely as possible the shape of the natural sinuses.

  7. Vector flow imaging of the ascending aorta. Are systolic backflow and atherosclerosis related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    understand the aortic flow and especially the complex flow patterns, the ascending aorta was scanned intraoperatively in patients undergoing heart surgery using the angle-independent vector velocity ultrasound method Transverse Oscillation (TO). The primary aim of the study was to analyze systolic backflow...... systolic velocities (pindicates that vector flow...

  8. Pulse wave imaging of normal and aneurysmal abdominal aortas in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianwen; Fujikura, Kana; Tyrie, Leslie S; Tilson, M David; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2009-04-01

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease. The current clinical criterion for treating AAAs is an increased diameter above a critical value. However, the maximum diameter does not correlate well with aortic rupture, the main cause of death from AAA disease. AAA disease leads to changes in the aortic wall mechanical properties. The pulse-wave velocity (PWV) may indicate such a change. Because of limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, the widely used foot-to-foot method measures the global, instead of regional, PWV between two points at a certain distance in the circulation. However, mechanical properties are nonuniform along the normal and pathological (e.g., the AAA and atherosclerosis) arteries; thus, such changes are typically regional. Pulse-wave imaging (PWI) has been developed by our group to map the pulse-wave propagation along the abdominal aorta in mice in vivo. By using a retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gating technique, the radio-frequency (RF) signals over one cardiac cycle were obtained in murine aortas at the extremely high frame rate of 8 kHz and with a field-of-view (FOV) of 12 x 12 mm(2). The velocities of the aortic wall were estimated using an RF-based speckle tracking method. An Angiotensin II (AngII) infusion-based AAA model was used to simulate the human AAA case. Sequences of wall velocity images can noninvasively and quantitatively map the propagation of the pulse wave along the aortic wall. In the normal and sham aortas, the propagation of the pulse wave was relatively uniform along the wall, while in the AngII-treated aortas, the propagation was shown to be nonuniform. There was no significant difference ( p > 0.05) in the PWV between sham (4.67 +/- 1.15 m/s, n=5) and AngII-treated (4.34 +/- 1.48 m/s, n=17) aortas. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression was significantly higher ( p wave were lower and the pulse wave moved nonuniformly along the AngII-treated aorta ( p wave propagation

  9. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  10. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  11. Melatonin regulates lipid metabolism in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Kim, Geon A; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-03-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1). Oocytes treated with melatonin formed smaller LDs and abundantly expressed several genes associated with lipolysis, including ATGL, CGI-58, HSL, and PLIN2. Moreover, melatonin significantly increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP, as indicated by fluorescent staining. Concomitantly, melatonin treatment upregulated gene expression related to fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1a, CPT1b, CPT2, and ACADS) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, TFAM, and PRDX2). Overall, melatonin treatment not only altered both the morphology and amount of LDs, but also increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP. In addition, melatonin upregulated mRNA expression levels of lipogenesis, lipolysis, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes in porcine oocytes. These results indicated that melatonin promoted lipid metabolism and thereby provided an essential energy source for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Observations on the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R H; Donaldson-Wood, C; Allender, U

    1976-02-01

    Evidence presented suggests that porcine parvovirus is highly stable and infective. Introduction of virus to susceptible herds results in 100% infection rate within the following 3 months. Active immunity is associated with high persistent levels of haemagglutination-inhibitating (HI) antibody (greater than 256), piglets suckling immune sows acquiring HI titres between 10,000 and 40,000. Loss of passive immunity, measured by HI, occurs in a majority of pigs between 14 and 26 weeks of age (mean 21 weeks), whilst an average of 25% (2-47%) of pigs lose HI titres between 26 and 36 weeks of age. Susceptibility to challenge with virus does not occur until 3-5 weeks following loss of HI titres. In endemically infected herds 98-100% of adult pigs show serological evidence of active immunity. A significant proportion of gilts may not be actively immune to porcine parvovirus at the time of first service, and subsequent infection may occur while these gilts are pregnant.

  13. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2015-01-01

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Early Cellular Changes in the Ascending Aorta and Myocardium in a Swine Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Rabya; Huang, Thomas; Mahmood, Feroze; Owais, Khurram; Bardia, Amit; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Liu, David; Senthilnathan, Venkatachalam; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Sellke, Frank; Matyal, Robina

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with pathological remodeling of the heart and adjacent vessels. The early biochemical and cellular changes underlying the vascular damage are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to establish the nature, extent, and initial timeline of cytochemical derangements underlying reduced ventriculo-arterial compliance in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. Yorkshire swine (n = 8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-cholesterol (HCD) for 12 weeks. Myocardial function and blood flow was assessed before harvesting the heart. Immuno-blotting and immuno-histochemical staining were used to assess the cellular changes in the myocardium, ascending aorta and left anterior descending artery (LAD). There was significant increase in body mass index, blood glucose and mean arterial pressures (p = 0.002, p = 0.001 and p = 0.024 respectively) in HCD group. At the cellular level there was significant increase in anti-apoptotic factors p-Akt (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002) and Bcl-xL (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01) in the HCD aorta and myocardium, respectively. Pro-fibrotic markers TGF-β (p = 0.01), pSmad1/5 (p = 0.03) and MMP-9 (p = 0.005) were significantly increased in the HCD aorta. The levels of pro-apoptotic p38MAPK, Apaf-1 and cleaved Caspase3 were significantly increased in aorta of HCD (p = 0.03, p = 0.04 and p = 0.007 respectively). Similar changes in coronary arteries were not observed in either group. Functionally, the high cholesterol diet resulted in significant increase in ventricular end systolic pressure and-dp/dt (p = 0.05 and p = 0.007 respectively) in the HCD group. Preclinical metabolic syndrome initiates pro-apoptosis and pro-fibrosis pathways in the heart and ascending aorta, while sparing coronary arteries at this early stage of dietary modification.

  15. DOMINANCE OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE AMONG PATIENTS WITH ANEURYSM OF ABDOMINAL AORTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zdravkovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Persons with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta have high prevalence of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. It cannot be stated with certainty whether these persons die in a large number due to the existence of risk factors or the genesis and complications of aneurysm itself. In patients with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, there is a high correlation with the coronary artery disease; therefore, the aim of the study was to prove whether or not this is the case. The patients in preparation for the resection of the abdominal aorta aneurysm at the Institute of Cardiovascular Disease underwent the examination. The study included 377 examinees, of whom 341 males and 36 females, aged 45 to 83 years, during the three-year interval (from 2004 to 2006. The aim of the study was to determine the dominance of the coronary artery disease among the patients with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. In the process of analyzing the data obtained from patients and medical evidence, it was found out that a large number of the abdominal aortic aneurysm patients were at the same time the coronary artery disease patients (55,2%; Hi=15,04; p80 kg was larger, as well as the percentage of patients with hypertension (89% and increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (67%. There was a great number of those with the inherited factor (40%. It has been proven that the risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease are in direct association with the risk factors for the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Also, there is a great predominance of the coronary artery disease among the patients with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The coronary artery disease is one of the main risk factors. If we managed to prevent the appearance of this disease or achieve the timely diagnosing of it and eventual curing, we would be able to decrease the development of the abdominal aortic aneurysm well as the consequences and further complications.

  16. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved and th...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  17. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  18. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  19. Genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A-1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A-2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population.

  20. Follow-up of aortic dissection: contribution of MR angiography for evaluation of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Meyns, B. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Rademakers, F.E. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verschakelen, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Flameng, W. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-06-01

    Spin-echo MR is an established method to evaluate thoracic aortic dissections, but is not well suited to study the abdominal aorta. In this study we evaluated whether MR angiography could provide a complete examination of the abdominal aorta. In 28 patients (40 MR studies) with suspected (n = 6) or known (n = 34) aortic dissection, MR studies were performed. Thoracic aorta was evaluated with spin-echo and gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging. Axial two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography with thin overlapping slices was used to study the abdominal aorta. Intermediate and high signal intensity on MR angiography was interpreted as patent flow, and low signal was interpreted as thrombus. The presence of an intima flap and the re-entry site could be depicted in all MR studies. Thrombus in the false channel was seen in 8 studies. The origin of the abdominal visceral branches and their relation to the false-true channel could be depicted, except in 4 of 80 renal arteries studied. Extension of the dissection into the coeliac trunk was seen in 2 and in the superior mesenteric artery in 10 studies. Dilatation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was seen in 20 studies, and of the infrarenal aorta in 9 studies. MR angiography provides valuable information about the abdominal aorta and its branches in patients with aortic dissection. This makes MR imaging appealing as the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic dissection. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Ultra-sonografia da aorta abdominal e de seus ramos em cães Ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its branches in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kamikawa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som bidimensional e o ultra-som Doppler foram utilizados para avaliar a biometria e a hemodinâmica da aorta abdominal e artérias ilíacas externas de 131cães clinicamente normais. Os resultados da avaliação biométrica da aorta abdominal indicaram um diâmetro médio de 0,80cm para o seu segmento diafragmático (AOD; 0,74cm para o seu segmento caudal às artérias renais (AOR e 0,69cm para o segmento cranial à sua bifurcação (AOT. A artéria ilíaca externa direita (AIED apresentou o diâmetro médio de 0,42cm e a artéria ilíaca externa esquerda (AIEE o diâmetro médio de 0,39. O estudo hemodinâmico da aorta abdominal apresentou velocidade de pico sistólico médio de 104,00cm/s para AOR; 99,61cm/s para AOT; 85,47cm/s para AIED e 99,51cm/s para AIEE. Verificaram-se correlações de diferentes intensidades entre os diâmetros vasculares em diferentes pontos de tomadas e os fatores biométricos corpóreos (CRL. Correlações baixas foram observadas quando esses diâmetros foram confrontados com a idade.A duplex ultrasound system incorporating a pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound probe with conventional B-mode real-time imaging was used to evaluate the biometric and the hemodynamic of abdominal aorta and external iliac arteries of a hundred and thirty one normal dogs. Results of biometrics of abdominal aorta, presented a mean diameter of 0.80cm in its diaphragmatic segment (AOD; 0.74cm in its segment caudal to the renal arteries (AOR and 0.69cm in the segment cranial to its termination (AOT. The right-external-iliac artery (AIED presented a mean diameter of 0.42cm and the left-external iliac artery (AIEE a mean diameter of 0.39cm. The hemodynamic study of the abdominal aorta presented a medium systolic peak velocity to AOR of 104cm per sec.; to AOT of 99.61cm per sec.; to AIED of 85.47cm per sec. and to AIEE of 99.51cm per sec. Correlations of different intensities between the vascular diameters have been verified between the

  2. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  3. Rapamycin-induced autophagy restricts porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infectivity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seongyeol; Gu, Min Jeong; Kim, Cheol Gyun; Kye, Yoon Chul; Lim, Younggap; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Byung-Chul; Chu, Hyuk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2017-10-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) invades porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs. In the present study, we showed a suppression of PEDV infection in porcine jejunum intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) by an increase in autophagy. Autophagy was activated by rapamycin at a dose that does not affect cell viability and tight junction permeability. The induction of autophagy was examined by LC3I/LC3II conversion. To confirm the autophagic-flux (entire autophagy pathway), autophagolysosomes were examined by an immunofluorescence assay. Pre-treatment with rapamycin significantly restricted not only a 1 h infection but also a longer infection (24 h) with PEDV, while this effect disappeared when autophagy was blocked. Co-localization of PEDV and autophagosomes suggests that PEDV could be a target of autophagy. Moreover, alleviation of PEDV-induced cell death in IPEC-J2 cells pretreated with rapamycin demonstrates a protective effect of rapamycin against PEDV-induced epithelial cell death. Collectively, the present study suggests an early prevention against PEDV infection in IPEC-J2 cells via autophagy that might be an effective strategy for the restriction of PEDV, and opens up the possibility of the use of rapamycin in vivo as an effective prophylactic and prevention treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Helen A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content.

  5. Reconstrução da aorta com conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Salles

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1989 a maio de 1997, 40 pacientes portadores de dissecção aórtica, aneurisma da aorta, coarctação da aorta ou doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca foram submetidos a reconstrução da aorta utilizando-se conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado processado em glutaraldeído. A reconstrução total da aorta ascendente com substituição da valva aórtica e reimplante das artérias coronárias foi realizada em 9 pacientes, a simples substituição da aorta ascendente em 6, aorta torácica descendente em 2, arco aórtico em 1, aorta toracoabdominal em 1 e a aorta abdominal foi reconstruída em 21, incluindo pacientes submetidos a reconstrução aorto-ilíaca ou aorto-femoral. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 8 (20% pacientes e as causas de óbito foram baixo débito cardíaco, recidiva da dissecção aórtica, falência de múltiplos órgãos e sangramento. O seguimento total foi de 128,4 pacientes-anos, com um seguimento médio de 4 anos por paciente. Complicações tardias relacionadas ao conduto vascular foram observadas em 4 pacientes, incluindo obstrução de um dos ramos do tubo bifurcado utilizado para reconstrução aorto-femoral e infecção em 3, resultando em degeneração secundária do conduto e formação de pseudo-aneurisma. Os 4 pacientes foram submetidos a reoperações, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,1% ± 1,6% por paciente/ano. Ocorreram 5 óbitos tardios e as causas foram morte súbita, doença coronariana, pneumonia, septicemia e complicações metabólicas resultantes de diabetes e insuficiência renal crônica, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,9% ± 1,7% por paciente/ano. A sobrevida atuarial em 9 anos foi 61,5% ± 9,2%, incluindo a mortalidade cirúrgica e a sobrevida atuarial livre de degeneração tissular estrutural primária do conduto biológico foi de 100%. O corrugamento do pericárdio, resultante da incorporação do princípio crimping utilizado nas próteses vasculares sint

  6. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...

  7. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Acute Simvastatin Inhibits KATP Channels of Porcine Coronary Artery Myocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seto, Sai Wang; Au, Alice Lai Shan; Poon, Christina Chui Wa; Zhang, Qian; Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yeung, John Hok Keung; Kong, Siu Kai; Ngai, Sai Ming; Wan, Song; Ho, Ho Pui; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2013-01-01

    ...]o uptake measurements. Results The cromakalim (10 nM to 10 µM)- and pinacidil (10 nM to 10 µM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of porcine coronary artery was inhibited by simvastatin...

  9. A comparative anatomic and physiologic overview of the porcine heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2014-01-01

    .... The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities...

  10. Purification and characterization of acylation stimulating protein from porcine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobi, Sheila K; Toombs, Candice F; Cianflone, Katherine H; Nersesian, Natalya; Sarath, Gautam; Miner, Jess L

    2002-07-01

    A method for purifying acylation stimulating protein (ASP) from porcine serum is described. The mRNA encoding ASP was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction which predicted a 76 residue peptide. Based on this sequence, we generated antisera to a C-terminal peptide (ASP(1-20)) which aided ASP purification. Identity of the purified protein was verified by N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of porcine ASP is 8926. Porcine ASP stimulated esterification of fatty acid into triacylglycerol in cultured human cells with potency similar to that of human ASP (twofold at 5 microM). Based on this evidence that ASP exists in porcine blood, and that it has acylation stimulating activity, we propose that ASP may play a role in regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue in the pig.

  11. Ingrowth of aorta vascular cells into basic fibroblast growth factor-impregnated vascular prosthesis material: A porcine and human in vitro study on blood vessel prosthesis healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, J.M.A. van der; Quax, P.H.A.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Bockel, J.H. van

    2002-01-01

    Objective: One of the most life-threatening vascular diseases is rupture of an abdominal aneurysm. The conventional treatment is based on surgical reconstruction. An alternative treatment is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Despite many advantages, one of the problems of EVAR is endoleakage from

  12. Ingrowth of aorta wall into stent grafts impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor: A porcine in vivo study of blood vessel prosthesis healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, J.M.A. van der; Quax, P.H.A.; Berg, A.C. van den; Visser, M.J.T.; Linden, E. van der; Bockel, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Endovascular aneurysm repair is an alternative treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The procedure is less invasive, and morbidity and most probably mortality are reduced. However, some problems, such as endoleakage, are yet to be resolved. Endoleakage can occur after graft migration,

  13. Avaliação de resultados tardios com bioprótese de aorta heteróloga porcina Late results with an heterologous aortic porcine bioprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. K Kalil

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a evolução de 150 pacientes operados entre 1982 e 1988, com bioprótese porcina. Eram 62 do sexo feminino e 88 do masculino, idade média de 51,6 (15 a 81 anos. Nove estavam em classe funcional II, 120 em III e 21 em IV; 46 mitrais, 50 aórticos, 80 múltiplos e 24 associados a revascularização do miocárdio (5 mitrais e 19 aórticos. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 12% (18 casos. Vinte e sete não foram acompanhados no pós-operatório tardio. A mortalidade tardia foi de 2,6% (4 casos, por insuficiência renal, meningoencefalite, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e embolia pulmonar. Foram reoperados 5 (3,3%, por: endocardite infecciosa, pertuitos paravalvulares e falência primária do tecido valvular em 2 casos, cujas idades eram 15 e 25 anos. Três pacientes apresentaram sinais de regurgitação leve, mas não foi indicada reintervenção. As curvas atuariais, até o sétimo ano de pós-operatório, mostraram probabilidade de sobrevida de 82,9 ± 3,7 anos e livres de reoperação, 70,1 ± 6,7%. Para aórticos isolados, foi: 88,0 ± 5,4% e 60,4 ± 17,4%, respectivamente. Para os mitrais: 87,3 ± 5,6% e 70,9 ± 11,1%. Atualmente, há, entre 101 casos, 82 em classe I, 17 em II e 2 em III. Falhas das biopróteses ocorreram em 21,4% dos pacientes com menos de 30 anos, 1,1% entre 31 e 60 anos e 2% naqueles com mais de 60 anos. Foram mais freqüentes falhas no sexo masculino (4,5% que no feminino (1,6%. Não houve diferença nas posições mitral ou aórtica. A bioprótese estudada apresentou bons resultados clínicos no período de evolução até 7 anos. Sua durabilidade é comparável às demais biopróteses, sendo as falhas, na maioria, devidas a causas conhecidas, em baixa incidência. Estudos a mais longo prazo serão úteis para definir a tendência de evolução futura.The clinical results of an aortic heterograft model (Biocor was evaluated in a series of 150 patients, operated upon from 1982 to 1988 and followed-up for until 7 years post-operatively. Sixty-two were female and 88 male. Age ranged from 15 to 81 (m = 51.6 years. There were 9 in functional class II, 120 in III and 21 in IV. In the isolated mitral position there were 46 implants, aortic isolated 50, multiple 30 and 24 associated with myocardial revascularization (5 mitral and 19 aortic. Hospital mortality was 12% (18 cases. Twenty seven patients were lost for late follow-up. Late mortality was 2.6% (4 cases, caused by rena! failure, meningoencefalitis, congestive heart failure and pulmonary embolism. There were 5 (3.3%, due to infectious endocarditis, paravalvular leaks, primary tissue failure (2 cases at ages 15 and 25. Three others patients presented clinical signs of mild regurgitation and were not reoperated. The actuarial survival curves showed a probability of survival and probability of no surgical events, respectively, for the whole group: 82.9 ± 3.7 years and 70.1 ± 6.7 years, for the aortic group: 88.0 ± 5.6% and 60.4 ± 17.4%, for the mitral group: 87.3 ± 5.6% and 70.9 ± 11.1%. At the last clinical evaluation, there were 82 patients in functional class I, 17 in II and 2 in III. Bioprosthesis attributed failures occurred in 21.4% of the patients operated upon, younger than 30 years, 1.1% between 31 and 60 years, and 2% in the older than 61 years. Male sex was related to 4.5% of failures and female, 1.6%. There was no difference between the mitral, aortic, or multiple groups. The bioprosthesis evaluated, for a follow-up of 7 years, presented good results. Causes of failure were usually related to age, infection or leaking, at a low incidence in the study period. Longer observation, however, is still advisable for definitive conclusions.

  14. Gradient changes in porcine renal arterial vascular anatomy and blood flow after cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W; van Horssen, Pepijn; Laguna, M Pilar; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Siebes, Maria; Wijkstra, Hessel; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Spaan, Jos A E

    2011-08-01

    We quantified temporal changes in vascular structure and blood flow after cryosurgery of the porcine kidney in vivo. We studied 5 groups of 4 kidneys each with a survival time of 20 minutes, 4 hours, 2 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after cryoablation, respectively. Before harvesting the kidneys, fluorescently labeled microspheres were administrated in the descending aorta. After harvest the kidney and its vasculature were casted with fluorescently dyed elastomer, frozen and processed in an imaging cryomicrotome to reveal the 3-dimensional arterial branching structure and microsphere distribution. In regions of interest vessels were segmented by image analysis software and histograms were constructed to reveal the total summed vessel length as a function of diameter. A characteristic diameter of the ablated area was measured. The 20-minute survival group histograms showed a significant shift of the peak to larger diameters (p<0.002), indicating that smaller vessels were destroyed. Microsphere density was decreased to 2% in the ablated region but not in the nonablated border zone, depending on the remaining crater crossing larger vessels. After 2 weeks neither vessels nor microspheres were left in the ablated area, which had shrunk by about 40% in diameter. Study limitations are the lack of histological confirmation and the use of normal rather than cancerous tissue. Larger vessels remain patent just after ablation and transport blood to the border of the ablation crater but perfusion within the crater is halted instantly. Characteristic crater diameter increases initially but decreases thereafter. Destruction of vessels and tissue is complete 2 weeks after cryoablation. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of xenogeneic baboon platelet aggregation and phagocytosis by porcine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Peng

    Full Text Available Baboons receiving xenogeneic livers from wild type and transgenic pigs survive less than 10 days. One of the major issues is the early development of profound thrombocytopenia that results in fatal hemorrhage. Histological examination of xenotransplanted livers has shown baboon platelet activation, phagocytosis and sequestration within the sinusoids. In order to study the mechanisms of platelet consumption in liver xenotransplantation, we have developed an in vitro system to examine the interaction between pig endothelial cells with baboon platelets and to thereby identify molecular mechanisms and therapies.Fresh pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells were isolated by collagenase digestion of livers and processing of aortae from GTKO and Gal+ MGH-miniature swine. These primary cell cultures were then tested for the differential ability to induce baboon or pig platelet aggregation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by direct observation of CFSE labeled-platelets, which are incubated with endothelial cells under confocal light microscopy. Aurintricarboxylic acid (GpIb antagonist blocking interactions with von Willebrand factor/vWF, eptifibatide (Gp IIb/IIIa antagonist, and anti-Mac-1 Ab (anti-α(Mβ(2 integrin Ab were tested for the ability to inhibit phagocytosis.None of the pig cells induced aggregation or phagocytosis of porcine platelets. However, pig hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal and aortic endothelial cells (GTKO and Gal+ all induced moderate aggregation of baboon platelets. Importantly, pig liver sinusoidal endothelial cells efficiently phagocytosed baboon platelets, while pig aortic endothelial cells and hepatocytes had minimal effects on platelet numbers. Anti-MAC-1 Ab, aurintricarboxylic acid or eptifibatide, significantly decreased baboon platelet phagocytosis by pig liver endothelial cells (P<0.01.Although pig hepatocytes and aortic endothelial cells directly caused aggregation of baboon platelets, only pig liver

  16. A new liver autotransplantation technique using subnormothermic machine perfusion for organ preservation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, E; Polacco, M; D'Amico, F E; Scopelliti, M; Bassi, D; Bonsignore, P; Luisetto, R; Lodo, E; Carraro, A; Zanus, G; Cillo, U

    2011-05-01

    Hepatic resection is the gold standard of therapy for primary and secondary liver tumors, but few patients are eligible for this procedure because of the extent of their neoplasms. Improvements in surgical experience of liver transplantation (OLT), hepatic resection and preservation with sub-normothermic machine perfusion (MP) have prompted the development of a new model of large animal autotransplantation. Landrace pigs were used in this experiment. After intubation, hepatectomy was performed according to the classic technique. The intrahepatic caval vein was replaced with a homologous tract of porcine thoracic aorta. The liver was perfused with hypothermic Celsior solution followed by MP at 20 °C with oxygenated Krebs solution. An hepatectomy was performed during the period of preservation, which lasted 120 minutes, then the liver was reimplanted into the same animal in a 90° counterclockwise rotated position. The anastomoses were performed in the classic sequence. Samples of intravascular fluid, blood and liver biopsies were obtained at the end of the period of preservation in MP and again at 1 and 3 hours after liver reperfusion to evaluate graft function and microscopic damage. All animals survived the procedure. The peak of aspartate aminotransferase was recorded 60 minutes after reperfusion and the peak of alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase after 180 minutes. Histopathologic examination under the light microscope identified no necrosis or congestion. Intraoperative echo-color Doppler documented good patency of the anastomosis and normal venous drainage. This system made it possible to perform hepatic resections and vascular reconstructions ex situ while preserving the organ with mechanical perfusion (ex vivo, ex situ surgery). Improving surgical techniques regarding autotransplantation and our understanding of ischemia-reperfusion damage may enable the development of interesting scenarios for aggressive surgical treatment or

  17. Ultrasound functional imaging in an ex vivo beating porcine heart platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Niels J.; Fixsen, Louis S.; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Pijls, Nico H. J.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, novel ultrasound functional imaging (UFI) techniques have been introduced to assess cardiac function by measuring, e.g. cardiac output (CO) and/or myocardial strain. Verification and reproducibility assessment in a realistic setting remain major issues. Simulations and phantoms are often unrealistic, whereas in vivo measurements often lack crucial hemodynamic parameters or ground truth data, or suffer from the large physiological and clinical variation between patients when attempting clinical validation. Controlled validation in certain pathologies is cumbersome and often requires the use of lab animals. In this study, an isolated beating pig heart setup was adapted and used for performance assessment of UFI techniques such as volume assessment and ultrasound strain imaging. The potential of performing verification and reproducibility studies was demonstrated. For proof-of-principle, validation of UFI in pathological hearts was examined. Ex vivo porcine hearts (n  =  6, slaughterhouse waste) were resuscitated and attached to a mock circulatory system. Radio frequency ultrasound data of the left ventricle were acquired in five short axis views and one long axis view. Based on these slices, the CO was measured, where verification was performed using flow sensor measurements in the aorta. Strain imaging was performed providing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain to assess reproducibility and inter-subject variability under steady conditions. Finally, strains in healthy hearts were compared to a heart with an implanted left ventricular assist device, simulating a failing, supported heart. Good agreement between ultrasound and flow sensor based CO measurements was found. Strains were highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficients  >0.8). Differences were found due to biological variation and condition of the hearts. Strain magnitude and patterns in the assisted heart were available for different pump action, revealing

  18. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  19. A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/β-TCP, 250–500 μm or 500–1000 μm porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 μm porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/β-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/β-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications.

  20. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  1. Porcine bioengineered scaffolds as new frontiers in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K M; Woo, H M

    2012-05-01

    Porcine organs are attractive for xenotransplantation, if severe immunologic concerns can be overcome. Recently, reengineered organs, with heterologous cellular materials removed but preserved organ architecture and vasculature have been created using small rodents in an effort to produce customized bioengineered organs. However, few studies have been performed to generate bioengineered organs from porcine sources. The aim of this work was to produce 3-D bioengineered scaffolds from major porcine organs, preserving the native morphology and vascular structures with complete removal of cellular and nuclear materials. We decellularized porcine heart, liver, and kidney using a peristaltic pump system with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The preservation of major architecture and vasculature was confirmed by gross findings, ultrasonography, and angiography. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no evidence of nuclear or cytoplasmic residues. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a substantial reduction (0%-8%) of porcine DNA in the scaffolds. These results suggested that 3-D bioengineered scaffolds of porcine organs may have tremendous potential to produce non-immunogenic transplantable organs as well as beneficial tools for biomedical studies on organ re-engineering and repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional variations in the histology of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Neill J; Pezzone, Dominic; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Porcine skin is commonly used as a model for human skin injury and as a source material for biologic scaffold materials. Although remarkable similarities between porcine and human skin exist, regional anatomic variations present in human skin are also present in porcine skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of porcine skin from 11 different anatomic regions in the American Yorkshire crossbreed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used, with emphasis on epidermal and dermal thickness, hair follicle density, and collagen and elastin composition and distribution. The results showed that significant regional differences in skin histology exist, particularly with regard to the thickness of the dermis and epidermis and the amount of collagen and elastin within each tissue. Differences were also seen in the distribution of type I and type III collagen within the dermis. Therefore, while porcine skin shares many similarities with human skin, distinct regional differences in composition and morphology exist. This study highlights the importance of appreciating these regional differences to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results when using porcine skin as a human analogue.

  3. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  4. Porcine circovirus diseases: a review of PMWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekbo, P; Kristensen, C S; Larsen, L E

    2012-03-01

    This article is a review on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To diagnose PMWS at herd level typical clinical appearance consisting of wasting and increased mortality must be combined with finding at autopsy of diseased pigs, where typical microscopic findings in the lymphatic tissue must be present. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome significantly increases the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig-to-pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta-analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Ulcerated plaque in the terminal aorta as a source of recurrent embolism in the young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, A; Escribano, J V; García-Alfageme, A

    1990-01-01

    In the last years, some case reports about peripheral arterial embolism originated from ulcerative disorders in the wall of aorta and main vascular structures, have been published. Patients affected by this disease are usually aged and arteriosclerotic injuries at divers levels are common. The current case report presents a patient, 37 years old, with a history of 3 surgical procedures because of recurrent arterial embolism in the left femoro-popliteal area with unknown embolic origin. Further, a complete angiographic exploration was realized because a new occlusion in the left ileo-femoral area occurred and suspicious images of an ulcerative atheroma plaque in final aorta were found. This conjecture was confirmed during surgical procedure. It should be noted that some histories of peripheral embolism, with unknown origin, in young patients could be caused by this type of disorders.

  6. Dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infrarrenal

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Junior,Otacílio de; Chrispim,Antonio Cláudio Guedes; Simões,Claudio Roberto Cabrini; Marcondes,Márcia Fayad; Abreu,Guilherme Camargo Gonçalves de; Meirelles,Guilherme Vieira; Moraes,Kelly Cristina de; Freitas,Marcio Villar de; Araújo,Marivan Pedra; Murta,Gustavo Braga

    2012-01-01

    A rotura da camada íntima que marca o início da dissecção aórtica se origina na maioria dos casos na aorta torácica, sendo rara a dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infra-renal. As três principais causas são: iatrogênica, traumática ou espontânea. A dor abdominal e a isquemia de membros são os sintomas mais comuns e um número significativo de pacientes e´ assintomatico. O diagnóstico tem sido feito através de métodos de imagem como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonânci...

  7. Explantation of infected aortic aneurysm and endograft with ascending aorta to mesenteric bypass for mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Lindsay; Chin, Jason A; Bonde, Pramod N; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I; Sumpio, Bauer E; Sarac, Timur P

    2017-01-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with an infected perivisceral aortic aneurysm after previous treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with an endograft. On presentation, he was septic and had occlusion of the celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and bilateral renal arteries. He underwent a three-stage procedure: first, axillobifemoral bypass; then resection of the thoracoabdominal aorta; and finally bypass from the ascending aorta to the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries with a rifampin-soaked Gelsoft graft (Vascutek, Renfrewshire, Scotland). The abdominal pain resolved, and the patient remains symptom free 10 months postoperatively. This rare surgical revascularization technique offered a nontraditional solution to a difficult surgical issue. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation of bileaflet mechanical heart valve in an anatomic aorta geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Borazjani, Iman; Dasi, Lakshmi; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2007-11-01

    FSI simulation of a medical quality BMHV implanted in the aortic position is studied. The valve is implanted in an anatomic non-compliant aorta geometry, which is reconstructed from MRI data acquired from a healthy volunteer. A physiological incoming flow waveform is specified at the inlet with the peak systolic Reynolds number equal to 6000. The flow solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear immersed boundary method) of Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007 (JCP) and the FSI problem is solved with strong coupling partitioned approach. Direct numerical simulation is carried out on a grid system consisting of 10M grid nodes. The impact on hemodynamics by valve implantation is studied by considering different valve implantation angles. The calculated numerical results are analyzed in terms of leaflet kinematics and flow physics, and compared with data from our previous work, where the same valve is implanted in a simplified straight aorta geometry.

  9. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: rogerinhofurtado@gmail.com [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  10. 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection Sarcoma of the Aorta in a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakahashi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Naoto; Wakasa Minoru; Kajinami, Kouji; Tonami, Hisao [Kazazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Sarcoma of the aorta is extremely rare; however, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging is a useful modality for detecting malignant tumors, including various sarcomas. We report on a case of sarcoma of the aorta associated concomitantly with Takayasu arteritis. The 18F-FDG PET/CT detected an abnormal increased up take in an aortic mass of the descending thoracic aorta, thoracic vertebra, and ilium. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-FDG in the aortic mass was 21.7, suggesting that 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging may be useful for detecting sarcoma of the aorta associated with Takayasu arteritis and bone metatases during treatment.

  11. Expression of p-PPARγ in the aging thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The PPARγ phosphorylation was observed in the thoracic aorta of SHR and its expression was increased by the increase of age. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the PPARγ phosphorylation and suppressed vascular aging in SHR.

  12. Aneurysms in Aorta and Bilateral Carotid Arteries in a Patient with Takayasu%u2019s Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ergun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to present pre and postoperative angiographies for aneurysms in ascending and toracoabdominal aorta and bilateral common carotid arteries in a patient with Takayasu’ s arteritis

  13. Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mbang A; Jaja, Smith I; Coker, Herbert A B

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the vasorelaxant action of the aqueous leaves extract of Persea americana on isolated rat aorta. The results showed that the extract produced significant vasorelaxation and that the effect is dependent on the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) as well as the release of prostanoid. The extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through calcium channels.

  14. Effect of Levodropropizine on isolated rabbit aorta contracted with phenylephrine and its Relationship with calcium

    OpenAIRE

    cankara, fatma nihan; çiçek, ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium (Ca+2) channels and levodropropizine, also to compare the potency of diltiazem and levodropropizine on phenylephrine pre-contracted rabbit aortic rings. Mateial-Method: 2-3 mm width rings of thoracic aorta were removed and suspended in 25 ml organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution to reach baseline tension. To investigate contraction inhibiting effect of levodropropizine, Ca+2 free Krebs solution was ...

  15. Effects of Mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of Triton WR-1339 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of triton wr-1339 treated Wistar rats was investigated in this study. 30 male Wistar rats (150g to 200g final weight) were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each and were fed on normal rat chows, treated with triton and/or mistletoe extract for 6 weeks. The group treated with triton ...

  16. Pigtail catheter fracture and embolization into the abdominal aorta: an extremely rare angiographic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Ibrahim; Dogan, Sait M; Karabag, Turgut; Sayin, Muhammet R; Kucuk, Emrah; Buyukates, Mustafa; Turan, Sitki A; Aydin, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Coronary angiography is a widely used diagnostic method for coronary artery disease. In clinical practice, although complications of the procedure often involve the vascular access point, there is no previous report of the fracture and embolization of the distal tip of a pigtail catheter. Herein, we present the case of a 51-year-old woman whose left ventriculography was interrupted by fracture of the curved tip of a pigtail catheter, which remained at the renal artery level in the abdominal aorta.

  17. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  18. Anatomy of the bovine ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery found unfavorable for total artificial heart implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Such, Kimberly A; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-12-01

    The biocompatibility assessment of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart is an important part of the device developmental program. Surgical and postoperative management are key factors in achieving optimal outcomes. However, the presence of vascular anatomical abnormalities in experimental animal models is often unpredictable and may worsen the expected outcomes. We report a technical impediment encountered during total artificial heart implantation complicated by unfavorable bovine anatomy of the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic arterial trunk.

  19. Cloning of rat aorta lysyl oxidase cDNA: Complete codons and predicted amino acid sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trackman, P.C.; Pratt, A.M.; Wolanski, A.; Tang, Shiowshih; Offner, G.D.; Troxler, R.F.; Kagan, H.M. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1990-05-22

    Lysyl oxidase cDNA clones were identified by their reactivity with anti-bovine lysyl oxidase in a neonatal rat aorta cDNA {lambda}gt11 expression library. A 500-bp cDNA sequence encoding four of six peptides derived from proteolytic digests of bovine aorta lysyl oxidase was found from the overlapping cDNA sequences of two positive clones. The library was rescreened with a radiolabeled cDNA probe made from one of these clones, thus identifying an additional 13 positive clones. Sequencing of the largest two of these overlapping clones resulted in 2,672 bp of cDNA sequence containing partial 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-untranslated sequences of 286 and 1,159 nucleotides, respectively, and a complete open reading frame of 1,227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 409 amino acids (46 kDa), consistent with the 48 {plus minus} 3 kDa cell-free translation product of rat smooth muscle cell RNA that was immunoprecipitated by anti-bovine lysyl oxidase. The rat aorta cDNA-derived amino acid sequence contains the sequence of each of the six peptides isolated and sequenced from the 32-kDa bovine aorta enzyme, including the C-terminal peptide with sequence identity of 96%. Southern blotting of rat genomic DNA with lysyl oxidase cDNA probes indicated that the lysyl oxidase gene is located at a single locus and does not appear to be a member of a multigene family. A potential stem-loop structure was found in the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide, in addition to sequences that are similar to those of other known copper proteins.

  20. Indigo carmine enhances phenylephrine-induced contractions in an isolated rat aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun Suk; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Seung Min; Park, Sang-Seung; Ha, Yu Mi; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hye Jung; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Background The intravenous administration of indigo carmine has been reported to produce transiently increased blood pressure in patients. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of indigo carmine on phenylephrine-induced contractions in an isolated rat aorta and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with particular focus on the endothelium-derived vasodilators. Methods The concentration-response curves for phenylephrine were generated in the presence or absence of ...

  1. Levosimendan in a neonate with severe coarctation of aorta and low cardiac output syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Olivier Boegli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful use of levosimendan after failed balloon angioplasty in a critically ill neonate with coarctation of aorta (CoA and severe low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS. Treatment with levosimendan improved left heart function, and decreased lactate and brain natriuretic peptide levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the safe and successful use of levosimendan in the management of LCOS due to severe CoA in a neonate awaiting surgical repair.

  2. Treatment Strategies for Paradoxical Hypertension Following Surgical Correction of Coarctation of the Aorta in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Roeleveld, Peter P.; Zwijsen, Eline G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Paradoxical hypertension after repair of coarctation of the aorta is a well-known phenomenon. The pathogenesis involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (first phase) and renin?angiotensin system (second phase). Only a limited number of different treatment strategies have been published in the literature, without any comparative studies. Methods: Our aim was to describe the current international practice variation surrounding pharmacological treatment currently bei...

  3. [Morphologic and morphometric analysis of atheromatous changes in the aorta in silibinin-treated cholesterin-fed rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Hídvégi, J; Bártfai, Z; Somogyi, A; Blázovics, A

    1990-07-01

    Authors studied the effect of Silibinin of antioxidative effect on cholesterin sclerosis of rabbits. Qualitative analysis of aorta sections, macroscopic and microscopic morphometric examination of aorta were the applied methods. Their results seem to show that Silibinin has a favourable influence on cholesterin sclerosis. According to their opinion only joint use of qualitative and quantitative macroscopic and microscopic methods can provide basis for really accurate judgment of any atheromatose change.

  4. Disección crónica de la aorta torácica.tratamiento abierto y endovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Llosa

    2009-09-01

    El tratamiento de la disección crónica de la aorta descendente es discutido. La cirugía abierta, al permitir resecar amplias porciones de aorta patológica, tiene una buena supervivencia a largo plazo, aunque se trata de intervenciones muy agresivas. Por otra parte, el tratamiento endovascular podría reservarse para aquellos pacientes con alto riesgo para cirugía abierta.

  5. Transcriptional and phenotypic changes in aorta and aortic valve with aging and MnSOD deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Carolyn M; Hagler, Michael; Zhang, Bin; Oehler, Elise A; Arghami, Arman; Miller, Jordan D

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in antioxidant and age-related gene expression in aorta and aortic valve with aging, and test the hypothesis that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress accelerates age-related endothelial and aortic valve dysfunction. Wild-type (MnSOD(+/+)) and manganese SOD heterozygous haploinsufficient (MnSOD(+/-)) mice were studied at 3 and 18 mo of age. In aorta from wild-type mice, antioxidant expression was preserved, although there were age-associated increases in Nox2 expression. Haploinsufficiency of MnSOD did not alter antioxidant expression in aorta, but increased expression of Nox2. When compared with that of aorta, age-associated reductions in antioxidant expression were larger in aortic valves from wild-type and MnSOD haploinsufficient mice, although Nox2 expression was unchanged. Similarly, sirtuin expression was relatively well-preserved in aorta from both genotypes, whereas expression of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT6 were significantly reduced in the aortic valve. Expression of p16(ink4a), a marker of cellular senescence, was profoundly increased in both aorta and aortic valve from MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Functionally, we observed comparable age-associated reductions in endothelial function in aorta from both MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Interestingly, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin or gp91ds-tat improved endothelial function in MnSOD(+/+) mice but significantly impaired endothelial function in MnSOD(+/-) mice at both ages. Aortic valve function was not impaired by aging or MnSOD haploinsufficiency. Changes in antioxidant and sirtuin gene expression with aging differ dramatically between aorta and aortic valve. Furthermore, although MnSOD does not result in overt cardiovascular dysfunction with aging, compensatory transcriptional responses to MnSOD deficiency appear to be tissue specific.

  6. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  7. Optimization of reduced-dose MDCT of thoracic aorta using iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Entezari, Pegah; Chalian, Hamid; Gonzalez-Guindalini, Fernanda Dias; Botelho, Marcos Paulo Ferreira; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of iterative reconstruction on image quality of reduced-dose multidetector computed tomography of the thoracic aorta. A torso phantom was scanned using two tube potentials (80 and 120 kVp) and five different tube currents (110, 75, 40, 20, and 10 mAs). All images were reconstructed with both filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction. Aortic attenuation, image noise within the thoracic aorta, signal-to-noise ratio, and sharpness of the aortic wall were quantified in the phantom for the two reconstruction algorithms. Data were analyzed using paired t test. A value of P iterative reconstruction (P > 0.05). Image noise level was lower (P iterative reconstruction. Signal-to-noise ratios were higher with iterative reconstruction compared with those with FBP (P iterative reconstruction (9.8 ± 4.4) was similar to the signal-to-noise ratio at 120 kVp with FBP (8.4 ± 3.3) (P = 0.196). Less image noise and higher image sharpness may be achieved with iterative reconstruction in reduced-dose multidetector computed tomography of the thoracic aorta.

  8. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Complicated by Atypical Coarctation of the Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 3,000 (0.03% at birth. Clinical features are café-au-lait macules, intertriginous freckling, dermal neurofibroma, iris hamartoma (Lisch nodules, and learning disability. NF1 vasculopathy is a serious but underrecognized complication involving the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular systems. The incidence of hypertension in patients with NF1 is around 1% and is associated mainly with renal artery stenosis in children. Only a few cases of thoracic aortic coarctation in association with hypertension and neurofibromatosis have been reported. Here we describe the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with NF1 and hypertension due to atypical coarctation of the thoracic aorta. The diagnosis of coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the Th5-to-Th6 level was made following catheterization with a pressure gradient of 40 mmHg. The patient underwent surgery comprising resection of the coarctation of the thoracic aorta and graft interposition. On the basis of our findings, annual assessment of blood pressure is advised for patients with NF1.

  9. Comparative effects of endothelin and phorbol 12-13 dibutyrate in rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auguet, M.; Delaflotte, S.; Chabrier, P.E.; Braquet, P. (Institut Henri Beaufour Research Labs., Cedex (France))

    1989-01-01

    The vasoconstrictive properties of endothelin (ET-1) and the protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-13 dibutyrate (PDB) were comparatively investigated in isolated rat aorta. ET-1 and PDB induced a slowly developing sustained contraction in endothelium denuded aorta. Maximal contractions induced by ET-1 and PDB were unaffected by diltiazem. Substantial contraction to ET-1 and PDB remained in calcium-free medium. Contractions of ET-1 and PDB in calcium-free medium were unaffected by intracellular calcium depletion induced by phenylephrine. Following the response to ET-1 and PDB in a calcium-free medium, an additional sustained was observed after calcium was added to the bath. The protein kinase C inhibitor, H7 was more potent in inhibiting contractions induced by phenylephrine and KCl than the ones elicited by ET-1 and PDB. The other protein kinase C inhibitors i.e. staurosporine and phloretin inhibited to a similar extent all the agonists tested. These results suggest that protein kinase C may play an important role in mediating the contraction to ET-1 in rat aorta.

  10. Gingival fibroblast inhibits MMP-7: evaluation in an ex vivo aorta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogly, Bruno; Fournier, Benjamin; Couty, Ludovic; Naveau, Adrien; Brasselet, Camille; Durand, Eric; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine

    2009-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a deleterious role in numerous vascular diseases. In contrast, gingival matrix remodelling is adequately regulated by the gingival fibroblast (GF). Here, we aimed to evaluate the GF activity on MMP-7 expression and secretion in coculture with aorta rings. We evaluated MMP-7 transcription and secretion in rabbit aorta rings cultured or not with gingival fibroblasts in collagen gels. GF induced an increase of TIMP-1 transcription and secretion, followed, similarly to other MMPs, by the formation of TIMP-1/MMP-7 complexes. There was also a decrease of MMP-7 mRNA by RT-PCR in aorta rings cocultured with gingival fibroblasts. Interestingly, in contrast with other MMPs (which were not influenced at a transcription level), GF stimulated the release of TGF-beta1, which in turn inhibited the transcription and synthesis of MMP-7, as shown by neutralizing MMP-7 inhibition due to gingival fibroblast by overexpressing decorin (a TGF beta 1 inhibitor) or by silencing TGF beta 1 using siRNA. We showed that healing properties of the GF could be transposed to another organ, i.e., ex vivo aneurism model, implicating a down-regulation of MMP-7.

  11. Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM. The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system.

  12. Pharmacological studies of tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata in isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2013-08-30

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP₃R), leading to an increase in [Ca²⁺](c), instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L. in isolated rat heart and aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Tahri, Abdelhafid; Serhrouchni, Mohamed; Hoerter, Jacqueline; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2002-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. or Nettle (Urticaceae) is widely used in oriental Morocco to treat hypertension. Aqueous extract of Nettle (AEN) also exerts a hypotensive action in the rat in vivo. The aim of this work was to characterize the specific cardiac and vascular effects of AEN. In the isolated Langendorff perfused rat heart, AEN (1 and 2 g/l) markedly decreased heart rate and increased left ventricular pressure. Higher concentration (5 g/l) even led to cardiac arrest. Although carbachol mimicked the bradycardiac effect of AEN, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, 1 micro M) did not modify the response. Beside its action on myocardium, AEN also affected vascular contractility. Indeed, AEN (0.1-5 g/l) produced a dose-dependent increase in basal tone of isolated rat aorta. This effect was endothelium independent and was abolished by 1 micro M prazosin (an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist). AEN had little additional effects when the aorta was precontracted by noradrenaline (1 micro M) or KCl (40 mM). Our data indicate that AEN produces a vasoconstriction of the aorta which is due to activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors. However, AEN also induces a strong bradycardia through non-cholinergic and non-adrenergic pathways which might compensate for its vascular effect and account for the hypotensive action of Urtica dioica L described in vivo. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Aneurisma de aorta com ruptura para esôfago Aortic aneurysm rupture into the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano da Silveira de Barcellos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de aneurisma de aorta descendente com ruptura para o esôfago que, após aortoplastia com interposição de tubo de dacron e rafia da laceração esofágica, evoluiu com fístula esôfago pleural no terceiro dia pós-operatório. A paciente necessitou de reintervenção e cuidados intensivos, reabilitando-se adequadamente. A propósito deste caso incomum e do aprendizado adquirido no seu manejo, revisamos a literatura a fim de discutir a melhor alternativa de correção desta rara e, freqüentemente, fatal forma de apresentação das doenças da aorta.We present the case of a patient with a descending aorta aneurysm rupture into the esophagus, which, after aortoplasty with Dacron tube interposition and suture of esophageal laceration, developed a pleural-esophagus fistula on the 3rd postoperative day. She needed re-intervention and intensive care, followed by adequate recovery. Considering this unusual case and the knowledge acquired through its management, we reviewed the literature in order to discuss the best alternative for the correction of this rare and often fatal form of presentation of aortic diseases.

  15. The anomalous origin of the branch pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Talwar, Sachin; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2012-07-01

    The anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta (AOPA) is rare. We report our single-institution surgical experience with this condition. Between January 1994 and February 2011, 17 patients (age: 1 month-25 years) with AOPA underwent surgery at our institute. Thirteen patients had an anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) while four had an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) from the aorta. In patients with anomalous RPA, 11 patients had the proximal type and two patients had the distal type of AOPA. Four patients had associated Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In 14 patients, direct implantation into the main pulmonary artery was performed, while three patients required interpositon of a graft. There was one operative death due to persistent hypoxia in a 7-month old child with TOF and an anomalous LPA from the aorta. At a median follow-up of 36.5 months (range: 2-192 months), all 16 survivors were asymptomatic. On echocardiography, two patients showed a gradient of 25 and 30 mmHg across the anastomosis and are being followed up. In our experience, early repair of AOPA results in acceptable haemodynamic and anatomic results. Long-term survival can be expected with a low incidence of re-operation or re-intervention.

  16. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Murzi, Bruno; Crucean, Adrian; Leacche, Marzia; Bernabei, Massimo; Bartolozzi, Fabio; Nathan, Nadia S; Vanini, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to review our experience with the surgical repair of the anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (AORPA) from the aorta. Between January 1991 and March 2001, five patients with AORPA underwent surgical correction. One patient presented isolated AOPA from the aorta. Implantation of the anomalous PA to the main PA trunk was performed by (1). direct anatomosis employing an autologous pericardial patch in two patients; (2). using an aortic flap in two patients with AORPA; and (3). using an aortic and pulmonary flaps in another patient. The mean follow-up time was 27 months. One patient died due to progressive heart failure unresponsive to inotropic support. Early postoperative pulmonary hypertension crisis was identified in patient 4, that was managed by intravenous prostacyclin. The same patient necessitated mechanical ventilation for 11 days. The mean residual gradient for all survivors was 9.5 +/- 4 mmHg. The postoperative Tc-99 m scintigraphy demonstrated 72 +/- 4.5(%) lung perfusion. At follow-up the survival was 100%. None of the followed patients required reoperation. The AORPA from the aorta is a rare but important entity, necessitating a scrupulous preoperative and intraoperative evaluation. The techniques employing autologous tissues for enlarging and lengthening the AORPA seem to be associated with better results in terms of postoperative restenosis.

  17. Reconstruction of a Damaged Lower Polar Artery for Kidney Transplantation Using Tubularised Donor Aorta

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    A. J. Vicéns-Morton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Live donors, extended donor criteria, and the maximum usage of organs with anatomical variants are some of the mechanisms used to increase the number of organs available. Case. We present the case of a kidney transplant, in which the organ had an iatrogenic injury to a lower pole arterial branch during retrieval. The donor was a 35-year-old male (DCD, Maastricht III. The right kidney was accepted; it had three veins in a single cava patch and three renal arteries, the main artery with aorta patch that is 8 cm long. A small lower pole artery was sectioned during retrieval surgery at approximately 1 cm from its origin as well as a third small mid-lower pole artery. The lower pole damaged artery was reconstructed using tubularised aorta patch to a total length of 5 cm. No additional donor vessels had been sent. After construction of the tubulised aorta, E-E anastomosis to the damaged polar artery was done with interrupted 7-0 Prolene sutures. Conclusion. While the waiting list for a kidney continues to rise and we continue to have organ shortness, vascular retrieval injury should not be an absolute contraindication for transplant.

  18. Conjugated equine estrogen treatment corrected the exacerbated aorta oxidative stress in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceravolo, Graziela S; Filgueira, Fernando P; Costa, Tiago J; Lobato, Nubia S; Chignalia, Andréia Z; Araujo, Priscila X; Tostes, Rita C; Dantas, Ana P; Fortes, Zuleica B; Carvalho, Maria Helena C

    2013-03-01

    The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women has been linked to the decrease in plasma estrogen levels. Preparation of conjugate equine estrogens (CEE) is one of the most routinely used hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. However, studies on the vascular effects of CEE are still sparse and the mechanism of action is not completely elucidated. In this context, we have determined the effects of CEE in the vascular oxidative stress observed in ovariectomyzed (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Mechanisms by which CEE interferes with redox-sensitive pathways and endothelial function were also determined. Aortas from OVX rats exhibited increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activity and reduced catalase protein expression, compared to aortas from sham SHR. Endothelium-intact aortic rings from OVX were hyperreactive to NE when compared to Sham aortas. This hyperreactivity was corrected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and endothelium removal. Treatment of OVX-SHR with CEE reduced vascular ROS generation, NADPH oxidase activity, enhanced SOD and catalase expression and also corrected the NE-hyperreactivity in aortic rings from OVX-SHR. Our study indicates a potential benefit of CEE therapy through a mechanism that involves reduction in oxidative stress, improving endothelial function in OVX hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Avaliação do posicionamento da aorta em pacientes com escoliose idiopática do adolescente

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    Guilherme Augusto Foizer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o posicionamento da aorta em pacientes com escoliose. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames de imagem em pacientes ambulatoriais com escoliose idiopática do adolescente e em um grupo formado por pacientes hígidos, sendo analisados seis parâmetros: comprimento do corpo vertebral, largura, distância aorta-corpo, diâmetro da aorta, distância aorta-canal e ângulo corpo-aorta. RESULTADOS: As curvas variaram entre T3 e L2 com ângulos de Cobb de 46° e 114°. Pela classificação de Lenke os tipos 1AN e 1BN ocorreram em 20% dos casos, além de 1CN, 3BN, 3C+ com 13,3 % e 1B+, 3C- com 6,7 %. As vértebras próximas ao ápice da curva no grupo escoliose apresentam valores superiores às do grupo controle (em T8 com média de 86,93° no grupo escoliose e média 49,07 no grupo controle (p < 0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto mais próximo do ápice da deformidade, maior a póstero-lateralização da aorta.

  20. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt

  1. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  2. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis

    OpenAIRE

    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1?M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using ...

  3. Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas toracoabdominais da aorta Surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

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    Januário M Souza

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram operados, em nosso Serviço, 161 aneurismas da aorta, sendo 99 por dissecção e 62 por outras causas. Em cinco pacientes, os aneurismas eram de localização toracoabdominal, sendo três por degeneração aterosclerótica e dois por dissecção; três pacientes eram do sexo feminino e a idade variou de 31 a 71 anos. Dois pacientes submeteram-se a aneurismectomia previamente (um da aorta ascendente e outro da porção proximal da aorta torácica. Revascularização miocárdica foi feita em um paciente, 40 dias antes da aneurismectomia. A indicação em todos os pacientes foi dor, causada por compressão do aneurisma, sendo que, em dois, havia insuficiência respiratória associada. Todos os pacientes foram operados através de incisão toracoabdominal e abertura do diafragma. A aorta foi substituída por tubo de Dacron, desde sua porção proximal até sua bifurcação, e as artérias viscerais foram implantadas no tubo. Quatro pacientes foram operados com pinçamento da aorta; um paciente necessitou emprego de circulação extracorpórea e parada circulatória, por impossibilidade de pinçamento da aorta junto à artéria subclávia. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram ao ato cirúrgico, ocorrendo dois óbitos no pós-operatório, um subitamente no 12º dia e outro por coma neurológico secundário a parada cardíaca causada por hipoxia.Five patients have been operated on of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. The mean age was 53 years (range 31-71 and three were women. All the patients were symptomatic, three of them had arteriosclerotic aneurysms, and the other two had dissecting aneurysms. Three patients had been operated on previously. The exposure of aneurysm was made through a thoracoabdominal incision, in four patients clamps were placed above and below the aneurysm and it was incised longitudinally. Bypass between left atrium and left femoral artery with hypothermia and circulatory arrest was used in the other patients, since the

  4. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

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    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah A Ghareib,1 Hany M El-Bassossy,1,2 Ahmed A Elberry,3,4 Ahmad Azhar,5 Malcolm L Watson,6 Zainy Mohammed Banjar7 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 5Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1, and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 µM on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 µM, guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 µM, calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM, and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 µM were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6

  5. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  6. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ratchetting of porcine skin under uniaxial cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guozheng; Wu, Xinfeng

    2011-04-01

    Skin soft tissue (e.g., porcine skin) was tested in vitro under uniaxial cyclic loading, and its biomechanical responses were investigated to realize some basic properties which are very significant in assessing the fatigue life of skin soft tissue. The results show that a cyclic accumulation of peak and valley strain, which can be terminologically called as ratchetting in terms of material science of metals, occurs in the porcine skin during cyclic tension-unloading, tension-tension and compression-unloading tests. Observed ratchetting of porcine skin depends on load level and loading orientation greatly and also presents remarkable rate dependence due to the viscosity of skin soft tissue. The ratchetting is much more remarkable during the test at lower loading rate than that at higher loading rate. Moreover, some basic properties of porcine skin were also investigated by monotonic tension, compression and creep tests in order to address the ratchetting more comprehensively. Finally, collagen fiber bundles in the porcine skin and their variation during monotonic and cyclic tension tests were observed microscopically in term of standard iron-hematoxylin staining method. The observations are useful to realize the micro-mechanism of ratchetting deformation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

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    Bo-jiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  9. Tratamento cirúrgico da coarctação de aorta pela aortoplastia trapezoidal Surgical treatment of coarctation of the aorta using trapezoidal aortoplasty

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    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A aortoplastia trapezoidal é uma variante técnica da anastomose término-terminal que, amparada em elementos da geometria, objetiva aumentar o diâmetro da aorta ao nível da sutura reduzida e, consequentemente, a manutenção de gradientes pressóricos residuais ou recorrentes indesejáveis a curto e a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Após a ressecção da área coarctada e tecido ductal, são confeccionados em cada coto aórtico 3 trapezóides que, ao serem confrontados, criam linha de sutura com aspecto sinusoidal (zigue-zague. Foram operados por esta técnica 33 pacientes, a maioria homens, com idades variando de 3 meses a 36 anos (m 9,5 ± 9,7. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreu mortalidade imediata ou tardia e o tempo de evolução a longo prazo foi de 1,1 a 7,6 anos (m 3,6 ± 3,4. A maioria dos pacientes ficou assintomática com níveis normais de pressão arterial, possibilitando a descontinuação da terapêutica antihipertensiva (pOBJECTIVE: Trapezoidal aortoplasty is a technical variant of end-to-end anastomosis, which, based on elements of geometry, aims at increasing the diameter of the aorta at the level of the suture, therefore reducing the occurrence of residual or recurrent pressure gradients in the short and long run. METHODS: After resecting the coarcted area and ductal tissue, 3 trapezoids are confected in each aortic stump, which, when confronted, create a suture line with a sinusoidal aspect (zigzag. Thirty-three patients underwent surgery with this technique, 22 (66.7% males, with ages ranging from 3 months to 36 years (mean of 9.84 ± 9.69. RESULTS: No immediate or late deaths occurred. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 7.6 years (mean of 3.6 ± 3.4. Most patients became asymptomatic with normal blood pressure levels, enabling the discontinuation of antihypertensive therapy (P<0.0001. A significant reduction in the pressure gradients was observed on Doppler echocardiography and during cardiac catheterization (P<0.001. The analysis of

  10. Aortoscopia no tratamento das dissecções agudas da aorta Aortoscopy in the treatment of acute dissecting aneurysms of the aorta

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    Gladyston SOUTO

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 , foram operados 10 pacientes portadores de dissecção aguda da aorta (DA Ao 4 do tipo A e 6 do tipo B. O sexo masculino predominou e a idade dos pacientes variou de 34 a 78 anos. Em todos foram realizadas aortoscopias usando hipotermia profunda com parada circulatória total. Usou-se um gastroscópio, obtendo visão do lume da Ao, sendo que todos os pacientes tinham menos que 15 dias da doença. No tipo A, havia re-entrada abaixo da subclávia esquerda em 2 pacientes e, nos outros 2, na bifurcação das ilíacas. No tipo B, havia re-entrada ao nível das renais em 2 pacientes e, ao nível da bifurcação da Ao e das ilíacas, em 4. Em 2 pacientes do tipo A, a aortoscopia orientou na colocação de uma "Tromba de Elefante" como complemento. Nos outros 2, orientou na inversão do sentido da linha arterial. No tipo B, orientou na perfeita colocação da "Tromba de Elefante" e, em 4 pacientes, utilizamos a aortoscopia como complemento diagnóstico. O tempo utilizado na aortoscopia não alterou a morbimortalidade. Podemos concluir que a aortoscopia é um método de diagnóstico rápido, com boa definição das alterações anatômicas da Ao, permitindo um tratamento efetivo. Nos casos agudos instáveis podemos dispensar alguns exames pré-operatórios para não retardarmos a operação. O diagnóstico da re-entrada nos seguimentos inferiores da Ao ajuda a evitar a dissecção retrógrada. Acreditamos que a aortoscopia poderá, no futuro, ser de grande ajuda no diagnóstico e tratamento das DA Ao, bem como de outras lesões da Ao.From January to December 1998, ten patients with dissecting aneurysms of the Aorta (ADA Ao were operated on, 4 type A and 6 type B. Males predominated and ages ranged from 34 to 78 years. In all of them aortoscopy was performed with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. A gastroscope was used with visualization of the aortic lumen and all patients had less than 15 days of disease

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1: evaluation of its role in F4 mediated neonatal diarrhoea

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    Cox Eric

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because prostaglandins are involved in many (pathophysiological processes, SLCO2A1 was already characterized in several species in an attempt to unravel specific processes/deficiencies. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine ortholog in order to evaluate its possible involvement in F4 enterotoxigenic E. coli mediated neonatal diarrhoea, based on a positional candidate gene approach study. Results Porcine SLCO2A1 is organized in 14 exons, containing an open reading frame of 1935 bp, encoding a 12-transmembrane organic anion cell surface transporter of 644 aa. The -388 to -5 upstream region comprises a (CpG48 island containing a number of conserved promoter elements, including a TATA box. A potential alternative promoter region was found in the conserved -973 to -700 upstream region. No consensus polyadenylation signal was discovered in the 3' UTR. Repeat sequences were found in 15% of all the non coding sequences. As expected for a multifunctional protein, a wide tissue distribution was observed. mRNA expression was found in the adrenal gland, bladder, caecum, colon (centripetal coil/centrifugal coil, diaphragm, duodenum, gallbladder, heart, ileum, jejunum, kidney, liver, longissimus dorsi muscle, lung, lymph node, mesenterium, rectum, spleen, stomach, tongue and ureter, but not in the aorta, oesophagus and pancreas. The promoter region and the exons (including the splice sites of SLCO2A1 were resequenced in 5 F4ab/ac receptor positive and 5 F4ab/ac receptor negative pigs. Two silent and 2 missense (both S → L at position 360 and 633 mutations were found, but none was associated with the F4ab/ac receptor phenotype. In addition, no phenotype associated differential mRNA expression or alternative/abberant splicing/polyadenylation was found in the jejunum. Conclusion The molecular cloning and characterization of porcine SLCO2A1 not only contributes to the already existing knowledge about the

  12. Porcine sapelovirus among diarrhoeic piglets in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P K; Desingu, P A; Kumari, S; John, J K; Sethi, M; Sharma, G K; Pattnaik, B; Singh, R K; Saikumar, G

    2017-02-27

    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) A belongs to the genus Sapelovirus, family Picornaviridae. PSV infections in pigs have been reported from European countries, United States, Japan, China, Korea and Brazil. The virus has been isolated/detected from faeces of healthy pigs as well as those affected with diarrhoea, respiratory signs, encephalitis, skin lesions and fertility disorders. This study was planned to investigate whether PSV is prevalent among pigs in India and to characterize PSV encountered in the study population. The study revealed that five of 70 (7.14%) faecal samples were found positive for PSV using RT-PCR. Three viruses were successfully isolated from faecal samples using IB-RS-2 cell line. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of one Indian PSV isolate revealed highest homology (88%) with V13 strain from England. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete polyprotein nucleotide sequences of 14 strains of PSV classified the viruses into four distinct clades. This first report from India adds to our knowledge on genetic diversity of PSV detected so far among pigs in different countries. A large-scale surveillance of the virus is required to understand its genomic diversity and economic impact. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mészáros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology.

  14. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  15. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  16. Proteomic analysis of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang; Zhang, Min; Li, Wentao; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yingyu; He, Qigai

    2012-06-18

    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging swine immunosuppressive disease. To characterize the interaction between target immune cells and PCV2, the differential proteomes of porcine alveolar macrophages, with and without PCV2 infection, were analyzed at different time points with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. Mass spectrometry identified 21 altered host-encoded protein spots (9 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated protein spots), which included cytoskeleton proteins, macromolecular biosynthesis-associated proteins, stress response proteins, signal transduction proteins, energy metabolism, and ubiquitin proteasome pathway-associated proteins. The majority of the changes occurred 48h after PCV2 infection. Moreover, 9 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantified by real time RT-PCR to examine the transcriptional profiles. Western blot analysis further confirmed the differential expression of proteins, including SFN, PSME1, PRP19, HSPB1, TUBA|B, CK-19 and ACTB, in the proteomic profiles. Subcellular distribution analysis of the cytoskeletal proteins and PCV2 clearly demonstrated interactions between PCV2 and the differential protein β-tubulin. Thus, this work effectively provides useful and dynamic protein-related information to further understand the underlying pathogenesis of PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and Function of a Nonruminant Gut: A Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Aminov, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    monogastric animal, and here it is represented by a pig model. In this chapter, we describe and discuss (i) microbial diversity in different parts of the porcine gut; (ii) differences between the ruminant and nonruminant gut; (iii) main events during colonization and succession of microbiota in the porcine......In many aspects, the anatomical, physiological, and microbial diversity features of the ruminant gut are different from that of the monogastric animals. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to give a comparative overview of the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of a nonruminant...... gut; (iv) effects of various feed additives including antibiotics, phages, probiotics, and prebiotics on pigs; and (v) the use of the porcine model in translational medicine....

  18. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

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    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  19. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  20. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, L.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Fredholm, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Desmoglein I (DSGI) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein I (PIG)DSGI by a very specific reaction. This study investigated...... the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine desmoglein I gene (PIG)DSGI in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results: DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative...... the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein I gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis....

  1. Effects of Continuous and Accumulated Exercise on Endothelial Function in Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Juliana Edwiges; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The practice of exercise in short bouts repeated throughout the day may be an alternative strategy to lift people out of physical inactivity. to evaluate if accumulated exercise, as occurs in continuous exercise training, improve endothelial function in rat aorta. Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: continuous exercise (CEx, 1 hour on the treadmill) or accumulated exercise (AEx, 4 bouts of 15 minutes / day) for 5 days/week for 8 weeks, or sedentary (SED). During the training period, body weight gain and increase in exercise performance were recorded. On sacrifice day, aorta was dissected into rings (3-5 mm) and mounted on the organ bath. Fitness was significantly greater in CEx and AEx rats as compared with SED animals. In addition, compared with the SED group, CEx animals had a lower body mass gain, and the aorta obtained from these animals had reduced contractile response to norepinephrine and greater acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These results were not observed in ACEx animals. Both CEx and AEx improved fitness, but only CEx led to reduced body weight gain and improved endothelial function. A prática de exercícios em sessões curtas que se repetem ao longo do dia pode ser uma alternativa para tirar as pessoas da inatividade física. Verificar se o exercício acumulado, tal como ocorre com o treinamento com exercício contínuo, melhora a função endotelial na aorta de ratos. Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 3 grupos: treinamento com exercício contínuo (ExC; 1 hora em esteira) ou com exercício acumulado (ExA; 4 sessões de 15 minutos ao longo do dia) por 5 dias/semana, durante 8 semanas, ou grupo sedentário (SED). Durante o treinamento, foram registrados o ganho de peso corporal e desempenho na esteira. No dia do sacrifício, anéis (3-5 mm) da aorta foram obtidos e montados em banho de órgãos. Animais ExC e ExA mostraram aptidão física significativamente maior em comparação com os SED. Paralelamente, em comparação com SED

  2. Early and late outcome of operated and non-operated acute dissection of the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, J; Schaffner, T; Mohacsi, P; Aeschbacher, B; Althaus, U; Carrel, T

    1997-06-01

    At present debate continues concerning the optimal mode of treatment for type B dissections. Controversies are mainly due to discordant results regarding survival following medical or surgical treatment. We assessed early and long-term outcome of acute dissection of the descending aorta treated by emergency aortic replacement, medical treatment or delayed surgery. Between 1980 and 1995, 225 patients were hospitalized in the medical or surgical department of our institution with the diagnosis of acute type B aortic dissection. A total of 38 patients (16.8%) underwent replacement of the descending aorta within the first week after hospital admission. Primary indications for immediate surgery were: rupturing aneurysm (n = 15), diameter of the descending aorta (n = 13), malperfusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta (n = 8) and pseudocoarctation syndrome with uncontrollable hypertension (n = 2). All other patients (n = 187) underwent primary conservative treatment on the intensive care unit, including appropriate anti-hypertensive medication. In 12 of them, surgery was denied because of age or significant concomitant diseases. Hospital mortality after urgent or emergency surgery was 21% (8/38 patients) for the overall time period. There has been a significant decrease in hospital mortality during the last 5 year-period (12% versus 30% between 1980 and 1994). Causes of death were: cardiac failure in 3, bleeding complications in 2, postoperative mesenteric ischemia in 2 and septicemia in one patient. From the 30 operative survivors, 9 (30%) patients required further surgery on the native aorta after a mean follow-up of 48 +/- 13 months. Hospital mortality during conservative treatment was 17.6% (33/187 patients). Main causes of death were rupture in 14, thoraco-abdominal malperfusion in 13 and cardiac failure in 3 patients, whereas in 3 patients, the cause of death could not be evaluated. In this group, 9 patients had to be shifted to early surgery during the initial

  3. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  4. Oclusión de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal. Reconstrucción endovascular con stent

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    Carlos Fernández-Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción La oclusión total de la aorta abdominal es de presentación poco frecuente y afecta más a menudo a mujeres de edad mediana con antecedentes de tabaquismo y dislipidemia. El punto de partida de la terapéutica endovascular en la aorta fue la angioplastia en las arterias ilíacas y fue progresando desde el balón hasta la colocación de stents.ObjetivoComunicar nuestros resultados inmediatos y el seguimiento a mediano plazo de pacientes con oclusión de la aorta abdominal tratadas con stents por vía endovascular.Material y métodosDesde octubre de 1998 a mayo de 2005 en nuestro servicio se trataron 5 pacientes de sexo femenino por oclusión total de la aorta abdominal, con síntomas de claudicación grave de ambos miembros inferiores. Los procedimientos se realizaron con anestesia local y sedación. Por vía femoral, se intenta recanalizar con las cuerdas de Whooley o hidrófila Glidewire. Posteriormente se realiza un angiograma abdominal e intercambio por cuerda Amplatz con la cual se avanza el balón para realizar las dilataciones antes de implantar el stent. Las pacientes con lesiones ilíacas también se trataron con stent. El índice tobillo-brazo era de 0,71. El promedio de hospitalización fue de 2 días. Al alta se indicaron clopidogrel y aspirina como medicación antiplaquetaria, excepto la primera paciente (ticlopidina y aspirina. El seguimiento fue clínico y por ecografía Doppler color a la semana, al mes, a los 6 meses y a los 12 meses.ResultadosLas pacientes eran de sexo femenino, con antecedentes de tabaquismo y dislipidemia. Todos los procedimientos fueron técnicamente exitosos, con mejoría del índice tobillo-brazo a 0,98. Una paciente presentó un hematoma inguinal en el sitio de punción, con buena evolución posterior. En el seguimiento alejado clínico y por ultrasonido se observó una permeabilidad de la aorta del 100%, con estenosis en una paciente tratada a nivel de la arteria ilíaca en el segmento no

  5. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B

    2016-04-07

    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  6. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  7. Durability of pericardial versus porcine bioprosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeier, Gary L; Furnary, Anthony P; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Starr, Albert

    2012-12-01

    To compare the probability, and modes, of explantation for Carpentier-Edwards pericardial versus porcine valves. Our porcine series began in 1974 and our pericardial series in 1991, with annual prospective follow-up. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression for estimation and analysis of patient mortality, and the cumulative incidence function and competing risks regression for estimation and analysis of valve durability. Through the end of 2010, we had implanted 506 porcine and 2449 pericardial aortic valves and 181 porcine and 163 pericardial mitral valves. The corresponding total and maximum follow-up years were 3471 and 24, 11,517 and 18, 864 and 22, and 645 and 9. The corresponding probabilities (cumulative incidence function) of any valve explant were 7%, 8%, 22%, and 8%, and of explant for structural valve deterioration were 4%, 5%, 16%, and 5% at 15 years for the first 3 series and at 8 years for the fourth (pericardial mitral valve) series. Using competing risks regression for structural valve deterioration explant, with age, gender, valve size, and concomitant coronary bypass surgery as covariates, a slight (subhazard ratio, 0.79), but nonsignificant, protective effect was found for the pericardial valve in the aortic position and a greater (subhazard ratio, 0.31) and almost significant (P = .08) protective effect of the pericardial valve in the mitral position. Leaflet tear was responsible for 61% of the structural valve deterioration explants in the porcine series and 46% in the pericardial series. Using competing risks regression, the pericardial valve had a subhazard ratio for structural valve deterioration explant of less than 1 in both positions, approaching statistical significance in the mitral position. The mode of structural valve deterioration was predominantly leaflet tear for porcine valves and fibrosis/calcification for pericardial valves. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc

  8. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

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    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  9. Motorcycle exhaust particulates enhance vasoconstriction in organ culture of rat aortas and involve reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hui-Ping; Yang, Rong-Sen; Ueng, Tzuu-Huei; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2003-09-01

    The effects of motorcycle exhaust particulate on vasoconstriction were determined using rat thoracic aortas under organ culture conditions treated with organic extracts of motorcycle exhaust particulate from a two-stroke engine. The motorcycle exhaust particulate extract (MEPE) induced a concentration-dependent enhancement of vasoconstriction elicited by phenylephrine in the organ cultures of both intact and endothelium-denuded aortas for 18 h. Nifedipine (an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker), manganese acetate (an inorganic Ca2+ channel blocker), and staurosporine (a nonselective protein kinase C inhibitor), but not the selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine, inhibited the enhancement of vasoconstriction by MEPE. Staurosporine has also been reported as a myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, so we tested whether the MLCK pathway was involved in the effect of MEPE. The results showed that ML-9 (a selective MLCK inhibitor) could inhibit the enhancement of vasoconstriction by MEPE. The phosphorylation of a 20-kDa myosin light chain in a primary culture of rat vascular smooth muscle cells was also enhanced by MEPE. Moreover, we also examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stimulatory effect of MEPE on vasoconstriction. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly inhibited the enhancement of vasoconstriction by MEPE. A time-dependent increase in ROS production by MEPE was also detected in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. These results indicate that MEPE induces a marked enhancement of vasoconstriction in aortas under organ culture conditions and imply that a ROS-Ca2+-MLCK pathway may be involved in this MEPE-induced response.

  10. Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation in adults with coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Mathieu; Fernandes, Susan M; Khairy, Paul; Graham, Dionne A; Krieger, Eric V; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Singh, Michael N; Colan, Steven D; Meijboom, Erik J; Landzberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of aortic valve dysfunction, aortic dilation, and aortic valve and ascending aortic intervention in adults with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation are rare among children and adolescents with CoA. With longer follow-up, adults may be more likely to have progressive disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adults with CoA, repaired or unrepaired, seen at our center between 2004 and 2010. Two hundred sixteen adults (56.0% male) with CoA were identified. Median age at last evaluation was 28.3 (range 18.0 to 75.3) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was present in 65.7%. At last follow-up, 3.2% had moderate or severe aortic stenosis, and 3.7% had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Dilation of the aortic root or ascending aorta was present in 28.0% and 41.6% of patients, respectively. Moderate or severe aortic root or ascending aortic dilation (z-score > 4) was present in 8.2% and 13.7%, respectively. Patients with BAV were more likely to have moderate or severe ascending aortic dilation compared with those without BAV (19.5% vs. 0%; P aortic dilation (P = 0.04). At most recent follow-up, 5.6% had undergone aortic valve intervention, and 3.2% had aortic root or ascending aortic replacement. In adults with CoA, significant aortic valve dysfunction and interventions during early adulthood were uncommon. However, aortic dilation was prevalent, especially of the ascending aorta, in patients with BAV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of aorta unfolding and remodelling on oesophageal Doppler readings as probe depth is varied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Critchley, L A H; Huang, L

    2015-11-01

    The thoracic aorta elongates and unfolds with advancing age. Lateral displacement and tortuosity of the descending part may affect oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM) readings because probe alignment becomes slanted. This investigation aimed to relate aortic displacement as it appears on the chest radiograph with variations in ODM readings as the probe is inserted to different depths. In anaesthetized patients a series of three to five ODM stroke volume (SV) readings were obtained at insertion depths of 35-45 cm during stable haemodynamics. The coefficient of variation (CV=standard deviation/mean %) was calculated. The degree of descending aorta unfolding was measured by (i) lateral displacement (LD), that is, the difference in the maximum and minimum distances between the midline and para-aortic line; and (ii) curvature angle (CA), the angle formed by a tangential line from the intersection of the para-aortic line and the diaphragm to its curve with the vertical line. Data from 70 patients were analysed. The median CV of SV readings was 14% (range 4-48). Variation between ODM readings, shown by the CV of SV readings, increased linearly with aortic unfolding: R2=0.44 for LD and R2=0.60 for CA. Patients with a CA ≤15° were younger and had significantly lower CVs of ODM readings than those with a CA >15° (P=0.001). Age and hypertension was associated with increased CA. Increased lateral displacement and tortuosity of the descending aorta reduces the reliability of ODM measurements as probe depth is varied, especially with aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Time-Harmonic Ultrasound elastography of the Descending Abdominal Aorta: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafs, Lars-Arne; Tzschätzsch, Heiko; van der Giet, Markus; Reshetnik, Alexander; Steffen, Ingo G; Hamm, Bernd; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf; Elgeti, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Stiffening of central large vessels is considered a key pathophysiologic factor within the cardiovascular system. Current diagnostic parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) indirectly measure aortic stiffness, a hallmark of coronary diseases. The aim of the present study was to perform elastography of the proximal abdominal aorta based on externally induced time-harmonic shear waves. Experiments were performed in 30 healthy volunteers (25 young, 5 old, >50 y) and 5 patients with longstanding hypertension (PWV >10 m/s). B-Mode-guided sonographic time-harmonic elastography was used for measurement of externally induced shear waves at 30-Hz vibration frequency. Thirty-hertz shear wave amplitudes (SWAs) within the abdominal aorta were measured and displayed in real time and processed offline for differences in SWA between systole and diastole (ΔSWA). Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The change in SWA over the cardiac cycle was reduced significantly in all patients as assessed with ΔSWA (volunteers: mean = 10 ± 5 μm, patients: mean = 4 ± 1 μm; p harmonic elastography of the abdominal aorta is feasible and shows promise for the exploitation of time-varying shear wave amplitudes as a diagnostic marker for aortic wall stiffening. Patients with elevated PWVs suggesting increased aortic wall stiffness were best identified by ΔSWA-a parameter that could be related to the ability of the vessel walls to distend on passages of the pulse wave. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aortic elasticity indices by magnetic resonance predict progression of ascending aorta dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaro, Giovanni Donato; Briatico Vangosa, Alessandra; Toia, Patrizia; Barison, Andrea; Ait-Ali, Lamia; Midiri, Massimo; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele; Emdin, Michele; Festa, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Aortic distensibility and pulse-wave velocity (PWV) are under investigation as parameters by which to evaluate the indication for ascending aorta (AA) replacement. The maximum rate of systolic distension (MRSD) was proposed as a new index of aortic elasticity. The aim of this study was to assess the role of aortic elasticity parameters to predict AA growth rates in patients with AA dilation (AAD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed annually in 65 patients with AA dilation (median follow-up 17 months; 25-75th percentile; range 12-30 months). A significant increase in AA diameter was defined as a ≥2-mm increase. An increase in AA diameter was found in 42 (68 %) patients (AAD+ group) and absent in 20. Median increase was 0.16 (25-75th percentile; range 0.32-0.7) mm/month. The AAD+ group had a lower MRSD (4.6 ± 2.2 vs 7.4 ± 2.0, p elastic properties and is a valuable predictor for progression in AAD. • MRI-derived parameters of aortic wall elasticity predict progression of ascending aorta dilation. • Maximal rate of systolic distension (MRSD) was the best predictor of progression. • Patients with MRSD ≤ 6 had lower progression-free survival (PFS) times. • Patients who underwent surgical therapy had lower MRSD and distensibility. • MRI-derived parameters identify patients with fast progression of Ascending Aorta Dilation.

  14. Anesthesia for cesarean section on a pregnant woman with hypoplasia of the distal aorta. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reis, Leonardo Andrade; dos Reis, Guilherme Frederico Ferreira; Colombano, Rodrigo Dias

    2008-01-01

    Maternal vascular anomalies, potentially severe for the fetus, can jeopardize uterine perfusion, which demands more caution by the anesthesiology team. The objective of this report was to demonstrate the anesthetic conduct for a cesarean section on a pregnant woman with hipoplasia of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries, with stenosis of the renal artery and absence of the iliac arteries. This is a 30-year old patient, weighing 54 kg, on her second pregnancy, with a history of an uncomplicated cesarean section. During the gestational echocardiography on the 12th week, it was observed an interruption of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries. The patient was referred for coronary angiography, which demonstrated hypoplasia of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries, and absence of the iliac arteries. During the clinical investigation, the patient remained asymptomatic, except for hypertension and claudication during great efforts. She underwent continuous epidural anesthesia and the dose of the anesthetic was titrated as needed for the cesarean section. Initially, 50 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine without vasoconstrictor and 10 microg of sufentanil were administered. After 15 minutes, anesthesia was complemented with 25 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine, which was enough to achieve an adequate level of blockade. The cesarean section was performed without intercurrences, and the fetus was born in good clinical conditions. The use of continuous epidural block in fractionated doses demonstrated to be a safe anesthetic technique for this procedure because it reduces the risks of maternal hypotension, inherent to the spinal block, and also minimized the placentary transference of drugs, which is the case with general anesthesia. Titration of drugs through the epidural catheter allowed reaching an adequate anesthetic level for this type of surgery.

  15. Cysteine-674 oxidation and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase in diabetic pig aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia; Sharov, Victor; Xu, Shanqin; Jiang, Bingbing; Gerrity, Ross; Schöneich, Christian; Cohen, Richard A

    2008-09-15

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) is redox-regulated by posttranslational thiol modifications of cysteine-674 to regulate smooth muscle relaxation and migration. To detect oxidation of cysteine-674 that irreversibly prevents redox regulation, a polyclonal, sequence-specific antibody was developed toward a peptide containing cysteine-674 sulfonic acid. The antibody stained intact 110-kDa SERCA in pig cardiac SR that was oxidized in vitro by peroxynitrite in a sequence-specific manner, and histochemically stained atherosclerotic pig and rabbit aorta. Surprisingly, immunoblots of the pig aorta failed to stain intact 110-kDa SERCA protein, but rather, higher molecular mass aggregates and lower molecular mass bands. Of the latter bands at 70 and 60 kDa, the largest were observed in diabetic, hyperlipidemic pigs, and coincided with the most positive histochemical staining. The 70- and 60-kDa molecular mass bands also coincided with the majority of the protein detected by a monoclonal total anti-SERCA antibody, which detected the intact 110-kDa protein in normal pigs. Mass spectrometry identified SERCA in all the major bands detected by the sulfonic acid antibody as well as the oxidation of cysteine-674 in the 70-kDa band. These studies demonstrate a sequence-specific antibody that detects partial degradation products of SERCA, which represent the majority of the protein in some diabetic hypercholesterolemic pig aortae. In addition, the results suggest an association between irreversible oxidation of SERCA and its degradation, and that an important portion of the oxidized protein in tissue samples may be partially degraded.

  16. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endothelium-independent relaxation to raloxifene in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi Ming; Au, Chak Leung; Tsang, Suk Ying; Lau, Chi Wai; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Zongwei; Chung, Arthur Chi-Kong

    2017-04-01

    Raloxifene can induce both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in different arteries. However, the underlying mechanisms by which raloxifene triggers endothelium-independent relaxation are still incompletely understood. The purpose of present study was to examine the roles of NOSs and Ca(2+) channels in the relaxant response to raloxifene in the rat isolated, endothelium-denuded aorta. Changes in isometric tension, cGMP, nitrite, inducible NOS protein expression and distribution in response to raloxifene in endothelium-denuded aortic rings were studied by organ baths, radioimmunoassay, Griess reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Raloxifene reduced the contraction to CaCl2 in a Ca(2+) -free, high K(+) -containing solution in intact aortic rings. Raloxifene also acutely relaxed the aorta primarily through an endothelium-independent mechanism involving NO, mostly from inducible NOS (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle layers. This effect of raloxifene involved the generation of cGMP and nitrite. Also, it was genomic in nature, as it was inhibited by a classical oestrogen receptor antagonist and inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. Raloxifene-induced stimulation of iNOS gene expression was partly mediated through activation of the NF-κB pathway. Raloxifene was more potent than 17β-estradiol or tamoxifen at relaxing endothelium-denuded aortic rings by stimulation of iNOS. Raloxifene-mediated vasorelaxation in rat aorta is independent of a functional endothelium and is mediated by oestrogen receptors and NF-κB. This effect is mainly mediated through an enhanced production of NO, cGMP and nitrite, via the induction of iNOS and inhibition of calcium influx through Ca(2+) channels in rat aortic smooth muscle. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Blunt traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta and aortic arch: a clinical multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Gulias, Daniel; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Herrera, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2013-09-01

    To report the clinical and radiological characteristics, management and outcomes of traumatic ascending aorta and aortic arch injuries. Historic cohort multicentre study including 17 major trauma patients with traumatic aortic injury from January 2000 to January 2011. The most common mechanism of blunt trauma was motor-vehicle crash (47%) followed by motorcycle crash (41%). Patients sustaining traumatic ascending aorta or aortic arch injuries presented a high proportion of myocardial contusion (41%); moderate or greater aortic valve regurgitation (12%); haemopericardium (35%); severe head injuries (65%) and spinal cord injury (23%). The 58.8% of the patients presented a high degree aortic injury (types III and IV). Expected in-hospital mortality was over 50% as defined by mean TRISS 59.7 (SD 38.6) and mean ISS 48.2 (SD 21.6) on admission. Observed in-hospital mortality was 53%. The cause of death was directly related to the ATAI in 45% of cases, head and abdominal injuries being the cause of death in the remaining 55% cases. Long-term survival was 46% at 1 year, 39% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta/arch should be considered in any major thoracic trauma patient presenting cardiac tamponade, aortic valve regurgitation and/or myocardial contusion. These aortic injuries are also associated with a high incidence of neurological injuries, which can be just as lethal as the aortic injury, so treatment priorities should be modulated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iterative Otsu's method for OCT improved delineation in the aorta wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Daniel; Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José F.; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-07-01

    Degradation of human ascending thoracic aorta has been visualized with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the vessel wall exhibit structural degradation in the media layer of the artery, being this disorder the final trigger of the pathology. The degeneration in the vessel wall appears as low-reflectivity areas due to different optical properties of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides in contrast with typical ordered structure of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT dimension indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker can offer in the future a real-time clinical perception of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas can be delimited by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not optimum in the aorta samples and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded areas within the aorta wall, robust to noisy environments, based on the iterative application of Otsu's thresholding method. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies compared with the simple application of the algorithm. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  19. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... data on the 'bovine' genotype (CPB-0 isolate). This was investigated in calves and piglets from commercial herds. Piglets were mildly affected by the CPP-13 isolate, contrary to piglets infected with the CPB-0 isolate, which caused diarrhoea of a mean duration of 3.5 days. CPP-13 produced no or very...

  20. Comparison of Barbed Sutures in Porcine Flexor Tenorrhaphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sull, Alan; Inceoglu, Serkan; August, Alicia; Gregorius, Stephen; Wongworawat, Montri D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Barbed suture use has become more popular as technology and materials have advanced. Minimal data exist regarding performance of the 2 commercially available products, V-LocTM and StratafixTM in tendon repairs. The purpose of this study was to compare gap resistance and ultimate tensile strength of both suture materials and nonbarbed suture in a porcine ex vivo model. Methods: Porcine flexor tendons were harvested and divided into 3 groups of 10 of varying suture material (3-0 PDS...

  1. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta, complicated by hydronephrosis and anuria. Surgical management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Gama, A Dinis; Martins, Carlos; Pedro, L Mendes; Evangelista, Ana; Almeida, Paulo; Gimenez, J Luis; Rodriguez, J Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the clinical condition of two male patients, aged 58 and 65 years are presented, after being admitted as a consequence of a rare complication of an inflammatory aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, which is an ureteral compression, with hydronephrosis, anuria and acute renal failure. After having an urgent haemodialysis session, the etiology of the process was diagnosed by echography and abdominal CT-scans, followed by ureteral catheterization, restoration of diuresis and normalization of renal function. Conventional surgery was performed later, in elective conditions, and the post operative course was normal, without complications. The main features of this clinical entity, its diagnosis and multidisciplinary management are presented and discussed.

  2. Pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta following botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Shiraev, MB, BS (Hons, BSc (Hons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and are usually secondary to penetrating trauma. We describe the presentation and management of an elderly woman who suffered a pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta several days after receiving botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus. Urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed, and long-term antibiotic therapy was commenced. Despite a slow initial clinical recovery, she returned to an independent lifestyle, with radiographic resolution of the pseudoaneurysm seen at follow-up. This case illustrates that endovascular aortic repair is a suitable and safe treatment option for this unusual presentation.

  3. Surgical repair of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta after aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Rui Manuel Sequeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aortic clinically diagnosed 5 months after surgical replacement of the aortic valve. Diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of two-dimensional echocardiography and helicoidal angiotomography. The corrective surgery, which consisted of a reinforced suture of the communication with the ascending aorta after opening and aspiration of the cavity of the pseudoaneurysm, was successfully performed through a complete sternotomy using extracorporeal circulation, femorofemoral cannulation, and moderate hypothermia, with no aortic clamping.

  4. Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Coarctation of the Aorta: A Hybrid Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Daniel; Caputo, Massimo; Taliotis, Demetris

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid surgery is becoming more popular in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease, particularly small infants and neonates. We report a case of a patient with aortic stenosis (AS) and coarctation of the aorta (CoA). a 1-month-old baby presented with severe AS and CoA. The decision was made to perform a hybrid surgical procedure. The patient underwent a lateral thoracotomy for repair of the CoA and carotid cutdown for aortic balloon valvuloplasty (AoVP).

  5. Matrix production of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiemer, B; Springmeier, G; el-Jarad, L; Schröter-Kermani, C

    1993-01-01

    Immunofluorescence microscopic methods served to demonstrate the production of the following matrix components in cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta: fibronectin; nidogen; heparan sulphate-proteoglycan (HS-PG); laminin; and collagen types I, III, IV, V, and VI. A time-dependence of synthesis and secretion could be shown for a number of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as laminin. The results revealed the following estimated quantitative differences of the collagen types: type I > type III > types V and VI. A filamentous/fibrillar matrix and also occasionally a typical basal lamina could be demonstrated electron microscopically around the smooth muscle cells.

  6. Coartación de la aorta: una revisión sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Ruíz Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La coartación de la aorta es una patología caracterizada por el estrechamiento de la arteria aorta, con la consecuente obstrucción de su flujo; localizada con mayor frecuencia a nivel de aorta torácica descendente distal al origen de la subclavia izquierda, y en la pared posterior de la arteria. Supone aproximadamente el 5,1% (3-10% de las cardiopatías congénitas y constituye la octava malformación cardiaca por orden de frecuencia. La presentación clínica de la coartación aórtica es muy variada y depende de la severidad de la lesión y de su posible asociación con otras anomalías cardiacas. Se resalta la tipo infantil y tipo adulto, siendo la primera la que reviste mayor morbimortalidad. La ecocardiografía bidimensional y la ecocardiografía doppler son el método diagnóstico fundamental para la coartación aórtica. La angiorresonancia magnética (angio-RM contrastada, permite hacer una evaluación detallada de la aorta mediante una reconstrucción tridimensional que muestra claramente sus defectos. Por su parte, la TAC multicorte permite la visualización tridimensional del arco desde múltiples planos, pero como inconveniente tiene la emisión de radiación. El cateterismo cardiaco, constituye más que un medio diagnóstico, uno terapéutico en el cual, no sólo se demuestra la localización y extensión de la zona coartada, la presencia de lesiones asociadas y/o de circulación colateral, sino que permite la obtención de un conocimiento fiable de la severidad y repercusión hemodinámica de la misma. El tratamiento de esta patología, puede ser inicialmente médico, pero de forma definitiva por cateterismo cardíaco intervencionista y con menor frecuencia corrección quirúrgica.

  7. Beneficial effect of coenzyme Q10 injection on nitric oxide -related dilation of the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaeva, Larisa P; Gorodetskaya, Evgeniya A; Ruuge, Enno K; Kalenikova, Elena I; Medvedev, Oleg S

    2017-01-05

    This study examined whether coenzyme Q10 can improve nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilatation in the rat aorta after pre-incubation or intravenous administration. In initial experiments, intact isolated aortic rings were incubated with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. In further experiments, coenzyme Q10 was administered intravenously in anesthetized rats, then in 2h aorta was isolated. In both cases, after preliminary preparation the isolated aortic rings were tested for acetylcholine-induced NO-dependent relaxation. Acetylcholine elicited concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephine precontracted aortic rings. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine were markedly potentiated after pre-incubation with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine. The maximum relaxant responses (%) were significantly increased from 64.1±5.3 (control) to 89.8±3.0 and 83.6±3.0 (coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine, respectively). pD2 (-lgEC50) value in control study was 5.81±0.28, after pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 or L-arginine were 7.59±0.16 and 7.26±0.32, respectively. There was no difference between coenzyme Q10 and L-arginine groups. After intravenous administration, the relaxant responses to acetylcholine were significantly increased in coenzyme Q10-treated group (94.2±2.0) compared with controls (68.1±4.4). pD2 values were also different between control and treatment groups (5.79±0.29 vs. 8.14±0.65, respectively). Thus, coenzyme Q10 improved NO-mediated vasodilation in rat aorta in magnitude close to the effects of L-arginine - substrate for eNOS. Our data first show that exogenous coenzyme Q10 through intravenous administration is able to improve rapidly NO-dependent vasodilation in rat aorta, likely due to accumulation of coenzyme Q10 in the vessel wall. Improvement of endothelial function can contribute, at least in part, to beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of high fructose administration on histopathology of kidney, heart and aorta of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Results: Nephropathy was achieved in fructose group after one month as indicated by biochemical assay. Pathological observation showed that high fructose administration decreased size of cardio-myocytes, increased cardiac interstitial fibrosis score and aortic wall thickness. In kidneys, high fructose administration decreased glomerular tuft area and corpuscular area, increased percentage in the rats affected with interstitial renal fibrosis score 1 and percentage of rats had glomerular sclerosis score 2. Conclusion: High fructose in diet should be avoided because it can damage kidney, heart and aorta in rats. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 71-79

  9. "Stent" auto-expansível nas dissecções da aorta tipo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA Wagner Michael

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento clínico das dissecções agudas da aorta do tipo B tem mortalidade em torno de 25% menor que a mortalidade cirúrgica. O tratamento cirúrgico das dissecções crônicas também produz uma morbidade e mortalidade elevadas. A utilização de "stents"auto-expansíveis endovasculares pode ser uma nova alternativa no tratamento destas lesões. De abril a dezembro de 1998 foram implantados 15 "stents" endovasculares, 10 em dissecções agudas e 5 em crônicas. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 48 e 75 anos (média=60,53±9,73 anos com 66,6% do sexo masculino. Os pacientes foram submetidos à esternotomia mediana, circulação extracorpórea (CEC com hipotermia profunda (18° - 20°C, parada circulatória total (PCT e perfusão cerebral retrógrada (PCR. A aorta transversa foi incisada e implantado o "stent" na aorta descendente sob auxílio de aortoscopia. Foram analisados os tempos de CEC, pinçamento aórtico, PCT, PCR, reaquecimento, ventilação mecânica, internação, sangramento trans e pós-operatório, reposição sangüínea, gasometria, curva de eventos e sobrevida. A mortalidade hospitalar (30 dias foi de 6,6%; 2 pacientes foram reoperados com 3 e 6 meses após a operação com dissecção da aorta ascendente e aneurisma roto distal ao "stent". Quatorze vêm sendo acompanhados com 1 a 8m de evolução, sendo que 85,7% estão livres de eventos e curva de sobrevida de 93,1%(240 dias. Concluímos que o implante de "stent"intraluminais auto-expansíveis apresentou mortalidade menor na fase aguda da doença (6,6% comparada à nossa experiência anterior com o tratamento clínico (30%. Apesar da amostra ser pequena, o procedimento parece ser promissor e necessita mais acompanhamento.

  10. Vasodilator activity of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and its main constituent citral in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sharlene Lopes; Marques, André Mesquita; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-03-07

    The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB), a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%), limonene (4.7%) and α-pinene (3.4%). Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50) of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p citral in endothelium-intact and denuded rings were 0.024% ± 0.004% and 0.021% ± 0.004%, respectively (p > 0.05). In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  11. Regional expression of HOXA4 along the aorta and its potential role in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmore James R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The infrarenal abdominal aorta exhibits increased disease susceptibility relative to other aortic regions. Allograft studies exchanging thoracic and abdominal segments showed that regional susceptibility is maintained regardless of location, suggesting substantial roles for embryological origin, tissue composition and site-specific gene expression. Results We analyzed gene expression with microarrays in baboon aortas, and found that members of the HOX gene family exhibited spatial expression differences. HOXA4 was chosen for further study, since it had decreased expression in the abdominal compared to the thoracic aorta. Western blot analysis from 24 human aortas demonstrated significantly higher HOXA4 protein levels in thoracic compared to abdominal tissues (P HOXA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs compared to age-matched non-aneurysmal controls (P P Conclusions Our results demonstrated spatial variation in expression of HOXA4 in human aortas that persisted into adulthood and that downregulation of HOXA4 expression was associated with AAAs, an important aortic disease of the ageing population.

  12. Vasodilator Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and Its Main Constituent Citral in Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Zapata-Sudo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB, a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%, limonene (4.7% and α-pinene (3.4%. Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50 of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05. In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  13. Customized CT angiogram planning for intraoperative transesophageal echography-guided endovascular exclusion of thoracic aorta penetrating ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Lupia, Mario; Grego, Franco; Antonello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The technique is demonstrated in a 78-year-old man; the preoperative CT angiogram showed a descending thoracic aorta ulcer of 5.9 cm in maximum diameter and 3.8 cm longitudinal extension. A ZTEG-2P-36-127-PF (Cook Medical) single tubular endograft was planned to be deployed. From the preoperative CT angiogram we planned to land 4.7 cm above the midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and 8.0 cm below. In the operating room, under radioscopic vision the centre of the transesophageal echography probe was used as marker to identify the correspondent midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and a centimeter-sized pigtail catheter in the aorta was used to calculate the desired length above and below the ulcer midline. The endograft was introduced and placed in the desired position compared to the transesophageal echography probe and the catheter; under transesophageal echography vision the graft was finally deployed. The CT angiogram at 1 month showed the correct endograft position, descending thoracic aorta ulcer exclusion with no signs of endoleak. In selected cases, this method allows planning in advance safe stent graft positioning and deployment totally assisted by transesophageal echography, with no risk of periprocedural contrast-related renal failure and reduced radiation exposure for the patient and operators. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta in warmblood horses, Friesian horses, and Friesians with aortic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, Veronique; Famaey, Nele; Smoljkic, Marija; Claeys, Erik; van Loon, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Ploeg, Margreet; Delesalle, Catherine; Gröne, Andrea; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen

    2015-11-18

    Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation are rare conditions in horses. It mainly affects Friesian horses. Intrinsic differences in biomechanical properties of the aortic wall might predispose this breed. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta were characterized in warmblood horses, unaffected Friesian horses and Friesians with aortic rupture in an attempt to unravel the underlying pathogenesis of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. Samples of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum (LA), mid thoracic aorta (T1) and distal thoracic aorta (T2) were obtained from Friesian horses with aortic rupture (A), nonaffected Friesian (NA) and warmblood horses (WB). The biomechanical properties of these samples were determined using uniaxial tensile and rupture assays. The percentages of collagen and elastin (mg/mg dry weight) were quantified. Data revealed no significant biomechanical nor biochemical differences among the different groups of horses. The distal thoracic aorta displayed an increased stiffness associated with a higher collagen percentage in this area and a higher load-bearing capacity compared to the more proximal segments. Our findings match reported findings in other animal species. Study results did not provide evidence that the predisposition of the Friesian horse breed for aortic rupture can be attributed to altered biomechanical properties of the aortic wall.

  15. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F F; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H; Ferramola, Mariana L; Oliveros, Liliana B; Gimenez, María S

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+), respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd(2+), in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd(2+) exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+) did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. © 2013.

  16. Microsurgical Bypass Training Rat Model, Part 1: Technical Nuances of Exposure of the Aorta and Iliac Arteries.

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    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Yousef, Sonia; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau

    2017-11-01

    Animal models using rodents are frequently used for practicing microvascular anastomosis-an essential technique in cerebrovascular surgery. However, safely and efficiently exposing rat's target vessels is technically difficult. Such difficulty may lead to excessive hemorrhage and shorten animal survival. This limits the ability to perform multiple anastomoses on a single animal and may increase the overall training time and costs. We report our model for microsurgical bypass training in rodents in 2 consecutive articles. In part 1, we describe the technical nuances for a safe and efficient exposure of the rat abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIAs) for bypass. Over a 2-year period, 50 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia for practicing microvascular anastomosis on the abdominal aorta and CIAs. Lessons learned regarding the technical nuances of vessel exposure were recorded. Several technical nuances were important for avoiding intraoperative bleeding and preventing animal demise while preparing an adequate length of vessels for bypass. The most relevant technical nuances include (1) generous subcutaneous dissection; (2) use of cotton swabs for the blunt dissection of the retroperitoneal fat; (3) combination of sharp and blunt dissection to isolate the aorta and iliac arteries from the accompanying veins; (4) proper control of the posterior branches of the aorta; and (5) efficient division and mobilization of the left renal pedicle. Applying the aforementioned technical nuances enables safe and efficient preparation of the rat abdominal aorta and CIAs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correção cirúrgica de aneurismas da aorta torácica por técnica de exclusão Surgical correction of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta using the aneurysmal exclusion technique

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    Bayard Gontijo Filho

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 14 pacientes portadores de aneurisma da aorta torácica (4 do arco aórtico e 10 da aorta descendente, com importantes complicações pré-operatórias, que foram submetidos a correção cirúrgica através de técnica de exclusão da área aneurismática. Esta exclusão foi realizada através de um desvio extra-anatômico entre a aorta ascendente e a aorta abdominal, associado a ligadura da aorta, acima e abaixo do aneurisma. Em 5 pacientes, esta ligadura foi realizada com uso de suturas mecânicas (stapler. Houve 6 (42,8% óbitos no período pós-operatório, quase todos relacionados a grave condição clínica pré-operatória, em pacientes portadores de discussão aórtica aguda (tipo B. Dos 8 pacientes sobreviventes, 7 encontram-se em controle clínico por período de 6 meses a 4 anos, com boa evolução. Todos demonstraram redução progressiva do aneurisma, após a cirurgia, tendo, em alguns casos, ocorrido desaparecimento completo do mesmo.The authors report their experience with 14 patients who underwent correction of aneurysms of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, utilizing a technique based on aortic exclusion. The approach was accomplished with an ascending abdominal aortic by-pass, and the aneurysm was isolated with a ligature of the aorta above and below it. In 5 patients, this ligature was done with staplers. Six patients died in the immediate post-operative period, mainly from preoperative clinical condition related to acute aortic dissection of the descending thoracic aorta. Severn patients have been followed from 6 months to 4 years and all of them showed a progressive reduction of the aneurysmal sac.

  18. Reação histopatológica da parede da aorta abdominal ao stent não recoberto Histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall to non-covered stents

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    Rubio Bombonato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a reação histopatológica da parede aorta abdominal, em suínos, no nível das artérias renais, na presença de stent metálico não recoberto. MÉTODO: Foi estudada histopatologicamente a aorta abdominal de 10 suínos, com peso médio de 86,6 quilos e idade média de 6 meses, submetidos a implante de stent metálico posicionado na aorta, no nível das artérias renais, após 100 dias do implante. Os stents foram liberados por auto-expansão com laparotomia. Os cortes histológicos foram realizados nos seguintes locais: 1 transição entre a aorta normal e aorta contendo stent; 2 aorta contendo o stent; 3 porção contendo os óstios das artérias renais, 4 linfonodos periaórticos e, 5 parênquima renal. As lâminas foram coradas pela técnica da hematoxilina e eosina. RESULTADOS: Os achados macroscópicos revelaram: linfonodomegalia periaórtica; espessamento da parede aórtica; artérias lombares e renais pérvias; estrutura anatômica renal normal. Análises microscópicas, próximas aos stents, evidenciaram espessamento da parede vascular, secundário à fibrose intimal e camada média comprometida com fibrose intersticial. Medidas micrométricas da parede aórtica com o stent, comparada à aorta sem o stent, apresentaram aumento da espessura da parede (75,9% por hiperplasia da camada íntima secundária à proliferação de fibroblastos; depósitos de colágeno com infiltrado inflamatório e granulomas do tipo corpo estranho. CONCLUSÃO: O stent de aço inoxidável descoberto, implantado na aorta de suínos, produziu importante reação inflamatória, com fibrose nas camadas média e íntima, evidenciada pelas análises histopatológicas e a sua presença não comprometeu o estado pérvio da aorta e dos ramos lombares e renais.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall in pigs' renal arteries to the presence of non-covered stainless steel stents. METHODS: The abdominal aorta of

  19. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  20. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter

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    Akinori Fujikake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta.

  1. Double renal artery originating from aorta in dog: case report/ Artéria renal dupla originando da aorta em cão: relato de caso

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    Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the multiple renal artery in dogs, supplying the left kidney, has been reported in 12-15%. New surgery technics in the urogenital tract and the utilization of model for renal transplantation are of clinical significance when considering surgery of that kidney. Courses of anatomy directed veterinary medicine and animal anatomy for students of courses of graduation in the areas of agrarian and biological sciences, use anatomical material proceeding from domestic animals in considerable volume. The use of the material of the laboratories of anatomy for studies of frequency of anatomical variations constitutes way of together contribution to the applied areas, such as the surgery and the clinic. The objective of this report is to presentation of the left multiple renal artery case, originating from the ventral portion of the aorta, in female dog cadaver, with two months, formalin-preserved at 10% and with latex colored vascular injected.A presença de artéria renal múltipla em cães ocorre geralmente do lado esquerdo, em uma freqüência de 12 a 15 %. O avanço de técnicas cirúrgicas no trato urogenital e a utilização de modelos para transplantes renais tornam importante o conhecimento das variações possíveis no que se refere à vascularização dos rins. Cursos de anatomia veterinária e anatomia animal direcionados para estudantes de cursos de graduação nas áreas de ciências agrárias e biológicas, utilizam material anatômico proveniente de animais domésticos em volume considerável. A utilização do acervo dos laboratórios de anatomia para estudos de freqüência de variações anatômicas constitui meio de contribuição junto às áreas aplicadas, tais como a cirurgia e a clínica. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar um caso de artéria renal esquerda dupla, com origem na porção ventral da aorta, em cadáver de cão sem raça definida, com cerca de dois meses de idade, preservado em solução de formol a 10

  2. Ex-vivo UV autofluorescence imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy of atherosclerotic pathology in human aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, William; Williams, Maura; Franco, Walfre

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to identify fluorescence excitation-emission pairs correlated with atherosclerotic pathology in ex-vivo human aorta. Wide-field images of atherosclerotic human aorta were captured using UV and visible excitation and emission wavelength pairs of several known fluorophores to investigate correspondence with gross pathologic features. Fluorescence spectroscopy and histology were performed on 21 aortic samples. A matrix of Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for the relationship between relevant histologic features and the intensity of emission for 427 wavelength pairs. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that elastin (370/460 nm) and tryptophan (290/340 nm) fluorescence predicted 58% of the variance in intima thickness (R-squared = 0.588, F(2,18) = 12.8, p=.0003), and 48% of the variance in media thickness (R-squared = 0.483, F(2,18) = 8.42, p=.002), suggesting that endogenous fluorescence intensity at these wavelengths can be utilized for improved pathologic characterization of atherosclerotic plaques.

  3. Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of nitric oxide signaling pathway in isolated aorta from Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mónica, Fabíola Z; Rojas-Moscoso, Julio; Porto, Marcovan; Schenka, André A; Antunes, Edson; Cogo, José Carlos; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2012-04-01

    We characterized the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) pathway in Crotalus durissus terrificus aorta. Concentration responses curves to acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), BAY41-2272 (soluble guanylyl cyclase [sGC] stimulator), BAY60-2770 (sGC activator) and tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor) were constructed in phenylephrine (10 μM)-precontracted tissues with intact (E(+)) or denuded (E(-)) endothelium. ACh (0.0001-10 μM) and SNP (0.0001-10 μM) relaxed aorta, which were reduced by the NO synthase (L-NAME,100 μM) or the sGC inhibitors (ODQ, 10 μM). Tadalafil (0.0001-10 μM) relaxed E(+) rings with potency (pEC(50)) and maximal response (E(max)) values of 7.34±0.02 and 105±8%, respectively. E(-) or ODQ treatment significantly (PCrotalus sp. vessels, and has a remarkable degree of functional similarity to mammalian vessels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

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    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  5. Structural and biomechanical alterations in rabbit thoracic aortas are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis

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    Koletsis Efstratios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a diffuse and highly variable disease of arteries that alters the mechanical properties of the vessel wall through highly variable changes in its cellular composition and histological structure. We have analyzed the effects of acute atherosclerotic changes on the mechanical properties of the descending thoracic aorta of rabbits fed a 4% cholesterol diet. Methods Two groups of eight male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and fed for 8 weeks either an atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol plus regular rabbit chow, or regular chow. Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and the descending thoracic aortas were excised for pressure-diameter tests and histological evaluation to examine the relationship between aortic elastic properties and atherosclerotic lesions. Results All rabbits fed the high-cholesterol diet developed either intermediate or advanced atherosclerotic lesions, particularly American Heart Association-type III and IV, which were fatty and contained abundant lipid-filled foam cells (RAM 11-positive cells and fewer SMCs with solid-like actin staining (HHF-35-positive cells. In contrast, rabbits fed a normal diet had no visible atherosclerotic changes. The atherosclerotic lesions correlated with a statistically significant decrease in mean vessel wall stiffness in the cholesterol-fed rabbits (51.52 ± 8.76 kPa compared to the control animals (68.98 ± 11.98 kPa, especially in rabbits with more progressive disease. Conclusions Notably, stiffness appears to decrease with the progression of atherosclerosis after the 8-week period.

  6. Simultaneous Transcatheter Intervention for Coarctation of the Aorta and Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

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    Mizutani, Yukiko; Tada, Norio; Masuda, Takahiko; Hata, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is a relatively common congenital heart anomaly, and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart disease that coexists with CoA. In larger children and adults with CoA, transcatheter intervention has gained acceptance, but for surgical high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been established. Recently, although favorable data have been reported for TAVI when treating BAV, simultaneous transcatheter intervention for CoA and BAV will prove to be a challenge because of the unique anatomy involved requires multiple procedural steps and also has problems of site access. Herein is reported a successful case of simultaneous thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) for CoA and transfemoral TAVI for congenital BAV dysfunction. A 62-year-old male with CoA and congenital BAV with severe aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation had NYHA class IV heart failure symptoms. Because of the patient's extremely poor left ventricular function, the authors' heart team decided to perform simultaneous TEVAR for CoA and transfemoral TAVI. After deployment of a 32 mm stent graft, a 29 mm SAPIEN 3 valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was successfully deployed through the stent graft. This resulted in no significant pressure gradient within the aorta, and no aortic regurgitation. Video 1: Cineradiography showing delivery of the Edwards Commander delivery system through the stent graft. Video 2: Final aortography showing no residual aortic regurgitation.

  7. Novel tissue-engineered vascular patches based on decellularized canine aortas and their recellularization in vitro

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    Tu, Qiufen; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Dongxia; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Huaiqing

    2008-11-01

    Decellularized allo- or xenogeneic vascular grafts have been found to give more promising results than some biodegradable synthetic polymers. However, owing to absence of well-organized cells, especially confluent endothelial cells, their long-term patency is limited. Seeding vessel-originated cells on these grafts may overcome the deficiency. In this study, canine aortas were decellularized and cross-linked. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Masson' trichrome staining showed complete removal of cell debris, while structure integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) was remained. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) were seeded on these decellularized aorta patches in three manners, ECs alone (EC/O), SMCs alone (SMC/O) and ECs on SMCs layer (EC/SMC). In EC/O and SMC/O, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated both cells could form confluent layers on the decellularized patches when seeded at high density, but their morphology and alignment changed with seeding density. In EC/SMC, ECs could grow well on SMCs layer, but their morphology, alignment, and confluence degree were deeply influenced by the density of SMCs beneath.

  8. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

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    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p core temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  9. Preservation of rabbit aorta elastin from degradation by gingival fibroblasts in an ex vivo model.

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    Gogly, Bruno; Naveau, Adrien; Fournier, Benjamin; Reinald, Nicoleta; Durand, Eric; Brasselet, Camille; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine

    2007-09-01

    Embryo-like gingival healing properties are attributed to the gingival fibroblast (GF) and could be used as a model for other types of healing dysfunctions. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation is associated with elastin degradation and increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity. We aimed to validate the concept of using GF healing properties in arteries. We evaluated MMP-9 and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) in rabbit aortic rings cultured in collagen gels with or without GFs and observed throughout 21 days. We also performed cocultures of human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs) with either gingival, dermal, or adventitial fibroblasts, and alone (control). In control arteries, elastic fibers became spontaneously sparse. In presence of GFs, elastic fibers were preserved. There was a dramatically reduced protein level of MMP-9 in coculture of aorta and GFs, in contrast with control aorta. MMP-9 expression was unaffected by GFs. MMP-9 inhibition was related to increased TIMP-1 secretion, TIMP-1 forming a complex with MMP-9. Cell cocultures of hSMC with GFs showed similar results. Dermal and adventitial fibroblasts did not affect MMP-9. Elastic fiber degradation was specifically preserved by GFs via reduction of MMP-9 protein level by increasing TIMP-1 synthesis. Vascular transfer of gingival fibroblasts could be a promising approach to treat AAA.

  10. Fluid dynamics of coarctation of the aorta: analytical solution, in vitro validation and in vivo evaluation

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    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a narrowing in the aorta. Cardiac catheterization is considered to be the reference standard for definitive evaluation of COA severity, based on the peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PtoP TCPG) and instantaneous systolic value of trans-COA pressure gradient (TCPG). However, invasive cardiac catheterization may carry high risks given that undergoing multiple follow-up cardiac catheterizations in patients with COA is common. The objective of this study is to present an analytical description of the COA that estimates PtoP TCPG and TCPG without a need for high risk invasive data collection. Coupled Navier-Stokes and elastic deformation equations were solved analytically to estimate TCPG and PtoP TCPG. The results were validated against data measured in vitro (e.g., 90% COA: TCPG: root mean squared error (RMSE) = 3.93 mmHg; PtoP TCPG: RMSE = 7.9 mmHg). Moreover, the estimated PtoP TCPG resulted from the suggested analytical description was validated using clinical data in twenty patients with COA (maximum RMSE: 8.3 mmHg). Very good correlation and concordance were found between TCPG and PtoP TCPG obtained from the analytical formulation and in vitro and in vivo data. The suggested methodology can be considered as an alternative to cardiac catheterization and can help preventing its risks.

  11. Effect of huanglian jiedu decoction on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

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    Yue, Gui-Hua; Zhuo, Shao-Yuan; Xia, Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Gao, Yi-Wen; Luo, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders with high mortality. Here we explored the antihypertension effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Methods. A rat model of spontaneous hypertension was used. The gene change profile of thoracic aorta after JHD treatment was assessed by GeneChip(GC) analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray. Results. Hypertension induced 441 genes upregulated and 417 genes downregulated compared with the normal control group. Treatment of HJD resulted in 76 genes downregulated and 20 genes upregulated. GC data analysis showed that the majority of change genes were involved in immune system process, developmental process, and cell death. Conclusion. Hypertension altered expression of many genes that regulate various biological functions. HJD significantly reduced hypertension and altered the gene expression profiles of SHR rats. These changing genes were involved in many cellular functions such as regulating smooth muscle contraction, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and NO pathway. This study provides the potential novel insights into hypertension and antihypertension effects of HJD.

  12. Effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Thoracic Aorta Gene Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

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    Gui-Hua Yue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders with high mortality. Here we explored the antihypertension effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Methods. A rat model of spontaneous hypertension was used. The gene change profile of thoracic aorta after JHD treatment was assessed by GeneChip(GC analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray. Results. Hypertension induced 441 genes upregulated and 417 genes downregulated compared with the normal control group. Treatment of HJD resulted in 76 genes downregulated and 20 genes upregulated. GC data analysis showed that the majority of change genes were involved in immune system process, developmental process, and cell death. Conclusion. Hypertension altered expression of many genes that regulate various biological functions. HJD significantly reduced hypertension and altered the gene expression profiles of SHR rats. These changing genes were involved in many cellular functions such as regulating smooth muscle contraction, Ca(2+ homeostasis, and NO pathway. This study provides the potential novel insights into hypertension and antihypertension effects of HJD.

  13. Abdominal aorta anastomosis in rats and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, prophylaxis and therapy.

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    Hrelec, M; Klicek, R; Brcic, L; Brcic, I; Cvjetko, I; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2009-12-01

    We focused on abdominal aorta, clamped and transected bellow renal arteries, and aortic termino-terminal anastomosis created in Albino male rats. We suggested stomach cytoprotection theory holding endothelium protection and peptidergic anti-ulcer cytoprotection therapy to improve management of abdominal aorta anastomosis and thrombus formation. The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) is a small anti-ulcer peptide efficient in inflammatory bowel disease trials (PL 14736) and various wound treatment, no toxicity reported. After 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis, we shown that BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) may also decrease formation of cloth after aortic termino-terminal anastomosis and preserved walking ability and muscle strength when given as a bath immediately after aortic anastomosis creation. This may be important since aortic termino-terminal anastomosis is normally presenting in rats with a formed cloth obstructing more than third of aortic lumen, severely impaired walking ability, painful screaming and weak muscle strength. Thereby, the effect of BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) was additionally studied at 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis. Given at the that point, intraperitoneally, within 3 minutes post-application interval the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 rapidly recovered the function of lower limbs and muscle strength while no cloth could be seen in those rats at the anastomosis site.

  14. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture.

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    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the structural characteristics of the tunica media of the mid-thoracic aorta, distant to the lesion, in warmblood and Friesian horses with and without thoracic aortic rupture. In unaffected Friesian horses, the thickness of the tunica media, as well as the percentage area comprised of collagen type I, were significantly higher compared with the warmblood horses, supporting the hypothesis of a primary collagen disorder in the Friesian horse breed. However, in the tunica media of the affected Friesian horses there was no significant wall thickening. Moreover, the percentage area comprised of elastin was significantly lower, while the percentage area comprised of smooth muscle was higher, compared with unaffected Friesian and warmblood horses. These lesions are suggestive of an additional mild elastin deficiency with compensatory smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in affected Friesians. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Measurement of hemodynamic changes with the axial flow blood pump installed in descending aorta.

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    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    We have developed various axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the Valvo pump, and we have studied hemodynamic changes under cardiac assistance using an axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart. In this study, we measured hemodynamic changes of not only systemic circulation but also cerebral circulation and coronary circulation under cardiac support using our latest axial flow blood pump placed in the descending aorta in an acute animal experiment. The axial flow blood pump was installed at the thoracic descending aorta through a left thoracotomy of a goat (43.8 kg, female). When the pump was on, the aortic pressure and aortic flow downstream of the pump increased with preservation of pulsatilities. The pressure drop upstream of the pump caused reduction of afterload pressure, and it may lead to reduction of left ventricular wall stress. However, cerebral blood flow and coronary blood flow were decreased when the pump was on. The axial flow blood pump enables more effective blood perfusion into systemic circulation, but it has the potential risk of blood perfusion disturbance into cerebral circulation and coronary circulation. The results indicate that the position before the coronary ostia might be suitable for implantation of the axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart to avoid blood perfusion disturbances.

  16. Physical exercise reduces transplant arteriosclerosis in a mouse aorta transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Wiebke; Knöfel, Ann-Kathrin; Izykowski, Nicole; Oldhafer, Felix; Avsar, Murat; Jonigk, Danny; Warnecke, Gregor; Haverich, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis limits long-term outcome after heart transplantation. The underlying mechanism of transplant arteriosclerosis remains alloreactivity, but it is also influenced by nonimmunologic cofactors. Physical exercise has well-established effects on the prevention of native arteriosclerosis. We hypothesized that physical exercise would reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in an allogeneic transplantation setting. Segments of the thoracic aorta from C57.Bl6 (H2b) or C3H.HeJ (H2k) mice were transplanted into the abdominal aortas of CBA.Ca mice (H2k), representing a major or minor alloantigen mismatch, respectively. Three days after surgery, recipient mice were assigned to either the control or physical exercise (consisting of 2 × 45 minutes of treadmill training per day) groups. Transplant arteriosclerosis was assessed and quantified by histology on day 28 after vessel transplantation. Endothelial cell integrity and function in histology sections and peripheral blood was assessed. All animals developed transplant arteriosclerosis with more severe luminal occlusion in the major alloantigen mismatch setting. Animals undergoing physical exercise developed significantly less severe transplant arteriosclerosis in both the major (P arteriosclerosis. This could be due to enhanced endothelial cell regeneration and function in the graft. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment Strategies for Paradoxical Hypertension Following Surgical Correction of Coarctation of the Aorta in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleveld, Peter P; Zwijsen, Eline G

    2017-05-01

    Paradoxical hypertension after repair of coarctation of the aorta is a well-known phenomenon. The pathogenesis involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (first phase) and renin-angiotensin system (second phase). Only a limited number of different treatment strategies have been published in the literature, without any comparative studies. Our aim was to describe the current international practice variation surrounding pharmacological treatment currently being employed to treat paradoxical hypertension following the repair of coarctation of the aorta in children. We performed an online survey among 197 members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. We also conducted a systematic review of the literature regarding the treatment of paradoxical hypertension. Eighty-eight people (45%), from 62 different centers, responded and answered the questions regarding blood pressure control. Nitroprusside is the first drug of choice for initial blood pressure control in 66% of respondents, esmolol in 11%, labetalol in 11%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are used by 3% of respondents. For oral blood pressure control after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit, 75% of respondents use ACEIs, 18% use labetalol, and 12% use other beta-blockers (propranolol, carvedilol, atenolol, metoprolol). The systematic review identified 14 articles reporting pharmacological treatment of direct postoperative hypertension following coarctation repair. There is wide practice variability, due to the lack of sufficient compelling evidence. The majority (66%) of caregivers use nitroprusside to control blood pressure in the acute postoperative phase. The ACEIs are the drug of choice for chronic blood pressure control.

  18. Aorta: a management layer for mobile peer-to-peer massive multiplayer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Stefan; Hoerning, Henrik; Brunnert, Andreas; Hoerning, Reidar

    2005-03-01

    The development of massive multiplayer games (MMPGs) for personal computers is based on a wide range of frameworks and technologies. In contrast, MMPG development for cell phones lacks the availability of framework support. We present Aorta as a multi-purpose lightweight MIDP 2.0 framework to support the transparent and equal API usage of peer-to-peer communication via http, IP and Bluetooth. Special experiments, such as load-tests on Nokia 6600s, have been carried out with Bluetooth support in using a server-as-client architecture to create ad-hoc networks by using piconet functionalities. Additionally, scatternet functionalities, which will be supported in upcoming devices, have been tested in a simulated environment on more than 12 cell phones. The core of the Aorta framework is the Etherlobby, which manages connections, peers, the game lobby, game policies and much more. The framework itself was developed to enable the fast development of mobile games, regardless of the distance between users, which might be within the schoolyard or much further away. The earliest market-ready application shown here is a multimedia game for cell phones utilizing all of the frameworks features. This game, called Micromonster, acts as platform for developer tests, as well as providing valuable information about interface usability and user acceptance.

  19. Pulmonary atresia with dextroposition of the aorta and ventricular septal defect in three Arabian foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitums, A; Bayly, W M

    1982-03-01

    Three Arabian males foals were presented with cyanosis, heart murmur, and exercise intolerance, Results of clinical evaluation suggested a tentative diagnosis of ventricular septal defect in conjunction with malformations of the great arteries. Each foal had a poor prognosis and was killed at the owners' requests. At necropsy, the malformed hearts of the three foals were virtually identical. Each heart had a large defect in the upper interventricular septum. The aorta originated from the hypertrophied right ventricle and partially overrode the ventricular septal defect. The aortic ostium was guarded by three semilunar valvules. The position of the valvules and the ostia of the coronary arteries was abnormal. The pulmonary arteries arose from the persistent ductus arteriosus. The pulmonary trunk was reduced to a thin, fibrous cord extending from a short and narrow persistent ductus arteriosus to the level of the semilunar valve, where it fused with the wall of the aorta. No communication of the atretic pulmonary trunk with the cavity of the right ventricle was seen.

  20. Gia/Mthl5 is an aorta specific GPCR required for Drosophila heart tube morphology and normal pericardial cell positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghna V; Zhu, Jun-Yi; Jiang, Zhiping; Richman, Adam; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Han, Zhe

    2016-06-01

    G-protein signaling is known to be required for cell-cell contacts during the development of the Drosophila dorsal vessel. However, the identity of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that regulates this signaling pathway activity is unknown. Here we describe the identification of a novel cardiac specific GPCR, called Gia, for "GPCR in aorta". Gia is the only heart-specific GPCR identified in Drosophila to date and it is specifically expressed in cardioblasts that fuse at the dorsal midline to become the aorta. Gia is the only Drosophila gene so far identified for which expression is entirely restricted to cells of the aorta. Deletion of Gia led to a broken-hearted phenotype, characterized by pericardial cells dissociated from cardioblasts and abnormal distribution of cell junction proteins. Both phenotypes were similar to those observed in mutants of the heterotrimeric cardiac G proteins. Lack of Gia also led to defects in the alignment and fusion of cardioblasts in the aorta. Gia forms a protein complex with G-αo47A, the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric cardiac G proteins and interacts genetically with G-αo47A during cardiac morphogenesis. Our study identified Gia as an essential aorta-specific GPCR that functions upstream of cardiac heterotrimeric G proteins and is required for morphological integrity of the aorta during heart tube formation. These studies lead to a redefinition of the bro phenotype, to encompass morphological integrity of the heart tube as well as cardioblast-pericardial cell spatial interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk: results of the CAMONA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Lam, Marnix G.E.; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); Vach, Werner [University Medical Center Freiburg, Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Olsen, Michael H. [Odense University Hospital, The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul F. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging), and vascular calcium burden (CT imaging) of the thoracic aorta in a population at low CVD risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and {sup 18}F-FDG and Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for development of CVD, based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), was estimated. CVD risk was compared across quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, Na{sup 18}F uptake, and calcium burden on CT. A total of 139 subjects (52 % men, mean age 49 years, age range 21 - 75 years, median FRS 6 %) were evaluated. CVD risk was, on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with thoracic aorta Na{sup 18}F uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (15.5 % vs. 4.2 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with a thoracic aorta calcium burden on CT in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest two quartiles of the distribution (18.0 % vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was similar in subjects in all quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our findings indicate that an unfavourable CVD risk profile is associated with marked increases in vascular calcification metabolism and vascular calcium burden of the thoracic aorta, but not with arterial inflammation. (orig.)

  2. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H

    2010-01-01

    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  3. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antibodies in commercial pig husbandry in Nigeria: a preliminary study. ... main economic resources of developing countries. In Nigeria, pig farming contributes significantly to the livestock sub-sector and accounts for about 30% of total pig production in Africa.

  4. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...

  5. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  6. Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cholerasuis are potentially zonootic pathogens that cause porcine salmonellosis; a disease associated with economic losses worldwide. Presence of this disease in pigs in Kenya is largely unknown. Two, 11-week old pig carcasses presented for necropsy to the Department of ...

  7. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2014-04-01

    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  10. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases.

  11. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    j.khobondo

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... The objective of the study was to determine the codon usage bias in the porcine genome and decipher its determinants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of codon bias, the coding sequence (CDS) from the swine reference sequence (ssc10.2) was extracted using Biomart. An in house built Perl ...

  12. The practicalities of establishing a porcine isolated heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Warren; Raisis, Anthea; Dunne, Ben; Van Laeken, Els; Jenkinson, Charles; Vincent, Viji; Baird, Peter; Prince, Stuart; Ho, Kwok M; Merry, Christopher; Gilfillan, Ian

    2017-12-01

    The isolated heart apparatus is over 100 years old, but remains a useful research tool today. While designs of many large animal systems have been described in the literature, trouble-shooting and refining such a model to yield a stable, workable system has not been previously described. This paper outlines the issues, in tabular form, that our group encountered in developing our own porcine isolated heart rig with the aim of assisting other workers in the field planning similar work. The paper also highlights some of the modern applications of the isolated heart apparatus. Methods Landrace pigs (50-80 kg) were used in a pilot project to develop the model. The model was then used in a study examining the effects of various cardioplegic solutions on function after reanimation of porcine hearts. During the two projects, non-protocol issues were documented as well as their solutions. These were aggregated in this paper. Issues faced by the group without explicit literature solutions included pig size selection, animal acclimatisation, porcine transoesophageal echocardiography, cannulation and phlebotomy for cross-clamping, cardioplegia delivery, heart suspension and rig tuning. Prior recognition of issues and possible solutions faced by workers establishing a porcine isolated heart system will speed progress towards a useable system for research. The isolated heart apparatus remains applicable in transplant, ischaemia reperfusion, heart failure and organ preservation research.

  13. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes exhibited dense irregular connective tissues with reticular cells and smooth muscle cells. The cortex was more central while the medulla was peripheral with poorly defined boundaries ...

  14. Polymorphism of the porcine CGA gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to dissect potential genetic factors for these unstable results and validate the association or linkage relationship of CGA gene with growth and carcass traits. By resequencing all the exons and part of the introns of the porcine CGA gene, 22 polymorphisms in total were identified in this study.

  15. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  16. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%.

  17. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  18. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...

  19. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton’s jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs) have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson’s disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  20. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery.

  1. Multiphase simulation of blood flow within main thoracic arteries of 8-year-old child with coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melka, Bartlomiej; Gracka, Maria; Adamczyk, Wojciech; Rojczyk, Marek; Golda, Adam; Nowak, Andrzej J.; Białecki, Ryszard A.; Ostrowski, Ziemowit

    2017-08-01

    In the research, a numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the pulsatile blood flow was created and analysed. A real geometry of aorta and its thoracic branches of an 8-year old patient diagnosed with a congenital heart defect - coarctation of the aorta was used. The inlet boundary condition was implemented as the User Define Function according to measured values of volumetric blood flow. The blood flow was treated as multiphase using Euler-Euler approach. Plasma was set as the primary and dominant fluid phase, with the volume fraction of 0.585. The morphological elements (RBC and WBC) were set as dispersed phases being the remaining volume fraction.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide activates TRPA1 and releases 5-HT from epithelioid cells of the chicken thoracic aorta

    OpenAIRE

    DELGERMURUN, Dugar; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shigeo; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Epithelioid cells in the chicken thoracic aorta are chemoreceptor cells that release 5-HT in response to hypoxia. It is likely that these cells play a role in chemoreception similar to that of glomus cells in the carotid bodies of mammals. Recently, H2S was reported to be a key mediator of carotid glomus cell responses to hypoxia. The aim of the present study was to reveal the mechanism of action of H2S on 5-HT outflow from chemoreceptor cells in the chicken thoracic aorta. The 5-HT outflow i...

  3. Infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta: early CT finding; Anevrisme infectieux de l'aorte abdominale: un aspect TDM precoce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, D.; Lucidarme, O.; Lebleu, L.; Grenier, Ph. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm is an uncommon but life-threatening disease, especially in case of salmonella infection. Early CT findings should be well known in order to allow immediate diagnosis and accurate management. The authors present an early CT finding of a salmonella infected aneurysm of abdominal aorta in an HIV-infected patient. This pattern consists in a slight-enhancing focal densification of peri-aortic soft-tissue, while aorta remains of normal size. Within two weeks, infection progressed to the constitution of an infected aneurysm. This CT finding seems to be initial to previously described signs. (author)

  4. Analysis of Systolic Backflow and Secondary Helical Blood Flow in the Ascending Aorta Using Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Secondary rotational flow and systolic backflow are seen in the ascending aorta and, in this study, were analyzed with the vector velocity method transverse oscillation. Twenty-five patients were scanned intra-operatively, and the vector velocities were related to estimates of transesophageal.......001) and the duration and flow direction of the secondary flow (p indicates...... that backflow is injurious and that secondary flow is a normal flow phenomenon. The study also shows that transverse oscillation can provide new information on blood flow in the ascending aorta....

  5. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Helical CT of traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta; Applicazioni della Tomografia Computerizzata spirale nello studio delle lesioni traumatiche dell'aorta toracica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengozzi, E.; Burzi, M.; Miceli, M.; Lipparini, M.; Sartoni Galloni, S. [Ospedale Maggiore, Azienda Unita' Sanitaria Locale, Bologna (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Radiologia I, Dipt. di Diagnostica per Immagini

    2000-09-01

    Acute thoracic aortic injuries account for up to 10-20% of fatalities in high-speed deceleration road accidents and have an estimated immediate fatality rate of 80-90%. Untreated survivors to acute trauma (10-20%) have a dismal prognosis: 30% of them die within 6 hours, 40-50% die within 24 hours, and 90% within 4 months. It was investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Helical Computed Tomography (Helical CT) in acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta, and the role of this technique in the diagnostic management of trauma patients with a strong suspicion of aortic rupture. It was compared retrospectively the chest Helical CT findings of 256 trauma patients examined June 1995 through August 1999. Chest Helical CT examinations were performed according to trauma score, to associated traumatic lesions and to plain chest radiographic findings. All the examinations were performed with no intravenous contrast agent administration and the pitch 2 technique. After a previous baseline study, contrast-enhanced scans were acquired with pitch 1 in 87 patients. Helical CT showed aortic lesions in 9 of 256 patients examined. In all the 9 cases it was found a mediastinal hematoma and all of them had positive plain chest radiographic findings of mediastinal enlargement. Moreover, in 6 cases aortic knob blurring was also evident on plain chest film and in 5 cases depressed left mainstem bronchus and trachea deviation rightwards were observed. All aortic lesions were identified on axial scans and located at the isthmus of level. Aortic rupture was always depicted as pseudo diverticulum of the proximal descending tract and intimal flap. It was also found that periaortic hematoma in 6 cases and intramural hematoma in 1 case. There were non false positive results in the series: 7 patients with Helical CT diagnosis of aortic rupture were submitted to conventional aortography that confirmed both type and extension of the lesions as detected by Helical CT, and all findings were

  7. Non-contrast enhanced navigator-gated balanced steady state free precession magnetic resonance angiography as a preferred magnetic resonance technique for assessment of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, F; Elattar, M A; van Lienden, K P; Baan, J; Marquering, H A; Planken, R N

    2017-08-01

    To compare the objective and subjective image quality of non-contrast three-dimensional (3D) navigator-gated balanced steady state free precession magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) along the entire thoracic aorta. Fifty consecutive patients with thoracic aortic disease underwent NC-MRA and CE-MRA using a 1.5 T MRI system. Vessel sharpness was assessed using signal intensity profiles at five predefined levels of the thoracic aorta. Two readers scored subjective quality. Manual diameter measurements of both readers were used for calculation of interobserver variation. NC-MRA resulted in significantly sharper delineation of the aortic root, ascending aorta, and distal descending aorta compared to CE-MRA. Sharpness was comparable at the level of the arch and proximal descending aorta. NC-MRA resulted in significantly better subjective image quality. Interobserver agreement for diameter measurements was excellent for both techniques. NC-MRA resulted in superior image quality for assessment of the thoracic aorta and in better vessel sharpness for assessment of the aortic root and ascending aorta, when compared to CE-MRA. NC-MRA can be considered the MRA technique of choice for the assessment of the thoracic aorta diameters in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the abdominal aorta with aberrant right subclavian artery and left patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Songling; Xie, Chunhong; Gong, Fangqi; Zhu, Weihua

    2011-06-01

    Anomalous origin of the pulmonary artery (AOPA) from the aorta is a rare congenital heart malformation. This report describes a case of AOPA from the abdominal aorta in association with an aberrant right subclavian artery and a patent ductus arteriosus, which never has been reported previously in the literature.

  9. Pulmonary blood supply by a branch from the distal ascending aorta in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect: differential diagnosis of fifth aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S J; Moes, C A; Burrows, P E; Molossi, S; Freedom, R M

    1993-10-01

    A patient with pulmonary atresia and a ventricular septal defect is described in whom an arterial branch from the distal ascending aorta supplied segments of both lungs. The branch is considered to represent a persistent fifth aortic arch. The possible morphogenesis and differential diagnosis of a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect are discussed.

  10. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis of prosthetic heart valves in a porcine heterotopic valve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiten, Lawrence E; McKellar, Stephen H; Rysavy, Joseph; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2014-05-01

    Warfarin is used to reduce the risk of stroke and thromboembolic complications in patients with mechanical heart valves. Yet, despite frequent blood testing, its poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles often result in variable therapeutic levels. Rivaroxaban is a direct competitive factor Xa inhibitor that is taken orally. It inhibits the active site of factor Xa without the need for the cofactor antithrombin, and thus, its mechanism of action is differentiated from that of the fractionated heparins and indirect factor Xa inhibitors. No in vivo data exist regarding the effectiveness of rivaroxaban in preventing thromboembolic complications of mechanical heart valves. We tested the hypothesis that rivaroxaban is as effective as enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical valves that use a previously described heterotopic aortic valve porcine model. A modified bileaflet mechanical valved conduit that bypassed the native, ligated descending thoracic aorta was implanted into 30 swine. Postoperatively, the animals were randomly assigned to groups receiving no anticoagulation (n = 10), enoxaparin at 2 mg/kg subcutaneously twice daily (n = 10) or rivaroxaban at 2 mg/kg orally twice daily (n = 10). The amount of valve thrombus was measured on post-implantation day 30 as the primary end point. Quantitative evaluation of radiolabelled platelet deposition on the valve prostheses was done and embolic and haemorrhagic events were measured as secondary end points. Animals with no anticoagulation had a thrombus mean of 759.9 mg compared with 716.8 mg with enoxaparin treatment and 209.6 mg with rivaroxaban treatment (P = 0.05 for enoxaparin vs rivaroxaban). Similarly, the mean number of platelets deposited on the valve prosthesis was lower in the rivaroxaban group (6.13 × 10(9)) than in the enoxaparin group (3.03 × 10(10)) (P = 0.03). In this study, rivaroxaban was more effective than enoxaparin for short-term thromboprophylaxis of mechanical valve prosthetics in

  12. Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Nicuolo, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Andria, B.; Scuderi, V.; Scognamiglio, M.; Tammaro, A.; Mancini, A.; Cozzolino, S.; di Florio, E.; Bracco, A.; Calise, F.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinical use of porcine cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) support in acute liver failure as bridging therapy for liver transplantation exposes the patient to the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to human. This risk may be enhanced when patients receive

  13. Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Jong, M.F.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In a case-control study, the role of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and putative co-factors in the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) were investigated. Pigs with and without PDNS were examined for macroscopic lesions and histopathology. In addition, organs and tissues

  14. Effects of defibrotide on aorta and brain malondialdehyde and antioxidants in cholesterol-induced atherosclerotic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, E O; Duman, C; Celik, H A; Turgan, N; Uysal, A; Mutaf, I; Habif, S; Ozmen, D; Nişli, N; Bayindir, O

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a high-cholesterol diet in the presence and absence of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide compound, on the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, endogenous antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the antioxidant thiol compound GSH were investigated. Forty male New Zeland white rabbits were divided into four groups each consisting of 10 rabbits. Group I received a regular rabbit chow diet and group II 1% cholesterol plus regular chow, group III was given defibrotide (60 mg/kg per day p.o. in water) and was fed with regular chow, and group IV received defibrotide plus 1% cholesterol for 9 weeks. Blood cholesterol and malondialdehyde, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and GSH were determined before starting the experimental diet regimen (basal). After 9 weeks, the same parameters were determined in blood, aorta, and brain tissues (end -experiment). Aortic tissue was examined under a light microscope for morphological alterations indicative of atherosclerosis. The increase in serum total cholesterol was greater in group II than group IV. Plasma malondialdehyde in group II was higher than in group III. Brain malondialdehyde in group II was higher than all other groups, and aortic malondialdehyde in this group was higher than group I and III. Serum catalase activity decreased in group II and increased in group III, compared with basal values. Brain catalase activity in group I was higher than group II, and aorta catalase in group IV was higher than in group I and III. Blood glutathione peroxidase activity in group III and IV was higher than basal. GSH concentrations decreased significantly in the cholesterol-fed groups (group II and IV). Histological alterations in the cholesterol-fed groups were more pronounced in group II. The increased levels of malondialdehyde in plasma, aorta, and brain tissue of group II suggest a role of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells from human fetal aorta cure diabetic foot in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan-Ni; Xu, Shi-Qing; Liang, Jian-Feng; Peng, Liang; Liu, Hong-Lin; Wang, Zai; Fang, Qing; Wang, Meng; Yin, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wen-Jian; Lou, Jin-Ning

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can repair the arterial endothelium during vascular injury. However, a reliable source of human EPCs is needed for therapeutic applications. In this study, we isolated human fetal aorta (HFA)-derived EPCs and analyzed the capacity of EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells. In addition, because microvascular dysfunction is considered to be the major cause of diabetic foot (DF), we investigated whether transplantation of HFA-derived EPCs could treat DF in a rat model. EPCs were isolated from clinically aborted fetal aorta. RT-PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine the expressions of CD133, CD34, CD31, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 (ELAM-1). Morphology and Dil-uptake were used to assess function of the EPCs. We then established a DF model by injecting microcarriers into the hind-limb arteries of Goto-Kakizaki rats and then transplanting the cultured EPCs into the ischemic hind limbs. Thermal infrared imaging, oxygen saturation apparatus, and laser Doppler perfusion imaging were used to monitor the progression of the disease. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the microvascular tissue formed by HFA-derived EPCs. We found that CD133, CD34, and VEGFR2 were expressed by HFA-derived EPCs. After VEGF induction, CD133 expression was significantly decreased, but expression levels of vWF and ELAM-1 were markedly increased. Furthermore, tube formation and Dil-uptake were improved after VEGF induction. These observations suggest that EPCs could differentiate into endothelial cells. In the DF model, temperature, blood flow, and oxygen saturation were reduced but recovered to a nearly normal level following injection of the EPCs in the hind limb. Ischemic symptoms also improved. Injected EPCs were

  16. Insulin resistance, its association with diastolic left ventricular disease and aorta elasticity in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Shorikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accepted threshold of insulin resistance value in arterial hypertension (AH is absent, thus it is relevant to determine its degree in patients with AH, and to determine the interaction between the insulin resistance (IR syndrome and the target organs injury. The purpose of our study was to set the threshold of IR in patients with AH, to define association between the IR parameters, presence of diastolic dysfunction and the state of aorta elasticity. Materials and methods. Investigation included 229 patients with AH and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, as well as 108 patients with the isolated AH. There were used clinical, instrumental, biochemical (HOMA-2 model, HOMA-IR indices, statistical methods. Results. The course of the isolated AH and AH with concomitant type 2 DM is associated with IR development, that it is well-proven in the model of HOMA-2 (р < 0.001. In patients with comorbid patho­logy the sensitiveness of peripheral tissues to insulin depends on severity of AH (р < 0.001. Presence of IR in HOMA-IR model was revealed in patients with the isolated AH in 26.6 % of cases. The level of plasma insulin grows substantially, and the tissues sensitiveness to insulin declined at the third type of diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05. The coefficients of aorta elasticity have a reverse correlation with all parameters of НОМА-2 model determined by the levels of glucose (р < 0.001, insulin (p < 0.05, coefficient НОМА-IR (p < 0.05 and direct association with the degree of peri­pheral tissues sensitivity to insulin (p < 0.01. Conclusions. The threshold of IR by HOMA-2 model in patients was set at the level of 1.87; the increase of aorta inflexibility and diastolic dysfunction severity depend on IR severity.

  17. Smooth Muscle Cells Derived From Second Heart Field and Cardiac Neural Crest Reside in Spatially Distinct Domains in the Media of the Ascending Aorta-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hisashi; Rateri, Debra L; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Majesky, Mark W; Daugherty, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the proximal thoracic aorta are embryonically derived from the second heart field (SHF) and cardiac neural crest (CNC). However, distributions of these embryonic origins are not fully defined. The regional distribution of SMCs of different origins is speculated to cause region-specific aortopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of SMCs of SHF and CNC origins in the proximal thoracic aorta. Mice with repressed LacZ in the ROSA26 locus were bred to those expressing Cre controlled by either the Wnt1 or Mef2c (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c) promoter to trace CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs, respectively. Thoracic aortas were harvested, and activity of β-galactosidase was determined. Aortas from Wnt1- Cre mice had β-galactosidase-positive areas throughout the region from the proximal ascending aorta to just distal of the subclavian arterial branch. Unexpectedly, β-galactosidase-positive areas in Mef2c- Cre mice extended from the aortic root throughout the ascending aorta. This distribution occurred independent of sex and aging. Cross and sagittal aortic sections demonstrated that CNC-derived cells populated the inner medial aspect of the anterior region of the ascending aorta and transmurally in the media of the posterior region. Interestingly, outer medial cells throughout anterior and posterior ascending aortas were derived from the SHF. β-Galactosidase-positive medial cells of both origins colocalized with an SMC marker, α-actin. Both CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs populate the media throughout the ascending aorta. The outer medial cells of the ascending aorta form a sleeve populated by SHF-derived SMCs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. A novel sax-stent method in treatment of ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms evaluated by finite element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiaraj, M C; De Beule, M; De Santis, G

    2017-02-01

    A novel stent method to simplify treatment of proximal ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms was developed and investigated by finite element analysis. Therapy of ascending aortic and aortic arch aneurysms is difficult and challenging and is associated with various complications. A 55mm wide×120mm long stent was designed without the stent graft and the stent was deployed by an endovascular method in a virtual patient-specific aneurysm model. The stress-strain analysis and deployment characteristics were performed in a finite element analysis using the Abaqus software. The stent, when embedded in the aortic wall, significantly reduced aortic wall stresses, while preserving the side coronary ostia and side branches in the aortic arch. When tissue growth was modeled computationally over the stent struts the wall stresses in aorta was reduced. This effect became more pronounced when increasing the thickness of the tissue growth. There were no abnormal stresses in the aorta, coronary ostium and at the origin of aortic branches. The stent reduced aneurysm expansion cause by hypertensive condition from 2mm without stenting to 1.3mm after stenting and embedding. In summary, we uncovered a simple treatment method using a bare nitinol stent without stent graft in the treatment of the proximal aorta and aortic arch aneurysms, which could eventually replace the complex treatment methods for this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Catching a floating thrombus; a case report on the treatment of a large thrombus in the ascending aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, Gijs Eduard; Vigano, Giorgio; Mariani, Massimo Alessandro; Natour, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ascending aorta is an uncommon site for non-infective thrombus. In non-aneurysmal and non-atherosclerotic vessels this condition becomes extremely rare, while it represents a source of potential cerebral and peripheral embolic events. Currently, there is no consensus in the

  20. Dissecção total crônica da aorta - uma exceção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Moron Morad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Comentário sobre o artigo publicado: Dissecção total da aorta - Relato de Caso Maria Lourdes Peris Barbo, Mauro Henrique de Sá Adami Milman, Marcos Paulo Loewenthal Pimentel, Silvia Cristina Barreto v.1, n. 2, 1999

  1. An intraoperative assessment of the ascending aorta: a comparison of digital palpation, transesophageal echocardiography, and epiaortic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Sujeeth; Smith, Andrew; Stygall, Jan; Kolvecar, Shyam; Walesby, Robin; Harrison, Michael; Newman, Stanton

    2007-12-01

    There are a number of techniques available to assess the aorta for atheromatous disease in the intraoperative period. This study compared the relationship among the findings of digital palpation (DP), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and epiaortic ultrasound (EAU) in the detection of atheroma in the ascending aorta. A prospective, observational study. A single-institution, cardiothoracic specialty hospital. One hundred fifty-four patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. The ascending aorta of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery was assessed for atheroma by means of the 3 techniques. Atheroma was scored as present or absent. The sensitivity and specificity of the techniques were compared. Assuming EAU provides the "gold standard," the sensitivity of both TEE and DP were low. Digital palpation identified only 20 patients (12%); TEE 31 patients (20%); and, in contrast, EAU detected atheroma in 81 patients (53%). There were 3 and 6 false-positives by DP and TEE, respectively. Assuming EAU as the "gold standard" to detect atheroma, this study has shown that when assessing the ascending aorta neither DP nor TEE appear sensitive. This study supports the proposal that detection of atheroma should be performed by EAU.

  2. Hydroxytyrosol and its complex forms (secoiridoids) modulate aorta and heart proteome in healthy rats: Potential cardio-protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Úrsula; Rubió, Laura; López de Las Hazas, Maria-Carmen; Herrero, Pol; Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Núria; Pedret, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in both free and complex forms (secoiridoids; SEC). Proteomics of cardiovascular tissues such as aorta or heart represents a promising tool to uncover the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in healthy animals. Twelve female Wistar rats were separated into three groups: a standard diet and two diets supplemented in phenolic compounds (HT and SEC) adjusted to 5 mg/kg/day during 21 days. Proteomic analyses of aorta and heart tissues were performed by nano-LC and MS. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to generate interaction networks. HT or SEC modulated aorta and heart proteome compared to the standard diet. The top-scored networks were related to Cardiovascular System. HT and SEC downregulated proteins related to proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and occlusion of blood vessels in aorta and proteins related to heart failure in heart tissue. SEC showed higher fold change values compared to HT, attributed to higher concentration of HT detected in heart tissue. Changes at proteomic level in cardiovascular tissues may partially account for the underlying mechanisms of VOO phenols cardiovascular protection being the SEC effects higher than free HT. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Prosthetic Subclavian-Aortic Bypass as a Safe Surgical Technique for the Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Refatllari

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Coarctation of the aorta in adults is treated with optimal early results at our surgical centre. Subclavian-aortic bypass grafting requires less aortic dissection, can be performed with a partially occluding clamp, and does not compromise the spinal cord vascularization.

  4. Calcium dobesilate increased endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated rabbit aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E; Tejerina, T

    1998-05-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium dobesilate on relaxant and contractile responses in the isolated rabbit aorta. 2. Calcium dobesilate (10(-6) and 10(-4) M) shifted the concentration-response curve induced by noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4) M) downward and to the right, the IC50 being 5.1 +/- 1.1 x 10(-7) M in the control and 7.5 +/- 1.2 x 10(-6) M and 3.1 +/- 1.9 x 10(-6) M in the presence of calcium dobesilate, 10(-6) M and 10(-4) M respectively. 3. Calcium dobesilate, 10(-5) M, increased the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine (10(-8)-10(-5) M) but had no actions in the absence of endothelium.

  5. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we propose the AORTA architecture for making agents organization-aware. It is designed...... such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how the agents can coordinate their organizational tasks...

  6. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents...... organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how...

  7. CFD analysis of unsteady flow through conjoining Aorta and aortic isthmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Amy-Lee; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Portaro, Rocco; Kadem, Lyes; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2015-08-01

    The initial stages of fetal development require that blood oxygenation occur through the placenta rather than the non functioning lungs. As a result the fetal circulatory system develops a temporary shunt between the aorta and pulmonary artery, known as the ductus arteriosis (DA). This study utilizes CFD techniques to analyze the flow behavior in the aortic isthmus neighboring the DA. The geometry used to represent these structures is equivalent to that of a 25 week old fetus. The effect of aortic and pulmonary pressure pulse wave delay is examined for producing flow disturbances in the fetal circulatory system. This is accomplished by analyzing both axial and tangential flow fields downstream of the DA. The study demonstrates that there exist different swirl profiles that are related to the timing of pulse contributions from both the left and right ventricles.

  8. [Traumatic section of the thoracic aorta: its repair by direct aortic clamping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairols, M A; Sieyro, F; Miralles, M; Blanes, I; Lozano, P

    1991-01-01

    Traumatic section of descendent aorta, severe complication of a thoracic traumatism, requires an early recognition and restoration because its high mortality rate. Between 1988 and 1990, three patients underwent surgical approach, by direct aortic clamping [correction of clamplaje], at our Service. In two cases, a heart stoppage appeared during the clamping/unclamping [correction of clampaje/desclampaje] maneuvers. One of them had previously electrocardiographic abnormalities, suggestive of heart contusion. Two patients died, one of them during surgical procedure because an irreversible heart stoppage, and the second patient died after 7 days because of a brain hemorrhage. One case presented postoperative paraplegia. Respective rates and literature about the main factors implicated in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathology are reviewed.

  9. Novel aspects of the pathogenesis of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Martin-Ventura, José-Luis; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA) is a particular, specifically localized form of atherothrombosis, providing a unique human model of this disease. The pathogenesis of AAA is characterized by a breakdown of the extracellular matrix due to an excessive proteolytic activity, leading to potential...... and the adventitial response in the development of human AAA. The intraluminal thrombus exerts its pathogenic effect through platelet activation, fibrin formation, binding of plasminogen and its activators, and trapping of erythrocytes and neutrophils, leading to oxidative and proteolytic injury of the arterial wall....... These events occur mainly at the intraluminal thrombus-circulating blood interface, and pathological mediators are conveyed outwards, where they promote matrix degradation of the arterial wall. In response, neo-angiogenesis, phagocytosis by mononuclear cells, and a shift from innate to adaptive immunity...

  10. Automated Detection of Healthy and Diseased Aortae from Images Obtained by Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gayhart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We developed the next stage of our computer assisted diagnosis (CAD system to aid radiologists in evaluating CT images for aortic disease by removing innocuous images and highlighting signs of aortic disease. Materials and Methods. Segmented data of patient’s contrast-enhanced CT scan was analyzed for aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU. Aortic dissection was detected by checking for an abnormal shape of the aorta using edge oriented methods. PAU was recognized through abnormally high intensities with interest point operators. Results. The aortic dissection detection process had a sensitivity of 0.8218 and a specificity of 0.9907. The PAU detection process scored a sensitivity of 0.7587 and a specificity of 0.9700. Conclusion. The aortic dissection detection process and the PAU detection process were successful in removing innocuous images, but additional methods are necessary for improving recognition of images with aortic disease.

  11. Classification and Functional Characterization of Vasa Vasorum-Associated Perivascular Progenitor Cells in Human Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Billaud

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the microcirculation, pericytes are believed to function as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. We hypothesized that the vasa vasorum harbor progenitor cells within the adventitia of human aorta. Pericytes, endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell subpopulations were detected among freshly isolated adventitial cells using flow cytometry. Purified cultured pericytes were enriched for the MSC markers CD105 and CD73 and depleted of the endothelial markers von Willebrand factor and CD31. Cultured pericytes were capable of smooth muscle lineage progression including inducible expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, and α-smooth muscle actin, and adopted a spindle shape. Pericytes formed spheroids when cultured on Matrigel substrates and peripherally localized with branching endothelial cells in vitro. Our results indicate that the vasa vasorum form a progenitor cell niche distinct from other previously described progenitor populations in human adventitia. These findings could have important implications for understanding the complex pathophysiology of human aortic disease.

  12. Calcified aneurysm of the abdominal aorta 12 years after umbilical artery catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondiaux, Eleonore; Miquel, Julie [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Thomas, Pascale; Watelet, Jacques [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Vascular Surgery, Rouen (France); Laloum, Denis [Caen University Hospital, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neonatal Medicine, Caen (France); Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine et Pharmacie, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen Cedex 01 (France)

    2008-02-15

    We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain and who was found to have an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). The patient was born from a quadruplet pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization. Postnatal transient respiratory distress required assisted ventilation that had been monitored by two consecutive umbilical arterial catheters (UAC). AAA is a rare condition in childhood. Infection and/or trauma are known to be the most frequent causes. Most of the reported cases have occurred in children in whom a UAC had been placed during the neonatal period. In this patient the delay between UAC placement and diagnosis was considerable. At the time of this report the patient had remained well during a follow-up of 8 years after treatment. (orig.)

  13. A New Combined Technique Reducing the Risk of Paraplegia during Thoracoabdominal Aorta Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Pralong, Etienne; Gronchi, Fabrizio; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Acute spinal cord ischemia during thoracoabdominal aorta replacement is a dreadful complication. Existing tools (motor evoked potential [MEP] and somatosensory evoked potential [SSEP]) do not allow differentiating between central and peripheral paraplegia. Therefore, the surgeon often performs unnecessary reimplantation of intercostal arteries: this is time consuming, and significantly increases bleeding complications. We present a simple technique combining MEP and peripheral compound muscle action potential induced by posterior tibialis nerve stimulation, enabling the surgeon to quickly discriminate between central and peripheral neurologic injury. The surgeon has one more tool to drive in real time the optimal surgical strategy. This strategy guides the decision as to which side branches ought to be reimplanted, thus minimizing the risk of paraplegia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Ojima, A; Nishino, Y; Yamagishi, S-I

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE interaction evokes oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in endothelial cell (EC) damage in diabetes. Sulforaphane is generated from glucoraphanin, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, by myrosinase. Sulforaphane has been reported to protect against oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. However, effects of sulforaphane on AGEs-induced vascular damage remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and AGEs-injected rat aorta. Sulforaphane treatment for 4 or 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1) gene expression in HUVECs. AGEs significantly stimulated MCP-1 production by, and THP-1 cell adhesion to, HUVECs, both of which were prevented by 1.6 μM sulforaphane. Sulforaphane significantly suppressed oxidative stress generation and NADPH oxidase activation evoked by AGEs in HUVECs. Furthermore, aortic RAGE, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in AGEs-injected rats were increased, which were suppressed by simultaneous infusion of sulforaphane. The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of the aorta artery aneurysms and renal artery stenosis using cardiovascular electronic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidbakhsh Mahdi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aortic aneurysm is a dilatation of the aortic wall which occurs in the saccular and fusiform types. The aortic aneurysms can rupture, if left untreated. The renal stenosis occurs when the flow of blood from the arteries leading to the kidneys is constricted by atherosclerotic plaque. This narrowing may lead to the renal failure. Previous works have shown that, modelling is a useful tool for understanding of cardiovascular system functioning and pathophysiology of the system. The present study is concerned with the modelling of aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenosis using the cardiovascular electronic system. Methods The geometrical models of the aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenosis, with different rates, were constructed based on the original anatomical data. The pressure drop of each section due to the aneurysms or stenosis was computed by means of computational fluid dynamics method. The compliance of each section with the aneurysms or stenosis is also calculated using the mathematical method. An electrical system representing the cardiovascular circulation was used to study the effects of these pressure drops and the compliance variations on this system. Results The results showed the decreasing of pressure along the aorta and renal arteries lengths, due to the aneurysms and stenosis, at the peak systole. The mathematical method demonstrated that compliances of the aorta sections and renal increased with the expansion rate of the aneurysms and stenosis. The results of the modelling, such as electrical pressure graphs, exhibited the features of the pathologies such as hypertension and were compared with the relevant experimental data. Conclusion We conclude from the study that the aortic aneurysms as well as renal artery stenosis may be the most important determinant of the arteries rupture and failure. Furthermore, these pathologies play important rules in increase of the cardiovascular pulse pressure which

  16. Structural strain energy function applied to the ageing of the human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulliger, Martin A; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    Stiffening of the aorta with progressing age leads to decrease of aortic compliance and thus to an increase of pulse pressure amplitude. Using a strain energy function (SEF) which takes into account the composition of the arterial wall, we have studied the evolution of key structural components of the human thoracic aorta using data obtained from the literature. The SEF takes into account the wavy nature of collagen, which upon gradual inflation of the blood vessel is assumed to straighten out and become engaged in bearing load. The engagement of the individual fibers is assumed to be distributed log-logistically. The use of a SEF enables the consideration of axial stretch (lambda(z)) and residual strain (opening angle) in the biomechanical analysis. Both lambda(z) and opening angle are known to change with age. Results obtained from applying the SEF to the measurements of aortic pressure-diameter curves indicate that the changes in aortic biomechanics with progressing age are not to be sought in the elastic constants of elastin and collagen or their volume fractions of the aortic wall but moreover in alterations of the collagen mesh arrangement and the waviness of the collagen fibers. In old subjects, the collagen fiber ensemble engages in load bearing much more abruptly than in young subjects. Reasons for this change in collagen fiber dynamics may include fiber waviness remodeling or cross-linkage by advanced glycation end-products (AGE). The abruptness of collagen fiber engagement is also the model parameter that is most responsible for the decreased compliance at progressed ages.

  17. Ticagrelor Attenuates Apoptosis of Lung and Myocardial Cells Induced by Abdominal Aorta Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Orhan; Kunt, Atike Tekeli; Yazir, Yusufhan; Yardimoğlu, Melda; Yilmaz, Seda Güleç; Aydin, Ufuk; Rençber, Selenay Furat; Baris, Ozgur; Balci, Canan; Isbir, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of ticagrelor pretreatment on the prevention of lung and heart injury induced by abdominal aorta ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and also to determine the effective dose. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into five groups. The animals received ticagrelor at doses of 7.5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg or normal saline 0.1 ml/kg orally via gastric gavage before the ischemic period. In the control and study groups, I/R injury was induced by clamping the aorta infrarenally for 2 hs, followed by 4 h of reperfusion. After sacrifice, hearts and lungs of the animals were extracted for both histopathological and biochemical analysis. There was a significant difference between the animals that received 7.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg dose of ticagrelor regarding tissue malondealdehyde (MDA), and glutathione reductase levels in both lung and heart Ticagrelor treatment at 25 mg/kg led to significant cardiac remodeling activity and normal lung architecture against I/R induced injury. The number of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in alveolar epithelium and myocytes were increased in the sections from saline (I/R) group rats, and decreased following 25 mg/kg ticagrelor treatment. Ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibits platelet aggregation, increases cyclooxygenase-2 and also inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine all resulting in attenuation of I/R injury. Ticagrelor at 25 mg/kg was determined as the dose effective against I/R-induced injury in lung and heart in Sprague-Dawley rats in the present study. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Beating heart axillocoronary bypass for management of the untouchable ascending aorta in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, J; Hangler, H; Oturanlar, D; Posch, L; Müller, L C; Voelckel, W; Schwarz, B; Bodner, G

    1999-11-01

    Cannulation and clamping of a severely atherosclerotic ascending aorta during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can lead to cerebral embolization of atheromatous debris and should therefore be avoided whenever possible. A variety of surgical techniques including performance of extraanatomical coronary bypass conduits has been described to solve this problem. We report on a preliminary series of four patients in whom the axillary artery was used as an inflow vessel for venous coronary artery bypass grafts which were performed on the beating heart in order to achieve an aortic no touch concept. The axillary artery was exposed between the pectoralis major muscle and the deltoid muscle via an infraclavicular incision. A saphenous vein graft of at least 40 cm in length was sutured to the axillary artery and then brought into the pericardial cavity following an intercostal and transpleural route. The graft was anastomosed to the target vessel using local coronary occlusion. The procedure was carried out via sternotomy in three patients who also received additional internal mammary artery in situ grafts for adequate coronary revascularization. In one high risk patient an isolated axillocoronary bypass was performed in a minimally invasive fashion via anterolateral minithoracotomy. The procedure was completed without major technical difficulties in all four patients. The mean graft length required was 33.2 +/- 1.6 cm, postoperative ultrasonic duplex scans of the axillocoronary grafts revealed a mean flow of 62.5 +/- 23.6 ml/min. No stroke or brachial plexus injury occurred. Three patients are in angina class I (Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification), one patient is in class II postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 11.5 +/- 6.6 months postoperatively all grafts remain patent. Axillocoronary bypass grafting can be easily performed for management of the untouchable ascending aorta. Straightforward surgical technique and the accessibility to noninvasive

  19. No-touch aorta robot-assisted atrial septal defect repair via two ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go; Tarui, Tatsuya

    2018-01-02

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) repairs have been successfully performed on arrested hearts with robotic assistance. The present study assessed the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of totally endoscopic cardiac surgery using a no-touch aorta technique for ASD via only 2 ports, and we named this procedure two-port robotic cardiac surgery (TROCS). Between May 2014 and June 2016, 8 consecutive patients underwent TROCS for ASD using the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) at our institute. All of the procedures were performed via only 2 port incisions in the right chest. One was the camera port, and the other was the port for the robotic instruments. Both robotic instruments were inserted through this port and crossed while being prevented from colliding with each other. The surgeon console was set to the reverse of default settings so that both masters would control the inverse instrument. TROCS for ASD was carried out under ventricular fibrillation induced by combinations of an electrical fibrillator, injection of potassium, and hypothermia without aortic cross-clamping. All cases were successfully repaired. The mean operation, cardiopulmonary bypass and ventricular fibrillation times were 129.6 ± 29.0 min, 66.9 ± 24.5 min and 9.6 ± 5.9 min, respectively, and the estimated blood loss volume was 28.1 ± 58.6 ml. No patients required blood transfusion during their hospital stay, and their cosmetic results were excellent. TROCS for ASD using no-touch aorta technique was achieved safely with good clinical results and excellent cosmetic results.

  20. Anomalous Origin of One Pulmonary Artery From the Ascending Aorta: From Diagnosis to Treatment in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Valdano; Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Morais, Humberto; Magalhães, Manuel P; Pedro, Albino; Miguel, Gade; Nunes, Maria A S; Gamboa, Sebastiana; Júnior, António P F

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery is a rare congenital heart disease in which one pulmonary artery branch originates from the ascending aorta. To describe the experience of a cardiothoracic center in an African country to repair anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery in the context of Portugal-Angola collaboration. Between March 2011 and March 2015, four consecutive patients with anomalous origin of pulmonary artery branch underwent surgical correction. The mean age was 1.6 months. The mean weight was 4 kg. All had right pulmonary artery branch originating from the ascending aorta. All patients underwent direct implantation of right pulmonary branch to main pulmonary artery. Two patents had patent ductus arteriosus and one had atrial septal defect. Two patients had pulmonary hypertension. There was no registration of death. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 75.5 ± 4.5 minutes, mean aortic cross-clamping time was 40 ± 5.6 minutes, and mean duration of the postoperative intensive care unit stay was 6.8 ± 5.7 days. At discharge, one patient had residual gradient of 25 mm Hg, the remainder had no significant gradient. The mean follow-up time was 11 months (5-28 months). One week after discharge, one patient presented operative wound dehiscence. At the last follow-up, all patients were alive, and no significant residual gradient or stenosis at site of anastomosis was observed. No reintervention was required. Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery is a rare but potentially treatable lesion if operated early in life. Direct implantation was a good technique with good short-term results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  2. Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone

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    Guedes D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT, a major constituent (63.5% of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g. In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 µg/ml inhibited the contractile effects of 1 µM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means ± SEM = 184 ± 6, 185 ± 3 and 188 ± 19 µg/ml, N = 6, respectively. In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 µM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 ± 7 µg/ml, N = 6. Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6 the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 µM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM. In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a voltage-dependent Ca² channels, and b intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation.

  3. Nonintracellular, cell-associated O-methylation of isoproterenol in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, R.J.; Irvine, R.J.; Barone, S.; Stitzel, R.E.; de la Lande, I.S.

    1985-07-01

    The present study examines the subcellular site of catecholamine O-methylation in extraneuronal tissue. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine, a methyl donor that does not diffuse across biological membranes, was used to assess the participation of plasma membrane bound catechol-O-methyltransferase vs. cytoplasmic catechol-O-methyltransferase in the catecholamine O-methylating process. Segments of rabbit thoracic aorta incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine and isoproterenol generate (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol. The formation of (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol from (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine was proportional to the isoproterenol concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 microM. There was a marked preference for the O-methylation of the (+)- rather than the (-)-isomer of isoproterenol. The O-methylation of isoproterenol in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine was stimulated as much as 8-fold by the removal of calcium ions from the incubation solutions. In contrast, the O-methylation of (+)-(/sup 3/H)isoproterenol by endogenous, intracellular S-adenosyl-l-methionine was only slightly inhibited by the removal of calcium ions from incubation solutions. The formation of (/sup 3/H)methoxy-isoproterenol from (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-l-methionine and isoproterenol was not inhibited by pretreatment of tissues with phenoxybenzamine (32 microM) or treatment with metanephrine (27 mumol 1(-1) or deoxycorticosterone acetate (27 microM), i.e., drug treatments that inhibit the extraneuronal uptake and O-methylation of (/sup 3/H)-isoproterenol by endogenous intracellular S-adenosyl-l-methionine. The results of this study provide evidence for a nonintracellular, cell-associated site of O-methylation of isoproterenol in the rabbit aorta.

  4. Effects of adriamycin and candesartan on the collagen and elastin of the aorta in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Chung, Woo-Baek; Yoon, Jung-Sook; Oh, Yong-Seog; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the chemotherapeutic agent, adriamycin, not only has an effect on the myocardium but also on the arteries. The aim of this study is to elucidate effects of adriamycin and an angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan, on collagen and elastin of the aorta in rats. Twenty four male 8-week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into four groups: control (C) group, adriamycin-treated (AD) group, candesartan-treated (CA) group, and adriamycin- and candesartan-treated (AD + CA) group. Adriamycin of 2.5 mg/kg/wk was administered intraperitoneally one time per week for 6 weeks, and candesartan of 10 mg/kg/day was administered orally everyday for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the aortas were harvested. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Verhoff's elastic, and Goldner's trichrome staining were performed for histopathologic analyses. Tunica media thickness, collagen, and elastic area fractions were measured quantitatively with a computerized digital image analyzer. Tunica media thickness in the CA and AD + CA groups was significantly lesser than that in the C and AD groups, respectively. The AD and AD + CA groups had a tendency of lower elastin area fraction than the C and CA groups, respectively. Collagen area fraction in the AD + CA group was significantly lower than that in the AD group. There were no significant differences of collagen/elastin ratio between groups. These findings suggest that adriamycin has a tendency of decreasing the quantity of elastin fibers and candesartan cannot mitigate the effects of adriamycin on elastin fibers.

  5. Aortic allografts in treatment of aortic valve and ascending aorta prosthetic endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Spiridonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to assess short- and long-term results of aortic root replacement using aortic allografts in patients with prosthetic endocarditis. Materials and methods. Since February 2009 until June 2016 aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement using aortic allografts was performed in 26 patients with prosthetic endocarditis. In 50 % of cases at initial operation aortic valve replacement was performed, in another 50 % of cases – aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement. Echocardiography was performed 10 days, 3, 6 and 12 months, 2, 3 and 5 years after surgery. Analysis of long-term results included all cases of deaths, prosthesis-related complications and recurrence of endocarditis. Results. 30-day mortality was 23.1 %. Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO was used only in 5 patients (19.2 %. Four patients were weaned from ECMO. We did not observe any allograft-related complications. During follow-up period there were no cases of reoperation due to structural allograft failure. Relapse of infection occurred in 1 patient (3.8 % four years after the operation and led to lethal outcome. Conclusion. Reoperations using allografts are an effective surgical treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. In majority of cases prosthetic endocarditis was caused by gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus. In 84.6 % of cases it was associated with destruction of paravalvular structures and abscesses formation. Heart failure was a causative factor of different complications in these patients, which required ECMO in 19.2 % of patients. In 80 % of cases patients were weaned from ECMO. Allografts using for the treatment of prosthetic endocarditis is associated with high resistance to infection and with a significant rate of freedom from recurrence of endocarditis within 3 years after surgery.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Porcine Picobirnaviruses and Development of a Specific Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Carruyo, Gabriela M.; Mateu, Guaniri; Martínez, Laura C.; Flor H Pujol; Silvia V Nates; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular characterization of partial- length genomic segment 2 of porcine picobirnavirus (PBV) strains and the development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detection of virus in feces are reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the studied porcine isolates were more closely related (>85% identity) to human PBV belonging to genogroup I than to the other porcine PBV described so far. Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples...

  7. Age-related changes of regional pulse wave velocity in the descending aorta using Fourier velocity encoded M-mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, Valentina; Hickson, Stacey S; Hardy, Christopher J; McEniery, Carmel M; Patterson, Andrew J; Gillard, Jonathan H; Wilkinson, Ian B; Graves, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an independent determinant of cardiovascular risk. Although aortic stiffening with age is well documented, the interaction between aging and regional aortic PWV is still a debated question. We measured global and regional PWV in the descending aorta of 56 healthy subjects aged 25-76 years using a one-dimensional, interleaved, Fourier velocity encoded pulse sequence with cylindrical excitation. Repeatability across two magnetic resonance examinations (n = 19) and accuracy against intravascular pressure measurements (n = 4) were assessed. The global PWV was found to increase nonlinearly with age. The thoracic aorta was found to stiffen the most with age (PWV [thoracic, 20-40 years] = 4.7 ± 1.1 m/s; PWV [thoracic, 60-80 years] = 7.9 ± 1.5 m/s), followed by the mid- (PWV [mid-abdominal, 20-40 years] = 4.9 ± 1.3 m/s; PWV [mid-abdominal, 60-80 years] = 7.4 ± 1.9 m/s) and distal abdominal aorta (PWV [distal abdominal, 20-40 years] = 4.8 ± 1.4 m/s; PWV [distal abdominal, 60-80 years] = 5.7 ± 1.4 m/s). Good agreement was found between repeated magnetic resonance measurements and between magnetic resonance PWVs and the gold-standard. Fourier velocity encoded M-mode allowed to measure global and regional PWV in the descending aorta. There was a preferential stiffening of the thoracic aorta with age, which may be due to progressive fragmentation of elastin fibers in this region. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Hybrid Aorta Constructs via In Situ Crosslinking of Poly(glycerol-sebacate) Elastomer Within a Decellularized Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Selcan; Hosseinian, Pezhman; Aydin, Halil Murat

    2017-01-01

    Decellularization of tissues and organs has high potential to obtain unique conformation and composition as native tissue structure but may result in weakened tissue mechanical strength. In this study, poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) elastomers were combined with decellularized aorta fragments to investigate the changes in mechanical properties. PGS prepolymer was synthesized via microwave irradiation and then in situ crosslinked within the decellularized aorta extracellular matrix (ECM). Tensile strength (σ) values were found comparable as 0.44 ± 0.10 MPa and 0.57 ± 0.18 MPa for native and hybrid aorta samples, respectively, while elongation at break (ɛ) values were 261% ± 17%, 7.5% ± 0.57%, and 22.18% ± 2.48% for wet control (native), decellularized dried aortae, and hybrid matrices, showing elastic contribution. Young's modulus data indicate that there was a threefold decrease in stiffness compared to decellularized samples once PGS is introduced into the ECM structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of hybrid grafts revealed that the construct preserves porosity in medial layer of the vessel. Biocompatibility analyses showed no cytotoxic effects on human abdominal aorta smooth muscle cells. Cell studies showed 98% activity in hybrid graft extracts. As a control, collagen coating of the hybrid grafts was performed in the recellularization stage. SEM analysis of recellularized hybrid grafts revealed that cells were attached to the surface of the hybrid graft and proliferated during the 14 days of culture in both groups. This study shows that introducing an elastomer into the native ECM structure following decellularization process can be a useful approach for the preparation of mechanically enhanced composites for soft tissues.

  9. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Vigre, H; Svensmark, B; Bille-Hansen, V

    2006-11-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis, indistinguishable macroscopically from proliferative enteritis (PE) due to L. intracellularis. Histopathologically, L. intracellularis-positive intestines showed adenomatous proliferation of crypt enterocytes, whereas PCV2 enteritis was characterized by histiocytosis of varying intensity, with PCV2-positive cells in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P<0.001). There was no association between PCV2 and other intestinal bacterial pathogens. The study demonstrated that PCV2 enteritis should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs aged 2-4 months with a clinical history of diarrhoea.

  10. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delossantos, Aubrey I; Rodriguez, Neil L; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G; Wagner, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure. PMID:24555008

  11. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Monteiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure.

  12. Validation of 99mTechnetium-labeled mebrofenin hepatic extraction method to quantify meal-induced splanchnic blood flow responses using a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle Damgaard; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of the total splanchnic blood flow (SBF) using a clinical diagnostic method based on Fick's principle and hepatic extraction of 99mTc-mebrofenin (99mTc-MBF) compared with a paraaminohippuric acid (pAH) dilution method in a porcine model. Another...... aim was to investigate whether enterohepatic cycling of 99mTc-MBF affected the SBF measurement. Five indwelling catheters were placed in each pig (n = 15) in the portal, mesenteric, and hepatic veins, as well as in the aorta and the vena cava. The SBF was measured using both methods. The portal blood...... flow; the intestinal and hepatic oxygen uptake; the net fluxes of oxygen, lactate, and glucose; and the extraction fraction (EF) of 99mTc-MBF were measured before and for 70 min after feeding. The mean baseline SBF was 2,961 ml/min vs. 2,762 ml/min measured by pAH and 99mTc-MBF, respectively...

  13. Distribution of adoptively transferred porcine T-lymphoblasts tracked by {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and position emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Olof, E-mail: olof.eriksson@radiol.uu.se [Division of Radiology, Department of Oncology, Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet AB, GE Healthcare, Uppsala 751 85 (Sweden); Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Bjoern; Eich, Torsten [Division of Immunology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Lundgren, Torbjoern [Division of Transplantation Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77 (Sweden); Nilsson, Bo; Toetterman, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle [Division of Immunology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Sundin, Anders [Division of Radiology, Department of Oncology, Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 87 (Sweden); Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital and Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77 (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: Autologous or allogeneic transfer of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes is a promising treatment for metastatic cancers, but a major concern is the difficulty in evaluating cell trafficking and distribution in adoptive cell therapy. This study presents a method of tracking transfusion of T-lymphoblasts in a porcine model by {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) and positron emission tomography. Methods: T-lymphoblasts were labeled with the positron-emitting tracer [{sup 18}F]FDG through incubation. The T-lymphoblasts were administered into the bloodstream, and the distribution was followed by positron emission tomography for 120 min. The cells were administered either intravenously into the internal jugular vein (n=5) or intraarterially into the ascending aorta (n=1). Two of the pigs given intravenous administration were pretreated with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate. Results: The cellular kinetics and distribution were readily quantifiable for up to 120 min. High (78.6% of the administered cells) heterogeneous pulmonary uptake was found after completed intravenous transfusion. The pulmonary uptake was decreased either by preincubating and coadministrating the T-lymphoblasts with low-molecular-weight dextran sulphate or by administrating them intraarterially. Conclusions: The present work shows the feasibility of quantitatively monitoring and evaluating cell trafficking and distribution following administration of [{sup 18}F]FDG-labeled T-lymphoblasts. The protocol can potentially be transferred to the clinical setting with few modifications.

  14. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... in anesthetized pigs increased the concentration of galanin in the caval vein but not in arterial plasma. It is concluded that galanin, coreleased with catecholamines from the adrenal glands, may have endocrine functions but that galanin may also have local regulatory functions in the adrenals....

  15. A comparative anatomic and physiologic overview of the porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances during the last 2 decades in every aspect of cardiovascular research (interventional cardiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and so forth), Western societies still are plagued by the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Consequently the discovery of new regimens and therapeutic interventions is of utmost importance. Research using human subjects is associated with substantial methodologic and ethical considerations, and the quest for an appropriate animal model for the human cardiovascular system has led to swine. The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities. A thorough comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the porcine cardiovascular system should focus on differences between swine and humans as well as similarities. Understanding these differences and similarities is essential to extrapolating data appropriately and to addressing the social demand for the ethical use of animals in biomedical research.

  16. [Coronary angiography of in vitro porcine heart using MSCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lei; Telet, Siy It; Wei, Hua; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wang, Ya-hui; Deng, Kai-fei; Zou, Dong-Hua; Li, Zheng-done; Zhu, Guang-You

    2014-10-01

    To establish standardized methods and parameters of the isolated heart coronary angiography through the experiment of in vitro porcine heart by MSCT. Based on different perfusion volume (50, 60 and 70 mL) and different perfusion-imaging time (5, 10 and 20 min), the in vitro porcine coronary artery was injected liposoluble and water-soluble contrast agents using remodel angiography equipment and scanned by MSCT. And the 3D image results were compared. The images were recorded and evaluated by 2 radiologists and analyzed by statistical software. Liposoluble contrast agent affected the images by damaging and infiltrating the fats around the coronary artery, while the water-soluble contrast agent didn't affect the images. The groups with 60 mL or 70 mL perfusion and 5 min perfusion-imaging time had the best images. The suitable parameters of the angiography lay the foundation of postmortem coronary angiography.

  17. Mediators of increased blood flow in porcine skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Moore

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinates and benzalkonium chloride (B.Cl cause inflammatory changes in human skin, thought to be dependent upon prostaglandin formation. This study has examined the effects of hexyl-nicotinate (HN and B.Cl on blood flow in porcine skin. The role of prostaglandins and interleukin (IL-1 in the blood flow response has been investigated. Blood flow was increased by both HN and B.Cl, the response to B.Cl being more protracted. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor pretreatment reduced these responses. IL-1-like biological activity was identified in normal porcine epidermis and the amounts recovered from inflamed skin were similar. Thus prostaglandin formation in HN or B.Cl-induced inflammation, if IL-1 dependent, is not associated with the loss of significant amounts of the cytokine from the epidermis.

  18. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  19. Cardiac dysfunction in a porcine model of pediatric malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Nielsen, Anne-Louise Hother

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances...... and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a reference diet...... groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (pMalnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  20. Unusual Complication of a Carpentier-Edwards Porcine Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, George A.; Michalis, Alkis; Pouliou, Alice; Ivros, Constantine; Bolos, Constantine; Sfyras, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    The following case report describes an early complication of a Carpentier-Edwards porcine heterograft in the mitral position that required emergency replacement of the malfunctioning biological prosthesis with a mechanical one. The leaflets of the valve were in a fixed-open position and would not unfold with left ventricular contractions, resulting in severe mitral regurgitation. After failure to mobilize the valve leaflets, the porcine heterograft valve was excised intact and replaced with a 27 mm Björk-Shiley monostrut prosthesis. The patient was discharged 18 days after operation on Digoxin 0.25 mg daily, Lasix 40 mg twice a week, and Sintrom 2 mg daily. He remains in excellent condition 20 months postoperatively. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1986; 13:337-339) Images PMID:15226866

  1. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...... examined by mfERG. The major component P1 was analyzed statistically. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and bilateral color fundus photography (FP) were performed. Selected animals underwent high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Examination by ophthalmoscopy and FP showed that the RDs remained detached...... makes the porcine model unsuitable for examining adjuvant pharmaceutical RD treatment. Future studies should focus on foveated primates....

  2. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Induces Autophagy to Benefit Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference. Furthermore, autophagy might be associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and have a positive feedback loop with the NF-κB signaling pathway during PEDV infection. This work is the first attempt to explore the complex interplay between autophagy and PEDV infection. Our findings might accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  3. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  4. The suture pullout characteristics of human and porcine linea alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gerard M; Lake, Spencer P; Thompson, Dominic M; Castile, Ryan M; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

    2017-04-01

    There is a substantial prevalence of post-operative incisional hernia for both laparoscopic and laparotomy procedures, but there have been few attempts at quantifying abdominal wound closure methodology in the literature. One method to ascertain a more robust method of wound closure is the identification of the influence of suture placement parameters on suture pullout force. Current surgical practice involves a recommended bite depth and bite separation of 10mm, but the evidence base for this is not clear. In this paper, the suture pullout characteristics of both porcine and human linea alba were investigated to ascertain a suture placement protocol for surgical wound closure. Uniaxial suture pullout force testing on fresh frozen porcine and human linea alba samples was performed using standard materials testing machines. The influence of the number of suture loops, the bite depth and the bite separation of the sutures and the orientation of the sutures with respect to the principal fibre direction in the linea alba were assessed. Results showed a clearly identifiable relationship between pullout force of the suture, bite separation and bite depth, with low suture separation and high suture depth as optimal parameters for increasing pullout force. Resistance to pullout could be improved by as much as 290% when optimizing test conditions. Both human and porcine tissue were observed to exhibit very similar pullout force characteristics, corroborating the use of a porcine model for investigations into wound closure methodology. Orientation of suture application was also found to significantly affect the magnitude of suture pullout, with suturing applied longitudinally across a transverse defect resulting in higher pullout forces for small suture bite separations. Although further assessment in an environment more representative of in vivo conditions is required, these findings indicate that increasing the bite depth and reducing the bite separation with respect to

  5. Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Sialic Acid Concentrations Vary Throughout Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Salcedo, Jaime; Alexander, Lindsey S; Johnson, Stacey K; Getty, Caitlyn M; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Barile, Daniela; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Up to 250 mL of milk were collected from seven sows at each of three time points: day 0 (colostrum), days 7-9 (mature), and days 17-19 (weaning). Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and 3-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano-LC Chip-QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free) was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection. Sixty unique OSs were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OSs were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%), followed by acidic-sialylated OSs (16-29%) and neutral-fucosylated OSs (2-4%). As lactation progressed, acidic OSs decreased (P = 0.003), whereas neutral-fucosylated (P mature milk in the pig, and SA concentrations shift from free to bound forms as lactation progresses. Our results suggest that although porcine milk OS concentration and the number of structures is lower than human milk, the OS profile appears to be closer to human milk rather than to bovine milk, based on previously published profiles.

  6. Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in. Yunnan Province, China. WANG Qing-lu1, ZHANG Shu-guang1, LI Fu-xiang2, BI Bao-liang1, CHAI Jun1,. WANG Sheng-kui1* and ZHANG Yi-fang1*. 1College of Animal Science and Technology, ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  8. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical i...

  9. Comparison of physiological and in vitro porcine gastric fluid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, Randall A; West, Charles M; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    In previous studies, the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was digested in vitro using pepsin and porcine gastric fluid. The results suggested that in vivo gastric digestion of allergen protein can be modeled accurately by peptic hydrolysis in vitro. In the current investigation, studies were designed to follow the gastrointestinal (GI) digestion of peanut allergens under true physiological conditions. In vitro digestion with porcine gastric fluid was compared with actual physiological digestion of peanut allergens in the porcine digestive tract in vivo. Analysis of physiologic digestion was performed in piglets administered a 20-gram bolus of peanut meal followed by periodic sampling and analysis of GI contents. The pH was monitored, and digesta were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Peanut meal initially neutralized stomach contents to a pH of approximately 7, which was subsequently acidified by HCl secretion within 30 min. Acidification to pH 2-4 resulted in active pepsin digestion of soluble protein in the stomach. Soluble intact protein/allergens were rapidly degraded to pepsin-resistant peptides in the stomach followed by hydrolysis of these fragments in the small intestine. Particulate material was evident in both the stomach and small intestine that could contribute to continued release of peanut allergens Ara h 1, 2 and 3. Porcine gastric digestion of peanut proteins resembles true physiological digestion only under optimal physiologic conditions. Soluble proteins are rapidly digested and insoluble material continues to release IgE-reactive proteins throughout the GI tract. GI digestion of food allergens can play a prominent role when assessing allergens within the context of a food matrix or meal and during the sensitization phase of IgE-mediated allergy.

  10. Bioactive porcine matrices in heart valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Pamela; de Somer, Filip; Cornelissen, Maria; Thierens, Hubert; Van Nooten, Guido

    2012-07-01

    Platelet gel (PG), a storage vehicle of growth factors, can be considered for the application of growth factors in combination with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to accelerate tissue regeneration. Moreover, the addition of bioactive factors to porcine aortic valves could result in a more rapid repopulation. The study aim was to load acellular porcine aortic valve matrices with the PG-rich growth factors and to evaluate the effect on MSC repopulation. Ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSCs) were isolated from sheep bone marrow. Acellular porcine heart valve matrices (n = 3) were preloaded with heparin and incubated with the PG for 2 h. A quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay was used to examine the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) from the matrices, oMSC repopulation was stimulated by static and dynamic culture. The immunoassays revealed that heparin-preloaded PG-incubated matrices showed a sustained release of 56.28 pg/ml bFGF and 30.66 ng/ml TGF-beta1 after 24 h. Dynamic culture induced oMSC invasion in growth factor-loaded matrices. Cell density results showed that dynamic culture significantly enhanced the repopulation of growth factor-loaded matrices (75 +/- 21 cells/mm2) when compared to static culture (26 +/- 10 cells/mm2). The incubation of a porcine aortic valve matrix with a PG concentrate creates a bioactive matrix. However, further fine-tuning of the PG concentration is necessary to take full advantage of platelet growth factor interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix in order to optimize cellular repopulation.

  11. Sonographic abnormalities in augmented bladder using porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetto, V.J.V.; Souza, P.M.; Doiche, D.P.; Mamprim, M.J.; Padovani, C.R.; Brandão, C.V.S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among the different materials for bladder augmentation, porcine intestinal submucosa (SIS) is the most widely investigated and stands out for its ability as a cell scaffold. In this context, the ultrasound examination allows the detection of changes from the surgical procedure, enabling the early verification of potential complications and evaluation of patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe the main sonographic findings in dogs submitted to cystoplasty using acellula...

  12. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and micros...

  13. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Copy number variants in a highly inbred Iberian porcine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A I; Barragán, C; Fernández, A; Rodríguez, M C; Villanueva, B

    2014-06-01

    We carried out a comprehensive genomic analysis of porcine copy number variants (CNVs) based on whole-genome SNP genotyping data and provided new measures of genomic diversity (number, length and distribution of CNV events) for a highly inbred strain (the Guadyerbas strain). This strain represents one of the most ancient surviving populations of the Iberian breed, and it is currently in serious danger of extinction. CNV detection was conducted on the complete Guadyerbas population, adjusted for genomic waves, and used strict quality criteria, pedigree information and the latest porcine genome annotation. The analysis led to the detection of 65 CNV regions (CNVRs). These regions cover 0.33% of the autosomal genome of this particular strain. Twenty-nine of these CNVRs were identified here for the first time. The relatively low number of detected CNVRs is in line with the low variability and high inbreeding estimated previously for this Iberian strain using pedigree, microsatellite or SNP data. A comparison across different porcine studies has revealed that more than half of these regions overlap with previously identified CNVRs or multicopy regions. Also, a preliminary analysis of CNV detection using whole-genome sequence data for four Guadyerbas pigs showed overlapping for 16 of the CNVRs, supporting their reliability. Some of the identified CNVRs contain relevant functional genes (e.g., the SCD and USP15 genes), which are worth being further investigated because of their importance in determining the quality of Iberian pig products. The CNVR data generated could be useful for improving the porcine genome annotation. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in porcine ST9 MRSA isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Mei Lan Kwok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine strains of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA have been recognized in many countries and have been shown to be able to cause human infection. Resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics has been reported but non-susceptibility to vancomycin, which is known to occur in human MRSA, has so far not been observed in LA-MRSA. Such resistance is typically fairly low level involving changes in the cell wall thickness. The development of resistance is usually preceded by presence of a sub-population having an increased MIC, which is selected for by exposure to vancomycin. This study investigated vancomycin susceptibility of one hundred porcine MRSA isolates using three MIC methods including spiral gradient endpoint (SGE technique which allows visualization of more resistant sub-populations. SGE revealed 16 strains with an MIC above 2.0 mg/L, of which 14 were determined to have MIC 4 mg/L by agar dilution. SGE revealed a further two isolates with MIC 2 mg/L. In addition, trailing endpoints not reaching resistance were present in 26 isolates with MIC 1.5 mg/L, the presence of vancomycin non-susceptibility in porcine isolates is of concern and further monitoring of LA-MRSA is essential.

  16. Effect of genipin collagen crosslinking on porcine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Navia, José L

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinker, on porcine corneas. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. Corneal strips (12.0 mm x 2.3 mm) were harvested from porcine eyes and treated by incubation with genipin at concentrations of 1.00%, 0.25%, and 0.10%. Parallel corneal strips from the same eye were used as untreated controls. After treatment at 20 degrees C for 40 minutes, tensile strain measurements were performed in a biomaterial tester. Porcine button corneas were treated with genipin 0.25% for 15 minutes and then digested by bacterial collagenase. Treated and untreated corneas were evaluated by light microscopy. Young modulus and stiffness in treated corneas increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Genipin increased resistance to corneal collagenase 5-fold in comparison with the controls. A decrease in the interlamellar space in treated corneas was also observed. Corneal collagen crosslinking induced with genipin produced a significant increase in biomechanical strength and resistance to bacterial collagenase. This crosslinker could be useful in treating corneal ectasia and corneal infectious and noninfectious diseases involving corneal melting. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative and genetic analysis of the porcine glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Antonín; Wagenknecht, Daniel; Van Poucke, Mario; Kubícková, Svatava; Bartenschlager, Heinz; Musilová, Petra; Rubes, Jirí; Geldermann, Hermann; Peelman, Luc J

    2004-08-01

    The genomic sequence of the porcine (Sus scrofa) glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene (approximately 5.7 kb), encoding glucocerebrosidase (glucosylceramidase; acid beta-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.45), was determined and compared with human (Homo sapiens) GBA and GBAP (pseudogene). The porcine gene harbours 11 exons and 10 introns, and the genomic organization is identical with human GBA. The exon sequences, coding for signal peptide and mature protein, show 81% and 90% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding human GBA sequences. Short interspersed elements, SINEs (PREs), are present in introns 2, 4 and 7. There is no evidence of a pseudogene in pig. The deduced protein sequence of GBA consists of 39 amino acids of signal peptide (long form) and 497 amino acids of the mature protein; the latter shows 90% sequence identity with the human protein. Four polymorphisms were observed within the porcine gene: insertion/deletion of one of the two SINEs (PREs) in intron 2 (locus PREA); deletion of a 37- to 39-bp stretch in intron 4 (one direct repeat and 5' end of PRE); deletion of a 47-bp stretch in the middle part of PRE in intron 4 (locus PREB); and single-base transition (C-T) in intron 6 (locus HaeIII-RFLP). GBA was assigned to chromosome 4q21 by FISH and was localized to the same region by linkage analysis and RH mapping, i.e., to the chromosome 4 segment where quantitative trait loci for growth and some carcass traits are located.

  18. Characterization of porcine eyes based on autofluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique with ideal characteristics for biological applications. In this study, we propose to characterize three major structures of the porcine eye, the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina using two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2PE-FLIM). Samples were imaged using a laser-scanning microscope, consisting of a broadband sub-15 femtosecond (fs) near-infrared laser. Signal detection was performed using a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector (PML-16PMT). Therefore, spectral analysis of the fluorescence lifetime data was possible. To ensure a correct spectral analysis of the autofluorescence lifetime data, the spectra of the individual endogenous fluorophores were acquired with the 16-channel PMT and with a spectrometer. All experiments were performed within 12h of the porcine eye enucleation. We were able to image the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina at multiple depths. Discrimination of each structure based on their autofluorescence intensity and lifetimes was possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different layers of the same structure was also possible. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that 2PE-FLIM was used for porcine lens imaging and layer discrimination. With this study we further demonstrated the feasibility of 2PE-FLIM to image and differentiate three of the main components of the eye and its potential as an ophthalmologic technique.

  19. Characterization and isolation of highly purified porcine satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shijie; Wang, Fei; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Guanghong; Hu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Pig is an important food source and an excellent system to model human diseases. Careful characterization of the swine skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) will shed lights on generation of swine skeletal muscle disease model and efficient production of porcine meat for the food industry. Paired box protein 7 (Pax7) is a highly conserved transcription factor shared by satellite cells from various species. However, the sequence of Pax7 has not been characterized in pig. The lack of method to isolate highly purified satellite cells hinders the thorough characterization of the swine satellite cells. Here we found molecular markers for swine satellite cells and revealed that the porcine satellite cells were heterogeneous in various pieces of skeletal muscle. We further developed a method to isolate highly purified satellite cells directly from porcine muscles using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We next characterized the proliferation and differentiation abilities of isolated satellite cells in vitro; and found that long-term culturing of satellite cells in vitro led to stemness loss.

  20. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresen Lars

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoglein 1 (DSG1 is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein 1 (PIGDSG1 by a very specific reaction. This study investigated the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene (PIGDSG1 in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative epidermitis were diagnosed clinically as affected or unaffected. Two regions of the desmoglein 1 gene were sequenced and genotypes of the SNPs were established. Seven SNPs (823T>C, 828A>G, 829A>G, 830A>T, 831A>T, 838A>C and 1139C>T were found in the analysed sequences and the allele frequencies were determined for the SNPs resulting in amino acid change. Four of the seven polymorphisms were situated in the motif known to be important for toxin cleavage. The distribution of the genotypes between affected and unaffected animals was analysed. Conclusion The study indicated a possible correlation between the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis.

  1. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  2. Onze anos de experiência com emprego do anel intraluminal para tratamento das doenças da aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDES Rodrigo de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta é geralmente acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade. O paciente que tem média de idade avançada geralmente é apresentado ao cirurgião em estado grave, com má condição nutricional, muitas vezes com alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas causados pela própria doença aguda. A correção convencional exige técnicas coadjuvantes complexas e agressivas como a circulação extracorpórea prolongada, hipotermia profunda, parada circulatória total além de prolongados tempos de pinçamento de aorta. Na tentativa de reduzir a agressão cirúrgica no paciente já intensamente debilitado pela própria doença, desenvolvemos, em 1988, um anel intraluminal (1, 2 que tem medidas projetadas e experimentadas para facilitar a sua manipulação e anastomose, proporcionando uma diminuição acentuada no tempo de operação, tempo de CEC, tempo de pinçamento de aorta, excluindo muitas vezes a circulação extracorpórea e a hipotermia, obtendo uma anastomose fácil, rápida, segura e hemostática. Entre março de 1988 e janeiro de 1999, 432 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de dissecções ou aneurismas da aorta em nosso Serviço. Em 328 pacientes empregamos o anel intraluminal como técnica de anastomose. Usamos 489 anéis. Cento e vinte e cinco pacientes eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo A, 29 eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo B, 81 de aneurisma de aorta ascendente, 8 de aneurisma de arco aórtico, 28 pacientes eram portadores de aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente, 17 eram portadores de aneurisma toracoabdominal e 40 pacientes de aneurisma de aorta abdominal infra-renal. A mortalidade global foi de 13,41%. O seguimento ambulatorial destes pacientes variou de 11 anos a 25 dias. A curva actuarial de sobrevivência em 11 anos mostra 67,3%. Em nenhum caso observamos as complicações descritas na literatura, como embolia, formação de

  3. Molecular characterization of porcine circovirus 2 isolated from diseased pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

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    Liu Chengqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. The complete genome of this strain was sequenced, phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses were carried out. BLAST searches revealed the highest sequence identity (99.5% nt and 99.3% aa to Guangxi strain EF675230. The phylogenetic tree showed that clustering of the isolates didn't strongly correlate to geographical distribution. Polymorphic analyses demonstrated that the amino acids at most of the polymorphic sites in Open Reading Frame 1(ORF1 and 2 (ORF2belong to the same amino acid group according to chemical or structural properties, and revealed that highly polymorphic regions overlapped with the known immunoreactive epitopes of ORF2.

  4. First report of Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) in pig herds of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donin, Daiane Güllich; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alberton, Geraldo Camilo; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2014-03-01

    Porcine teschovirus (PTV), Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) and Enterovirus G (EV-G) have been associated with enteric, respiratory, reproductive and neurological disorders. Although Brazil is the world's fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, no information on the occurrence of PTV, PSV and EV-G infections is available for Brazilian pig herds. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Porcine enteric picornavirus infections in pig farms located in three distinct geographical regions of Brazil. Forty randomly selected diarrhoeic and normal consistency faeces of suckling (n = 22) and nursery (n = 18) pigs from farms located in 21 distinct cities of the Southern, Southeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil were evaluated by nested-RT-PCR assays. Suckling piglets presented the expected amplicon size for PTV (158 bp) and EV-G (313 bp) in single and mixed infections in 40.9 % (9/22) of the faecal samples. PSV amplicon (212 bp) was not detected in this age group. For nursery pigs, Porcine enteric picornaviruses amplicons were present in 77.8 % (14/18) of the faecal samples. PTV and EV-G were detected in single and mixed infections, while PSV was detected only in two samples in co-infection with PTV and EV-G in this age group. The Brazilian regions evaluated presented at least two of the tested viruses. Sequencing analysis revealed high similarities to the related viruses (95.3 to 99.2 % for PTV, 94.2 to 98.5 % for PSV and 86 to 100 % for EV-G). For the first time PTV, PSV and EV-G have been molecularly detected and characterised in pig faecal samples in Brazil.

  5. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  6. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  7. Alterations in Caveolin-1 Expression and Receptor-Operated Ca2+ Entry in the Aortas of Rats with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ping Mu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alterations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i underlie the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is the primary functional protein associated with caveolae, which are invaginations in the plasma membrane, and is a regulator of [Ca2+]i signaling. Caveolae and Cav-1 increase the activity of store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs, and these enhancing effects were more pronounced in rats with pulmonary hypertension (PH. Classical transient receptor potential (TRPC proteins are highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, and these proteins form functional receptor-operated Ca2+ channels (ROCC and SOCC in PASMCs. Previous studies suggested that functional and structural changes in aortas might occur during the pathological process of PH. Our data demonstrated that Cav-1 and TRPC were also abundant in the aorta smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs of PH rats. However, previous PH research primarily focused on Ca2+ channels in pulmonary arteries, but not functional changes in Ca2+ channels in aortas. The contribution of Cav-1 of AoSMCs to alterations of Ca2+ signaling in aortic functions during the pathological process of PH has not been fully characterized. Therefore, this study investigated alterations in Cav-1 expression and the relationship of these changes to Ca2+ channels in AoSMCs of PH rats. Methods: The present study examined physiological caveolae and Cav-1 expression and characterized the function of altered Cav-1 expression in rat aortas with PH. Results: The appearance of caveolae with Cav-1 expression increased significantly in the aortas of rats with PH, but TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression was not altered. In vitro experiments demonstrated that caveolae contributed to phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG-induced aortic vasoreactivity, but KCl and cyclopiazonic acid had no effect, which suggests the vital

  8. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur i...

  9. Tratamento percutâneo da úlcera penetrante de aorta Percutaneous management of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A úlcera penetrante de aorta é uma variante da dissecção aórtica clássica, que apresenta características histopatológicas peculiares e, quando não tratada adequadamente, evolui com taxas de morbimortalidade tão elevadas quanto as da dissecção clássica, merecendo, desta forma, atenção especial com diagnóstico e tratamento precisos. Há a preferência para o tratamento percutâneo com o uso de endopróteses, pois estes pacientes são idosos e apresentam co-morbidades, as quais elevariam as taxas de complicações da cirurgia convencional. Mulher de 78 anos, admitida com queixa de dor torácica com irradiação para região interescapular e lombar à esquerda, com evolução de quatro meses. Na investigação diagnóstica, foi encontrada uma úlcera penetrante de aorta, que foi tratada de forma percutânea, com o implante de stent, com sucesso, estando a paciente em acompanhamento ambulatorial, assintomática.Penetrating aortic ulcer is a variant of classic aortic dissection having distinct histopathological characteristics. If not appropriately treated, it evolves to combined morbidity and mortality rates as high as those of classic dissection. This condition, therefore, warrants special attention with accurate diagnosis and treatment. Percutaneous management using endoprosthesis is the method of choice, since the patients are usually elderly and have comorbidities that would increase the complication rates of traditional surgery. A 78-year-old woman complaining of thoracic pain was admitted to the hospital; her pain had been radiating to the interscapular and left lumbar regions for four months. Upon diagnostic investigation, a penetrating aortic ulcer was found, and after being successfully treated percutaneously with stent implantation, the patient became asymptomatic and is under outpatient follow-up.

  10. Differential regulation of somatostatin receptor types 1-5 in rat aorta after angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, S; Kumar, U; Sasi, R; Puebla, L; Calderon, L; Lemstrom, K; Hayry, P; Patel, A Y

    1999-02-01

    Treatment of restenosis after angioplasty with octapeptide somatostatin (SST) analogs has met with variable success. These analogs bind with high affinity to only two SST receptor (SSTR) subtypes (2 and 5), display moderate affinity for SSTR3, and low affinity for SSTR1 and 4. To optimize the vasculoprotective effect of SST, we have investigated the pattern of expression of all five SSTRs in rat thoracic aorta in the resting state and at 15 min, 3, 7, and 14 days after balloon endothelial denudation. SSTR1-5 were analyzed as mRNA by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and as protein by immunocytochemistry. All five SSTRs were expressed in rat aorta both as mRNA and protein and displayed a time-dependent, subtype-selective response to endothelial denudation. mRNA for SSTR1 and 2 increased acutely (SSTR1 > SSTR2) on days 3 and 7, coincident with smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and declined to basal levels by day 14. SSTR3 and 4 displayed a different pattern with a delayed, more gradual increase in mRNA beginning at days 3-7 and continued to increase thereafter. SSTR5 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a low level and showed no change during the 2 wk postinjury period. By immunohistochemistry, SSTR1-5 antigens were localized predominantly in SMC that were present in the media or had migrated into the intima; antigen expression correlated with receptor mRNA expression. Notably, only SSTR1,3,4 were expressed in the intima: SSTR1 and 4 during the proliferative burst and SSTR3 and 4 after proliferation, when SMC migration into the intima continues. These results demonstrate dynamic changes in SSTR1-5 expression after vascular trauma localized to areas of vascular SMC migration and replication. In view of their early and prominent induction, SSTR1 may be the optimal subtype to target for inhibition of myointimal proliferation, and SSTR3 and 4 for migration and remodeling.

  11. Clinical requirements of aortic imaging; Klinische Anforderungen an die Bildgebung der Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckler, D.; Hylik-Duerr, A.; Klemm, K. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie,Vaskulaere und Endovaskulaere Chirurgie, Heidelberg (Germany); Tengg-Kobligk, H. von; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Lopez-Benitez, R. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Abteilung Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Modern imaging modalities, especially noninvasive cross-sectional imaging techniques, have advanced dramatically in recent years and are now the backbone of pre- and postoperative evaluation of aortic pathologies. The planning in particular, but also the aftercare following endovascular aortic reconstructions, make heavy demands on physicians. It is necessary to select the method of examination that is best suited to the pathology concerned and to apply it to the patient in an individual manner. Ultrasound is the examination of choice for screening and follow-up of infrarenal aneurysms. Transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used in diagnosis, in intraoperative navigation during the implantation of endografts and in follow-up of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections who have undergone conservative treatment, with very high sensitivity and specificity. The use of MRA is restricted by the long time needed for an examination, metal artifacts and limited availability. DSA has been largely superseded in the diagnosis of aortic pathologies by CTA, but as yet retains its role in intraoperative imaging of the anchorage regions of endoprostheses. Selective demonstration of postoperative internal leaks with subsequent therapeutic embolization is a further area of use for DSA. CTA, including so-called image postprocessing, has taken over the prime role in imaging of the aorta. Disease-specific diagnostic algorithms are useful and necessary in day-to-day clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Die moderne Bildgebung, insbesondere die nichtinvasive Schnittbildgebung, hat sich in den letzten Jahren dramatisch weiterentwickelt und stellt mittlerweile die Basis fuer die prae- und postoperative Diagnostik aortaler Pathologien dar. Insbesondere die Planung, aber auch die Nachsorge endovaskulaerer Aortenrekonstruktionen stellen sehr hohe Anforderungen an den Diagnostiker und Therapeuten. Aus der Vielzahl der bestehenden

  12. Postoperative outcome in patients with anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Crucean, Adrian; Bonacchi, Massimo; Bernabei, Massimo; Leacche, Marzia; Murzi, Bruno; Bartolozzi, Fabio; Vanini, Vittorio

    2003-07-01

    The aim was to review our experience with the surgical repair of the anomalous origin of one pulmonary branch from the aorta (AOPA). Between January 1991 and March 2002, eight patients with AOPA underwent surgical correction. Three patients presented isolated AOPA. Five patients presented right AOPA and three, left AOPA. Implantation of the AOPA to the main pulmonary artery was performed by: (I) direct anastomosis in two patients with left AOPA; (II) interposition of a synthetic graft in one patient with left AOPA; (III) employing an autologous pericardial patch in two patients with right AOPA; (IV) using an aortic flap in three other patients with right AOPA. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 months. One patient died postoperatively due to progressive heart failure unresponsive to inotropic support. Early postoperative pulmonary hypertension crisis was identified in another patient. Within 1 year after surgery, the mean residual gradient across the anastomotic site at follow-up was 14+/-8 mmHg. The patient undergoing interposition of a synthetic graft presented a residual gradient of 29 mmHg and underwent reoperation at almost 2.5 years after the first correction. The residual gradient in patients undergoing correction according to technique I was 17+/-3 mmHg, and in patients undergoing implantation of the AOPA according to techniques III or IV was 9.5+/-4.6 mmHg (P=0.11). Similarly, the Tc-99m scintigraphy demonstrated that a lower lung perfusion (the lung perfused from the respective AOPA compared with the contralateral lung) in patients undergoing AOPA implantation according to technique I was 59+/-6(%) and in patients undergoing techniques III or IV was 72+/-4.5(%) (P=0.038). At follow-up, all patients were alive. The AOPA from the aorta is a rare but important entity, necessitating a scrupulous preoperative and intraoperative evaluation. Patients presenting this anomaly may undergo correction using various surgical techniques with acceptable results. The

  13. Ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal y su relación con el estilo de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Esther Vives Iglesias

    Full Text Available Introducción: el estilo de vida es la manera personal de vivir. Las decisiones que se tomen al trabajar, alimentarse, afrontar las situaciones difíciles, realizar ejercicios físicos, entre otras, lo van a conformar y afectarán de forma positiva o negativa el estado de salud del individuo. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal en dos grupos de pacientes con estilos de vida diferentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo comparativa entre dos grupos de pacientes con estilos de vida diferentes, uno saludable (115 pacientes y otro grupo con estilo de vida no saludable (254 pacientes, lo cual fue determinado mediante una encuesta. A todos los pacientes involucrados en el estudio se les realizó ultrasonido abdominal para dar salida a los objetivos del mismo junto a los resultados de la encuesta. Resultados: hubo un predominio del sexo femenino en las edades de 40 a 61 años en ambos grupos. Los pacientes que exhibían un estilo de vida no saludable, con una dieta predominantemente omnívora y con una actividad física sedentaria presentaron ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal en un 99 %. En el grupo de estudio que tenía un estilo de vida saludable, solo se encontraron placas de ateroma en dos pacientes, lo que equivale a un 1,7 %. Las principales enfermedades crónicas asociadas fueron la diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial, y los factores de riesgo como el hábito de fumar, las hiperlipidemias, así como la esteatosis hepática y pancreática, predominaron en el grupo con un estilo de vida no saludable. Conclusión: los hábitos que determinan un estilo de vida no saludable van a determinar que se desarrollen factores de riesgo y enfermedades en el individuo.

  14. Surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve : Effect on tissue calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Min; Lin, Yang-Hua; Shi, Wei-Ping; Shi, Hong-Can; Gu, Y. John; Shu, Yu-Sheng

    Tissue calcification is a major cause of failure of bioprosthetic heart valves. Aim of this study was to examine whether surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve reduces tissue calcification. Fresh porcine aortic heart valves were dissected as tissue discs and divided into

  15. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  16. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  17. A new tool for in vitro culture of porcine eggs | Hua | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tool for in vitro culture of porcine eggs. ... are needed for the production of porcine embryos for in vitro fertilization or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). ... rates with two media were not significantly different (77.7 and 72.4%, P﹤ 0.05 ).

  18. Comparative Study on Compositions and Functional Properties of Porcine, Chicken and Duck Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Narunatsopanon, Supawadee

    2017-01-01

    Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p

  19. Surveillance for porcine proliferative enteropathy in Alberta by using routine diagnostic laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeff B; Honour, Sandra; Pauling, Gail E; O'Connor, Brendan; Benjamin, Madonna; Paradis, Marie Anne; Dick, C Paul

    2002-08-01

    Data from the Food Safety Division, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development were analyzed to determine the frequency of diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) relative to the diagnosis of other porcine enteric infections between 1993 and 1997. Next to colibacillosis, PPE was the most commonly diagnosed enteric disease among those reported.

  20. Porcine insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene: cloning, polymorphism and association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using PCR and IPCR techniques we obtained a 4498 bp nucleotide sequence FN424076 encompassing the complete coding sequence of the porcine IRS4 gene and its proximal promoter. The 1269-amino acid porcine protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence shares 92% identity with the human IRS4 and possesse...

  1. Chapter 3: The influence of porcine somatatropin (pST) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SStC Botha

    initial weight of 27.2 ± 2 kg were used to investigate the effect of porcine somatotropin (pST) administered for six weeks prior to slaughter ... bone, % fat or % lean meat, but a significant increase in percentage skin was found. Keywords: FCR, P2 back fat, pST, porcine somatotropin, pork, tissue yield. # Corresponding author.

  2. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs in the ut...

  3. Identification of 10 882 porcine microsatellite sequences and virtual mapping of 4528 of these sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Hu, Z.L.; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A total of 10 882 porcine microsatelite repeats were identified in genomic shotgun sequences from the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Sequencing Consortium ( http://piggenome.dk ). Of these, 4528 microsatellites were placed on a pig-human comparative map by BLAST analysis of porcine sequences against...

  4. Ruptura dos vasa vasorum e hematoma intramural da aorta: um paradigma em mudança Rupture of vasa vasorum and intramural hematoma of the aorta: a changing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamastor Humberto Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura dos vasa vasorum tem sido reconhecida como uma das causas do hematoma intramural da aorta há 90 anos. Esta breve revisão apresenta sistematicamente a fisiologia desses vasos e o seu papel na fisiopatologia das alterações parietais da aorta que ocorrem na hipertensão arterial, na arteriosclerose e na síndrome aórtica aguda. A hipótese defendida aqui é a de que a ruptura dos vasa vasorum ocorre como um fenômeno secundário e não como um dos fatores causais na fisiopatologia do hematoma intramural.Rupture of vasa varorum has been recognized as one cause of intramural hematoma of the aorta for 90 years. This brief revision presents systematically, the physiology of these vessels and its role in the physiopathology of the alterations in the aortic wall secondary to hypertension, arteriosclerosis and in Acute Aortic Syndrome. The hypothesis is that rupture of vasa vasorum is a secondary phenomenon and not one causal factor in the physiopathology of intramural hematoma.

  5. Changes in expression of proteoglycan core proteins and heparan sulfate enzymes in the developing and adult murine aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Neeta; Carlson, Marjorie; Lerman, Ben; Hall, Jennifer L

    2011-06-01

    Proteoglycan core proteins are linked to four different classes of linear sugar chains referred to as glycosaminoglycans. Heparan sulfate constitutes one of these classes of glycosaminoglycans, and has been shown to be important in developmental processes as well as disease. We designed a low-density gene expression array to identify expression levels of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes and proteoglycan core proteins in the aorta of late stage embryos (E18.5) and adult mice (12 weeks). Significant changes were found in mRNA expression of proteoglycan core proteins syndecan, glypican, decorin, perlecan, and versican from development to adulthood (n = 8, p proteoglycan core proteins and heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes in the aorta undergo significant changes in their expression from development to adulthood. These findings may have important biological significance in the specific cell-defined roles of proteoglycan and heparan sulfate related targets in vascular development, maintenance, and response to various perturbations.

  6. Renal Artery Variations, Hilar Arrangement and Its Distances to Ventral Branches of Abdominal Aorta: A Morphometric Study

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    D'Souza A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the distance of origin of renal artery in relation to the ventral branches of abdominal aorta and also to study the variations in the number and the hilar branching pattern of renal arteries. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out using ten embalmed adult cadavers. The distances were measured bilaterally from the origin of renal artery to the origin of superior and inferior mesenteric artery and the bifurcation of abdominal aorta. Results: Out of ten cadavers studied, bilateral accessory renal artery was observed in two cases. The hilar branching pattern varied from a single artery to maximum of six branches. The mean and standard deviations of the measured parameters were calculated. Conclusion: Knowledge of variations of renal artery is important for surgeons in performing many procedures and may help to avoid clinical complications in the abdominal region.

  7. Analysis of Gene and Protein Expression in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aorta by Western Blot and Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, José

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis involves changes in gene and protein expression patterns in affected arteries. Quantification of these alterations is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Western blot and real-time PCR-used to quantify protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively-are invaluable molecular biology tools, particularly when material is limited. The availability of many genetically modified mouse models of atherosclerosis makes the mouse aorta an ideal tissue in which to carry out these expression pattern analyses. In this chapter, protocols are presented for mRNA and protein extraction from mouse aorta and for the accurate quantification of mRNA expression by RT-PCR and of proteins by western blot.

  8. The position of the aorta relative to the spine for pedicle screw placement in the correction of idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Shen, Jianxiong; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Shugang; Zhao, Hong; Qiu, Guixing; Wang, Yipeng

    2012-06-01

    An analysis of computed tomography (CT) images of patients with adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis for posterior pedicle screw placement. To evaluate the relative position of the aorta to the spine by the axial CT scans in patients with right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis, and to discuss the safe trajectory and screw length for posterior pedicle screw placement. Posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion are widely used in the correction of scoliosis. Pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine implies risk of injuring the aorta. Literatures on the relative position of the aorta to the spine are mostly focused on the anterior surgery. However, few are reported about the posterior surgery. A total of 47 patients with adolescent right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis who underwent CT scan of total spine before surgery were included in this study. Transverse plane including bilateral pedicles, lamina, and transverse process was selected for measurement from T4 to T12. We defined a new coordinate system, and 5 parameters were measured in each vertebral body from T4 to T12 of the patients. The point where the left pedicle axial line and the base of the left transverse process intersected was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A line connecting bilateral intersection was defined as x-axis. y-axis perpendicular to the x-axis is drawn ventrally from the origin. The left pedicle-aorta angle (α), the left aorta angle (β), the left pedicle-aorta distance (PAD), the aorta-x-axis distance (AXD), and the vertebral rotation angle (γ) were measured. The values of angles α and β had a tendency of first increasing and then decreasing, and increasing again from T4 to T12. The lowest value of angle α occurred at T10 (7.45±6.10 degrees), followed by T4 (8.89±6.49 degrees), T11 (9.13±7.59 degrees), and T9 (9.74±6.11 degrees). PAD and AXD values had a tendency of decreasing first and then increasing from T4 to T12. The lowest values of PAD and AXD

  9. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  10. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC....... There was a broad range of microscopical lesions and the cases were characterized as acute (n=10), subacute (n=24) or chronic (n=114) bronchopneumonia. Five bacterial species, five viruses and two Mycoplasma spp. were detected in different combinations. PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and Pasteurella multocida...

  11. Use of the frozen elephant trunk technique in complicated chronic dissection with porcelain aorta and visceral arteries originating from different lumens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Michal O; Irimie, Vadim; Urbanski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with chronic aortic dissection is reported. Because the visceral arteries originated from different, equivalently perfused lumens and the descending aorta was circumferentially calcified (porcelain aorta) limiting the possibilities of anastomosing, careful planning of the surgical strategy was of utmost importance. The complex surgery consisted of ascending and total arch replacement using the 'frozen elephant trunk' technique with Thoraflex™ Hybrid Prosthesis (Vascutek, Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland); however, before insertion of the stent graft, an angioscopic resection of the dissection membrane in the proximal part of the descending aorta was carried out to ensure a complete expansion of the distal edge of the stent within the entire common lumen of the aorta and unimpaired distal flow in both lumens below the stent graft. The surgery and the postoperative course were uneventful. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Consensus statement on surgical pathology of the aorta from the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology: I. Inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, James R.; Bruneval, Patrick; Angelini, Annalisa; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Basso, Cristina; Batoroeva, Lubov; Buja, L. Maximilian; Butany, Jagdish; d'Amati, Giulia; Fallon, John T.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Gouveia, Rosa H.; Halushka, Marc K.; Kelly, Karen L.; Kholova, Ivana; Leone, Ornella; Litovsky, Silvio H.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Miller, Dylan V.; Mitchell, Richard N.; Preston, Stephen D.; Pucci, Angela; Radio, Stanley J.; Rodriguez, E. Rene; Sheppard, Mary N.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Tan, Carmela D.; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C.; Veinot, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta include routine atherosclerosis, aortitis, periaortitis, and atherosclerosis with excessive inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. The nomenclature and histologic features of these disorders are reviewed and discussed. In addition,

  13. Anomalous Origin of the Right Pulmonary Artery From the Ascending Aorta in a 10-Month-Old Child

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    Pedro Pallangyo MD, MPH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare congenital deformity associated with poor quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Without a corrective surgery, less than one third of cases will live to see their sixth month. We report a case of a 10-month-old male child from Tanzania who presented with a 6-month history of recurrent respiratory tract infections, mild effort intolerance, and failure to thrive.

  14. Anomalous Origin of the Right Pulmonary Artery From the Ascending Aorta in a 10-Month-Old Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Lyimo, Frederick; Nicholaus, Paulina; Mtolera, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare congenital deformity associated with poor quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Without a corrective surgery, less than one third of cases will live to see their sixth month. We report a case of a 10-month-old male child from Tanzania who presented with a 6-month history of recurrent respiratory tract infections, mild effort intolerance, and failure to thrive. PMID:27231696

  15. Tratamiento endoluminal de disección aguda complicada en aorta descendente: Comunicación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Fava P,Mario; Espíndola,Manuel; Bertoni,Hernán; Loyola Z,M Soledad; Meneses Q,Luis; Maureira,Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta, although not common, has early and highly lethal complications. The type A dissection is treated with surgery. Patients with type B dissections are treated with surgery if they have complications like rupture, growth or visceral ischemia. Surgery, however, has complications such as spinal cord ischemia. Endovascular grafts have less mortality and complications. We report a 59 years old male patient with a type B dissection complicated with rupture. He was treate...

  16. The Significance of the Angle between Superior Mesenteric Artery and Aorta in Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyin; Yi, Jie; Xu, Huanming; Guo, Wei; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Duanduan; Xiong, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the significance of the angle between superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and distal aorta in spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) by clinical and biomechanical analyses. Thirty-seven patients with SISMAD (1 asymptomatic) and 148 controls (1:4 matched for age [mean 50.2 years], gender [92% male], and body mass index, and being ruled out for arterial disease) underwent aortic computed tomography angiography. SMA-distal aorta angle, measured on sagittal plane, was compared along with baseline characteristics (body mass index, smoking history, and comorbidities) between groups, and assessed as tool to evaluate SISMAD risk after stratification into 4 angle-interval categories. Flow analysis and fluid-structure interaction study were conducted based on patient-specific models with ultrasound-measured boundary conditions to further reveal the flow pattern and loading distribution in the 4 angle-interval categories. SISMAD patients versus controls had larger mean SMA-distal aorta angle (73 ± 19.8° vs. 50 ± 18.81°, P angle (1, 10, 57, and 73 for 90°, respectively; P 70°). In silico study confirmed that larger angle is associated with higher stress in the arterial wall and higher oscillatory shear index in the vessel lumen at the SMA superior convex, where dissection commonly occurs. Besides smoking history and hypertension, SISMAD was positively associated with a morphological parameter, the SMA-distal aorta angle. This might be due to the greater wall stress and oscillatory stress index in the arterial convex with a larger angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The hemodynamic effects of the LVAD outflow cannula location on the thrombi distribution in the aorta: A primary numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yage; Gao, Bin; Yu, Chang

    2016-09-01

    Although a growing number of patients undergo LVAD implantation for heart failure treatment, thrombi are still the devastating complication for patients who used LVAD. LVAD outflow cannula location and thrombi generation sources were hypothesized to affect the thrombi distribution in the aorta. To test this hypothesis, numerical studies were conducted by using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) theory. Two anastomotic configurations, in which the LVAD outflow cannula is anastomosed to the anterior and lateral ascending aortic wall (named as anterior configurations and lateral configurations, respectively), are designed. The particles, whose sized are same as those of thrombi, are released at the LVAD output cannula and the aortic valve (named as thrombiP and thrombiL, respectively) to calculate the distribution of thrombi. The simulation results demonstrate that the thrombi distribution in the aorta is significantly affected by the LVAD outflow cannula location. In anterior configuration, the thrombi probability of entering into the three branches is 23.60%, while that in lateral configuration is 36.68%. Similarly, in anterior configuration, the thrombi probabilities of entering into brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery, is 8.51%, 9.64%, 5.45%, respectively, while that in lateral configuration it is 11.39%, 3.09%, 22.20% respectively. Moreover, the origins of thrombi could affect their distributions in the aorta. In anterior configuration, the thrombiP has a lower probability to enter into the three branches than thrombiL (12% vs. 25%). In contrast, in lateral configuration, the thrombiP has a higher probability to enter into the three branches than thrombiL (47% vs. 35%). In brief, the LVAD outflow cannula location significantly affects the distribution of thrombi in the aorta. Thus, in the clinical practice, the selection of outflow location of LVAD and the risk of thrombi formed in the left ventricle should be paid more

  18. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

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    Kerim Çağlı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  19. The combined impact of mechanical factors on the wall stress of the human ascending aorta - a finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonek, Tomasz; Zak, Malgorzata; Burzynska, Karolina; Rylski, Bartosz; Gozdzik, Anna; Kustrzycki, Wojciech; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Jasinski, Marek; Filipiak, Jaroslaw

    2017-12-20

    Biomechanical factors influence stress in the aortic wall. The aim of this study was to assess how the diameter and shape of the vessel, blood pressure and longitudinal systolic aortic stretching (SAS) caused by the contraction of the myocardium influence stress in the aortic wall. Three computational models of the non-dilated aorta and aneurysms of the ascending aorta and aortic root were created. Then, finite elements analyses were carried out. The models were subjected to blood pressure (120 mmHg and 160 mmHg) and longitudinal systolic aortic stretching (0 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm). The influence of wall elasticity was examined too. Blood pressure had a smaller impact on the stress than the SAS. An increase in blood pressure from120 mmHg to 160 mmHg increased the peak wall stress (PWS) on average by 0.1 MPa in all models. A 5 mm SAS caused a 0.1–0. 2 MPa increase in PWS in all the models. The increase in PWS caused by a 10mm and 15mmSAS was 0.2 MPa and 0. 4 MPa in the non-dilated aorta, 0.2–0.3 MPa and 0.3–0.5 MPa in the aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 0.1–0.2 MPa and 0.2–0.3 MPa in the aortic root aneurysm model, respectively. The loss of elasticity of the aneurysmal wall resulted in an increase of PWS by 0.1–0.2 MPa. Aortic geometry, wall stiffness, blood pressure and SAS have an impact on PWS. However, SAS had the biggest impact on wall stress. The results of this study may be useful in future patient-specific computational models used to assess the risk of aortic complications.

  20. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

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    Janega Pavol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH, orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease.