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Sample records for homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction

  1. Salidroside Improves Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Reducing Oxidative Stress

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    Sin Bond Leung; Huina Zhang; Chi Wai Lau; Yu Huang; Zhixiu Lin

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases through increased oxidative stress. Salidroside is an active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative, antihypoxia and neuroprotective properties. However, the vascular benefits of salidroside against endothelial dysfunction have yet to be explored. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the protective effect of salidroside on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunc...

  2. Selenium Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction and Apoptosis via Activation of AKT

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    Hui Ren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial cells are crucial in vascular homeostasis. Dysfunction of endothelial cells is involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. High plasma homocysteine (Hcy correlates with CVD while selenium supplementation counteracts development of CVD. However, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of selenium on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Methods: An animal model of Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction was established by intragastric administration of L-methionine. Plasma NO and von Willebrand factor (vWF were quantified using NO assay and ELISA kit respectively. Relaxation was measured in thoracic aortic ring assays. Cell viability and migration were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Bio-Coat cell migration chambers respectively. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Annexin V-FITC apoptosis kit. Results: Selenium prevented homocysteine-induced endothelial injury and impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation. Selenium reversed the impaired viability and migration of endothelial cells induced by homocysteine in a dose-dependent manner. Selenium inhibited the apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by homocysteine, through downregulating of Caspase-3 activity and expression of Caspase-3 and Bax, and by stimulating Bcl-2 expression. Selenium reversed the homocysteine-induced reduction of NO release, and increased the expression and phosphoylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, selenium enhanced AKT phosphorylation, and selenium-induced phosphorylation and expression of eNOS were inhibited by AKT inhibition. NO production, cell viability and migration rescued by selenium were inhibited, while cell apoptosis was reversed by AKT inhibition. Conclusion: Selenium protected against homocysteine-induced dysfunction and apoptosis of endothelial cells through AKT pathway. The observations may provide novel

  3. Salidroside Improves Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by Reducing Oxidative Stress

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    Sin Bond Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases through increased oxidative stress. Salidroside is an active ingredient of the root of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative, antihypoxia and neuroprotective properties. However, the vascular benefits of salidroside against endothelial dysfunction have yet to be explored. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate the protective effect of salidroside on homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Functional studies on the rat aortas were performed to delineate the vascular effect of salidroside. DHE imaging was used to evaluate the reactive oxygen species (ROS level in aortic wall and endothelial cells. Western blotting was performed to assess the protein expression associated with oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Exposure to homocysteine attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations in rat aortas while salidroside pretreatment rescued it. Salidroside inhibited homocystein-induced elevation in the NOX2 expression and ROS overproduction in both aortas and cultured endothelial cells and increased phosphorylation of eNOS which was diminished by homocysteine. The present study shows that salidroside is effective in preserving the NO bioavailability and thus protects against homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, largely through inhibiting the NOX2 expression and ROS production. Our results indicate a therapeutic potential of salidroside in the management of oxidative-stress-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.

  4. Growth hormone-releasing peptide ghrelin inhibits homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries and human endothelial cells.

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    Hedayati, Nasim; Annambhotla, Suman; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). This study investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 microM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to the thromboxane A(2)analog U46619, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production was documented lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, or antighrelin receptor antibody for 24 hours, and eNOS protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Maximal contraction with U46619 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with sodium nitroprusside were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10(-6) M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, which was similar to controls (64.7%). Homocysteine significantly reduced eNOS expression, whereas ghrelin cotreatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin cotreatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked the Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Antighrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited the effect of ghrelin. Ghrelin has a protective

  5. l-Homocysteine-induced cathepsin V mediates the vascular endothelial inflammation in hyperhomocysteinaemia.

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    Leng, Yi-Ping; Ma, Ye-Shuo; Li, Xiao-Gang; Chen, Rui-Fang; Zeng, Ping-Yu; Li, Xiao-Hui; Qiu, Cheng-Feng; Li, Ya-Pei; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Alex F

    2017-06-20

    Vascular inflammation, including the expression of inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells, plays a critical role in hyperhomocysteinaemia-associated vascular diseases. Cathepsin V, specifically expressed in humans, is involved in vascular diseases through its elastolytic and collagenolytic activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cathepsin V on l-homocysteine-induced vascular inflammation. A high methionine diet-induced hyperhomocysteinaemic mouse model was used to assess cathepsin V expression and vascular inflammation. Cultures of HUVECs were challenged with l-homocysteine and the cathepsin L/V inhibitor SID to assess the pro-inflammatory effects of cathepsin V. Transfection and antisense techniques were utilized to investigate the effects of cathepsin V on the dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DUSPs) and MAPK pathways. Cathepsin L (human cathepsin V homologous) was increased in the thoracic aorta endothelial cells of hyperhomocysteinaemic mice; l-homocysteine promoted cathepsin V expression in HUVECs. SID suppressed the activity of cathepsin V and reversed the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), adhesion and chemotaxis of leukocytes and vascular inflammation induced by l-homocysteine in vivo and in vitro. Increased cathepsin V promoted the degradation of DUSP6 and DUSP7, phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, phosphorylation of STAT1 and expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This study has identified a novel mechanism, which shows that l-homocysteine-induced upregulation of cathepsin V mediates vascular endothelial inflammation under high homocysteine condition partly via ERK1/2 /STAT1 pathway. This mechanism could represent a potential therapeutic target in hyperaemia-associated vascular diseases. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Disturbance of copper homeostasis is a mechanism for homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell injury.

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    Daoyin Dong

    Full Text Available Elevation of serum homocysteine (Hcy levels is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggested that Hcy interferes with copper (Cu metabolism in vascular endothelial cells. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Hcy-induced disturbance of Cu homeostasis leads to endothelial cell injury. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to concentrations of Hcy at 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mM resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in necrotic cell death. Pretreatment of the cells with a final concentration of 5 µM Cu in cultures prevented the effects of Hcy. Hcy decreased intracellular Cu concentrations. HPLC-ICP-MS analysis revealed that Hcy caused alterations in the distribution of intracellular Cu; more Cu was redistributed to low molecular weight fractions. ESI-Q-TOF detected the formation of Cu-Hcy complexes. Hcy also decreased the protein levels of Cu chaperone COX17, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects of Hcy were all preventable by Cu pretreatment. The study thus demonstrated that Hcy disturbs Cu homeostasis and limits the availability of Cu to critical molecules such as COX17 and CCO, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial cell injury.

  7. Genistein blocks homocysteine-induced alterations in the proteome of human endothelial cells.

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    Fuchs, Dagmar; Erhard, Petra; Rimbach, Gerald; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe

    2005-07-01

    Dietary isoflavones from soy are suggested to protect endothelial cells from damaging effects of endothelial stressors and thereby to prevent atherosclerosis. In search of the molecular targets of isoflavone action, we analyzed the effects of the major soy isoflavone, genistein, on changes in protein expression levels induced by the endothelial stressor homocysteine (Hcy) in EA.hy 926 endothelial cells. Proteins from cells exposed for 24 h to 25 microM Hcy alone or in combination with 2.5 microM genistein were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and those with altered spot intensities were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Genistein reversed Hcy-induced changes of proteins involved in metabolism, detoxification, and gene regulation; and some of those effects can be linked functionally to the antiatherosclerotic properties of the soy isoflavone. Alterations of steady-state levels of cytoskeletal proteins by genistein suggested an effect on apoptosis. As a matter of fact genistein caused inhibition of Hcy-mediated apoptotic cell death as indicated by inhibition of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. In conclusion, proteome analysis allows the rapid identification of cellular target proteins of genistein action in endothelial cells exposed to the endothelial stressor Hcy and therefore enables the identification of molecular pathways of its antiatherosclerotic action.

  8. Turkish propolis protects human endothelial cells in vitro from homocysteine-induced apoptosis.

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    Darendelioglu, Ekrem; Aykutoglu, Gurkan; Tartik, Musa; Baydas, Giyasettin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic cardiovascular and neurodegenerative complications induced by hyperhomocysteinemia have been most relatively associated with endothelial cell injury. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanying with oxidative stress which is hallmarks of the molecular mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease. Propolis is a natural product, obtained by honeybee from various oils, pollens, special resins and wax materials, conventionally used with the purpose of treatment by folks Propolis has various biological activities and powerful antioxidant capacity. The flavonoids and phenolic acids, most bioactive components of propolis, have superior antioxidant ability to defend cell from free radicals. This study was designed to examine the protective effects of Turkish propolis (from east of country) on Hcy induced ROS production and apoptosis in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). According to results, co-treatment of HUVECs with propolis decreased Hcy-induced ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Furthermore, overproductions of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 protein, elevation of cytochrome c release in Hcy-treated HUVECs were significantly reduced by propolis. It was concluded that propolis has cytoprotective ability against cytotoxic effects of high Hcy in HUVECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Salidroside protects against homocysteine-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Zhu, Lin; Jia, Fang; Wei, Jiang; Yu, Yang; Yu, Tianhong; Wang, Yanjun; Sun, Jianhui; Luo, Guanghua

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies showed that homocysteine (Hcy) could injure vascular endothelial cells via several mechanisms, including its promotion of oxidative stress pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) pathway. Salidroside (SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. Emerging evidence conformed that SAL attenuated Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress. However, its role in ER stress pathway remains unclarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SAL significantly reduced the cell damage effects brought by Hcy in a dose-dependent manner. Functional studies on the HUVECs found that SAL rescued the endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by Hcy. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of Hcy-induced activation of binding protein (Bip) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), as well as the phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) or inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α). Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could regulate ER stress pathway on the viability of endotheliocyte induced by Hcy in vitro. Our findings provide the first evidence that SAL plays an important role in endotheliocyte protection via suppressing ER stress pathway in HUVEC cells and that it may be a promising therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. HSP27 Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis by Modulation of ROS Production and Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

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    Xin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy could lead to endothelial dysfunction and is viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, a small heat shock protein, is reported to exert protective effect against atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of HSP27 against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP of normal or HSP27-overexpressing HUVECs in the presence of Hcy were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blot. Results. We found that Hcy could induce cell apoptosis with corresponding decrease of nitric oxide (NO level, increase of endothelin-1 (ET-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 levels, elevation of ROS, and dissipation of MMP. In addition, HSP27 could protect the cell against Hcy-induced apoptosis and inhibit the effect of Hcy on HUVECs. Furthermore, HSP27 could increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibit caspase-3 activity. Conclusions. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27 played a protective role against Hcy-induced endothelial apoptosis through modulation of ROS production and the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  11. Astaxanthin Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage

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    Cun-dong Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine (Hcy as an independent risk factor contributes to the occurrence and development of human cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis was commonly accepted as the major mechanism in Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity. Astaxanthin (ATX as one of the most powerful antioxidants exhibits novel cardioprotective potential against Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, the protective effect and mechanism of ATX against Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated yet. Herein, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and Hcy-injured animal model were employed in the present study. The MTT, flow cytometry analysis (FCM, TUNEL-DAPI and western blotting results all demonstrated that ATX significantly alleviated Hcy-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells through inhibition of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The JC-1 and Mito-tracker staining both revealed that ATX pre-treatment blocked Hcy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating Bcl-2 family expression. Moreover, DCFH-DA and Mito-SOX staining showed that ATX effectively attenuated Hcy-induced oxidative damage via scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Importantly, the ELISA and immunohistochemical results indicated that Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo was also significantly inhibited by ATX through inhibition of oxidative damage and apoptosis, and improvement of the angiogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ATX suppressed Hcy-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Our findings validated the strategy of using ATX may be a highly efficient way to combat Hcy-mediated human CVD.

  12. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

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    Vilariño Jorge O

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the

  13. Role of Lipotoxicity in Endothelial Dysfunction

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    Kim, Jeong-a; Montagnani, Monica; Chandrasekran, Sruti; Quon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Lipotoxicity, caused in large part by overnutrition, directly leads to endothelial dysfunction. Excess lipids in both the circulation and at the tissue level contribute to endothelial dysfunction that underlies much of the pathophysiology of both metabolic disease, including obesity and diabetes and their CV complications. Direct lipotoxic effects on other organs as well as secondary insults from endothelial dysfunction synergize to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle interve...

  14. Polyphenols in preventing endothelial dysfunction

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    Sylwia Biegańska-Hensoldt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of mortality in developed countries is atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consumption of food rich in natural antioxidants including polyphenols significantly improves endothelial cells functions.Polyphenols have a beneficial effect on the human body and play an important part in protecting the cardiovascular system. Polyphenols present in food have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antiproliferative properties. Catechins cause an increase in the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and increased production of nitric oxide (NO and decrease in blood pressure. Catechins also reduce platelet adhesion, lower the concentration of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. Resveratrol inhibits NADPH oxidase expression, increases the expression of eNOS and NO production as well as decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and also lowers the concentration of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules – sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in blood. Quercetin reduces the blood level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, reduces the concentration of C-reactive protein and F2-isoprostane level. Curcumin has antagonistic activity to homocysteine. Curcumin increases the expression of eNOS and reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat cardiomyocytes. Numerous attempts are taken for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols in order to increase their use in the body.

  15. Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction In Vivo.

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    Todiras, Mihail; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells play a major role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Impairment of physiological properties of the endothelium, such as the promotion of vasodilation and anti-aggregation, leads to a condition called endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has been shown to have prognostic value in predicting vascular events including stroke and myocardial infarction.Endothelial-dependent vasodilation is one of the most widely used methods for assessment of endothelial function in rodents. It includes pharmacological stimulation (for example by acetylcholine) of endothelial release of NO and other vasoactive compounds in comparison with vascular response to endothelium-independent dilators such as sodium nitroprusside. However, usually this technique is performed in anesthetized animals. Here we describe a method which allows evaluation of endothelial dysfunction in conscious, freely moving mice and rats.

  16. [Endothelial dysfunction in pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer].

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    Oparin, A G; Oparin, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that in patients with ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) there is a close correlation between the severity of the lesion of gastroduodenal protective mucous barrier and that of endothelial dysfunction manifesting in elevated level of endothelin-1, serum levels of TBK-active products, inhibition of blood flow and narrowing of the celiac trunk. The correlation becomes stronger with expanding contamination of gastroduodenal mucosa with HP. Thus, HP may participate in breaking the protective mucous barrier in endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, E S; Fonnes, S; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    was to systematically review the literature to evaluate the association between non-cardiac surgery and non-invasive markers of endothelial function. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library Database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Endothelial dysfunction was described only...

  18. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

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    Curtis M. Steyers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein, autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  19. Dysfunctional Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Metabolic Syndrome

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    Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent and confers an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key early event in atherosclerosis is endothelial dysfunction. Numerous groups have reported endothelial dysfunction in MetS. However, the measurement of endothelial function is far from optimum. There has been much interest recently in a subtype of progenitor cells, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), that can circulate, proliferate, and dfferentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs can be characterized by the assessment of surface markers, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, VEGFR-2 (KDR). The CD34+KDR+ phenotype has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. MetS patients without diabetes or cardiovascular diseases have decreased EPC number and functionality as evidenced by decreased numbers of colony forming units, decreased adhesion and migration, and decreased tubule formation. Strategies that have been shown to upregulate and enhance EPC number and functionality include statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and peroxisome-proliferator-activating-receptor gamma agonists. Mechanisms by which they affect EPC number and functionality need to be studied. Thus, EPC number and/or functionality could emerge as novel cellular biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk in MetS. PMID:21941528

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in rheumatic autoimmune diseases.

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    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Colombo, Barbara Maria; Cagnati, Paola; Gulli, Rossella; Spanò, Francesca; Puppo, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    Rheumatic autoimmune diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and various types of vasculopathies. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition which starts as a "response to injury" favoring endothelial dysfunction which is associated with increased expression of adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, pro-thrombotic factors, oxidative stress upregulation and abnormal vascular tone modulation. Endothelial dysfunction in rheumatic autoimmune diseases involves innate immune responses, including macrophages and dendritic cells expression of scavenger and toll-like receptors for modified or native LDL as well as neutrophil and complement activation, and dysregulation of adaptive immune responses, including proliferation of autoreactive T-helper-1 lymphocytes and defective function of dendritic and regulatory T cells. Specific differences for endothelial function among different disorders include: a) increased amounts of pro-atherogenic hormones, decreased amounts of anti-atherogenic hormones and increased insulin resistance in rheumatoid arthritis; b) autoantibodies production in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome; c) smooth muscle cells proliferation, destruction of internal elastic lamina, fibrosis and coagulation and fibrinolytic system dysfunction in systemic sclerosis. Several self-antigens (i.e. high density lipoproteins, heat shock proteins, β2-glycoprotein1) and self-molecules modified by oxidative events (i.e. low density lipoproteins and oxidized hemoglobin) have been identified as targets of autoimmune responses. Endothelial dysfunction leads to accelerated atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and spondyloarthropaties whereas obliterative vasculopathy is associated with systemic sclerosis. In this paper, we will briefly review the most relevant information upon endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis and we will summarize the similarities

  1. Fulvic acid attenuates homocysteine-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human monocytes.

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    Chien, Shao-Ju; Chen, Te-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Shun-Fu

    2015-03-13

    Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of compounds of humic substances, possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were used for all experiments. Real-time PCR and ELISA assay were used to analyze the COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion, respectively. Specific inhibitors were used to investigate the mechanism of homocysteine-mediating COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion. Luciferase assay, transcription factor ELISA, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to determine the role of nuclear factor-κB in FA-mediated inhibition of homocysteine effect on monocytes. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of U937 monocytes with homocysteine induced rapid increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK; the inhibitor for ERK and JNK attenuated the homocysteine-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and COX-2 expression. Transcription factor ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that FA blocked the homocysteine-induced increases in the binding activity and in vivo promoter binding of nuclear factor-κB in monocytes. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibits homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

  2. Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    Yu, Xuhua; Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Guoyang; Zhang, Kun; Qing, Long; Liu, Wenwu; Xu, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    Decompression sickness is a systemic pathophysiological process caused by bubbles and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are established markers reflecting competency of endothelial function and vascular biology. Here, we investigated the effects of bubble-induced EMPs on endothelial cells in vitro and vivo. Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were isolated and stimulated by bubbles and bubble-induced EMPs were collected and incubated with normal PMVECs in vitro. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Annexin V FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Cell permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Intracellular nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production were analyzed microscopically. In vivo study, bubble-induced EMPs were intravenously injected to the rats and soluble thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascullar adhesion molecule 1 were involved in evaluating endothelial dysfunction. In our study, bubble stimulus resulted in a significant increase of EMPs release by 3 fold. Bubble-induced EMPs significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, bubble-induced EMPs induced abnormal increase of cell permeability and over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular ROS production increased while NO production decreased. These negative effects caused by bubble-induced EMPs were remarkably suppressed when EMPs pretreated with surfactant FSN-100. Finally, intravenous injection of bubble-induced EMPs caused elevations of soluble thrombomodulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation. Altogether, our results demonstrated that bubble-induced EMPs can mediate endothelial dysfunction in vitro and vivo, which can be attenuated by EMPs abatement strategy. These data expanded our horizon of the detrimental effects of bubble

  3. Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    Xuhua Yu

    Full Text Available Decompression sickness is a systemic pathophysiological process caused by bubbles and endothelial microparticles (EMPs are established markers reflecting competency of endothelial function and vascular biology. Here, we investigated the effects of bubble-induced EMPs on endothelial cells in vitro and vivo. Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs were isolated and stimulated by bubbles and bubble-induced EMPs were collected and incubated with normal PMVECs in vitro. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Annexin V FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Cell permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Intracellular nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production were analyzed microscopically. In vivo study, bubble-induced EMPs were intravenously injected to the rats and soluble thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascullar adhesion molecule 1 were involved in evaluating endothelial dysfunction. In our study, bubble stimulus resulted in a significant increase of EMPs release by 3 fold. Bubble-induced EMPs significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, bubble-induced EMPs induced abnormal increase of cell permeability and over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular ROS production increased while NO production decreased. These negative effects caused by bubble-induced EMPs were remarkably suppressed when EMPs pretreated with surfactant FSN-100. Finally, intravenous injection of bubble-induced EMPs caused elevations of soluble thrombomodulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation. Altogether, our results demonstrated that bubble-induced EMPs can mediate endothelial dysfunction in vitro and vivo, which can be attenuated by EMPs abatement strategy. These data expanded our horizon of the detrimental effects

  4. Doinseunggitang Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Atherosclerosis

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    Jung Joo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive disease characterized by vascular inflammation, is a leading cause of death in diabetes patients. Doinseunggitang (DYSGT, traditional prescription, has been used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of DYSGT on endothelial dysfunction in diabetic atherosclerosis animal model. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mice fed on a Western diet were treated with DYSGT (200 mg/kg/day. DYSGT significantly lowered blood glucose level and glucose tolerance as well as systolic blood pressure. Metabolic parameter showed that DYSGT markedly decreased triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. In the thoracic aorta, the impairment of vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine and atherosclerotic lesion was attenuated by DYSGT. Furthermore, DYSGT restored the reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression, leading to the inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1 expression. In conclusion, DYSGT improved the development of diabetic atherosclerosis via attenuation of the endothelial dysfunction, possibly by inhibiting ET-1, cell adhesion molecules, and lesion formation. Therefore, these results suggest that Korean traditional prescription Doinseunggitang may be useful in the treatment and prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  5. Brain endothelial dysfunction in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-11-01

    See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction – A predictor of atherosclerosis | Chhabra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endothelial dysfunction is a systemic disorder and a critical element in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases and its complications. Growing evidences suggest that the individual burden of currently known cardiovascular risk factors is not the only determinant of endothelial function; rather endothelial integrity ...

  7. Strategies to reverse endothelial dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Badal, Shawn S.; Danesh, Farhad R.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction underlies the basic pathophysiology of microvascular complications of diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with impaired nitric oxide (NO) availability. Since NO production is tightly regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), several therapeutic strategies have been investigated and proposed to improve eNOS bioavailability in the vasculature. The findings of Cheng et al. suggest that increased availability of eNOS may be an effective strategy in...

  8. ACE INHIBITORS ARE RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Metrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of ACE inhibitor perindopril on markers of endothelial dysfunction in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 82 patients with HT, complicated by ischemic stroke were involved in the study. 30 patients with uncomplicated HT were included into control group. Antihypertensive therapy with perindopril (52 patients or amlodipine (30 patients was conducted additionally to standard neurotropic therapy in hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke. Phase-contrast microscopy and enzyme immunoassay were used for screening of endothelial dysfunction markers (blebbing, desquamated endothelial cells, membrane-liberated parts, sPECAM-1.Results. Reduction in levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction was observed among patients treated with perindopril in comparison with patients who did not receive ACE inhibitor or patients of control group. Target levels of blood pressure were reached in 96% of patients treated with perindopril. Сonclusion. ACE inhibitors in therapy patients with HT reduce endothelial dysfunction additionally to antihypertensive effect.

  9. Arginase Inhibitor in the Pharmacological Correction of Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, Mihail V.; Korokin, Mihail V.; Tsepeleva, Svetlana A.; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana G.; Gureev, Vladimir V.; Konovalova, Elena A.; Gudyrev, Oleg S.; Kochkarov, Vladimir I.; Korokina, Liliya V.; Dudina, Eleonora N.; Babko, Anna V.; Terehova, Elena G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. There is an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation factors of endothelium on the basis of endothelial dysfunction. Among vasodilatation agents, nitrogen oxide plays the basic role. Amino acid L-arginine serves as a source of molecules of nitrogen oxide in an organism. Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21747978

  10. Assessment of endothelial dysfunction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elshazly

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: This work concluded that BADFMD and ERD more affected in IPF patients regardless of presence or absence of PH than normal population. So, endothelial dysfunction is a possible link between IPF and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    CRP), endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin, sEsel)), endothelial damage/dysfunction (von Willebrand factor, vWf) and insulin resistance (IR) and prognosis in CHF remains unknown. Design. We investigated the association(s) between plasma sMAC, hsCRP, sEsel, vWf and IR (assessed by homeostatic model assessment...

  12. Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Cornelia S Carr, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of QatarAbstract: Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in lesion formation by the promotion of both the early and late mechanisms of atherosclerosis including up-regulation of adhesion molecules, increased chemokine secretion and leukocyte adherence, increased cell permeability, enhanced low-density lipoprotein oxidation, platelet activation, cytokine elaboration, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial dysfunction is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Also, when cardiovascular risk factors are treated the endothelial dysfunction is reversed and it is an independent predictor of cardiac events. We review the literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in regard to its pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome.Keywords: endothelial dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease

  13. Endothelial dysfunction in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Quaranta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An endothelial dysfunction has been described in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL patients. The purpose of our review was to: i identify, evaluate and review recent research about cardiovascular risk factors involvement and signs of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL; ii implication of these discovering in clinical practice and future research. A Medline literature search was conducted to identify any study on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL, published in the English language in the last decade. The following MEDLINE search terms were used: sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL and endothelial dysfunction (text words. Additional studies were identified by hand searching the references of original articles and review articles. Studies were not excluded on the basis of the qualitative or quantitative definitions of SSHL, treatment regimens, or outcome measures. Data were extracted from included papers by a reviewer. Information on the patients, investigations, methods, interventions, and outcomes were systematically analyzed. Characteristics and results of all included studies were reviewed systematically. High levels of adhesion molecules, hyperhomocysteinemia and lower folate levels, unbalanced oxidative status, a lower value of flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery and a reduced percentage of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients affected by ISSHL support the hypothesis that this syndrome should be considered as a microcirculation disorder based on endothelial dysfunction and drive clinicians to implement all the traditional strategies used for preventing cardiovascular events, to also reduce the likelihood of ISSHL occurrence.

  14. Endothelial Dysfunction in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; De Ceglie, Vincenzo; D'Elia, Alessandra

    2016-04-20

    An endothelial dysfunction has been described in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) patients. The purpose of our review was to: i) identify, evaluate and review recent research about cardiovascular risk factors involvement and signs of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL; ii) implication of these discovering in clinical practice and future research. A Medline literature search was conducted to identify any study on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL, published in the English language in the last decade. The following MEDLINE search terms were used: sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and endothelial dysfunction (text words). Additional studies were identified by hand searching the references of original articles and review articles. Studies were not excluded on the basis of the qualitative or quantitative definitions of SSHL, treatment regimens, or outcome measures. Data were extracted from included papers by a reviewer. Information on the patients, investigations, methods, interventions, and outcomes were systematically analyzed. Characteristics and results of all included studies were reviewed systematically. High levels of adhesion molecules, hyperhomocysteinemia and lower folate levels, unbalanced oxidative status, a lower value of flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery and a reduced percentage of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients affected by ISSHL support the hypothesis that this syndrome should be considered as a microcirculation disorder based on endothelial dysfunction and drive clinicians to implement all the traditional strategies used for preventing cardiovascular events, to also reduce the likelihood of ISSHL occurrence.

  15. Flavanol-rich cocoa ameliorates lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of flavanols improves chronic endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether it can also improve acute lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 healthy subjects received a fatty meal with cocoa either rich in flavanols (918 mg) or flavanol-poor. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were then determined over 6 h. After the flavanol-poor fat loading, the FMD deteriorated over 4 h. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa, in contrast, improved this deterioration in hours 2, 3, and 4 without abolishing it completely. Flavanols did not have any influence on triglycerides or on free fatty acids. Flavanol-rich cocoa can alleviate the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably through an improvement in endothelial NO synthase.

  16. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Atkeson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Atkeson, Sanja JelicDivision of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NYAbstract: Endothelial activation and inflammation are important mediators of accelerated atherogenesis and consequent increased cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Repetitive episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with transient cessation of breathing during sleep in OSA resemble ischemia/reperfusion injury and may be the main culprit underlying endothelial dysfunction in OSA. Additional factors such as repetitive arousals resulting in sleep fragmentation and deprivation and individual genetic suseptibility to vascular manifestations of OSA contribute to impaired endothelial function in OSA. The present review focuses on possible mechanisms that underlie endothelial activation and inflammation in OSA.Keywords: endothelial, obstructive sleep apnea, inflammation, dysfunction

  17. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Cindy Johanna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Postnatally, Endothelial Progenitor Cells are needed to maintain the integrity of the endothelium (re-endothelialization) and to augment wound healing or vascularize hypoxic areas (neovascularization). Complex networks of different signals and regulators have been identified to be involved in these

  18. MicroRNAs in Hyperglycemia Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskomani Silambarasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is closely associated with prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Hyperglycemia increases the risk of vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease and cerebro/cardiovascular diseases. Under hyperglycemic conditions, the endothelial cells become dysfunctional. In this study, we investigated the miRNA expression changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10, 25 and 40 mM glucose and at various time intervals (6, 12, 24 and 48 h. miRNA microarray analyses showed that there is a correlation between hyperglycemia induced endothelial dysfunction and miRNA expression. In silico pathways analyses on the altered miRNA expression showed that the majority of the affected biological pathways appeared to be associated to endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis. We found the expression of ten miRNAs (miR-26a-5p, -26b-5p, 29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -140-5p, -192-5p, -221-3p and -320a to increase gradually with increasing concentration of glucose. These miRNAs were also found to be involved in endothelial dysfunction. At least seven of them, miR-29b-3p, -29c-3p, -125b-1-3p, -130b-3p, -221-3p, -320a and -192-5p, can be correlated to endothelial cell apoptosis.

  19. Mechanisms of Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possomato-Vieira, José S.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension, and could lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the causative factors and pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear, endothelial dysfunction is a major hallmark of preeclampsia. Clinical tests and experimental research have suggested that generalized endotheliosis in the systemic, renal, cerebral and hepatic circulation could decrease endothelium-derived vasodilators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarization factor and increase vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2, leading to increased vasoconstriction, hypertension and other manifestation of preeclampsia. In search for the upstream mechanisms that could cause endothelial dysfunction, certain genetic, demographic and environmental risk factors have been suggested to cause abnormal expression of uteroplacental integrins, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, leading to decreased maternal tolerance, apoptosis of invasive trophoblast cells, inadequate spiral arteries remodeling, reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP), and placental ischemia/hypoxia. RUPP may cause imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, or stimulate the release of other circulating bioactive factors such as inflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies. These circulating factors could then target endothelial cells and cause generalized endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic options are currently limited, but understanding the factors involved in endothelial dysfunction could help design new approaches for prediction and management of preeclampsia. PMID:27451103

  20. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling: A Novel Pathway in OSA Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L.; Khayat, Rami N.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2−·) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcir...

  1. The Central Role of Endothelial Dysfunction in Cardiorenal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; McCullough, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has emerged as a critical process in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). The concept that ED is closely linked with cardiac and renal dysfunction has become an important target for CRS-related research and clinical practice. The sequence of events leading to ED is initiated by type I endothelial activation (almost immediately) and type II endothelial activation (over hours, days, and even months), followed by endothelial apoptosis and endothelial necrosis. The fact that ED is a continual cellular event divides this process into reversible ED (endothelial activation) and irreversible ED (endothelial apoptosis and necrosis). This basic research-defined concept may have clinical implications. Although most antihypertensive drugs (ACE inhibitors, statins, etc.) are effective in patients with hypertension and diabetes, some of them have proved to be ineffective, which may partly be attributed to irreversible ED. Even though the etiology of ED consists mainly of asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and anti-endothelial cell antibodies, many other inducers of ED have been identified. In addition, a distinct role of ED has been reported for each type of CRS in humans. Further study is warranted to prove whether ED holds promise as a pharmacological target in CRS patients.

  2. Arginase Inhibitor in the Pharmacological Correction of Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail V. Pokrovskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. There is an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation factors of endothelium on the basis of endothelial dysfunction. Among vasodilatation agents, nitrogen oxide plays the basic role. Amino acid L-arginine serves as a source of molecules of nitrogen oxide in an organism. Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction.

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory endothelium using confocal microscopy. We evaluated the effect of the NOS inhibitor l-Nitroarginine-Methyl-Ester (l-NAME) and the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on endothelial O2(•-) and NO in patient endothelial tissue before and after treatment. We found that eNOS is dysfunctional in OSA patients pre-treatment, and is a source of endothelial O2(•-) overproduction. eNOS dysfunction was reversible with the addition of BH4. These findings provide a new mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients and a potentially targetable pathway for treatment of cardiovascular risk in OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  5. Is there a role for exosomes in foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction in gestational diabetes mellitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saez, Tamara; de Vos, Paul; Sobrevia, Luis; Faas, Marijke M.

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction in the foetoplacental vasculature. Foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction is characterized by changes in the L-arginine-adenosine signalling pathway and inflammation. The mechanisms involved in

  6. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression : The Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, F.E.P.; Schram, M.T.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Henry, R.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schaper, N.C.; van der Kallen, C. J.; Koster, A.; Sep, S. J.; Denollet, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Pouwer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors in this

  7. Physical inactivity causes endothelial dysfunction in healthy young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorava, Tatsiana; Lauer, Nadine; Kojda, Georg

    2004-09-15

    We sought to determine if physical inactivity affects endothelial function in young healthy individuals. Recent studies have linked exercise training to increased bioavailability of vascular nitric oxide (NO) and to improved endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular disorders. The effects of physical inactivity on normal vascular endothelial function are not known. Healthy young male C57Bl/6 mice living in groups of five in large cages, where they were running, climbing, and fighting during their active cycle, were randomly assigned to stay there or to live alone in small cages where they were predominantly resting. After five and nine weeks citrate synthase activity (a measure of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity), heart weight/body weight ratio, vascular reactivity, and protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were assessed. Singularized mice showed a reduction of citrate synthase activity (p effect on aortic eNOS expression. In young healthy individuals physical inactivity induces endothelial dysfunction, which is completely reversible by a short period of moderate exercise training. We suggest that physical inactivity, the so-called sedentary lifestyle, increases cardiovascular risk in young healthy individuals by inducing endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction and negative emotions in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Hoffman, Robert; Gardner, William; Chang, Chien-Ni; Boley, David; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction predicts adult cardiovascular disorder and may be associated with negative emotions in adolescents. This study was conducted to determine if hopelessness, hostility, and depressive, anxiety, or conduct disorders were associated with compromised endothelial function and whether those associations were mediated by health risk behaviors. Endothelial function, assessed through brachial artery reactive hyperemia, was measured in a psychopathology enriched sample of 60 15-18-year-old girls. The correlations between hopelessness, hostility, and depressive, anxiety, or conduct disorders and the percent change in forearm vascular resistance (PCFVR) were measured. Possible mediation effects of health risk behaviors were tested. Hopelessness was negatively associated with PCFVR, controlling for race and body mass index. Conduct disorder without any anxiety disorder was associated with better endothelial function. The other negative emotions were not associated with PCFVR. Risky health behaviors were associated with conduct disorder and hopelessness, but not with PCFVR, so there was no evidence of mediation. The main finding was that hopelessness in adolescent girls was associated with endothelial dysfunction. This may indicate that when present, hopelessness places a girl at risk for later cardiovascular disease, whether she has a psychiatric disorder or not. Possible mechanisms for this finding are examined and the surprising finding that conduct disorder is associated with better endothelial function is also discussed. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Baszczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that endothelial dysfunction is the basis of the development of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. With regard to hypertension, endothelial dysfunction is concerned mainly with impaired vascular expansion; however, it is also related to the intensity of the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Among the factors that cause damage to the endothelium, along with classic risk factors, is hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes the formation of oxygen radicals, lowering the oxidation-reduction potential, adversely affects the biosynthesis and function of vasodilator factors in the vascular wall, contributes to the inhibition of endothelial cell division with intense myocyte proliferation and migration, and impairs production of extracellular matrix components in the vascular wall. In addition, high levels of homocysteine and its derivatives contribute to the modification of LDL and HDL particles, inflammation and disorders in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Biochemical effects of the impact of hyperhomocysteinemia on endothelium can lead to damage of endothelial cells, dysfunction of diastolic function of vessels and reduction of their flexibility through its influence on vascular wall remodeling. These changes lead to an increase in blood pressure, strengthening the development of hypertension and target organ damage in patients with this disease.

  10. Blueberry Metabolites Attenuate Lipotoxicity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Divya; Cavalcanti, Rafaela Ramos Mororo; Petersen, Chrissa; Begaye, Nathan; Cutler, Brett Ronald; Costa, Marcella Melo Assis; Ramos, Renata Kelly Luna Gomes; Ferreira, Marina Ramos; Li, Youyou; Bharath, Leena P; Toolson, Emma; Sebahar, Paul; Looper, Ryan E; Jalili, Thunder; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Jia, Zhenquan; Symons, J David; Pon Velayutham, Anandh Babu

    2017-10-12

    Lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction is an important vascular complication associated with diabetes. Clinical studies support the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that metabolites of blueberry anthocyanins attenuate lipotoxicity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated for 6 h with either: (i) the parent anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside); or (ii) the blueberry metabolites (hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid, benzoic acid-4-sulfate, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate), at concentrations known to circulate in humans following blueberry consumption. For the last 5 h HAECs were treated with palmitate or vehicle. HAECs treated with palmitate displayed elevated reactive oxygen species generation, increased mRNA expression of Nox4, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and IκBα, exaggerated monocyte binding, and suppressed nitric oxide production. Of note, the damaging effects of palmitate were ameliorated in HAECs treated with blueberry metabolites but not parent anthocyanins. Further, important translational relevance of these results was provided by our observation that palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction was lessened in arterial segments that incubated concurrently with blueberry metabolites. Our findings indicate that the vascular benefits of blueberry anthocyanins are mediated by their metabolites. Blueberries might complement existing therapies to improve vascular complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute oral tetrahydrobiopterin administration ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Daniel R; Clifton, Heather L; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter; Donato, Anthony J; Frech, Tracy M

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, autoimmune disease characterised by endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with peripheral vasculopathy, such as digital ulcers (DU). We sought to determine if acute oral administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, would augment endothelial function in patients with SSc. Twelve SSc patients, of whom a majority had a history of DU, were studied 5 hours after oral BH4 administration (10 mg/kg body mass) or placebo on separate days using controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind, crossover experimental design. There were no differences in blood markers of oxidative stress and brachial artery blood pressure, diameter, blood velocity, shear rate, or blood flow at rest between placebo and BH4 (p>0.05). Whereas, after a 5 minute suprasystolic forearm cuff occlusion, brachial artery peak reactive hyperemia (placebo: 313±30 vs. BH4: 347±37 ml/min, pacute BH4 administration, indicating an improvement in endothelial function. To determine if the vasodilatory effects of BH4 were specific to the vascular endothelium, brachial artery blood flow and vasodilation in response to sublingual nitroglycerin were assessed, and were found to be unaffected by BH4 (p>0.05). These findings indicate that acute BH4 administration ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in patients with SSc. Given that endothelial dysfunction is known to be associated with DU in SSc patients, this study provides a proof-of-concept for the potential therapeutic benefits of BH4 in the prevention or treatment of DU in this population.

  12. Denture-Related Stomatitis Is Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Maciąg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral inflammation, such as periodontitis, can lead to endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis, and vascular dysfunction. The relationship between vascular dysfunction and other common forms of oral infections such as denture-related stomatitis (DRS is unknown. Similar risk factors predispose to both conditions including smoking, diabetes, age, and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate endothelial function and major vascular disease risk factors in 44 consecutive patients with dentures with clinical and microbiological features of DRS (n=20 and without DRS (n=24. While there was a tendency for higher occurrence of diabetes and smoking, groups did not differ significantly in respect to major vascular disease risk factors. Groups did not differ in main ambulatory blood pressure, total cholesterol, or even CRP. Importantly, flow mediated dilatation (FMD was significantly lower in DRS than in non-DRS subjects, while nitroglycerin induced vasorelaxation (NMD or intima-media thickness (IMT was similar. Interestingly, while triglyceride levels were normal in both groups, they were higher in DRS subjects, although they did not correlate with either FMD or NMD. Conclusions. Denture related stomatitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in elderly patients with dentures. This is in part related to the fact that diabetes and smoking increase risk of both DRS and cardiovascular disease.

  13. NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL CONCEPTS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bakic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium plays an important role in maintaining normal vascular tonus and blood fluidity reducing thrombocyte activity and adhesion of leukocytes as well as limiting response of vascular inflammation. However, in certain pathological conditions such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes, endothelium improves vasoconstriction, inflammation and thrombocytic events.Non-pharmacological concept is based on recognition of genetic factors, environmental factors, or combination of risk factors for the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction, general and individual education of the significance of adequate nutrition, physical activity and regulation of body weight, regular check-ups and the application of antioxidants which can regulate and protect several aspects of endothelial functions.

  14. Selective endothelial overexpression of arginase II induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension and enhances atherosclerosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris L Vaisman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders associated with endothelial dysfunction, such as atherosclerosis, have decreased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Arginase in the vasculature can compete with eNOS for L-arginine and has been implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endothelial-specific elevation of arginase II expression on endothelial function and the development of atherosclerosis.Transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background with endothelial-specific overexpression of human arginase II (hArgII gene under the control of the Tie2 promoter were produced. The hArgII mice had elevated tissue arginase activity except in liver and in resident peritoneal macrophages, confirming endothelial specificity of the transgene. Using small-vessel myography, aorta from these mice exhibited endothelial dysfunction when compared to their non-transgenic littermate controls. The blood pressure of the hArgII mice was 17% higher than their littermate controls and, when crossed with apoE -/- mice, hArgII mice had increased aortic atherosclerotic lesions.We conclude that overexpression of arginase II in the endothelium is detrimental to the cardiovascular system.

  15. Maternal biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is key to the development of atherosclerosis. Preterm delivery foreshadows later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD, but it is not known if endothelial dysfunction also occurs. We prospectively measured circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in pregnant women with preterm or term delivery.We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective epidemiological study of young, generally healthy pregnant women. Women who delivered preterm (<37 completed weeks gestation, n = 240 and controls who delivered at term (n = 439 were included. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia were analyzed separately. Circulating endothelial dysfunction biomarkers included soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1 and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin.Elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were positively associated with preterm delivery independent of usual risk factors. At entry (∼16 wks, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.09-2.74 for the highest quartile of sICAM-1 versus the lowest quartile and for sVCAM-1 the AOR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.36-3.46. When analysis was limited to cases with a spontaneous preterm delivery, the results were unchanged. Similar results were obtained for the 3rd trimester (∼30 wks. Elevated sE-selectin was increased only in preterm delivery complicated by preeclampsia; risk was increased at entry (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.22-4.40 and in the 3rd trimester (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 1.78-6.39.Impaired endothelial function as indicated by increased levels of soluble molecules commonly secreted by endothelial cells is a pathogenic precursor to CVD that is also present in women with preterm delivery. Our findings underscore the need for follow-up studies to determine if improving endothelial function prevents later CVD risk in women.

  16. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obesity-associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Lobato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is strongly associated with high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. These conditions synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular events. A number of central and peripheral abnormalities can explain the development or maintenance of high blood pressure in obesity. Of great interest is endothelial dysfunction, considered to be a primary risk factor in the development of hypertension. Additional mechanisms also related to endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to mediate the development of hypertension in obese individuals. These include: increase in both peripheral vasoconstriction and renal tubular sodium reabsorption, increased sympathetic activity and overactivation of both the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system and insulin resistance. The discovery of new mechanisms regulating metabolic and vascular function and a better understanding of how vascular function can be influenced by these systems would facilitate the development of new therapies for treatment of obesity-associated hypertension.

  17. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obesity-associated hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Akamine, E.H.; Tostes, R.C.; Carvalho, M.H.C.; Fortes, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. These conditions synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular events. A number of central and peripheral abnormalities can explain the development or maintenance of high blood pressure in obesity. Of great interest is endothelial dysfunction, considered to be a primary risk factor in the development of hypertension. Additional mechanisms also related to endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to mediate the development of hypertension in obese individuals. These include: increase in both peripheral vasoconstriction and renal tubular sodium reabsorption, increased sympathetic activity and overactivation of both the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system and insulin resistance. The discovery of new mechanisms regulating metabolic and vascular function and a better understanding of how vascular function can be influenced by these systems would facilitate the development of new therapies for treatment of obesity-associated hypertension. PMID:22488221

  18. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    , IR was an independent predictor of sMAC in the CHF group beta = 0.37 (p complement system and thus......Objectives. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an exaggerated immune response, endothelial damage/dysfunction, and increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The inter-relationship(s) between indices of complement activation (soluble membrane attack complex, sMAC), inflammation (hs...

  19. Dual role of lipoproteins in endothelial cell dysfunction in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Camelia S; Toma, Laura; Sima, Anca V

    2012-08-01

    The endothelium is a key constituent of the vascular wall, being actively involved in maintaining the structural integrity and proper functioning of blood vessels. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and aging are important risk factors for the dysfunction of endothelial cells (EC). Circulating lipoproteins (Lp) synthesized and secreted from the intestine or liver have an important role in supplying peripheral tissues with fatty acids from triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TGRLp) for energy production or storage, and cholesterol from low density lipoproteins (LDL) or high density lipoproteins (HDL) for the synthesis of cellular membranes and steroid hormones. Under pathological conditions, Lp may suffer alterations in concentration and composition and become aggressors for EC. Modified LDL, remnant Lp, TGRLp lipolysis products, dysfunctional HDL are involved in the changes induced in EC morphology (reduced glycocalyx, overdeveloped endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and basement membrane), loose intercellular junctions, increased oxidative and inflammatory stress, nitric oxide/redox imbalance, excess Lp transport and storage, as well as loss of anti-thrombotic properties, all of these being characteristics of endothelial dysfunction. Normal HDL are able to counteract the harmful effects of atherogenic Lp in EC but under persistent pathological conditions they lose the protective properties and become pro-atherogenic. This review summarises recent advances in understanding the role of Lp in the induction of endothelial dysfunction and the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Its main focus is the antagonistic role of atherogenic Lp (LDL, VLDL, dysfunctional HDL) versus anti-atherogenic Lp (HDL), also pointing out the potential targets for arresting or reversing this process.

  20. Anesthetic propofol overdose causes endothelial cytotoxicity in vitro and endothelial barrier dysfunction in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ming-Chung [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Ling [Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsan-Tzu; Choi, Pui-Ching [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsing, Chung-Hsi [Department of Anesthesiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chiou-Feng, E-mail: cflin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    An overdose and a prolonged treatment of propofol may cause cellular cytotoxicity in multiple organs and tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and immune cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains undocumented, particularly in vascular endothelial cells. Our previous studies showed that the activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 is pro-apoptotic in phagocytes during overdose of propofol treatment. Regarding the intravascular administration of propofol, we therefore hypothesized that propofol overdose also induces endothelial cytotoxicity via GSK-3. Propofol overdose (100 μg/ml) inhibited growth in human arterial and microvascular endothelial cells. After treatment, most of the endothelial cells experienced caspase-independent necrosis-like cell death. The activation of cathepsin D following lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) determined necrosis-like cell death. Furthermore, propofol overdose also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, at least in part. Caspase-3 was activated and acted downstream of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss; however, lysosomal cathepsins were not required for endothelial cell apoptosis. Notably, activation of GSK-3 was essential for propofol overdose-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, but not necrosis-like cell death. Intraperitoneal administration of a propofol overdose in BALB/c mice caused an increase in peritoneal vascular permeability. These results demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of propofol overdose, including cathepsin D-regulated necrosis-like cell death and GSK-3-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis, on endothelial cells in vitro and the endothelial barrier dysfunction by propofol in vivo. Highlights: ► Propofol overdose causes apoptosis and necrosis in endothelial cells. ► Propofol overdose triggers lysosomal dysfunction independent of autophagy. ► Glycogen synthase kinase-3 facilitates propofol overdose-induced apoptosis. ► Propofol overdose causes an increase

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Rescues Endothelial Dysfunction in Primary Human Tissues In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Roxanne; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie J; Brownfoot, Fiona; Cannon, Ping; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, responsible for over 60 000 maternal deaths annually. Endothelial dysfunction is a central aspect to its pathophysiology, and currently, no medical therapeutic is available for its treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on endothelial dysfunction using primary human tissues. We performed a number of in vitro assays that mimic the vascular endothelial dysfunction that occurs in preeclampsia. Epidermal growth factor reduced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, after insult with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or serum from women with preeclampsia. Additionally, after TNF-α insult, EGF reduced tube disruption and the adhesion of monocytes to primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our findings suggest that EGF reduces endothelial dysfunction in primary HUVECs. Epidermal growth factor may have potential as a novel peptide treatment for preeclampsia and other diseases where there is endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Reversibility of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: role of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, N; Bhakkiyalakshmi, E; Sarada, D V L; Ramkumar, K M

    2016-07-01

    The endothelium, a thin single sheet of endothelial cells, is a metabolically active layer that coats the inner surface of blood vessels and acts as an interface between the circulating blood and the vessel wall. The endothelium through the secretion of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors serves as a critical mediator of vascular homeostasis. During the development of the vascular system, it regulates cellular adhesion and vessel wall inflammation in addition to maintaining vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. A shift in the functions of the endothelium towards vasoconstriction, proinflammatory and prothrombic states characterise improper functioning of these cells, leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED), implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including diabetes. Major mechanisms of ED include the down-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels, differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress. ED tends to be the initial event in macrovascular complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and microvascular complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Numerous strategies have been developed to protect endothelial cells against various stimuli, of which the role of polyphenolic compounds in modulating the differentially regulated pathways and thus maintaining vascular homeostasis has been proven to be beneficial. This review addresses the factors stimulating ED in diabetes and the molecular mechanisms of natural polyphenol antioxidants in maintaining vascular homeostasis.

  3. Increased leukocyte rho kinase (ROCK) activity and endothelial dysfunction in cigarette smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Takayuki; Hata, Takaki; Soga, Junko; Fujii, Yuichi; Idei, Naomi; Fujimura, Noritaka; Kihara, Yasuki; Noma, Kensuke; Liao, James K.; Higashi, Yukihito

    2010-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and ROCK inhibitors improve endothelial function in smokers, it is not known whether ROCK activity is increased in smokers and whether this correlates with endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ROCK activity and endothelial function in smokers. We evaluated flow-mediated vasodilat...

  4. Features of endothelial dysfunction in early diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Bjerre-Knudsen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    ); group II (n = 11), incipient diabetic nephropathy (30-300 mg albumin excreted per 24 h); and group III (n = 10), clinical diabetic nephropathy (more than 300 mg albumin excreted per 24 h). Nine non-diabetic men served as controls. The rise in tPA antigen with exercise was similar in the controls.......01) and II (difference not significant, p = 0.06) than in group I and normal controls. These findings suggest that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with only slightly raised urinary albumin excretion have general endothelial cell dysfunction or damage. It is not yet clear whether these changes......The release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by vascular endothelial cells during exercise was studied in forty men with insulin-dependent diabetes. Three groups, matched for age and diabetes duration, were defined as: group I (n = 19), normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h...

  5. Blood flow and arterial endothelial dysfunction: Mechanisms and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdul I.

    2013-06-01

    The arterial endothelium exquisitely regulates vascular function, and endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesions develop preferentially at arterial branches and bifurcations where the blood flow is disturbed. Understanding the basis for this observation requires elucidating the effects of blood flow on the endothelial cell (EC) function. The goal of this review is: (1) to describe our current understanding of the relationships between arterial blood flow and atherosclerosis, (2) to present the wide array of flow-induced biological responses in ECs, and (3) to discuss the mechanisms by which ECs sense, transmit, and transduce flow-derived mechanical forces. We conclude by presenting some future perspectives in the highly interdisciplinary field of EC mechanotransduction.

  6. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M.; Walsh, Lauren K.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothel...

  7. Experimental sleep restriction causes endothelial dysfunction in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Andrew D; Covassin, Naima; Kremers, Walter K; Adachi, Taro; Macedo, Paula; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E; Levine, James A; Singh, Prachi; Wang, Shihan; Somers, Virend K

    2014-11-25

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk, although the nature of any relationship and mechanisms remain unclear. Short sleep duration has also been linked to an increase in cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction has itself been implicated as a mediator of heightened cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of partial sleep restriction on endothelial function in healthy humans. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a randomized study of usual sleep versus sleep restriction of two-thirds normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcome was endothelial function measured by flow-mediated brachial artery vasodilatation (FMD). Those randomized to sleep restriction slept 5.1 hours/night during the experimental period compared with 6.9 hours/night in the control group. Sleep restriction was associated with significant impairment in FMD (8.6±4.6% during the initial pre-randomization acclimation phase versus 5.2±3.4% during the randomized experimental phase, P=0.01) whereas no change was seen in the control group (5.0±3.0 during the acclimation phase versus 6.73±2.9% during the experimental phase, P=0.10) for a between-groups difference of -4.40% (95% CI -7.00 to -1.81%, P=0.003). No change was seen in non-flow mediated vasodilatation (NFMD) in either group. In healthy individuals, moderate sleep restriction causes endothelial dysfunction. ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01334788. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty in endothelial dysfunctions: Three-month results in 75 eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Samar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the results of Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in the first consecutive 75 cases. Materials and Methods: Prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative interventional case series. Seventy-five eyes of 75 patients with endothelial dysfunctions of different etiology, scheduled for DSEK, were included in this study. Healthy donor cornea with a cell count of> 2000 cells/sq mm was considered for transplantation in each case. Indications, operative problems and postoperative complications were noted. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, refractive and keratometric astigmatism, central corneal thickness (CCT and endothelial cell density (ECD were analyzed for each patient after a minimum follow-up of three months. Results: Main indication was pseudophakic corneal edema and bullous keratopathy in 53 (70.7% eyes. Seventeen (22.7% cases had moderate to severe Fuchs′ dystrophy with various grades of cataract; and DSEK was combined with manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL in those cases. After three months, BCVA was 20/60 or better in 62 (82.7% cases. Mean refractive and keratometric astigmatism were 1.10 ± 0.55 diopter cylinder (DCyl and 1.24 ± 0.92 DCyl. The CCT and ECD were 670.8 ± 0.32 µm and 1485.6 ± 168.6/sq mm respectively. The mean endothelial cell loss after three months was 26.8 ± 4.24% (range: 13.3-38.4%. Dislocation of donor lenticule occurred in six (8.0% eyes. Graft failure occurred in one case. Conclusions: Descemet stripping and endothelial keratoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in patients with endothelial dysfunctions with encouraging surgical and visual outcomes. It can be safely combined with MSICS with PCIOL in patients with moderate to severe Fuchs′ dystrophy with cataract.

  9. Hypothyroidism Is Associated With Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Zhang, Ming; Gharib, Hossein; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-07-29

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, beyond that which can be explained by its association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and may account for some of the increased risk in patients with hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction and hypothyroidism. In 1388 patients (mean age 50.5 [12.3] years, 34% male) presenting with stable chest pain to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for diagnostic coronary angiography, and who were found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (hypothyroidism, defined as a documented history of hypothyroidism or a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10.0 mU/mL, n=188, and euthyroidism, defined as an absence of a history of hypothyroidism in the clinical record and/or 0.3hypothyroidism had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (48.26 [80.66] versus 64.58 [128.30]) compared to patients with euthyroidism, while the % Δ CAD Ach did not vary significantly between groups. After adjusting for covariates, females with hypothyroidism still had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (estimated difference in % Δ CBF Ach [SE]: -16.79 [8.18]). Hypothyroidism in women is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction, even after adjusting for confounders, and may explain some of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Hypothyroidism Is Associated With Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Zhang, Ming; Gharib, Hossein; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, beyond that which can be explained by its association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and may account for some of the increased risk in patients with hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction and hypothyroidism. Methods and Results In 1388 patients (mean age 50.5 [12.3] years, 34% male) presenting with stable chest pain to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for diagnostic coronary angiography, and who were found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (hypothyroidism, defined as a documented history of hypothyroidism or a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10.0 mU/mL, n=188, and euthyroidism, defined as an absence of a history of hypothyroidism in the clinical record and/or 0.3hypothyroidism had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (48.26 [80.66] versus 64.58 [128.30]) compared to patients with euthyroidism, while the % Δ CAD Ach did not vary significantly between groups. After adjusting for covariates, females with hypothyroidism still had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (estimated difference in % Δ CBF Ach [SE]: −16.79 [8.18]). Conclusions Hypothyroidism in women is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction, even after adjusting for confounders, and may explain some of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. PMID:26224049

  11. Microvascular endothelial dysfunction predicts the development of erectile dysfunction in men with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses

    OpenAIRE

    Reriani, M; Flammer, A. J.; Li, J; M. Prasad; Rihal, C; Prasad, A.; Lennon, R; Lerman, L.O.; Lerman, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with ED in men with early coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts development of ED in patients presenting with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses. PATIENTS AND METH...

  12. Exercise training reverses endothelial dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Christopher J A; Spring, Victoria S; Kemp, Graham J; Richardson, Paul; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, A Margot; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Jones, Helen; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2014-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of atherosclerosis and an important prognostic marker for future cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine 1) the association between liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and endothelial dysfunction in obese NAFLD patients and 2) the impact of supervised exercise training on this vascular defect. Brachial artery endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in 34 obese NAFLD patients and 20 obese controls of similar age and cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2 peak)] (48 ± 2 vs. 47 ± 2 yr; 27 ± 1 vs. 26 ± 2 ml·kg−1·min−1−1). Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal and liver fat, respectively. Twenty-one NAFLD patients completed either 16 wk of supervised moderate-intensity exercise training (n = 13) or conventional care (n = 8). Differences between NAFLD and controls were compared using independent t-tests and effects of interventions by analysis of covariance. NAFLD patients had higher liver fat [11.6% (95% CI = 7.4, 18.1), P < 0.0005] and VAT [1.6 liters (95% CI = 1.2, 2.0), P < 0.0001] than controls and exhibited impaired FMD compared with controls [−3.6% (95% CI = −4.9, −2.2), P < 0.0001]. FMD was inversely correlated with VAT (r = −0.54, P = 0.001) in NAFLD, although the impairment in FMD remained following covariate adjustment for VAT [3.1% (95% CI = 1.8, 4.5), P < 0.001]. Exercise training, but not conventional care, significantly improved V̇o2 peak [9.1 ml·kg−1·min−1 (95% CI = 4.1, 14.1); P = 0.001] and FMD [3.6% (95% CI = 1.6, 5.7), P = 0.002]. Endothelial dysfunction in NAFLD cannot be fully explained by excess VAT but can be reversed with exercise training; this has potential implications for the primary prevention of CVD in NAFLD.

  13. Development of novel arginase inhibitors for therapy of endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eSteppan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and resulting vascular pathology have been identified as an early hallmark of multiple diseases, including diabetes mellitus. One of the major contributors to endothelial dysfunction is a decrease in nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, impaired NO signaling and an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In the endothelium NO is produced by eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase, for which L-arginine is a substrate. Arginase, an enzyme critical in the urea cycle also metabolizes L-arginine, thereby directly competing with eNOS for their common substrate and constraining its bioavailability for eNOS, thereby compromising NO production. Arginase expression and activity is upregulated in many cardiovascular diseases including ischemia reperfusion injury, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. More importantly, since the 1990s, specific arginase inhibitors such as N-hydroxy-guanidinium or N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, and boronic acid derivatives, such as, 2(S-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid, and S-(2-boronoethyl-L-cysteine (BEC, that can bridge the binuclear manganese cluster of arginase have been developed. These highly potent and specific inhibitors can now be used to probe arginase function and thereby modulate the redox milieu of the cell by changing the balance between NO and ROS. Inspired by this success, drug discovery programs have recently led to the identification of α-α-disubstituted amino acid based arginase inhibitors (such as (R-2-amino-6-borono-2-(2-(piperidin-1-ylethylhexanoic acid, that are currently under early investigation as therapeutics. Finally, some investigators concentrate on identification of plant derived compounds with arginase inhibitory capability, such as piceatannol-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PG. All of these synthesized or naturally derived small molecules may represent novel therapeutics for vascular disease particularly that associated with diabetes.

  14. Mechanistic link between erectile dysfunction and systemic endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Hannan, J L; Lagoda, G; Bivalacqua, T J; Burnett, A L

    2016-09-01

    Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and erectile dysfunction (ED) have greater risk of cardiovascular events than T2DM men without ED, suggesting ED as a predictor of cardiovascular events in diabetic men. However, molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in the diabetic penis explaining these clinical observations are not known. We evaluated whether the temporal relationship between ED and endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vasculature in T2DM involves earlier redox imbalance and endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis than in the systemic vasculature, such as the carotid artery. Rats were rendered T2DM by high-fat diet for 2 weeks, followed by an injection with low-dose streptozotocin. After 3 weeks, erectile function (intracavernosal pressure) was measured and penes and carotid arteries were collected for molecular analyses of eNOS uncoupling, protein S-glutathionylation, oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-HNE), protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) , endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the carotid artery, and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)-mediated cavernosal relaxation. Erectile response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve and NANC-mediated cavernosal relaxation was decreased (p penis, but not in the carotid artery, of T2DM compared to non-diabetic rats. In conclusion, redox imbalance, increased oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase, and eNOS uncoupling, occur early in T2DM in the penis, but not in the carotid artery. These molecular changes contribute to T2DM ED, while vascular function in the systemic vasculature remains preserved. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Targeting Pulmonary Endothelial Hemoglobin α Improves Nitric Oxide Signaling and Reverses Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Roger A; Miller, Megan P; Hahn, Scott A; Galley, Joseph C; Bauer, Eileen; Bachman, Timothy; Hu, Jian; Sembrat, John; Goncharov, Dmitry; Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio; Goncharova, Elena; Straub, Adam C

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. Previous work showed that systemic artery endothelial cells (ECs) express hemoglobin (Hb) α to control nitric oxide (NO) diffusion, but the role of this system in pulmonary circulation has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that up-regulation of Hb α in pulmonary ECs contributes to NO depletion and pulmonary vascular dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension. Primary distal pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells, lung tissue sections from unused donor (control) and idiopathic pulmonary artery (PA) hypertension lungs, and rat and mouse models of SU5416/hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) were used. Immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, and immunoblot analyses and transfection, infection, DNA synthesis, apoptosis, migration, cell count, and protein activity assays were performed in this study. Cocultures of human pulmonary microvascular ECs and distal pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells, lung tissue from control and pulmonary hypertensive lungs, and a mouse model of chronic hypoxia-induced PH were used. Immunohistochemical, immunoblot analyses, spectrophotometry, and blood vessel myography experiments were performed in this study. We find increased expression of Hb α in pulmonary endothelium from humans and mice with PH compared with controls. In addition, we show up-regulation of Hb α in human pulmonary ECs cocultured with PA smooth muscle cells in hypoxia. We treated pulmonary ECs with a Hb α mimetic peptide that disrupts the association of Hb α with endothelial NO synthase, and found that cells treated with the peptide exhibited increased NO signaling compared with a scrambled peptide. Myography experiments using pulmonary arteries from hypoxic mice show that the Hb α mimetic peptide enhanced vasodilation in response to acetylcholine. Our findings reveal that endothelial Hb α functions as an endogenous scavenger of NO in the pulmonary endothelium

  16. Circulating endothelial cell number and markers of endothelial dysfunction in previously preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Zeyneb Baspehlivan; Asicioglu, Ebru; Sunbul, Murat; Ozben, Beste; Arikan, Hakki; Koc, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Patients with preeclampsia (PE) have endothelial dysfunction and an increased future risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is markedly increased in conditions associated with a high degree of endothelial cell activation/injury including PE. We hypothesized that the number of CECs continues to be increased in women with a history of PE, reflecting ongoing endothelial cell activation/injury. CECs, flow-mediated vasodilation, levels of adhesion molecules and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR1), and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were determined in 21 healthy women with ongoing normal pregnancy, 24 healthy currently nonpregnant women with a history of normal pregnancy, a total of 17 women with currently active mild (n = 11) or severe (n = 6) PE without hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, and 16 currently nonpregnant women with a history of mild (n = 10) or severe (n = 6) PE. Blood samples from women with active preeclampsia had higher CECs (9.9 ± 7.9 cells/mL) than healthy pregnant women (3.0 ± 4.1 cells/mL; P < .001), healthy nonpregnant women with a history of normal pregnancy (3.4 ± 4.0 cells/mL; P < .001), or women with a history of preeclampsia (2.4 ± 2.0 cells/mL; P < .001). The number of CECs were similar between women with a history of preeclampsia and healthy nonpregnant women with a history of normal pregnancy. Patients with active preeclampsia had significantly higher soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-selectin, sVEGFR1, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio than healthy pregnant women. However, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-selectin, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were similar in women with a history of preeclampsia and healthy nonpregnant women with a history of normal pregnancy. However, women with a history of preeclampsia had higher sVEGFR1 levels than women with a history of normal

  17. Microvascular endothelial dysfunction predicts the development of erectile dysfunction in men with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reriani, Martin; Flammer, Andreas J; Li, Jing; Prasad, Megha; Rihal, Charanjit; Prasad, Abhiram; Lennon, Ryan; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2014-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with ED in men with early coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether coronary microvascular dysfunction predicts development of ED in patients presenting with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses. Coronary microvascular function was evaluated in 130 men with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses by administration of intracoronary acetylcholine at the time of diagnostic study. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, patients were assessed for the development of ED by administration of a questionnaire. In all, 68 (50%) men had microvascular endothelial dysfunction at baseline; 35 (51%) men with microvascular endothelial dysfunction developed ED on follow-up compared with 19 (31%) men without microvascular endothelial dysfunction. Men who developed ED had a lower coronary blood flow response (% [INCREMENT]CBF) compared with men who did not develop ED, with mean±SD of 25.4±71.3 versus 81.7±120 (P=0.003). In univariate analysis, microvascular endothelial dysfunction was a predictor for the development of ED, with relative risk of 2.4 (1.2-4.9) (P=0.016). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, vascular disease, and family history of coronary artery disease), only microvascular endothelial dysfunction (P=0.027) and age (P=0.044) remained significant predictors of development of ED. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is a predictor of the development of ED in men with coronary atherosclerosis without critical stenoses. This study underscores the systemic involvement of the endothelial function in vascular disease.

  18. Endothelial Dysfunction and Preeclampsia: Role of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissette Carolina eSánchez-Aranguren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an often fatal pathology characterized by hypertension and proteinuria at the 20th week of gestation that affects 5-10% of the pregnancies. The problem is particularly important in developing countries in where the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is higher and maternal mortality rates are twenty times higher than those reported in developed countries. Risk factors for the development of PE includes obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that stimulate inflammatory cytokine release and oxidative stress leading to endothelial dysfunction (ED. However, how all these clinical manifestations concur to develop PE is still not very well understood. The related poor trophoblast invasion and uteroplacental artery remodeling described in PE, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypoxia and ED. Here we aim to review current literature from research showing the interplay between oxidative stress, ED and PE to the outcomes of current clinical trials aiming to prevent PE with antioxidant supplementation.

  19. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimellaro, A; Perticone, M; Fiorentino, T V; Sciacqua, A; Hribal, M L

    2016-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD recognizes endothelial dysfunction (ED) as its pathogenetic primum movens; interestingly a large body of evidence has identified the unchecked ER stress response as a main actor in vascular damage elicited by various cardio-metabolic risk factors. In the present Review, we summarize findings from experimental studies on the ER stress-related ED, focusing on the mechanisms underlying this association. Different noxious agents, such as hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and chronic inflammation, induce ED promoting an amplified ER stress response as demonstrated by several studies in animal models, as well as in human primary and immortalized endothelial cells. ER stress represents therefore a key mediator of vascular damage, operating in a setting of increased inflammatory burden and oxidative stress, thus contributing to foster a vicious pathogenic cycle. Experimental studies summarized in this Review strongly suggest that an unchecked ER stress response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of ED and, consequently, CVD. Counteracting ER stress may thus represent a promising, even if largely unexplored as-yet, therapeutic approach aimed to prevent vascular damage, slowing the progression from ED to cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between periodontal disease and endothelial dysfunction in smoking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa-Porras, Juliana; Escobar-Arregoces, Francina; Latorre-Uriza, Catalina; Ferro-Camargo, María B; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Uriza-Carrasco, Luis F

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the impact of oral health on cardiovascular disease, particularly regarding the effects of chronic infections such as periodontitis on the endothelium. The aim of this study was to evaluate in healthy smokers whether there are any significant differences in the frequency of endothelial dysfunction between subjects with chronic moderate to severe periodontal disease and periodontally healthy subjects. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. The target population was adults older than 40 years of age. Blood tests were performed to determine values of CBC, glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDLC. Periodontal examinations and probing were conducted with a Florida Probe®, and standardized procedures were used to measure flow-mediated dilation. Out of 150 subjects [69 male (46%) and 81 female (54%)], 75 (50%) had chronic periodontitis. The mean value for baseline flow-mediated dilation was 4.04% and the mean value for final flow-mediated dilation was 4.66%, with a 0.62% mean difference showing a statistically significant increase (pperiodontally healthy subjects and those with periodontitis, in contrast to the literature, which suggests a negative impact of periodontal disease on endothelial function. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  1. Angiotensin receptor blockers & endothelial dysfunction: Possible correlation & therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is one of the most important constituents of vascular homeostasis, which is achieved through continual and balanced production of different relaxing and contractile factors. When there is a pathological disturbance in release of these products, endothelial dysfunction (ED will probably occur. ED is considered to be the initial step in the development of atherosclerosis. This pathological activation and inadequate functioning of endothelial cells was shown to be to some extent a reversible process, which all together resulted in increased interest in investigation of different beneficial treatment options. To this point, the pharmacological approach, including for example, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or statins, was clearly shown to be effective in the improvement of ED. One of many critical issues underlying ED represents instability in the balance between nitric oxide and angiotensin II (Ang II production. Considering that Ang II was confirmed to be important for the development of ED, the aim of this review article was to summarize the findings of up to date clinical studies associated with therapeutic application of angiotensin receptor blockers and improvement in ED. In addition, it was of interest to review the pleiotropic actions of angiotensin receptor blockers linked to the improvement of ED. The prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo or active-controlled clinical trials were identified and selected for the final evaluation.

  2. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koska Juraj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1 the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2 the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3 the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk.

  3. Erectile dysfunction is not a mirror of endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Beggi, Mattia; Zona, Stefano; Luzi, Kety; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Ligabue, Guido; Rochira, Vincenzo; Rossi, Rosario; Modena, Maria Grazia; Bouloux, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    The penis has been compared to a barometer of endothelial health, erectile dysfunction (ED) being an early sign of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of the association between ED and endothelial dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy. In this observational cross-sectional study, we evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with ED in a cohort of 133 HIV-infected men. The International Index of Erectile Function, ultrasound assessment of brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), and multi-slice computed tomography for coronary artery calcifications (CAC) as surrogates of endothelial dysfunction, the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome (MS), plasma total testosterone (hypogonadism), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of aesthetic satisfaction of the face and of the body (psychological distress associated with lipodystrophy). Thirty-nine (29.32%) patients had mild ED, 14 (10.52%) patients had moderate ED, and 26 (19.55%) patients had severe ED. Prevalence of ED ranged from 45% to 65%, respectively, in patients less than 40 and more than 60 years old. MS was present in 20 (25%) patients with ED and 13 (24%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). Prevalence of ED neither appeared to be associated with MS as a single clinical pathological entity nor with the numbers of its diagnostic components. FMD  100 was present in 8 (10%) patients with ED and 5 (9%) patients without ED (P value = 0.87). A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to find predictors of ED. Independent predictors were VAS face (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.99, P = 0.049) and age per 10 years of increase (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.02-2.94, P = 0.04). Age constituted the most important risk factor for ED, which was related to aesthetic dissatisfaction of the face leading to negative body

  4. Chlorine gas exposure causes systemic endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Samal, Andrey A; Bradley, Kelley M; Brandon, Angela; Balanay, Joann; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Maheshwari, Akhil; Postlethwait, Edward M; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2011-08-01

    Chlorine gas (Cl(2)) exposure during accidents or in the military setting results primarily in injury to the lungs. However, the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote injury to the systemic vasculature leading to compromised vascular function has not been studied. We hypothesized that Cl(2) promotes extrapulmonary endothelial dysfunction characterized by a loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived signaling. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to Cl(2) for 30 minutes, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation of aorta as a function of Cl(2) dose (0-400 ppm) and time after exposure (0-48 h) were determined. Exposure to Cl(2) (250-400 ppm) significantly inhibited eNOS-dependent vasodilation (stimulated by acetycholine) at 24 to 48 hours after exposure without affecting constriction responses to phenylephrine or vasodilation responses to an NO donor, suggesting decreased NO formation. Consistent with this hypothesis, eNOS protein expression was significantly decreased (∼ 60%) in aorta isolated from Cl(2)-exposed versus air-exposed rats. Moreover, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was up-regulated in circulating leukocytes and aorta isolated 24 hours after Cl(2) exposure, suggesting stimulation of inflammation in the systemic vasculature. Despite decreased eNOS expression and activity, no changes in mean arterial blood pressure were observed. However, injection of 1400W, a selective inhibitor of iNOS, increased mean arterial blood pressure only in Cl(2)-exposed animals, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO compensates for decreased eNOS-derived NO. These results highlight the potential for Cl(2) exposure to promote postexposure systemic endothelial dysfunction via disruption of vascular NO homeostasis mechanisms.

  5. Chlorine Gas Exposure Causes Systemic Endothelial Dysfunction by Inhibiting Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Samal, Andrey A.; Bradley, Kelley M.; Brandon, Angela; Balanay, Joann; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Maheshwari, Akhil; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine gas (Cl2) exposure during accidents or in the military setting results primarily in injury to the lungs. However, the potential for Cl2 exposure to promote injury to the systemic vasculature leading to compromised vascular function has not been studied. We hypothesized that Cl2 promotes extrapulmonary endothelial dysfunction characterized by a loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived signaling. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to Cl2 for 30 minutes, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation of aorta as a function of Cl2 dose (0–400 ppm) and time after exposure (0–48 h) were determined. Exposure to Cl2 (250–400 ppm) significantly inhibited eNOS-dependent vasodilation (stimulated by acetycholine) at 24 to 48 hours after exposure without affecting constriction responses to phenylephrine or vasodilation responses to an NO donor, suggesting decreased NO formation. Consistent with this hypothesis, eNOS protein expression was significantly decreased (∼ 60%) in aorta isolated from Cl2–exposed versus air-exposed rats. Moreover, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was up-regulated in circulating leukocytes and aorta isolated 24 hours after Cl2 exposure, suggesting stimulation of inflammation in the systemic vasculature. Despite decreased eNOS expression and activity, no changes in mean arterial blood pressure were observed. However, injection of 1400W, a selective inhibitor of iNOS, increased mean arterial blood pressure only in Cl2–exposed animals, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO compensates for decreased eNOS-derived NO. These results highlight the potential for Cl2 exposure to promote postexposure systemic endothelial dysfunction via disruption of vascular NO homeostasis mechanisms. PMID:21131444

  6. Spreading endothelial cell dysfunction in response to necrotic trophoblasts. Soluble factors released from endothelial cells that have phagocytosed necrotic shed trophoblasts reduce the proliferation of additional endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Ding, J X; Liu, B; Stone, P; Feng, Y J; Chamley, L

    2010-11-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia is not clear but the disease is characterised by systemic endothelial cell dysfunction that is considered to be triggered by a placental factor. Necrotic trophoblastic debris that is deported in the maternal blood is one possible placental trigger for preeclampsia. Syncytial knots were first associated with preeclampsia over 100 years ago. However, syncytial knots are very large and most are trapped in the pulmonary capillaries making it difficult to envisage how they could lead to widespread systemic endothelial cell dysfunction. This study was undertaken to examine whether conditioned medium from endothelial cells that have phagocytosed necrotic trophoblastic debris could adversely affect the proliferation or survival of fresh endothelial cells. Trophoblastic cellular debris, harvested from placental explants was added to endothelial cell monolayers directly or after induction of necrosis by freeze-thawing. Conditioned medium from the endothelial cell cultures was exposed to fresh endothelial cells and their proliferation measured by Alamar Blue, and CyQUANTNF cell proliferation assays. Endothelial cell death was examined by a fluorogenic caspase-3 activity assay and LDH release. Conditioned medium from endothelial cells that had phagocytosed necrotic but not apoptotic trophoblastic debris significantly inhibited the proliferation of fresh endothelial cells but did not induce their death. The conditioned medium also reduced cell-surface endoglin expression by fresh endothelial cells. These results confirm that phagocytosis of necrotic trophoblastic debris by endothelial cells results in the secretion of soluble factors that might explain how necrotic trophoblastic debris trapped in the pulmonary capillaries could induce systemic endothelial cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autonomic Blockade Reverses Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity-Associated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Figueroa, Rocío; Paranjape, Sachin Y; Farley, Ginnie; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo

    2016-10-01

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation (endothelial dysfunction) is associated with obesity and thought to be a factor in the development of hypertension. We previously found that NO synthesis inhibition had similar pressor effects in obese hypertensives compared with healthy control during autonomic blockade, suggesting that impaired NO vasodilation is secondary to sympathetic activation. We tested this hypothesis by determining the effect of autonomic blockade (trimethaphan 4 mg/min IV) on NO-mediated vasodilation (increase in forearm blood flow to intrabrachial acetylcholine) compared with endothelial-independent vasodilation (intrabrachial sodium nitroprusside) in obese hypertensive subjects (30obese subjects (49±3.6 years, 34±1 kg/m(2), 165/94±7/6 mm Hg), on separate occasions 1 month apart, randomly assigned. Autonomic blockade increased basal forearm blood flow (from 3.9±0.7 to 5.2±1.2 mL/100 mL per minute, P=0.078). As expected, NO-mediated vasodilation was blunted on the intact day compared with NO-independent vasodilation; forearm blood flow increased from 3.6±0.6 to 10.1±1.1 with the highest dose of nitroprusside, but only from 3.7±0.4 to 7.2±0.8 mL/100 mL per minute with the highest dose of acetylcholine, Pobesity-associated hypertension and provides further rationale to explore it as a therapeutic target. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effects of Notch signalling pathway on the relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and endothelial stromal transformation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong-Zhong; Jiang, Ling

    2017-06-16

    At present, with the improvement of living standards and population aging, the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease is on the rise and has been a serious threat to human health. Statistics show that the current death caused by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has become the first cause of death has been increasing year by year. Therefore, studies on coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis (AS) have become a hot topic in clinical and basic research. In this study, the question of the effect of Notch signalling pathway on the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and endothelial stromal transformation in AS was studied in depth. Based on our results, we drew conclusions as follows. First, the Notch signalling pathway was activated in the atherosclerotic model; secondly, the Notch signalling pathway was demonstrated to enhance AS by promoting vascular endothelial dysfunction; thirdly, it was demonstrated that the Notch signalling pathway was mediated by promoting endothelial and to enhance AS; finally, we confirmed the endothelial function through the Notch signalling pathway to affect the transformation of endothelial stroma to achieve synergistic AS effect. The results of this study have a good guiding significance for the important role of Notch signalling in AS and indicate the ability to influence endothelial function and endothelial stromal transformation by intervening Notch signalling pathway and can affect the relationship between them, and thus eventually achieve the treatment of AS.

  9. Endothelial Dysfunction and Its Correction in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shalimova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying the effectiveness of α-lipoic acid impact as a part of complex therapy on endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were revealed a significant improvement in metabolic homeostasis, decreased severity of endothelial dysfunction, reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines under additional use of α-lipoic acid compared with standard therapy.

  10. Direct relationship between levels of TNF-α expression and endothelial dysfunction in reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cuihua; Wu, Junxi; Xu, Xiangbin; Potter, Barry J.; Gao, Xue

    2010-01-01

    We previously found that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) initiates expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) leading to coronary endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between levels of TNF expression and endothelial dysfunction in reperfusion injury. We studied levels of TNF expression by using different transgenic animals expressing varying amounts of TNF in I/R. We crossed TNF overexpression (TNF++/++) with TNF knockout (TNF−/−) mic...

  11. Effect of High Inspiratory Oxygen Fraction on Endothelial Dysfunction in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt Holm; Ekeløf, Sara; Kokotovic, Dunja

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that high inspiratory oxygen concentrations during anesthesia may be associated with higher postoperative mortality due to endothelial dysfunction. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted with 25 healthy male volunteers. They inhaled an oxygen concentration of ...... unaffected. Inhalation of a high oxygen fraction in healthy volunteers did not result in a significant reduction of endothelial function....

  12. Therapeutic Approach in the Improvement of Endothelial Dysfunction: The Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radenković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium has a central role in the regulation of blood flow through continuous modulation of vascular tone. This is primarily accomplished by balanced release of endothelial relaxing and contractile factors. The healthy endothelial cells are essential for maintenance of vascular homeostasis involving antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-fibrinolytic, anti-adhesive, or anticoagulant effects. Oppositely, endothelial dysfunction is primarily characterized by impaired regulation of vascular tone as a result of reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase activity, lack of cofactors for NO synthesis, attenuated NO release, or increased NO degradation. So far, the pharmacological approach in improving/reversal of endothelial dysfunction was shown to be beneficial in clinical trials that have investigated actions of different cardiovascular drugs. The aim of this paper was to summarize some of the latest clinical findings related to therapeutic possibilities for improving endothelial dysfunction in different pathological conditions. In the majority of presented clinical investigations, the assessment of improvement or reversal of endothelial dysfunction was performed through the flow-mediated dilatation measurement, and in some of those endothelial progenitor cells’ count was used for the same purpose. Still, given the fast and continuous development of this field, the evidence acquisition included the MEDLINE data base screening and the selection of articles published between 2010 and 2012.

  13. Preventive effect of l-carnitine and its derivatives on endothelial dysfunction and platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Alidoosti, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Exogenous and endogenous reactive oxygen species are associated with platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. Antioxidants have been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and consequently endothelial dysfunction by preventing inflammation, regulating vascular tone, and promoting antiadhesive and antithrombotic properties. l-carnitine and its derivatives have been demonstrated to improve endothelial and platelet function against oxidative stress by several mechanisms, some of which cannot be found in other antioxidants. The role of l-carnitine and its derivatives in endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation will be reviewed here from the perspective of basic and clinical research. This study reviews in vitro and in vivo studies, clinical trials, and abstracts in the English language that have examined the protective effects of l-carnitine and its derivatives on endothelial dysfunction and platelet aggregation in pathological conditions. We searched experimental studies, clinical trials, and other review articles to obtain the materials. Although in vitro physiological models, animal studies on vascular and platelet function, and some human studies on these systems are in favor of the preventive effects of l-carnitine and its derivatives on endothelial dysfunction and platelet aggregation, more clinical trials are needed to clarify the clinical importance of l-carnitine as a supportive option to maintain the normal homeostatic function of the vasculature and to prevent platelet activation. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammation-Induced Increases in Plasma Endocan Levels are Associated With Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.A.E.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Ramakers, B.P.C.; Dorresteijn, M.J.; Gerretsen, J.; Kox, M.; Pickkers, P.

    2015-01-01

    Although endothelial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of sepsis, no specific and clinically applicable marker for endothelial dysfunction is currently available. Endocan, a proteoglycan excreted by endothelial cells in response to inflammatory cytokines, may serve as such a marker. Our

  15. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  16. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling in diabetic endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunzhou; Fernandes, Conrad; Liu, Yanjun; Wu, Yong; Wu, Hao; Brophy, Megan L; Deng, Lin; Song, Kai; Wen, Aiyun; Wong, Scott; Yan, Daoguang; Towner, Rheal; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic vascular disease. Endothelial injury has been proposed to be the initial event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Endothelium not only acts as a semi-selective barrier but also serves physiological and metabolic functions. Diabetes or high glucose in circulation triggers a series of intracellular responses and organ damage such as endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. One such response is high glucose-induced chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress in the endothelium. The unfolded protein response is an acute reaction that enables cells to overcome endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, when chronically persistent, endoplasmic reticulum stress response could ultimately lead to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Herein, we discuss the scientific advances in understanding endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, the pathogenesis of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress as a potential target in therapies for diabetic atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Maternal hypercholesterolemia in pregnancy associates with umbilical vein endothelial dysfunction: role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Andrea; de Medina, Camila Diez; Salsoso, Rocío; Sáez, Tamara; San Martín, Sebastián; Abarzúa, Fernando; Farías, Marcelo; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Human pregnancy that courses with maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MSPH) correlates with atherosclerotic lesions in fetal arteries. It is known that hypercholesterolemia associates with endothelial dysfunction in adults, a phenomenon where nitric oxide (NO) and arginase are involved. However, nothing is reported on potential alterations in the fetoplacental endothelial function in MSPH. The aim of this study was to determine whether MSPH alters fetal vascular reactivity via endothelial arginase/urea and L-arginine transport/NO signaling pathways. Total cholesterol vascular reactivity assays (wire myography), and primary cultures of umbilical vein endothelial cells to determine arginase, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and human cationic amino acid transporter 1 and human cationic amino acid transporter 2A/B expression and activity. MSPH reduced calcitonine gene-related peptide-umbilical vein relaxation and increased intima/media ratio (histochemistry), as well as reduced eNOS activity (L-citrulline synthesis from L-arginine, eNOS phosphorylation/dephosphorylation), but increased arginase activity and arginase II protein abundance. Arginase inhibition increased eNOS activity and L-arginine transport capacity without altering human cationic amino acid transporter 1 or human cationic amino acid transporter 2A/B protein abundance in maternal physiological hypercholesterolemia and MSPH. MSPH is a pathophysiological condition altering umbilical vein reactivity because of fetal endothelial dysfunction associated with arginase and eNOS signaling imbalance. We speculate that elevated maternal circulating cholesterol is a factor leading to fetal endothelial dysfunction, which could have serious consequences to the growing fetus.

  18. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  19. Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anna Sina P; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in accordance with state-of-the art therapy including targeted temperature management. The primary endpoint of this study is change in biomarkers indicative of endothelial activation and damage, [soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), sE-selectin, syndecan-1, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (s...

  20. A novel mechanism of diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction: Hypoadiponectinemia-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglong; Xia, Linying; Zhang, Fen; Zhu, Di; Xin, Chao; Wang, Helin; Zhang, Fuyang; Guo, Xian; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Shan; Guo, Xiong; Huang, Chong; Gao, Feng; Liu, Yi; Tao, Ling

    2017-06-01

    It has been well documented that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, the exact molecular mechanism which mediates this process has not been fully described. The current study aimed to investigate the role of hypoadiponectinemia-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction and its molecular mechanism. Male adult adiponectin knockout mice and wild type mice were fed with a high fat diet to establish a type 2 diabetic mellitus model. In addition, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and subjected to high glucose/high fat (HG/HF). The NLRP3 inflammasome activation was increased in type 2 diabetic mice and treatment of diabetic aortic segments with MCC950, a potent selective inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome ex vivo improved endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and vascular endothelial injury were significantly increased in APN-KO mice compared with WT mice in diabetes and MCC950 decreased diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction to comparable levels in APN-KO mice and WT mice. Adiponectin could decrease NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuate endothelial cell injury, which was abolished by NLRP3 inflammasome overexpression. Inhibition of peroxynitrite formation preferentially attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in APN-KO diabetic mice. The current study demonstrated for the first time that hypoadiponectinemia-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was a novel mechanism of diabetic vascular endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Overexpression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Exacerbates Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The mechanisms involved in endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by hypoxia are incompletely understood. There is debate about the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α in endothelial barrier disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic overexpression of HIF-1α on barrier function and the underlying mechanisms in hypoxic endothelial cells. Methods: The plasmid pcDNA3.1/V5-His-HIF-1α was stably transfected into human endothelial cells. The cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. The mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The barrier function was assessed by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance (TER. The Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1, occludin, and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK in endothelial cells. The mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines was detected by qRT-PCR. Results: Genetic overexpression of HIF-1α significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1α in endothelial cells. The overexpression of HIF-1α enhanced the hypoxia-induced increase of HIF-1α and GLUT-1 protein expression. HIF-1α overexpression not only exacerbated hypoxia-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction but also augmented hypoxia-induced up-regulation of MLCK protein expression. HIF-1α overexpression also enhanced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression. Conclusion: We provide evidence that genetic overexpression of HIF-1α aggravates the hypoxia-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via enhancing the up-regulation of MLCK protein expression caused by hypoxia, suggesting a potential role for HIF-1α in the pathogenesis of endothelial barrier dysfunction in hypoxia.

  2. [Association of cardiovascular system and endothelial dysfunction indicators in patients with hemorrhagic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudakova, T N; Girsh, A O; Maksimishin, S V; Mal'kov, O A

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a universal mechanism of pathogenesis of many critical conditions. Goal of the study was to assess a relation of cardiovascular system and endothelial dysfunction indicators in patients with hemorrhagic shock. 17 patients with hemorrhagic shock 3 were involved in the study. All patients received infusion therapy, artificial lung ventilation after tracheal intubation and symptomatic treatment in prehospital period. Common volume of blood loose was 2900 +/- 200 mL. The patients received infusion, transfusion, inotrope, antibacterial, respiratory and symptomatic therapy in ICU after surgical treatment. Cardio-vascular system parameters were assessed by Tischenko method of integral reography. Number of red cells, hemoglobin, lactate, endotelin-1 and Wb-factor of venous blood were studied before surgery, in 12 and in 24 hours after. Morphological study of the omentumbiopsy was carried out. Performed correlation analysis showed statistically significant relations of cardiovascular system and endothelial dysfunction indicators in patients with hemorrhagic shock. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in patients with hemorrhagic shock 3. The endothelial dysfunction correlates with parameters of cardio-vascular system and tissue perfusion.

  3. Diabetic Retinopathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Yun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy (DR in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe used a cross-sectional design to examine 167 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent biochemical and ophthalmological examination. We assessed endothelial dysfunction by a flow-mediated vasodilation method of the brachial artery. Changes in vasodilation (flow-mediated vasodilatation, %FMD were expressed as percent change over baseline values.ResultsThe mean±standard deviation of patient age was 54.1±8.6 years. The %FMD was significantly lower in patients with DR than without DR. The prevalence of retinopathy decreased across increasing tertiles of %FMD. After adjusting for patients' age, sex, diabetes duration, use of insulin, use of antihypertensive, antiplatelet, and lipid lowering medications, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and urinary albumin excretion, participants with a reduced %FMD were more likely to have DR (odds ratio, 11.819; 95% confidence interval, 2.201 to 63.461; P=0.004, comparing the lowest and highest tertiles of %FMD.ConclusionEndothelial dysfunction was associated with DR, which was most apparent when the endothelial dysfunction was severe. Our study provides insights into the possible mechanism of the influence of endothelial dysfunction on the development of DR.

  4. Are retinal microvascular abnormalities associated with large artery endothelial dysfunction and intima-media thickness? The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hecke, M.V.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Stolk, R.P.; Henry, R.M.A.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Polak, B.C.P.

    It has been hypothesized that microvascular dysfunction affects endothelial dysfunction of the large arteries, which may explain the relationship of microvascular disease with macrovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of retinal microvascular disorders

  5. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase dysfunction causes cerebrovascular endothelial cell degeneration in rat prefrontal cortex slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Cerebrovascular endothelial cell dysfunction resulting in imbalance of cerebral blood flow contributes to the onset of psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although decrease in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity has been reported in the patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the contribution of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase to endothelial cell dysfunction remains poorly understood. Here, by using rat neonatal prefrontal cortex slice cultures, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase by ouabain induced endothelial cell injury. Treatment with ouabain significantly decreased immunoreactive area of rat endothelial cell antigen-1 (RECA-1), a marker of endothelial cells, in a time-dependent manner. Ouabain also decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and phosphorylation level of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (Ser9), which were prevented by lithium carbonate. On the other hand, ouabain-induced endothelial cell injury was exacerbated by concomitant treatment with LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3- (PI3-) kinase. We also found that xestospongin C, an inhibitor of inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor, but not SEA0400, an inhibitor of Na(+), Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), protected endothelial cells from cytotoxicity of ouabain. These results suggest that cerebrovascular endothelial cell degeneration induced by Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition resulting in Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of GSK3β signaling underlies pathogenesis of these psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. INSTRUMENTAL AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION CORRECTION IN PREGNANTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Heryak

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. It was found that the brachial artery ultrasound measuring and occlusive plethysmography procedure by Dietz is an early and safe method of endothelial dysfunction diagnostic in pregnants with hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of blood flow in uterine, umbilical arteries, and middle cerebral arteries of the fetus allows timely diagnosis of the side effect of antihypertensive drugs on the fetus. The therapy of choice for pregnants with Stage II Arterial Hypertension should be based on methyldopa and calcium channel antagonists or selective beta-blockers combination. Highly selective beta-blockers with vasodilative effect (nebivolol hydrochloride and L-arginine (Tivortin allow to prevent perinatal adverse effects of antihypertensive therapy, to correct hemodynamic disorders and endothelial dysfunction in pregnants with arterial hypertension. KEY WORDS: arterial hypertension, uterine-placental hemodynamics, endothelial dysfunction

  7. Insulin Resistance and Endothelial Dysfunction Constitute a Common Therapeutic Target in Cardiometabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, promote endothelial dysfunction and lead to development of metabolic syndrome which constitutes an introduction to cardiovascular disease. The insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction cross talk between each other by numerous metabolic pathways. Hence, targeting one of these pathologies with pleiotropic treatment exerts beneficial effect on another one. Combined and expletive treatment of hypertension, lipid disorders, and insulin resistance with nonpharmacological interventions and conventional pharmacotherapy may inhibit the transformation of metabolic disturbances to fully developed cardiovascular disease. This paper summarises the common therapeutic targets for insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammatory reaction at molecular level and analyses the potential pleiotropic effects of drugs used currently in management of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

  8. CURRENT METHODS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION ASSESSMENT AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN THE PRACTICAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shabrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review contains a description of the most common methods of evaluation and monitoring of "endothelial dysfunction" that are assessed in terms of their information content and applicability in the practice of medicine. The term "endothelial function" is interpreted primarily as a function of the regulation of capillary blood flow, carried out by the expense of the dynamic change of the phase of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in vessels of resistive type (in accordance with the changing needs of cellular metabolism. Assessment of endothelial dysfunction is understood as a generalized indicator of the extent and nature of violations of the regulation of peripheral circulation. It includes an assessment of imbalances between endotheliumdependent vasoconstrictor and vasodilating factors or mismatch of the local and central regulation of capillary blood flow in response to various functional tests or other effects (eg, cold test, or test with local ischemia. All methods of endothelial dysfunction assessment in the survey are divided into invasive and non-invasive. The main feature of invasive methods lies in the direct effect on the endothelium of the coronary or other vessels by introducing into these vessels vasoactive substances such as acetylcholine. Response to the test (vasoconstriction or vasodilation is evaluated by coronary angiography or by ultrasound. Non-invasive methods of the assessment of endothelial dysfunction or functions of regulation of the peripheral circulation are regarded as the most promising for widespread use. There are two basic methods that underlie functional tests: methods PAT (peripheral arterial tone and PHG (polyhepatography. Assessment of endothelial dysfunction in many modern scientific researches is important. They are regarded as the causative factors of many different diseases. Such assessments can be useful in everyday medical practice. Assessment of endothelial function provides the clinician with

  9. CURRENT METHODS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION ASSESSMENT AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN THE PRACTICAL MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Shabrov; A. G. Apresyan; A. L. Dobkes; S. U. Ermolov; T. V. Ermolova; S. G. Manasyan; S. V. Serdyukov

    2016-01-01

    A review contains a description of the most common methods of evaluation and monitoring of "endothelial dysfunction" that are assessed in terms of their information content and applicability in the practice of medicine. The term "endothelial function" is interpreted primarily as a function of the regulation of capillary blood flow, carried out by the expense of the dynamic change of the phase of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation in vessels of resistive type (in accordance with the changing ...

  10. Protection by simvastatin on hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhen-Huan; Phuong, Trinh Anh; Jin, Shi-Jie; Li, Xiao-Xue; Xu, Ming

    2017-10-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome complex acts as pivotal elements to initiate inflammatory responses and plays an important role in the dysfunction of cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, simvastatin prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction from inflammasome invasion contributing to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, Whether or not the simvastatin improves vascular endothelial barrier function through inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway remains unknown. Here, we explored the role and mechanisms of simvastatin in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome which are involved in vascular endothelial hyperpermeability causing by the disruption of tight junction protein ZO-1 and adherens junction protein VE-Cadherin, an early initiation of cardiovascular complication. Our results found that high glucose significantly induced the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome through NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, associated with vascular endothelial hyperpermeability causing by ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin disruption in the rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Simvastatin treatment remarkably abolished vascular endothelial hyperpermeability and enhanced the protein expression of ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin through NLRP3 inflammasome. Mechanistically, the inhibitory role of simvastatin endothelial hyperpermeability is attributed to the decreased release of cytoplasmic high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) derived from endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We further confirm the protective role of simvastatin on vascular leakage in the heart of diabetic rats injected with Evans blue dye, which was associated with HMGB1 release in the serum. Collectively, the mechanism of simvastatin treatment alleviating vascular endothelial permeability dysfunction may be through inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent HMGB1 release in RAECs.

  11. Erectile dysfunction precedes other systemic vascular diseases due to incompetent cavernous endothelial cell-cell junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Kan; Jin, Hai-Rong; Yin, Guo Nan; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Song, Kang-Moon; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Jin-Mi; Das, Nando Dulal; Kwon, Ki-Dong; Batbold, Dulguun; Lee, Tack; Gao, Zhen Li; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Woo Jean; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction is often a harbinger of cardiovascular disease. We sought to gain mechanistic insight at the cellular and molecular levels into why erectile dysfunction precedes the clinical consequences of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection in 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice. At 8 weeks after diabetes induction, we determined the expression of endothelial cell-cell junction proteins and vascular endothelial permeability in the penis, heart and hind limb by systemic injection of various vascular space markers (350 Da to 2,000 kDa) or by immunohistochemical staining with antibody to oxidized low density lipoprotein. We also investigated the effect of recombinant Ang1 protein on cavernous endothelial permeability. Alterations in the integrity of the endothelial cell-cell junction, including a decrease in endothelial cell-cell junction proteins and an increase in vascular permeability to fluorescent tracers or oxidized low density lipoprotein, were prominent in the cavernous tissue of diabetic mice. In contrast, no significant changes in endothelial cell-cell junction proteins or vascular permeability were noted in heart or hind limb tissue according to the diabetic condition. Intracavernous injection of Ang1 protein, an anti-permeability factor, significantly decreased cavernous endothelial permeability to oxidized low density lipoprotein by restoring endothelial cell-cell junction proteins in diabetic mice. The incompetent cavernous endothelial cell-cell junction in the diabetic condition provides an important clue to why erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent and often precedes other systemic vascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between the female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Anne Z; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E; Schimke, Jane E; Gutterman, David D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of the 3 components of the female athlete triad [disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, low bone mineral density (BMD)] and their relationships with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in professional dancers. Prospective study. Academic institution in the Midwest. Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. The prevalence of the female athlete triad and its relationship to endothelial dysfunction. Subjects completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating and menstrual status/history. They also completed a 3-day food record and wore an accelerometer for 3 days to determine energy availability. Serum baseline thyrotropin, prolactin, and hormonal concentrations were obtained. Bone mineral density and body composition were measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Endothelial function was determined as flow-mediated vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound in the brachial artery. An increase in brachial diameter <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Seventeen dancers (77%) had evidence of low/negative energy availability. Thirty-two percent had disordered eating (EDE-Q score). Thirty-six percent had menstrual dysfunction and 14% were currently using hormone contraception. Twenty-three percent had evidence of low bone density (Z-score < -1.0). Sixty-four percent had abnormal brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (<5%). Flow-mediated dilation values were significantly correlated with serum estrogen and whole-body and lumbar BMD. All the 3 components of the triad plus endothelial dysfunction were present in 14% of the subjects. Endothelial dysfunction was correlated with reduced BMD, menstrual dysfunction, and low serum estrogen. These findings may have profound implications for cardiovascular and bone health in professional women dancers.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction, ambulatory pulse pressure and albuminuria are associated in Type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Jeppesen, Peter; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2007-01-01

    examined. We examined the relation between PP, markers of endothelial activation and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 46 Type 2 diabetic patients and 19 non-diabetic subjects, we performed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) monitoring. Urinary albumin excretion rate was measured......: Increased PP is associated with endothelial activation and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, endothelial dysfunction may represent a pathophysiological link between an elevated PP and microvascular complications in these subjects. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate...

  14. Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Nong, Qingjiao; Mao, Baoyu; Pan, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure. PMID:28872622

  15. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Provoked Endothelial Dysfunction in Isolated Rat Aortic Rings: Implications for Antioxidant Therapy of Vascular Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ni, Xiaojia; Wong, Siu Ling; Wong, Chi Ming; Lau, Chi Wai; Shi, Xiaogeng; Cai, Yefeng; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    ...), prevents endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of oxidative stress. Methods. Isolated rat aortic rings were pretreated with various drugs before the induction of endothelial dysfunction by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...

  16. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin attenuates FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction through prevention of Akt inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Ryoji; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Okada, Masaya; Tamaki, Hiroya; Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Ogawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-04-15

    Thrombomodulin (TM), a transmembrane glycoprotein on vascular endothelial cells, is a naturally occurring anticoagulant. Recombinant human soluble TM (rTM), composed of the extracellular domain of TM, also shows anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory activity, but the effects of rTM on microangiopathy remain unclear. We reported that FK506 induced endothelial dysfunction through inactivation of Akt and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 using a three-dimensional culture blood vessel model. In the present study, we examined the effects of rTM on FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction. We found that rTM suppressed FK506-induced endothelial cell death, but not the breakdown of capillary-like tube structures. rTM prevented FK506-induced inactivation of Akt, but not of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2. Akt inhibition by LY294002 abrogated the preventive effect of rTM on FK506-induced Akt inactivation and the suppressive effect of rTM on FK506-induced cell death. These results suggest that rTM attenuates FK506-induced endothelial dysfunction through prevention of Akt inactivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Drouven, Johannes W.; Waanders, Femke; Franssen, Casper F. M.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Popa, Eliane R.

    Krenning G, Dankers PY, Drouven JW, Waanders F, Franssen CF, van Luyn MJ, Harmsen MC, Popa ER. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1314-F1322, 2009. First published April 1, 2009; doi:

  18. Endothelial Dysfunction Role in Chronic Pancreatitis Formation in Patients after Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Rusyn

    2014-12-01

    is provided. There were determined the presence of endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic pancreatitis after cholecystectomy according to the results of a test with reactive hyperemia and the changes of von Willenbrand factor and P-selectin indexes.

  19. Coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor of development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Megha; Reriani, Martin; Khosla, Sundeep; Gössl, Mario; Lennon, Ryan; Gulati, Rajiv; Prasad, Abhiram; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links coronary artery atherosclerosis and calcification to osteoporosis in women. The endothelium plays a critical role in maintaining vascular integrity and may play a role in bone metabolism. We aimed to determine whether early coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction (CMED), predicts the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Coronary vascular reactivity was evaluated in 194 postmenopausal women greater than 50 years of age and with non-obstructive coronary arteries by administration of intracoronary acetylcholine during diagnostic angiography. CMED was defined as ≤50% increase in coronary blood flow from baseline in response to maximal dose. After a median follow-up of 7.0±0.3 years, patients were assessed by a questionnaire for development of osteoporosis. The average age of the cohort was 60.9±7.4 years. Women with CMED were twice as likely to develop osteoporosis compared with women without endothelial dysfunction after adjustment for potential confounders (relative risk, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 5.6, P=0.02). Epicardial endothelial dysfunction was not associated with development of osteoporosis. Early coronary atherosclerosis with endothelial dysfunction is an independent marker for increased risk of developing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women greater than 50 years of age without obstructive coronary artery disease. The current study supports a link between coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis.

  20. A high oxidative stress index predicts endothelial dysfunction in young male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Manduz, S; Bektasoglu, G; Zorlu, A; Turkdogan, K A; Bozok, S

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that smoking was related to endothelial dysfunction via oxidative stress. However, the degree of oxidative stress to be associated with endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Oxidative stress index (OSI) might be a useful and easy way of determining the endothelial dysfunction. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between OSI and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in smoking healthy male volunteers. Eighty smoking healthy male volunteers were enrolled in the study. Participants were classified as having normal and abnormal FMD response. In an univariate analysis; systolic and diastolic blood pressures, C-reactive protein (CRP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, OSI and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were predictive for abnormal FMD response. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis with forward stepwise method, OSI (OR: 3.194, 95% CI: 1.710-5.966, ppredicting abnormal FMD response in young male smokers. The optimal cut-off value of OSI for detecting abnormal FMD response was found to be >3.35, with 100 % sensitivity and 84.1 % specificity. We have shown that critical endothelial dysfunction can easily be detected by OSI in individuals, at risk for developing coronary artery disease, such as smokers (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 30). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  1. Endocardial Endothelial Dysfunction Progressively Disrupts Initially Anti then Pro-Thrombotic Pathways in Heart Failure Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Schoner

    Full Text Available An experimental model of endocardial thrombosis has not been developed and endocardial endothelial dysfunction in heart failure (HF is understudied. We sought to determine whether disruption of the endothelial anti-coagulant activated protein C (APC pathway in CREBA133 HF mice promotes endocardial thrombosis in the acute decompensated phase of the disease, and whether alterations in von Willebrand factor (vWF secretion from HF endocardium reduces thrombus formation as HF stabilizes.Echocardiography was used to follow HF development and to detect endocardial thrombi in CREBA133 mice. Endocardial thrombi incidence was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and histology. In early and acute decompensated phases of HF, CREBA133 mice had the highest incidence of endocardial thrombi and these mice also had a shorter tail-bleeding index consistent with a pro-thrombotic milieu. Both APC generation, and expression of receptors that promote APC function (thrombomodulin, endothelial protein C receptor, protein S, were suppressed in the endocardium of acute decompensated HF mice. However, in stable compensated HF mice, an attenuation occurred for vWF protein content and secretion from endocardial endothelial cells, vWF-dependent platelet agglutination (by ristocetin, and thrombin generation on the endocardial surface.CREBA133 mice develop HF and endocardial endothelial dysfunction. Attenuation of the anti-coagulant APC pathway promotes endocardial thrombosis in early and acute decompensated phases of HF. However, in stable compensated HF mice, disruptions in endothelial vWF expression and extrusion may actually reduce the incidence of endocardial thrombosis.

  2. The relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and treatment frequency in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda-Consolvo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Atsushi; Ozaki, Mayumi; Nakamura, Tomoko; Yagou, Takaaki; Abe, Shinya

    2017-07-01

    To assess the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and frequency of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). We examined 64 consecutive patients with nAMD who were evaluated for endothelial function by use of peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT 2000; Itamar Medical, Caesarea, Israel) at Toyama University Hospital from January 2015. We tallied the number of anti-VEGF treatments between January 2014 and December 2015 and determined the correlation between the number of anti-VEGF injections and endothelial function expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Multiple regression analysis was also performed to identify the independent predictors of a larger number of injections. The mean number of anti-VEGF injections was 8.2 ± 3.3. The mean lnRHI was 0.47 ± 0.17. The lnRHI correlated with the number of anti-VEGF injections (r = -0.56; P = 0.030). The multiple regression analysis revealed that endothelial function, neovascular subtypes, and treatment regimens were associated with the number of injections. Endothelial dysfunction may affect the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy. Neovascular subtypes may also predict a larger number of injections.

  3. Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Basha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus impose a huge burden on the management of this disease. The higher incidence of cardiovascular complications and the unfavorable prognosis among diabetic individuals who develop such complications have been correlated to the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction. Although antioxidants may be considered as effective therapeutic agents to relieve oxidative stress and protect the endothelium, recent clinical trials involving these agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in this regard. In the recent past experimental evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in the endothelial cells might be an important contributor to diabetes-related vascular complications. The current paper contemplates the possibility of the involvement of ER stress in endothelial dysfunction and diabetes-associated vascular complications.

  4. Using cultured endothelial cells to study endothelial barrier dysfunction: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, Jurjan; Weijers, Ester M.; Geerten P van Nieuw Amerongen; Malik, Asrar B.; van Hinsbergh, Victor W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in the understanding of endothelial barrier regulation and the identification of approaches that have the potential to improve endothelial barrier function, no drug- or stem cell-based therapy is presently available to reverse the widespread vascular leak that is observed in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The translational gap suggests a need to develop experimental approaches and tools that better mimic the complex environment of the micr...

  5. Genetic Variation in the Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 Gene Results in Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Fisch

    Full Text Available Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1 is a newly identified membrane protein reported to be involved in multiple vascular and thrombotic processes. While most studies to date have focused on the effects of this receptor in platelets, PEAR1 is located in multiple tissues including the endothelium, where it is most highly expressed. Our first objective was to evaluate the role of PEAR1 in endothelial function by examining flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery in 641 participants from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study. Our second objective was to further define the impact of PEAR1 on cardiovascular disease computationally through meta-analysis of 75,000 microarrays, yielding insights regarding PEAR1 function, and predictions of phenotypes and diseases affected by PEAR1 dysregulation. Based on the results of this meta-analysis we examined whether genetic variation in PEAR1 influences endothelial function using an ex vivo assay of endothelial cell migration. We observed a significant association between rs12041331 and flow-mediated dilation in participants of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study (P = 0.02. Meta-analysis results revealed that PEAR1 expression is highly correlated with several genes (e.g. ANG2, ACVRL1, ENG and phenotypes (e.g. endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis that are integral to endothelial function. Functional validation of these results revealed that PEAR1 rs12041331 is significantly associated with endothelial migration (P = 0.04. Our results suggest for the first time that genetic variation of PEAR1 is a significant determinant of endothelial function through pathways implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  6. SRT2104 attenuates diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction via inhibition of P53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Junduo; Zhou, Shengzhu; Huang, Wenlin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Junnan; Jia, Ye

    2018-01-25

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to diabetic macrovascular complications. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protects against diabetic vasculopathy. SRT2104 is a novel SIRT1 activator and was not previously studied for its effects on diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, whether or to what extent deacetylation of P53, a substrate of SIRT1, is required for the effects of SIRT1 activation was unclear, given the fact that SIRT1 has multiple targets. Moreover, little was known for the pathogenic role of P53 in diabetes-induced aortic injury. To these ends, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in C57BL/6 mice. The diabetic mice developed enhanced aortic contractility, oxidative stress, inflammation, P53 hyperacetylation and a remarkable decrease in SIRT1 protein, the effects of which were rescued by SRT2104. In HG-treated endothelial cells (ECs), P53 siRNA and SRT2104 produced similar effects on the induction of SIRT1 and the inhibition of P53 acetylation, oxidative stress and inflammation. Interestingly, SRT2104 failed to further enhance these effects in the presence of P53 siRNA. Moreover, P53 activation by nutlin3a completely abolished SRT2104's protection against HG-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Further, forced activation of P53 by nutlin3a increased aortic contractility in the healthy mice, and generated endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in both the normal glucose-cultured ECs and the aortas of the healthy mice. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that P53 deacetylation predominantly mediates SRT2104's protection against diabetes-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction, and highlights the pathogenic role of P53 in aortic endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Prior exercise and standing as strategies to circumvent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that local heating or leg fidgeting can prevent prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction. However, whether physical activity prevents subsequent sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction would be prevented by prior exercise. We also examined if, in the absence of exercise, standing is an effective alternative strategy to sitting for conserving leg endothelial function. Fifteen young healthy subjects completed three randomized experimental trials: (1) sitting without prior exercise; (2) sitting with prior exercise; and (3) standing without prior exercise. Following baseline popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements, subjects maintained a supine position for 45 min in the sitting and standing trials, without prior exercise, or performed 45 min of leg cycling before sitting (i.e. sitting with prior exercise trial). Thereafter, subjects were positioned into a seated or standing position, according to the trial, for 3 h. Popliteal artery FMD measures were then repeated. Three hours of sitting without prior exercise caused a significant impairment in popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 1.5±0.5%, Pexercise (baseline: 3.8±0.5%, post-sitting: 3.6±0.7%, P>0.05). Three hours of standing did not significantly alter popliteal artery FMD (baseline: 4.1±0.4%, post-standing: 4.3±0.4%, P>0.05). In conclusion, prolonged sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction can be prevented by prior aerobic exercise. In addition, in the absence of exercise, standing represents an effective substitute to sitting for preserving leg conduit artery endothelial function. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Testosterone Deficiency Causes Endothelial Dysfunction via Elevation of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Oxidative Stress in Castrated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hotta, Yuji; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Testosterone is believed to mediate the penile erectile response by producing adequate nitric oxide; therefore, testosterone deficiency results in erectile dysfunction through decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in testosterone deficiency remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of testosterone deficiency. Rats were distributed into 3 groups: castrated (Cast), castrated and supplemented with testosterone (Cast + T), and sham (Sham). In the Cast + T group, castrated rats were treated daily with subcutaneous testosterone (3 mg/kg daily) for 4 weeks; Sham and Cast rats received only the vehicle. Erectile function using intracavernosal pressure and mean arterial pressure measurements after electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve, endothelial function using isometric tension, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and inflammatory biomarker expression were performed 4 weeks after the operation. In the Cast group, the ratio of intracavernosal pressure to mean arterial pressure significantly decreased, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was lower, and serum ADMA, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarker levels were significantly increased (P Testosterone injection significantly improved each of these parameters (P testosterone deficiency on erectile function and the effect of testosterone replacement therapy. This study provides evidence of the influence of testosterone deficiency on endothelial function by investigating ADMA and oxidative stress. A major limitation of this study is the lack of a direct link of increased ADMA by oxidative stress to inflammation. Testosterone deficiency increased not only ADMA levels but also oxidative stress and inflammation in castrated rats, which can cause damage to the corpus cavernosum, resulting in erectile dysfunction. Kataoka T, Hotta Y

  9. Hypothyroidism is associated with signs of endothelial dysfunction despite 1-year replacement therapy with levothyroxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Mersebach, H; Nielsen, B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, not fully explained by classical risk factors. Instead, endothelial dysfunction may link hypothyroidism to atherosclerosis. The effect of levothyroxine substitution on endothelial function has been sparsely studied...... and the results are unclear. This study tested endothelial function as estimated by concomitant measurements of endothelial dependent vascular dilatory capacity and plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen in patients with hypothyroidism and further examined the impact of subsequent levothyroxine...... substitution. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Sixteen consecutive patients (13 women, 3 men, aged 46 +/- 11 years) with hypothyroidism were included and compared to 16 matched healthy controls (13 women, 3 men, aged 49 +/- 11 years). Patients with hypothyroidism were reexamined after 3, 6 and 12 months of levothyroxine...

  10. Aberrant Chloride Intracellular Channel 4 Expression Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciak-Stothard, Beata; Abdul-Salam, Vahitha B.; Lao, Ka Hou; Tsang, Hilda; Irwin, David C.; Lisk, Christina; Loomis, Zoe; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Edwards, John C; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Howard, Luke S.; Edwards, Robert J.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Gibbs, J Simon R.; Wharton, John; Zhao, Lan; Wilkins, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) is highly expressed in the endothelium of remodelled pulmonary vessels and plexiform lesions of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CLIC4 regulates vasculogenesis through endothelial tube formation. Aberrant CLIC4 expression may contribute to the vascular pathology of PAH. Methods and Results CLIC4 protein expression was increased in plasma and blood-derived endothelial cells from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and in the pulmonary vascular endothelium of 3 rat models of pulmonary hypertension. CLIC4 gene deletion markedly attenuated the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Adenoviral overexpression of CLIC4 in cultured human pulmonary artery endothelial cells compromised pulmonary endothelial barrier function and enhanced their survival and angiogenic capacity, while CLIC4 shRNA had an inhibitory effect. Similarly, inhibition of CLIC4 expression in blood-derived endothelial cells from patients with IPAH attenuated the abnormal angiogenic behaviour that characterises these cells. The mechanism of CLIC4 effects involves p65-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB, followed by stabilisation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and increased downstream production of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelin-1. Conclusions Increased CLIC4 expression is an early manifestation and mediator of endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24503951

  11. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2016-11-01

    Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Reduced proliferation of endothelial colony-forming cells in unprovoked venous thromboembolic disease as a consequence of endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Rubicel; Chavez-Gonzalez, Antonieta; Torres-Barrera, Patricia; Moreno-Lorenzana, Dafne; Lopez-DiazGuerrero, Norma; Santiago-German, David; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Smadja, David; C. Yoder, Mervin; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a public health problem. We recently reported that endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) derived from endothelial cells (EC) (ECFC-ECs) from patients with VTD have a dysfunctional state. For this study, we proposed that a dysfunctional status of these cells generates a reduction of its proliferative ability, which is also associated with senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods and results Human mononuclear cells (MNCs) were obtained from peripheral blood from 40 healthy human volunteers (controls) and 50 patients with VTD matched by age (20−50 years) and sex to obtain ECFCs. We assayed their proliferative ability with plasma of patients and controls and supernatants of cultures from ECFC-ECs, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), ROS, and expression of ephrin-B2/Eph-B4 receptor. Compared with cells from controls, cells from VTD patients showed an 8-fold increase of ECFCs that emerged 1 week earlier, reduced proliferation at long term (39%) and, in passages 4 and 10, a highly senescent rate (30±1.05% vs. 91.3±15.07%, respectively) with an increase of ROS and impaired expression of ephrin-B2/Eph-4 genes. Proliferation potential of cells from VTD patients was reduced in endothelial medium [1.4±0.22 doubling population (DP)], control plasma (1.18±0.31 DP), or plasma from VTD patients (1.65±0.27 DP). Conclusions As compared with controls, ECFC-ECs from individuals with VTD have higher oxidative stress, proliferation stress, cellular senescence, and low proliferative potential. These findings suggest that patients with a history of VTD are ECFC-ECs dysfunctional that could be associated to permanent risk for new thrombotic events. PMID:28910333

  13. Daming capsule restores endothelial dysfunction induced by high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daming capsule (DMC, a traditional Chinese formula, has a lipid-modulating action with reduced adverse side effects as compared with other lipid lowering compounds. Since endothelial dysfunction often accompanies the hyperlipidemic state, we hypothesize that DMC might restore endothelial dysfunction produced by a high-fat (HF diet. Importantly, we also investigate possible mechanisms involved in mediating the effects of DMC on vascular reactivity. Methods Rats were divided into four groups: control, HF diet, HF mixed DMC diet, HF mixed atorvastatin (ATV diet. After 30 days, the thoracic cavity was exposed to remove the thoracic aorta for (i histological examination; (ii measurement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS by western blot; and (iii tension study of thoracic aortic ring. Results HF diet induced significant attenuation in the contraction and relaxation of rat aortic rings. Treatment with DMC significantly improved the relaxation of the aortic rings as compared with those from HF rats (P + channels (KATP on the structure and/or function. DMC exerted the same protective effect as ATV, a positive control drug, on vascular injury produced by HF diet. Conclusion DMC partially protects the aorta from HF-induced endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of the expression of eNOS.

  14. Blood pressure disturbances and endothelial dysfunction markers in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnica, L; Deja, G; Polanska, J; Czupryniak, L; Szymanska-Garbacz, E; Loba, J; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2014-11-01

    Being the earliest step on the way to atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction is particularly escalated in diabetes. This study aimed at assessing endothelial dysfunction and blood pressure disturbances in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and defining their interrelations. The study group comprised 52 children and adolescents aged 14.07 ± 3.03 years, with T1DM duration 5.13 ± 2.18 years. 20 healthy controls with similar age and sex distribution were included. Chosen serum biochemical markers of endothelial damage: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were performed in all subjects. Patients with T1DM displayed significantly higher concentrations of chosen markers of endothelial dysfunction compared to controls (sVCAM-1 (ng/ml): 951.56 ± 330.68 vs. 710.35 ± 162.12, TNF-α (pg/ml): 16.63 ± 8.32 vs. 9.41 ± 4.23, IL-6 (pg/ml): 3.38 ± 1.31 vs. 2.45 ± 0.81; p 2.42 ± 11.95; p treatment in this group of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Glycosaminoglycan Derived, Selectin Targeting Anti-Adhesive Coating to Treat Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Wodicka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell (EC dysfunction is associated with many disease states including deep vein thrombosis (DVT, chronic kidney disease, sepsis and diabetes. Loss of the glycocalyx, a thin glycosaminoglycan (GAG-rich layer on the EC surface, is a key feature of endothelial dysfunction and increases exposure of EC adhesion molecules such as selectins, which are involved in platelet binding to ECs. Once bound, platelets cause thrombus formation and an increased inflammatory response. We have developed a GAG derived, selectin targeting anti-adhesive coating (termed EC-SEAL consisting of a dermatan sulfate backbone and multiple selectin-binding peptides designed to bind to inflamed endothelium and prevent platelet binding to create a more quiescent endothelial state. Multiple EC-SEAL variants were evaluated and the lead variant was found to preferentially bind to selectin-expressing ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs and inhibit platelet binding and activation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo model of DVT, treatment with the lead variant resulted in reduced thrombus formation. These results indicate that EC-SEAL has promise as a potential therapeutic in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction.

  16. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  17. A simplified approach to assessing penile endothelial function in young individuals at risk of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lee, Chun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Jung; Tsai, I-Ting; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) reflects a risk for systemic cardiovascular diseases by virtue of a common etiology of vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is increasingly reported to affect young adults. On the basis of physiological phenomenon of reactive hyperemia (RH), systemic and penile endothelial functions in healthy young adults were compared with the use of digital data on arterial waveforms before and after RH induction. Between July 2009 and March 2011, 32 young adult volunteers with normal erectile functions were recruited. Questionnaires on medical histories and sexual functions and blood samples for testosterone and biochemical analyses were obtained. Dilatation index (DI) and penile arterial waveform amplitude (PAWA) ratios for assessing systemic and penile endothelial function were acquired with an air pressure sensing system on the arm and a penile arterial waveform analyzing system on the penis, respectively. A total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) ratio greater than 4.1 was used to define high risk for ED. Remarkable positive correlation was noted between DI and PAWA ratio (r = .640, P 4.1; P < .05). Our results demonstrated that penile endothelial function can be assessed by evaluating systemic endothelial function in young healthy adults for early identification of risk for ED.

  18. Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Low Cardiovascular Risk Individuals: Comparison of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Zeynep B; Sipahioglu, Nurver; Sonmez, Huseyin; Ekmekci, Hakan; Toprak, Sait; Ayaz, Gulsel; Gurel, Cigdem Bayram; Mutlu, Tugba; Ulutin, Turgut; Sipahioglu, Fikret; Ilerigelen, Baris

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account for approximately 50% of the total deaths in Turkey. Most of them are related with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Predictive value of endothelial dysfunction markers related with the earliest stage of atherosclerosis has been getting more attention. We hypothesized that differences in endothelial dysfunction biochemical markers among genders would aid to capture proatherogenic activity that was not diagnosed by conventional risk assessment scoring systems. We assessed the endothelial dysfuntion markers in 92 Turkish adults who were in the »low CV risk group« according to ESC (European Society of Cardiology)-Score Risk Charts. We compared the males and females. We observed higher endothelial dysfunction rates in males, with higher median and mean levels of e-NOS, ox-LDL before and after adjustment for HDL lowness and obesity (P=0.018, P=0.036 for NOS; P=0.000, P=0.004 for ox-LDL, respectively). Men had higher hs-CRP levels than females before adjustment (P=0.021). Decreased e-NOS levels were related with FMD for females before adjustment for confounders (P=0.028). We also found significant correlation between e-NOS and ox-LDL levels both before (r=0.360, Prisk scoring system, decreased e-NOS levels were independently asssociated with impaired flow mediated dilatation for females (odds ratio 0.3; P=0.038). Our results underline the importance of gender in evaluating endothelial dysfunction biochemical markers to assess cardiovascular risk for low CV risk indivuals.

  19. Effect of silibinin on endothelial dysfunction and ADMA levels in obese diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarkos Ilias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD in diabetic patients have endothelial dysfunction as a key pathogenetic event. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, plays a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction. Different natural polyphenols have been shown to preserve endothelial function and prevent CVD. In this study, we assessed the effect of silibinin, a widely used flavonolignan from milk thistle, on ADMA levels and endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice. Methods Eight-week-old db/db mice were administrated a 20 mg/Kg i.p. daily dose of silibinin (n = 6 or vehicle (n = 6 for four weeks. Heterozygous lean db/m mice served as control. Plasma, aorta and liver ADMA levels were determined by ELISA. Vascular reactivity to phenilephrine (PE, acetylcholine (ACh, sodium nitroprusside (SNP and ADMA was assessed in isolated aortic segments, in wire myograph. Results Plasma and aorta ADMA levels were higher in db/db than in control lean mice. Silibinin administration markedly decreased plasma ADMA; consistently, aorta ADMA was reduced in silibinin-treated animals. Plasma and aorta ADMA levels exhibited a positive correlation, whereas liver ADMA was inversely correlated with both plasma and aorta ADMA concentrations. Endothelium-(NO-dependent vasodilatation to ACh was impaired in db/db mice and was restored in the silibinin group, in accordance with the observed reduction of plasma and vascular levels of ADMA. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation to SNP was not modified by silibinin administration; contractile tone induced in isolated aorta from db/db mice by challenging with exogenous ADMA was not affected by the treatment. Conclusions Silibinin markedly improves endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice by reducing circulating and vascular ADMA levels. Clinical studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of silibinin for cardiovascular protection.

  20. Phenolic Compounds as Arginase Inhibitors: New Insights Regarding Endothelial Dysfunction Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzo, Bruno Rodrigo; Fernandes, Daniel; Beltrame, Flávio Luís

    2018-01-17

    Endothelial dysfunction is characterised by the low bioavailability of nitric oxide with a relevant negative impact on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway. The loss of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling may be caused by an increased arginase activity. Plant-derived substances, especially polyphenols, are compounds that have the potential to inhibit arginase activity and they may represent an attractive therapeutic option to combat clinical outcomes related to endothelial dysfunction. An extensive review was carried out using all available data published in English in the Pubmed database, and without restriction regarding the year of publication. Despite the increased number of new substances that have been tested as arginase inhibitors, it is rare to find a compound that satisfies all the toxicological criteria to be used in the development of a new drug. On the other hand, recent data have shown that substances from plants have great potential to be applied as arginase inhibitors, most of which are polyphenols. Of the relevant mechanisms in this process, the inhibition of arginase by natural products seems to act against endothelial dysfunction by reestablishing the vascular function and elevating nitric oxide levels (by increasing the amounts of substrate (L-arginine, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and stabilisation) as well as decreasing the generation of reactive species (formed by uncoupledendothelial nitric oxide synthase). This review summarises several topics regarding arginase inhibition by natural substances as well as indicating this pathway as an emergent strategy to elevate nitric oxide levels in disorders involving endothelial dysfunction. In addition, some aspects regarding structural activity and future perspectives are discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Methotrexate improves perivascular adipose tissue/endothelial dysfunction via activation of AMPK/eNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanmin; Li, Li; Shao, Yating; Bai, Xiaohong; Bai, Tiao; Huang, Xinliang

    2017-04-01

    Adipose and endothelial dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular disease. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) directly surrounds vessels and influences vessel function via a paracrine effect, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates the metabolic pathway, thus, the present study hypothesized that activation of AMPK in PVAT may regulate endothelial function in pathological settings. The present study investigated the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on adipocytokine expression in PVAT with an emphasis on the regulation of endothelial function. The effects of MTX and the mechanisms involved were investigated using a relaxation assay and western blot analysis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels. ELISA assay was used to quantify the level of TNF‑α and IL‑6. Palmitic acid (PA) stimulation induced inflammation and dysregulation of adipocytokine expression in PVAT. MTX treatment inhibited nuclear factor‑κB p65 phosphorylation and downregulated expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin-6, whereas adiponectin expression increased. MTX increased AMPK phosphorylation under basal and inflammatory conditions in PVAT, whereas knockdown of AMPK via small interfering RNA diminished its modulatory effect, indicating that MTX inhibits inflammation in an AMPK‑dependent manner. The present study prepared conditioned medium from PA‑stimulated PVAT to induce endothelial dysfunction and observed that pre‑treatment of PVAT with MTX effectively restored the loss of acetylcholine‑induced vasodilation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in the rat aorta. The results of the present study demonstrated that MTX ameliorated inflammation-associated adipocytokine dysregulation and thus prevented endothelial dysfunction. These data provide further

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sara; Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt; Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt

    2017-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... on postoperative days one to four. Results. Preoperative RHI was 1.86 (1.64 – 2.11) and decreased significantly during the observation period (linear mixed effects model of serial measurements, P = 0.015). Both L-arginine (P period. All biopterin...

  3. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeloef, S; Larsen, M H H; Schou-Pedersen, A M V

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... on postoperative days one to four. RESULTS: Preoperative RHI was 1.86 (1.64 - 2.11) and decreased significantly during the observation period (linear mixed effects model of serial measurements, P = 0.015). Both L-arginine (P period. All biopterin...

  4. Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Elevated in HIV Infection but Not Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, Judith M; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Knudsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    with viral replication, immune activation, coagulation, platelet function, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, marker of endothelial dysfunction) and soluble CD14 (sCD14, marker of monocyte activation) were measured in plasma from two previously established cross....... CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV infection and in untreated compared with treated HIV infection. In untreated HIV infection, the main driver of endothelial dysfunction was viral replication. Importantly, in treated HIV infection, ADMA was not associated with subclinical...... atherosclerosis. Thus, our data question the potential of ADMA as a useful biomarker of early atherosclerosis in treated HIV infection....

  5. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation induced by iron oxide nanoparticle exposure: Risk factors for early atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mo-Tao; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Lan; Wang, Hua-Jian; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Feng, Wei-Yue; Zhao, Yu-Liang

    2011-06-10

    More recently, the correlation between exposure to nanoparticles and cardiovascular diseases is of particular concern in nanotoxicology related fields. Nanoparticle-triggered endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to be a dominant mechanism in the development of the diseases. To test this hypothesis, iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe₂O₃ and Fe₃O₄), as two widely used nanomaterials and the main metallic components in particulate matter, were selected to assess their potential risks on human endothelial system. The direct effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the possible effects mediated by monocyte (U937 cells) phagocytosis and activation were investigated. In the study, HAECs and U937 cells were exposed to 2, 20, 100 μg/mL of 22-nm-Fe₂O₃ and 43-nm-Fe₃O₄ particles. Our results indicate that cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial swelling and cell death were induced in HAEC. A significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production was induced which coincided with the elevation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in HAECs. Adhesion of monocytes to the HAECs was significantly enhanced as a consequence of the up-regulation of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, all of which are considered as early steps of atheroscelerosis. Phagocytosis and dissolution of nanoparticles by monocytes were found to simultaneously provoke oxidative stress and mediate severe endothelial toxicity. We conclude that intravascular iron oxide nanoparticles may induce endothelial system inflammation and dysfunction by three ways: (1) nanoparticles may escape from phagocytosis that interact directly with the endothelial monolayer; (2) nanoparticles are phagocytized by monocytes and then dissolved, thus impact the endothelial cells as free iron ions; or (3) nanoparticles are phagocytized by monocytes to provoke oxidative stress responses. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension: pathophysiological mechanism or marker of cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ghiadoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the modulation of vessel tone and structure, protecting the vascular wall from atherosclerosis. In pathological conditions, however, the endothelium also produces pro-atherogenic substances (mainly reactive oxygen species, which inactivate NO. The Endothelial dysfunction, induced by reduced NO availability, is known to contribute to the development and progression of vascular damage. For this reason, endothelial function has been a major focus of cardiovascular research in the last few decades. Because NO has a very short half-life and its in vivo measurement is difficult, many researchers prefer to measure its biological activity, particularly the NO-dependent vasodilation, at the level of the coronary and peripheral circulation by endothelial stimuli. The most widely used technique involves measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. This test allows non-invasive evaluation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the peripheral macrocirculation induced by a mechanical stimulus (increase in shear stress caused by 5 minutes of forearm ischemia. The vasodilatatory response is reduced in the presence of major cardiovascular risk factors, particularly essential hypertension. Conclusions Studies conducted mainly in high-risk patients have demonstrated that endothelial dysfunction within the coronary or peripheral circulation is predictive of cardiovascular events (independently of classical risk factors. Drug therapy can improve endothelial function by increasing the availability of NO (a possible adjunctive benefit in terms of preventing vascular damage and improving the prognosis. Future studies will establish whether the evaluation of endothelial function by non-invasive, standardized, reproducible, low-cost techniques is an important test for cardiovascular risk stratification in clinical practice.

  7. Reactive oxygen species' role in endothelial dysfunction by electron paramagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassall, Cynthia D.

    % increase in ROS generation; this implies that higher ROS concentrations in sliced tissue indicate extraneous ROS generation not associated with the ROS stimulus of interest. We also investigated the role of ROS in chronic flow overload (CFO). Elevation of shear stress that increases production of vascular ROS has not been well investigated. We hypothesize that CFO increases ROS production mediated in part by NADPH oxidase, which leads to endothelial dysfunction. ROS production increased threefold in response to CFO. The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation was compromised in the CFO group. Treatment with apocynin significantly reduced ROS production in the vessel wall, preserved endothelial function, and inhibited expressions of p22/p47phox and NOX2/NOX4. The present data implicate NADPH oxidase produced ROS and eNOS uncoupling in endothelial dysfunction at 1 wk of CFO. In further work, a swine right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) model induced by pulmonary artery (PA) banding was used to study right coronary artery (RCA) endothelial function and ROS level. Endothelial function was compromised in RCA of RVH as attributed to insufficient endothelial nitric oxide synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. In conclusion, stretch due to outward remodeling of RCA during RVH (at constant wall shear stress), similar to vessel stretch in hypertension, appears to induce ROS elevation, endothelial dysfunction, and an increase in basal tone. Finally, although hypertension-induced vascular stiffness and dysfunction are well established in patients and animal models, we hypothesize that stretch or distension due to hypertension and outward expansion is the cause of endothelial dysfunction mediated by angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in coronary arteries. The expression and activation of AT1 receptor and the production of ROS were up regulated and endothelial function deteriorated in the RCA. The acute inhibition of AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase partially restored the endothelial

  8. Using cultured endothelial cells to study endothelial barrier dysfunction: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Jurjan; Weijers, Ester M; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; Malik, Asrar B; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M

    2016-08-01

    Despite considerable progress in the understanding of endothelial barrier regulation and the identification of approaches that have the potential to improve endothelial barrier function, no drug- or stem cell-based therapy is presently available to reverse the widespread vascular leak that is observed in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The translational gap suggests a need to develop experimental approaches and tools that better mimic the complex environment of the microcirculation in which the vascular leak develops. Recent studies have identified several elements of this microenvironment. Among these are composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix, fluid shear stress, interaction of endothelial cells (ECs) with pericytes, oxygen tension, and the combination of toxic and mechanic injurious stimuli. Development of novel cell culture techniques that integrate these elements would allow in-depth analysis of EC biology that closely approaches the (patho)physiological conditions in situ. In parallel, techniques to isolate organ-specific ECs, to define EC heterogeneity in its full complexity, and to culture patient-derived ECs from inducible pluripotent stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells are likely to advance the understanding of ARDS and lead to development of therapeutics. This review 1) summarizes the advantages and pitfalls of EC cultures to study vascular leak in ARDS, 2) provides an overview of elements of the microvascular environment that can directly affect endothelial barrier function, and 3) discusses alternative methods to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical application with the intent of improving the translational value of present EC culture approaches. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effects of metformin on endothelial health and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay Pravin; Lee, Eric Hweegeun; Mena, Carlos Ignacio; Walker, Charles N

    2017-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects approximately 18 million American men. ED may be attributed to several etiologies, including arteriogenic, psychogenic, neurogenic, hormonal, drug-induced, and systemic disease or aging related factors. Specific to arteriogenic ED, three major mechanisms have been identified: (I) endothelium-dependent vasodilatory impairment; (II) sympathetic nerve activity elevation; (III) atherosclerotic luminal narrowing. Additionally, these insults have been linked to the insulin resistant state, which in turn is comorbid with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding the impact of metformin-an insulin sensitizer-on the three mechanisms of arteriogenic ED. We report that metformin treatment positively affects two of three pathways, specifically through enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sympathetic nerve activity attenuation, but does not seem to have a significant impact on hypertension regulation. Given the encouraging data found in both animal and clinical studies, we advocate for further studies on metformin use in ED.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and the progression of retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Gall, Mari-Anne; Tarnow, L

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To study whether microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are associated with the presence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 328) attending a diabetes clinic were followed for 10 years and examined annually during......E-selectin), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and inflammatory activity (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of retinopathy was 33.8%. The median diabetes duration at baseline was 7 years (interquartile range 2-12 years). The highest tertiles of baseline urinary.......65 (1.21-2.25). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with Type 2 diabetes who attended a diabetes clinic, there was some evidence for a role of endothelial dysfunction in the progression of retinopathy. We could not demonstrate a role for low-grade inflammation. Our study emphasizes...

  11. The impact of metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction on exercise-induced cardiovascular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Amanda M; Davies, Elaine; Lavoie, Kim L; Arsenault, André; Gordon, Jennifer L; Meloche, Bernard; Bacon, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information regarding the synergistic or additive effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Altered cardiovascular responses to exercise have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events as well as assess autonomic function. The present study evaluated the impact of MS and brachial artery reactivity (a proxy of ED) on peak exercise-induced cardiovascular changes. Individuals (n = 303) undergoing a standard nuclear medicine exercise stress test were assessed for MS. Participants underwent a Forearm Hyperaemic Reactivity test and were considered to have dysfunctional reactivity if their rate of uptake ratio (RUR) was exercise-induced cardiovascular changes, indicates that these patients may have some degree of parasympathetic dysregulation. Further longitudinal studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of MS and endothelial abnormalities in this context. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Alogliptin ameliorates postprandial lipemia and postprandial endothelial dysfunction in non- diabetic subjects: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile. Methods A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 ± 10 years was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48, glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test. Results Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01, apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1 μg h/ml, p = 0.04, and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C (incremental AUC: 29.3 ± 3.2 vs. 17.6 ± 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01. GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from −4.2 ± 0.5% to −2.6 ± 0.4%, p = 0.03 was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = −0.46, p = 0.03 and RLP-C (r = −0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusion Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.

  13. Alogliptin ameliorates postprandial lipemia and postprandial endothelial dysfunction in non-diabetic subjects: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoko; Miyoshi, Toru; Oe, Hiroki; Ohno, Yuko; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Toh, Norihisa; Kohno, Kunihisa; Morita, Hiroshi; Kusano, Kengo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-09

    Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile. A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 ± 10 years) was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48), glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test. Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01), apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 ± 1.7 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1 μg h/ml, p = 0.04), and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) (incremental AUC: 29.3 ± 3.2 vs. 17.6 ± 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01). GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from -4.2 ± 0.5% to -2.6 ± 0.4%, p = 0.03) was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = -0.46, p = 0.03) and RLP-C (r = -0.45, p = 0.04). Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.

  14. Endothelial dysfunction in rectal cancer patients chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Pak, Laura; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Tokanova, Sholpan; Madiyeva, Madina [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Inoue, Ken [Kochi University, Health Service Center, Kochi (Japan); Kawano, Noriyuki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeichi, Nobuo [Takeichi Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Noso, Yoshihiro [Shimane University, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane (Japan); Khozhayev, Arman; Molgazhdarov, Maulen [The Kazakh National Medical University of S.D.Asfendiyarov, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Olzhaev, Sayakhat [Almaty Regional Oncologic Hospital, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-08-15

    We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes. Significant correlations between indicators of endothelial function and vascular-platelet hemostasis were observed. These changes and their interrelations were expressed more strongly in the patients who lived in the contaminated area around the nuclear test site. Such patients could have an increased risk of thrombosis and other complications after the treatment of a malignant neoplasm. (orig.)

  15. Tetrahydrobiopterin restores endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Perner, Anders

    2003-01-01

    cofactor of eNOS. Therefore, we examined whether an acute supplement of BH4 could restore endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge. Healthy subjects were examined in 53 experiments. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Dose-response studies were obtained......An oral glucose challenge causes transient impairment of endothelial function, probably because of increased oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) becomes uncoupled because of decreased bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential...... during intra-arterial infusion of serotonin to elicit endothelium-dependent, NO-specific vasodilation and during sodium nitroprusside (SNP) infusion to elicit endothelium-independent vasodilation. Subjects were examined before (fasting) and 1 and 2 h after an oral glucose challenge (75 g) with serotonin...

  16. The Krebs cycle and mitochondrial mass are early victims of endothelial dysfunction: proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Francesco; Ratliff, Brian; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Ciszar, Anna; Krasnikov, Boris; Krasnikof, Boris; Sodhi, Komal; Zhang, Fung; Nasjletti, Alberto; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction is associated with bioavailable nitric oxide deficiency and an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. We modeled this condition by chronically inhibiting nitric oxide generation with subpressor doses of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in C57B6 and Tie-2/green fluorescent protein mouse strains. L-NMMA-treated mice exhibited a slight reduction in vasorelaxation ability, as well as detectable abnormalities in soluble adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and matrix metalloproteinase 9), which represent surrogate indicators of endothelial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis of the isolated microvasculature using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy revealed abnormal expression of a cluster of mitochondrial enzymes, which was confirmed using immunodetection. Aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1 expression levels were decreased in L-NMMA-treated animals; this phenotype was absent in nitric oxide synthase-1 and -3 knockout mice. Depletion of aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1 resulted in the inhibition of the Krebs cycle and enhanced pyruvate shunting toward the glycolytic pathway. To assess mitochondrial mass in vivo, co-localization of green fluorescent protein and MitoTracker fluorescence was detected by intravital microscopy. Quantitative analysis of fluorescence intensity showed that L-NMMA-treated animals exhibited lower fluorescence of MitoTracker in microvascular endothelia as a result of reduced mitochondrial mass. These findings provide conclusive and unbiased evidence that mitochondriopathy represents an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction, shifting cell metabolism toward "metabolic hypoxia" through the selective depletion of both aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1. These findings may contribute to an early preclinical diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Interleukin 22 Promotes Blood Pressure Elevation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Angiotensin II-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Ji, Qingwei; Liu, Jianfang; Liu, Ling; Huang, Ying; Shi, Ying; Shi, Lei; Wang, Menglong; Liu, Mengling; Feng, Ying; Jiang, Huimin; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhen; Song, Junlong; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2017-10-03

    CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, play critical roles in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Th22 cells, a novel subset of Th cells, take part in cardiovascular diseases by producing IL-22 (interleukin 22). This study aimed to investigate whether IL-22 is involved in hypertension. Th22 cells and IL-22 levels were detected in angiotensin II-infused mice, and the results showed that Th22 cells and IL-22 levels significantly increased. To determine the effect of Th22/IL-22 on blood pressure regulation, angiotensin II-infused mice were treated with recombinant mouse IL-22, an anti-IL-22 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, or control. Treatment with recombinant IL-22 resulted in increased blood pressure, amplified inflammatory responses, and aggravated endothelial dysfunction, whereas the anti-IL-22 neutralizing monoclonal antibody decreased blood pressure, reduced inflammatory responses, and attenuated endothelial dysfunction. To determine whether the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway mediates the effect of IL-22 on blood pressure regulation, the special STAT3 pathway inhibitor S31-201 was administered to mice treated with recombinant IL-22. S31-201 treatment significantly ameliorated the IL-22 effects of increased blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, serum IL-22 levels were significantly increased in hypertensive patients compared with healthy persons. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between IL-22 levels and blood pressure. IL-22 amplifies the inflammatory response, induces endothelial dysfunction and promotes blood pressure elevation in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. The STAT3 pathway mediates the effect of IL-22 on hypertension. Blocking IL-22 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat hypertension. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Acute hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia enhance vasodilatation in type 1 diabetes mellitus without increasing capillary permeability and inducing endothelial dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, GD; Dullaart, RPF; Smit, AJ

    Uncomplicated Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is characterized by generalized vasodilatation. Its possible correlates, increased microvascular permeability and endothelial dysfunction, have been associated with long-term complications. The objective was to study the effects of acute

  19. HIV replication, inflammation, and the effect of starting antiretroviral therapy on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine, a novel marker of endothelial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with premature development of cardiovascular disease. Understanding the effects of HIV replication on endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation may identify treatment targets to reduce cardiovascular disease risk....

  20. Globotriaosylsphingosine accumulation and not alpha-galactosidase-A deficiency causes endothelial dysfunction in Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Namdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (GLA resulting in the accumulation of globotriaosylsphingosine (Gb3 in a variety of tissues. While GLA deficiency was always considered as the fulcrum of the disease, recent attention shifted towards studying the mechanisms through which Gb3 accumulation in vascular cells leads to endothelial dysfunction and eventually multiorgan failure. In addition to the well-described macrovascular disease, FD is also characterized by abnormalities of microvascular function, which have been demonstrated by measurements of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve. To date, the relative importance of Gb3 accumulation versus GLA deficiency in causing endothelial dysfunction is not fully understood; furthermore, its differential effects on cardiac micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to assess the effects of Gb3 accumulation versus GLA deficiency, human macro- and microvascular cardiac endothelial cells (ECs were incubated with Gb3 or silenced by siRNA to GLA. Gb3 loading caused deregulation of several key endothelial pathways such as eNOS, iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2, while GLA silencing showed no effects. Cardiac microvascular ECs showed a greater susceptibility to Gb3 loading as compared to macrovascular ECs. CONCLUSIONS: Deregulation of key endothelial pathways as observed in FD vasculopathy is likely caused by intracellular Gb3 accumulation rather than deficiency of GLA. Human microvascular ECs, as opposed to macrovascular ECs, seem to be affected earlier and more severely by Gb3 accumulation and this notion may prove fundamental for future progresses in early diagnosis and management of FD patients.

  1. Gastrodia elata Ameliorates High-Fructose Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of fructose results in dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance, which have documented correlation with metabolic syndrome. Gastrodia elata, a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetes activities. Thus, this study examined whether ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata Blume (EGB attenuate lipid metabolism and endothelial dysfunction in a high-fructose (HF diet animal model. Rats were fed the 65% HF diet with/without EGB 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with EGB significantly suppressed the increments of epididymal fat weight, blood pressure, plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol levels, and oral glucose tolerance, respectively. In addition, EGB markedly prevented increase of adipocyte size and hepatic accumulation of triglycerides. EGB ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and adhesion molecules in the aorta. Moreover, EGB significantly recovered the impairment of vasorelaxation to acetylcholine and levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and induced markedly upregulation of phosphorylation AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα in the liver, muscle, and fat. These results indicate that EGB ameliorates dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance as well as impaired vascular endothelial function in HF diet rats. Taken together, EGB may be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.

  2. Salidroside Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Protects against H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside (SAL is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2∙- production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB. SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways.

  3. Salidroside Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Protects against H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shasha; Yang, Xiaoyan; Li, Wenjing; Bian, Fang; Wu, Dan; Chi, Jiangyang; Xu, Gao; Zhang, Yonghui; Jin, Si

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside (SAL) is an active component of Rhodiola rosea with documented antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism of the protective effect of SAL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SAL significantly reduced the cytotoxicity brought by H2O2. Functional studies on the rat aortas found that SAL rescued the endothelium-dependent relaxation and reduced superoxide anion (O2∙−) production induced by H2O2. Meanwhile, SAL pretreatment inhibited H2O2-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The underlying mechanisms involve the inhibition of H2O2-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt, as well as the redox sensitive transcription factor, NF-kappa B (NF-κB). SAL also increased mitochondrial mass and upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the endothelial cells. H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and ATP production, was rescued by SAL pretreatment. Taken together, these findings implicate that SAL could protect endothelium against H2O2-induced injury via promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and function, thus preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways. PMID:24868319

  4. Treatment with acarbose may improve endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, S; Angulo, J; Peiró, C; Cercas, E; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; Nevado, J; Llergo, J L; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2000-08-01

    We sought to determine whether a single reduction of hyperglycemia and those derivatives from nonenzymatic protein glycosylation may be effective in reducing the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we investigated how acarbose, an inhibitor of intestinal alpha-glucosidase that reduce hyperglycemia by lowering glucose absorption, may prevent the impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations observed in isolated vascular segments from untreated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. When administered after diabetes induction, 10 mg/kg acarbose decreased modestly the enhancement of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, but not those of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). This effect was linked to a partial improvement of ACh-induced responses both in conductance vessels, such as aortic segments, and resistance vasculature, like mesenteric microvessels. When acarbose was introduced after 6 weeks of untreated diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, and AGE levels were not affected and endothelial dysfunction remained unchanged in mesenteric microvessels, whereas a small improvement was observed in aortic segments. The addition of 100 U/ml superoxide dismutase enhanced the impaired relaxations to values similar to vessels from nondiabetic rats, indicating a main role for superoxide anions in diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that hyperglycemia itself or elevated HbA1c, but not plasma AGEs, are related to enhanced oxidative stress and to the impairment of endothelium function associated to diabetes. This process can be partially prevented by reducing glucose absorption with acarbose.

  5. Vascular senescence and ageing: a role for the MEOX proteins in promoting endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Josette M; Czubryt, Michael P; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    In the vascular system, ageing is accompanied by the accrual of senescent cells and is associated with an increased risk of vascular disease. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is a hallmark of vascular disease and is characterized by decreased angiogenic potential, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired vasodilation, increased production of ROS, and enhanced inflammation. In ECs, the major producer of nitric oxide is the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme that is encoded by the NOS3 gene. NOS3/eNOS function is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels to maintain normal vascular function. A key transcriptional regulator of eNOS expression is p53, which has been shown to play a central role in mediating cellular senescence and thereby vascular dysfunction. Herein, we show that, in ECs, the MEOX homeodomain transcription factors decrease the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, repress eNOS expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and increase the expression of p53. These findings support a role for the MEOX proteins in promoting endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Cumulative Hypoxemia During Sleep Predicts Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Chishaki, Akiko; Nishizaka, Mari; Tokunou, Tomotake; Adachi, Sonomi; Yoshimura, Chikara; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with repeated intermittent hypoxemia, and it is known as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies assessing the effects of frequency and depth of hypoxemia on cardiovascular diseases have shown conflicting results. The aim of the current study was to clarify what SDB-related parameters most predict endothelial dysfunction to better understand the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in patients with SDB. We conducted polysomnography (PSG) and measured flow-mediated vasodilation response (%FMD) in 50 outpatients suspected of SDB. Evaluated indices included: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 3% oxygen desaturation index (3%ODI), averaged arterial oxygen saturation (averaged SpO2), lowest arterial oxygen saturation (lowest SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen saturation hypoxemia, rather than the frequency of hypoxemic events presented as AHI, may be a greater contributing factor in causing endothelial dysfunction. A simple index like TDS may be a useful and novel indicator of the influence of SDB on the vasculature. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with activation of the type i interferon system and platelets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tydén, Helena; Lood, Christian; Gullstrand, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Endothelial dysfunction may be connected to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Type I interferons (IFNs) are central in SLE pathogenesis and are suggested to induce both endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. In this study, we investigated...... with activation of platelets and the type I IFN system. We suggest that an interplay between the type I IFN system, injured endothelium and activated platelets may contribute to development of CVD in SLE....

  8. Arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction independently and synergistically predict cardiovascular and renal outcome in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Jorsal, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether pulse pressure alone or with placental growth factor as estimates of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, predicts mortality, cardiovascular disease and progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To evaluate whether pulse pressure alone or with placental growth factor as estimates of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, predicts mortality, cardiovascular disease and progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  9. Dipyridamole, cold pressor test, and demonstration of endothelial dysfunction: a PET study of myocardial perfusion in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2003-01-01

    Much evidence suggests endothelial dysfunction to be present in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to be important for the development of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial function in the coronary vessels may be studied in various ways. We compared the effect of cold pressor testing...

  10. Endothelial dysfunction assessment by noninvasive peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Nardin, Matteo; Clini, Enrico; Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana; Sciatti, Edoardo; Salghetti, Francesca; Bonadei, Ivano; Platto, Fabio; Vizzardi, Enrico

    2017-08-05

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The endothelial dysfunction likely plays a central role in increasing cardiovascular risk. This cross-sectional, study investigated the prevalence and extent of endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable COPD. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) was measured by post-ischemic reactive hyperemia index (RHI) in 16 COPD patients, 16 healthy controls and 16 subjects with treated systemic arterial hypertension (AH) and analysed with covariates condition (dyslipidemia, and medications). The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction was significantly higher in COPD group than in the other groups. Mean RHI was significantly lower in COPD patients compared with the other groups. At linear regression FEV 1 and RHI were directly correlated (Spearman index = 0.553; P = .026). COPD patients in groups C and D according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages showed lower RHI compared with patients classified as A and B (P < .01). At multiple regression analysis the presence of dyslipidemia, COPD and AH were associated with the presence of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction in stable COPD patients is probably implicated in the high cardiovascular comorbidity. This study suggests the potential utility of endothelial dysfunction evaluation in patients with COPD to a timely assessment and treatment for cardiac complications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expression of PKA inhibitor (PKI) gene abolishes cAMP-mediated protection to endothelial barrier dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, H; Jaffe, H A; Schulz, I T; Masood, A; RayChaudhury, A; Green, R D

    1999-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) protects against endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to proinflammatory mediators. An E1-, E3-, replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) vector was constructed containing the complete sequence of PKA inhibitor (PKI) gene (AdPKI). Infection of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) with AdPKI resulted in overexpression of PKI. Treatment with 0.5 microM thrombin increased transendothelial albumin clearance rate (0.012 +/- 0.003 and 0.035 +/- 0.005 microl/min for control and thrombin, respectively); the increase was prevented with forskolin + 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (F + I) treatment. Overexpression of PKI resulted in abrogation of the F + I-induced inhibition of the permeability increase. However, with HMEC infected with ultraviolet-inactivated AdPKI, the F + I-induced inhibition was present. Also, F + I treatment of HMEC transfected with reporter plasmid containing the cAMP response element-directed transcription of the luciferase gene resulted in an almost threefold increase in luciferase activity. Overexpression of PKI inhibited this induction of luciferase activity. The results show that Ad-mediated overexpression of PKI in endothelial cells abrogated the cAMP-mediated protection against increased endothelial permeability, providing direct evidence that cAMP-dependent protein kinase promotes endothelial barrier function.

  12. Disfunción endotelial y diabetes mellitus Endothelial dysfunction and diabetes mellitus

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    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la disfunción endotelial se presenta con frecuencia en los individuos con diabetes mellitus, debido a que las alteraciones vasculares que aparecen en esta enfermedad y que son provocadas por la hiperglucemia crónica, facilitan su aparición, a lo cual puede contribuir también la hipertensión arterial y la dislipidemia que se presentan en los diabéticos. Objetivo: describir algunos eventos implicados en la aparición de la disfunción endotelial en la diabetes mellitus, y aspectos relacionados con su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Desarrollo: entre los marcadores más importantes de disfunción endotelial en la diabetes mellitus se encuentran, la elevación de las moléculas de adhesión celular y de marcadores de inflamación, la microalbuminuria, la hiperhomocisteinemia, y el incremento de la hemoglobina glucosilada, de la endotelina-1 y del estrés oxidativo. Para el diagnóstico de disfunción endotelial se utilizan la medición de sustancias reguladoras de biofunciones sintetizadas por el endotelio y de otras reconocidas como marcadores de disfunción endotelial, y pruebas indirectas, algunas de las cuales son invasivas; y para su tratamiento, disímiles medidas terapéuticas medicamentosas o no. Conclusiones: es importante identificar la disfunción endotelial tempranamente en los diabéticos y tratarla, en caso de estar presente.Introduction: endothelial dysfunction frequently appears in individuals with diabetes mellitus, because vascular alterations derived from chronic hyperglycemia facilitate the occurrence of the disease, to which blood hypertension and dislipidemia of diabetics also contribute. Objective: to describe some events involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and several aspects related to diagnosis and treatment. Development: among the most important markers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus are the rises of cell adhesion molecules and inflammation markers

  13. Perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction by ERβ suppression in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiguo; Ren, Mingming; Li, Ling; Zhu, Yin; Chu, Zhigang; Zhu, Zhigang; Ruan, Qiongfang; Lou, Wenting; Zhang, Haimou; Han, Zhen; Huang, Xiaodong; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Yao, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect. Further investigation showed that ERβ suppression is due to perinatal testosterone exposure-induced epigenetic changes with altered DNA methylation on the ERβ promoter. During aging, EPCs with ERβ suppression mobilize to the vascular wall, differentiate into ERβ-suppressed mouse endothelial cells (MECs) with downregulated expression of SOD2 (mitochondrial superoxide dismutase) and ERRα (estrogen-related receptor α). This results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, and the dysfunction of mitochondria and fatty acid metabolism, subsequently potentiating vascular dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation of EPCs that overexpressed with either ERβ or a SIRT1 single mutant SIRT1-C152(D) that could modulate SIRT1 phosphorylation significantly ameliorated vascular dysfunction, while ERβ knockdown worsened the problem. We conclude that perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction through ERβ suppression in EPCs.

  14. Endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis in patients with hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Löwenberg, Ester C; van der Hoeven, Niels V; de Laat, Bas; Meijers, Joost C M; Levi, Marcel; van Montfrans, Gert A

    2011-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is an extreme phenotype of hypertension and hypertension-related thrombotic complications. This is most evident in patients with hypertensive crisis having advanced retinopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We examined whether hypertensive crisis complicated by advanced retinopathy is associated with endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, thrombin generation and decreased fibrinolytic activity. In addition, we tested the association between these procoagulant changes and the development of TMA and end-organ dysfunction. Several key mediators of coagulation were assessed in 40 patients with hypertensive crisis with and without retinopathy and compared with 20 age, sex and ethnicity-matched normotensive controls. In patients with hypertensive crisis, associations with markers of TMA and renal dysfunction were assessed by regression analysis. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher in patients with hypertensive crisis compared with controls regardless of the presence or absence of retinopathy (Phypertensive crisis with retinopathy compared with normotensive controls (P-valuesHypertensive crisis with retinopathy confers a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation and increased thrombin generation, whereas fibrinolytic activity is enhanced. The observed changes in prothrombotic and antithrombotic pathways may contribute to the increased risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic complications in this extreme hypertension phenotype. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  15. Genetic polymorphisms and endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S; Akkaya, V; Cine, N; Oflaz, H; Yekeler, E; Ozturk, S; Cleophas, T J; Fici, F

    2005-04-01

    Both in animal models and humans an association between endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) gene polymorphism and the development of hypertension has been found. However, the relation between ecNOS polymorphism and endothelial function in patients with hypertension has not been systematically studied. Genes of the renin-angiotensin system include the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATIR) gene, and have been associated with essential hypertension. However, no consistent data are available about the relation between polymorphisms of these genes and the presence of endothelial dysfunction in such patients. To assess the presence of genetic polymorphisms and of endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. To determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on endothelial dysfunction in these subjects. In 129 patients with essential hypertension and the same number of age-matched controls polymorphisms of the ecNOS gene, ACE gene, and AT1R gene were analysed by polymerase chain reactions. Endothelial function was assessed by maximal endothelial dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperaemia using high resolution ultrasound examinations of the brachial arteries. To assess correlation between genetic markers, endothelial function, and the presence of hypertension both univariate and multivariate analyses were used including Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients, and multiple logistic regressions. The size of endothelium-dependent vasodilation between patients and controls differed by 16% (pstudy to demonstrate the latter may be due to confounders. Also, other genes may be more important in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and essential hypertension. The current study underscores that endothelial dysfunction and hypertension are not simple genetic disorders, and that they are, essentially, multicausal.

  16. Angiotensin II-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction is Temporally Linked with Increases in Intereukin-6 and Vascular Macrophage Accumulation

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    Sean P Didion

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II is associated with vascular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction and activation of a number of inflammatory molecules, however the linear events involved in the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction produced in response to Ang II are not well defined. The goal of this study was to examine the dose- and temporal-dependent development of endothelial dysfunction in response to Ang II. Blood pressure and responses of carotid arteries were examined in control (C57Bl/6 mice and in mice infused with 50, 100, 200, 400, or 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II for either 14 or 28 Days. Infusion of Ang II was associated with graded and marked increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma Ang II concentrations. While low doses of Ang II (ie, 50 and 100 ng/kg/min had little to no effect on blood pressure or endothelial function, high doses of Ang II (e.g., 1000 ng/kg/min were associated with large increases in arterial pressure and marked impairment of endothelial function. In contrast, intermediate doses of Ang II (200 and 400 ng/kg/min while initially having no effect on systolic blood pressure were associated with significant increases in pressure over time. Despite increasing blood pressure, 200 ng/kg/min had no effect on endothelial function, whereas 400 ng/kg/min produced modest impairment on Day 14 and marked impairment of endothelial function on Day 28. The degree of endothelial dysfunction produced by 400 and 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II was reflective of parallel increases in plasma IL-6 levels and vascular macrophage content, suggesting that increases in arterial blood pressure precede the development of endothelial dysfunction. These findings are important as they demonstrate that along with increases in arterial pressure that increases in IL-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation correlate with the impairment of endothelial function produced by Ang II.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction in uremic patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD

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    Senija Rašić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is associated with diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy as well as with the decline in creatinine clearance. It has been suggested that endothelial dysfunction presents in patients (pts on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The objective of this study was to examine the plasma biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and their association with IMT of carotid arteries in diabetic and non-diabetic patients on CAPD. This study included 37 CAPD pts (25 with type II diabetes and 12 non-diabetic pts mean age 59.2 years ± 2.48. Plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF activity, serum albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a levels, as well as serum level of homocysteine, parathyroid hormone (PTH in plasma and microalbuminuria was determined. Ultrasound examination of carotid arteries was performed in all patients by measured bilateral intima-media thickness of carotid artery (CIMT. Mean IMT value was significantly higher in type 2 DM patients (0.86 ± 0.04 mm compared to non-diabetic patients (0.52 ± 0.06 mm on peritoneal dialysis (p<0.0001. There was also a significant difference in lipids/triglycerides and Lp (a/, procoagulation (fibrinogen, von Wilebrand factor, factor VIII and inflammatory markers (CRP level between type 2 DM and non-diabetic CAPD patients. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that log triglycerides and factor VIII were independent factors for the IMT. The results of this research impose that diabetic type 2 CAPD patients have developed systemic alteration of endothelial function and higher risk of cardiovascular complications compared to non-diabetic CAPD patients.

  18. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian; Winding, Kamilla; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik; Trøseid, Marius; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2017-03-29

    Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD. Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent, pro-atherogenic marker was measured using stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS. The percentage of HIV + T2D+, HIV + T2D-, HIV-T2D+, and HIV-T2D- with hsCRP above cut-off was 50%, 19%, 47%, and 11%, respectively. HIV + T2D+ had elevated ADMA (0.67 μM (0.63-0.72) compared to HIV + T2D- (0.60 μM (0.57-0.64) p = 0.017), HIV-T2D+ (0.57 μM (0.51-63) p = 0.008), and HIV-T2D- (0.55 μM (0.52-0.58) p inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Whether gut microbiota is a contributing factor to this remains to be determined.

  19. Increased leukocyte rho kinase (ROCK) activity and endothelial dysfunction in cigarette smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Takayuki; Hata, Takaki; Soga, Junko; Fujii, Yuichi; Idei, Naomi; Fujimura, Noritaka; Kihara, Yasuki; Noma, Kensuke; Liao, James K; Higashi, Yukihito

    2010-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and ROCK inhibitors improve endothelial function in smokers, it is not known whether ROCK activity is increased in smokers and whether this correlates with endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ROCK activity and endothelial function in smokers. We evaluated flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) using ultrasonography and ROCK activity in peripheral leukocytes using western blot analysis in 14 male smokers (28.1 ± 3.9 years) and 15 healthy male non-smokers (28.3 ± 3.6 years). ROCK activity was defined as the ratio of phospho-myosin-binding subunit (MBS) on myosin light-chain phosphatase to total MBS. FMD was significantly less in smokers than in non-smokers (4.7 ± 3.1 vs. 9.0 ± 3.8%, P=0.005). Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation was similar in the two groups. ROCK activity was greater in smokers than in non-smokers (0.78 ± 0.27 vs. 0.54 ± 018, P=0.012). The expression of total MBS, ROCK1 and ROCK2 were similar in the two groups. ROCK activity correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.42, P=0.039). Multiple regression analysis revealed that smoking is an independent predictor of ROCK activity. There was a significant correlation between FMD and ROCK activity (r=−0.42, P=0.035). No other variable was correlated with FMD. These findings suggest that ROCK activity is enhanced by smoking and is a predictor of endothelial function. PMID:20139919

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in normal and prediabetic rats with metabolic syndrome exposed by oral gavage to carbon black nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Janne Kjærsgaard; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to nanosized particles may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by endothelial dysfunction, particularly in susceptible subjects with metabolic syndrome. We investigated vasomotor dysfunction in aorta from obese and lean Zucker rats after oral exposure to nanosized carbon black (CB...

  1. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine.......001), which was mainly driven by a close correlation in HIV + T2D+ (rs = 0.63, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Elevated inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute...

  2. Evaluation the effect of low-dose aspirin on endothelial dysfunction in preeclamptic patients

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia complicates up to 3% of pregnancies in developing countries. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effect of low-dose aspirin on endothelial dysfunction in preeclamptic patients. Materials and Methods: in this triple-blind randomized clinical trial, enrolled patients were divided randomly into two groups. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 80 mg or placebo will be taken daily by oral administration from the initiation of diagnosis until 2 months after delivery. Every patient's flow-mediated dilation (FMD were evaluated at the beginning of study and 2 months after delivery with the same experienced operator at a same period of the time (3–5 pm by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic. T-test or Mann–Whitney test was used in the comparison of means between the intervention and placebo groups. To compare FMD in each group, before and after the intervention, paired t-test was used. Results: Mean value of FMD in intervention (9.61 ± 5.58 and control group (9.40 ± 4.33 have no significant differences before drug consumption (P = 0.089. FMD in intervention group significantly increased after ASA consumption ([9.61 ± 5.58 vs. 13.65 ± 7.91] [P = 0.044]. Conclusion: Increase mean of FMD in intervention group shows that this supplement can improve endothelial function.

  3. Polyphenol-enriched diet prevents coronary endothelial dysfunction by activating the Akt/eNOS pathway.

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    Vilahur, Gemma; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; López, José A; Streitenberger, Sergio; Badimon, Lina

    2015-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet, rich in polyphenols, has shown to be cardioprotective. However the mechanisms involved remain unknown. We investigated whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract rich in polyphenols renders beneficial effects on coronary function in a clinically relevant experimental model and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Pigs were fed a 10-day normocholesterolemic or hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 625 mg/day of a pomegranate extract (Pomanox; 200 mg punicalagins/day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. Akt/endothelial nitric oxide-synthase axis activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression, oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the coronary artery, and lipoprotein resistance to oxidation were evaluated. In dyslipidemic animals, Pomanox supplementation prevented diet-induced impairment of endothelial relaxation, reaching vasodilatory values comparable to normocholesterolemic animals upon stimulation with acetylcholine and/or calcium ionophore. These beneficial effects were associated with vascular Akt/endothelial nitric oxide-synthase activation and lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. Pomanox supplementation reduced systemic oxidative stress (higher high-density lipoprotein-antioxidant capacity and higher low-density lipoprotein resistance to oxidation) and coronary deoxyribonucleic acid damage. Normocholesterolemic animals elicited similar drug-related vasodilation regardless of Pomanox supplementation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside and L-NG-monomethylarginine blunted all vasorelaxation responses except for sodium nitroprusside. Pomanox supplementation hinders hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by activating

  4. ROLE OF NON INVASIVE STUDY OF BRACHIAL ARTERY FLOW MEDIATED VASODILATATION WITH CORRELATION TO ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

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    Srikanth Bodepudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The endothelium is an early target of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and Diabetes mellitus (DM. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction has been shown at the level of both resistance and conduit arteries. The fact that Forearm's Brachial artery endothelial dysfunction is a marker of future cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension stresses the importance of the clinical evaluation of endothelial function. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of hypertensive patients admitted in King George Hospital of Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India during May 2015 to August 2016 and diagnosed as per the criteria laid down by JNC 7 Classification. Patients of Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperthyroidism, Heart Failure, Coronary Artery Disease, Smokers and Peripheral Vascular Disease which are known to affect endothelial dysfunction were excluded from the study. RESULTS The study group comprised of 50 subjects and the control group had 30 subjects. There are 18 males (59.4% and 12 females (39.6% among Controls and 31 males (62% and 19 females (38% in the Cases group. In this study, the mean age among the controls is (55.6±13.63 and among the cases is (56.4±15.24. Mean FMD (Flow-mediated dilation among Cases is 8.15 and mean FMD among controls is 19.3. Mean Hyperemic Flow among Cases is 70.1 and among Controls is 121. 26% of the males have Endothelial Dysfunction and 9% of the females among cases have Endothelial Dysfunction. CONCLUSION FMD% is a diagnostic aid for evaluation of endothelial function. It is an experimental tool to measure endothelial dysfunction which is a fundamental basis for atherogenesis and CAD. It is a user friendly, non- invasive, cheap, reliable, reproducible technique for risk stratification of CAD.

  5. Beneficial effects of apple peel polyphenols on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in high choline-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mengfan; Ren, Daoyuan; Nie, Yan; Yang, Xingbin

    2017-03-22

    This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of Red Fuji apple peel polyphenolic extract (APP) on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed a high choline diet. The mice were fed 3% dietary choline in drinking water for 8 weeks and displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p polyphenolic extract from apple peel might be regarded as a preventive and therapeutic product for the amelioration of HC diet-induced vascular dysfunction and hepatic injury.

  6. Cardiovascular risk reduction by reversing endothelial dysfunction: ARBs, ACE inhibitors,  or both? Expectations from The ONTARGET  Trial Programme

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    Luis Miguel  Ruilope

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Luis Miguel  Ruilope1, Josep Redón2, Roland Schmieder31Servicio de Nefrologia, Unidad de Hipertension Hospital, 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinico University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat, Erlangen-Nurnberg, GermanyAbstract: Endothelial dysfunction is the initial pathophysiological step in a progression of vascular damage that leads to overt cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin II, the primary agent of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS, has a central role in endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, RAS blockade with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor provides a rational approach to reverse endothelial dysfunction, reduce microalbuminuria, and, thus, improves cardiovascular and renal prognosis. ARBs and ACE inhibitors act at different points in the RAS pathway and recent evidence suggests that there are differences regarding their effects on endothelial dysfunction. In addition to blood pressure lowering, studies have shown that ARBs reduce target-organ damage, including improvements in endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes, proteinuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET Programme is expected to provide the ultimate evidence of whether improved endothelial func tion translates into reduced cardiovascular and renal events in high-risk patients, and to assess possible differential outcomes with telmisartan, the ACE inhibitor ramipril, or a combination of both (dual RAS blockade. Completion of ONTARGET is expected in 2008. Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, endothelial dysfunction, ONTARGET, renin–angiotensin system, telmisartan

  7. Sustained Adenosine Exposure Causes Lung Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction via Nucleoside Transporter–Mediated Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Julie; Hsiao, Vivian; Shamirian, Paul; Blackburn, Michael R.; Pedroza, Mesias

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies by our group as well as others have shown that acute adenosine exposure enhances lung vascular endothelial barrier integrity and protects against increased permeability lung edema. In contrast, there is growing evidence that sustained adenosine exposure has detrimental effects on the lungs, including lung edema. It is well established that adenosine modulates lung inflammation. However, little is known concerning the effect of sustained adenosine exposure on lung endothelial cells (ECs), which are critical to the maintenance of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We show that exogenous adenosine plus adenosine deaminase inhibitor caused sustained elevation of adenosine in lung ECs. This sustained adenosine exposure decreased EC barrier function, elevated cellular reactive oxygen species levels, and activated p38, JNK, and RhoA. Inhibition of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) prevented sustained adenosine-induced p38 and JNK activation and EC barrier dysfunction. Inhibition of p38, JNK, or RhoA also partially attenuated sustained adenosine-induced EC barrier dysfunction. These data indicate that sustained adenosine exposure causes lung EC barrier dysfunction via ENT-dependent intracellular adenosine uptake and subsequent activation of p38, JNK, and RhoA. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the NADPH inhibitor partially blunted sustained adenosine-induced JNK activation but were ineffective in attenuation of p38 activation or barrier dysfunction. p38 was activated exclusively in mitochondria, whereas JNK was activated in mitochondria and cytoplasm by sustained adenosine exposure. Our data further suggest that sustained adenosine exposure may cause mitochondrial oxidative stress, leading to activation of p38, JNK, and RhoA in mitochondria and resulting in EC barrier dysfunction. PMID:22744860

  8. Innovative Flow Cytometry Allows Accurate Identification of Rare Circulating Cells Involved in Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    Federica Boraldi

    Full Text Available Although rare, circulating endothelial and progenitor cells could be considered as markers of endothelial damage and repair potential, possibly predicting the severity of cardiovascular manifestations. A number of studies highlighted the role of these cells in age-related diseases, including those characterized by ectopic calcification. Nevertheless, their use in clinical practice is still controversial, mainly due to difficulties in finding reproducible and accurate methods for their determination.Circulating mature cells (CMC, CD45-, CD34+, CD133- and circulating progenitor cells (CPC, CD45dim, CD34bright, CD133+ were investigated by polychromatic high-speed flow cytometry to detect the expression of endothelial (CD309+ or osteogenic (BAP+ differentiation markers in healthy subjects and in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations associated with ectopic calcification.This study shows that: 1 polychromatic flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to accurately identify rare cells; 2 the balance of CD309+ on CMC/CD309+ on CPC is altered in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations, suggesting the occurrence of vascular damage and low repair potential; 3 the increase of circulating cells exhibiting a shift towards an osteoblast-like phenotype (BAP+ is observed in the presence of ectopic calcification.Differences between healthy subjects and patients with ectopic calcification indicate that this approach may be useful to better evaluate endothelial dysfunction in a clinical context.

  9. Endocan: A Novel Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction in C1-Inhibitor-Deficient Hereditary Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk, Mustafa; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Kose, Murat; Gelincik, Aslı; Colakoğlu, Bahattin; Buyukozturk, Suna

    2017-10-24

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) related to C1-inhibitor deficiency is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. Vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM) are known as endothelial activation markers. Endocan (also called ESM-1) is proposed as an endothelial dysfunction indicator. We aimed to investigate endothelial activation in attack-free periods in HAE patients by measuring their levels of endocan and VCAM-1. Twenty-six HAE patients (22 female, mean age 40 ± 13 years) and 38 healthy control patients (13 female, mean age 36.9 ± 12 years) were included in the study. Peripheral blood samples were collected from HAE patients during symptom-free periods and control subjects. Endocan and VCAM-1 levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The median serum levels of endocan (647 ± 101 ng/mL) and VCAM-1 (500 ± 79 ng/mL) in the HAE patients were significantly higher than in the control patients (391 ± 41 and 325 ± 4; p < 0.001 for both). The increased endocan and VCAM-1 levels may reflect an endothelial activation even in attack-free periods in HAE patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation

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    Ken Aizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirolimus (SRL is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC, an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs, SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis.

  11. [Postprandial lipemia induces endothelial dysfunction and higher insulin resistance in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effect of postprandial lipemia on endothelial function, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in healthy subjects. A prospective', interventional study in 14 healthy young men aged 18-25 years who were given a high-fat meal. Endothelial function was measured using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery, flow velocity, mean arterial pressure and serum nitrite/nitrate levels (NO(2)/NO(3)). Glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were also tested. Insulin resistance was determined by calculating the HOMA-IR index (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance). Baseline FMD was 5.9 ± 1.1%. Postprandial lipemia reduced endothelial function by approximately 50% in the first (3.3 ± 0.5%, p=0.03) and second (3.3 ± 0.4%, p=0.04) moment respectively. This finding was associated to an increased flow rate in the brachial artery and lower NO(2)/NO(3) levels (plipemia causes changes in circulating lipid profile and induces endothelial dysfunction and higher insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Metalloproteinase-9 contributes to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis via protease activated receptor-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon M Florence

    Full Text Available The atherosclerotic process begins when vascular endothelial cells undergo pro-inflammatory changes such as aberrant activation to dysfunctional phenotypes and apoptosis, leading to loss of vascular integrity. Our laboratory has demonstrated that exposure of mice to second hand smoke triggers an increase in expression of metalloproteinase-9. Further, metalloproteinase-9 released by second hand smoke-activated leukocytes may propagate pro-atherogenic alterations in endothelial cells. We have shown that levels of metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the plasma from apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/- mice exposed to second hand smoke relative to non-exposed controls. Moreover, we have collected data from two different, but complementary, treatments of second hand smoke exposed atherosclerotic mice. Animals received either cell specific metalloproteinase-9 directed siRNA to minimize metalloproteinase-9 expression in neutrophils and endothelial cells, or a pharmacological inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase which indirectly limits metalloproteinase-9 production in neutrophils. These treatments reduced atherosclerotic changes in mice and improved overall vascular health. We also demonstrated that metalloproteinase-9 could activate endothelial cells and induce their apoptosis via cleavage of protease activated receptor-1. In summary, better understanding of metalloproteinase-9's pathogenic capabilities as well as novel signaling pathways involved may lead to development of treatments which may provide additional benefits to atherosclerosis patients with a history of second hand smoke exposure.

  13. Vitamin C prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by acute ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito, Ulisses V; Callera, Glaucia E; Simplicio, Janaina A; De Martinis, Bruno S; Touyz, Rhian M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-11-15

    Investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on the endothelial dysfunction induced by acute ethanol intake. Ethanol (1g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30min in male Wistar rats. Ethanol intake decreased the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine in the rat aorta and treatment with vitamin C (250mg/kg; p.o. gavage, 5days) prevented this response. Ethanol increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation and decreased aortic nitrate/nitrite levels and these responses were not prevented by vitamin C. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were not affected by ethanol. RhoA translocation as well as the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt), eNOS (Ser(1177) or Thr(495) residues), p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK and ERK1/2 was not affected by ethanol intake. Vitamin C increased SOD activity and phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS (Ser(1177) residue) and p38MAPK in aortas from both control and ethanol-treated rats. Incubation of aortas with tempol prevented ethanol-induced decrease in the relaxation induced by acetylcholine. Ethanol (50mM/1min) increased O2(-) generation in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and vitamin C did not prevent this response. In endothelial cells, vitamin C prevented the increase on ROS generation and the decrease in the cytosolic NO content induced by ethanol. Our study provides novel evidence that vitamin C prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by acute ethanol intake by a mechanism that involves reduced ROS generation and increased NO availability in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microvascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with albuminuria and CKD in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Stephen L; Salimi, Shabnam; Pierre, Valerie; Giffuni, Jamie; Katzel, Leslie; Parsa, Afshin

    2016-07-13

    Impairment in glomerular endothelial function likely plays a major role in the development of albuminuria and CKD progression. Glomerular endothelial dysfunction may reflect systemic microvascular dysfunction, accounting in part for the greater cardiovascular risk in patients with albuminuria. Prior studies of vascular function in CKD have focused on conduit artery function or those with ESRD, and have not examined microvascular endothelial function with albuminuria. We conducted a cross-sectional study among older hypertensive male veterans with stage 1-4 CKD, and hypertensive controls without CKD. Microvascular function was quantified by two distinct Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measures: peak responses to 1) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and 2) thermal hyperemia (TH), measured on forearm skin. Associations of each LDF measure with albuminuria, eGFR, and CKD status were estimated using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression, accounting for potential confounders. Among 66 participants (mean age 69.2 years), 36 had CKD (mean eGFR 46.1 cc/min/1.73 m(2); 30.6 % with overt albuminuria). LDF responses to PORH and TH were 43 and 39 % significantly lower in multivariate analyses among those with macroalbuminuria compared to normoalbuminuria, (β= - 0.42, p = 0.009 and β= -0.37, p = 0.01, respectively). Those with CKD had a 23.9 % lower response to PORH compared to controls (p = 0.02 after adjustment). In contrast, TH responses did not differ between those with and without CKD. Microvascular endothelial function was strongly associated with greater albuminuria and CKD, independent of diabetes and blood pressure. These findings may explain in part the excess systemic cardiovascular risk associated with albuminuria and CKD.

  15. [Placental atherosclerosis and markers of endothelial dysfunction in infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Morales, Cruz Mónica; Brito Zurita, Olga Rosa; González Heredia, Ricardo; Cruz López, Miguel; Méndez Padrón, Araceli; Matute Briseño, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-05

    The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes itself causes hyperstimulation of adipose tissue and of the placenta cells increasing the production of inflammatory cytokines, which cause changes in the tissues exposed such as the placenta and foetus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare metabolic markers and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood, as well as to determine the presence of atherosclerosis in the placentas of newborn infants of patients with gestational diabetes and in patients with normally progressing pregnancies. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 84 patients, obtaining data such as age, smoking and weight gain in pregnancy; the gestational age of the newborns was determined by Capurro, and their weight and destination subsequent to birth, the placentas were also collected in order to look for atherosclerosis through histological studies and glucose, insulin, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen, PCR and markers of endothelial dysfunction (adiponectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6) were determined in blood samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Placental atherosclerosis presented in 28.94% of the group with gestational diabetes compared to 10.52% of the group with normally progressing pregnancies (P=.044); differences were found in glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, HOMA-IR, PCR-us, HDL-C, not in VLDL-C. Twenty-one point five percent of the newborns of the gestational diabetes patients required hospitalization, against 5.2% in the control group, Pregnancies that involve diabetes have higher proportion of atherosclerosis, hospitalization of the newborn, insulin resistance, as well as elevation of markers associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Crataegus special extract WS(®)1442 prevents aging-related endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris-Khodja, N; Auger, C; Koch, E; Schini-Kerth, V B

    2012-06-15

    Aging is associated with a markedly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases due, in part, to the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. The present study has evaluated whether the Crataegus special extract WS(®)1442 prevents the development of aging-related endothelial dysfunction in rats, and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats received either a control diet or the same diet containing 100 or 300 mg/kg/day of WS(®)1442 from week 25 until week 65. Vascular reactivity was assessed in mesenteric artery rings using organ chambers, oxidative stress by dihydroethidine staining and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) expression by immunohistochemistry. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in mesenteric artery rings were blunted in 65-week-old rats compared to 16-week-old rats. This effect was associated with a marked reduction of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) component whereas the nitric oxide (NO) component was not affected. Aging was also associated with the induction of endothelium-dependent contractile responses to acetylcholine. Both aging-related impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations and the induction of endothelium-dependent contractile responses were improved by the Crataegus treatment and by COX inhibitors. An excessive vascular oxidative stress and an upregulation of COX-1 and COX-2 were observed in the mesenteric artery of old rats compared to young rats, and these effects were improved by the Crataegus treatment. In conclusion, chronic intake of Crataegus prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction by reducing the prostanoid-mediated contractile responses, most likely by improving the increased oxidative stress and the overexpression of COX-1 and COX-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Sargassum echinocarpum extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Firdaus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study aimed to elicit the protective effect of Sargassum echinocarpum extract on endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods The animals were divided into 5 groups. The first was normal, the second was diabetic non treated animals. The third to fifth groups were the diabetic animals which given Sargassum echinocarpum extract (150; 300, and 450 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively by oral gavage and extract treatment was given for 12 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single administration of streptozotocin (45 mg kg-1, i.p., dissolved in freshly prepared 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5. Diabetes was confirmed ten days latter in streptozotocin induced animals showing blood glucose levels > 200 mg dL-1 (11.1 mmol L-1 as monitored in the blood from tail vein using glucometer. After the treatment period, the blood serum acquired was used for antioxidant enzymes assays and the thoracic aorta was used for vasorelaxation assay.Results There was a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px in diabetic rats (3.31 ± 0.12;67.17 ± 0.62;35.10 ± 0.83 comaped to control rats (9.97 ± 0.12;185.31 ± 0.23;116.38 ± 0.88. Administration of Sargassum extract increased the activity of SOD, CAT, and GSH-px. The diabetic rats exhibit endothelial dysfunction as shown by loss of vasodilatory response to acethylcholine (ACH. This was restored by administration of Sargassum extract.Conclusion Sargassum echinocarpum extract ameliorates oxidative stress and reverses the endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes. This effect appears to be due to its antioxidant properties. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:32-5Keywords: oxidative stress, sargassum echinocarpum, endothelium dependent relaxation, thoracic aorta

  18. Cinnamaldehyde Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by High Glucose by Activating Nrf2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is an important causative factor of endothelial dysfunction. Cinnamaldehyde (CA is a key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil that can enhance the antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS by activating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which has been shown to have a cardiovascular protective effect, but its role in endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose is unknown. Methods: Dissected male C57BL/6J mouse aortic rings and HUVECs were cultured in normal glucose(NG 5.5 mM or high glucose(HG 30.0 mM DMEM treatment with or without CA (10 µM. Results: Treatment with CA protected the endothelium relaxation, inhibited ROS generation and preserved nitric oxide (NO levels in the endothelium of mouse aortas treated with high glucose . CA up-regulated Nrf2 expression, promoted its translocation to the nucleus‚and increased HO-1, NQO1, Catalase and Gpx1 expression under high glucose condition. The increased level of nitrotyrosine in HUVECs under high glucose was also attenuated by treatment with CA. Dihydroethidium (DHE and DAF-2DA staining indicated that CA inhibited the ROS generation and preserved the NO levels in HUVECs, but these effects were reversed by Nrf2-siRNA in high glucose conditions. Conclusion: Our results indicated that CA protected endothelial dysfunction under high glucose conditions and this effect was mediated by Nrf2 activation and the up-regulation of downstream target proteins. CA administration may represent a promising intervention in diabetic patients who are at risk for vascular complications.

  19. Prevention of endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by gliclazide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, S; Angulo, J; Peiró, C; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Nevado, J; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F; Rodríguez-Mañas, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze whether the oral hypoglycemic drug gliclazide affects diabetic endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Gliclazide was compared with glibenclamide, ascorbic acid, and aminoguanidine. An insulin-dependent model of diabetes was selected to exclude insulin-releasing effects of the drugs. Both in isolated aortic segments and mesenteric microvessels, endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by acetylcholine (ACh, 1 nM to 10 microM) was significantly reduced in vessels from diabetic animals. This impairment was reversed when the segments were previously incubated with 100 U/ml superoxide dismutase. When streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally treated from the time of diabetes induction with gliclazide (10 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg), ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was well preserved both in aortic segments and mesenteric microvessels. In addition, the impaired vasodilatation to exogenous nitric oxide (NO) in aortic segments was also improved in gliclazide-treated diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral treatment with glibenclamide (1 and 10 mg/kg) or aminoguanidine (250 mg/kg) did not produce significant improvements in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that gliclazide reverses the endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes. This effect appears to be due not to the metabolic actions of the drug but rather to its antioxidant properties, as it can be mimicked by other antioxidants. We propose that the mechanism involved is the inactivation of reactive oxygen species, which are increased in diabetes probably as a result of increased early protein glycosylation products, such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)). These effects of gliclazide are not shared by other oral hypoglycemic agent such as glibenclamide, or by blockade of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) generation with aminoguanidine.

  20. Hyperuricemia is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Nakashima, Ayumu; Soga, Junko; Fujimura, Noritaka; Idei, Naomi; Mikami, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kajikawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Noma, Kensuke; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Takase, Bonpei; Yamashina, Akira; Higashi, Yukihito

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between uric acid, endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether menopausal status was associated with the relationship between uric acid and endothelial function in women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 3 general hospitals in Japan. Participants 749 Japanese women aged 30–74 years recruited from people who underwent health-screening examinations with agreement for measurement of vascular function. Measures We measured serum concentrations of uric acid and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Percentage of FMD (peak diameter−baseline diameter/baseline diameter) was used for analysis. Endothelial dysfunction was defined as FMD ≤4.90%, division point for the lowest tertile and the middle tertile of FMD. Menopause women were defined as participants without menstruation for over 1 year or participants with a history of hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy. Results Of the 749 participants, 368 (49.1%) were premenopausal women and 381 (50.9%) were postmenopausal women. Age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate and Framingham risk score were significantly correlated with serum uric acid level. FMD showed a gradual decrease in accordance with the serum uric acid level in the entire study population (<4 mg/dL, 6.85±3.65%; 4 to <5 mg/dL, 6.79±3.60%; 5 to <6 mg/dL, 6.24±3.58%; ≥6 mg/dL, 5.27±3.18%; p=0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that uric acid was a significantly independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.50), but not in premenopausal women. Conclusions These findings suggest that uric acid can be used as a risk marker of endothelial dysfunction in a female population, and particularly as an independent risk factor in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Registration number

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction as a Factor of Renal Impairment Development in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Didushko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The endothelial dysfunction was found to be detected even within normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone and it worsens while the growth of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. The objective of the investigation was to study the condition of the endothelium and its influence on renal function in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. 188 patients with manifested hypothyroidism were examined. They were divided into following groups: group I involved 45 non-obese patients with hypothyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis; group II included 46 obese patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism; group III consisted of 47 non-obese patients with post-operative hypothyroidism and group IV consisted of obese patients with postoperative hypothyroidism, n = 50. Results. Investigating endothelial dysfunction in all groups of patients suffering from hypothyroidism, a significant difference in its indices has been revealed, moreover, endothelial dysfunction has appeared to be more pronounced in patients from group II and group IV. Increase in the diameter of the brachial artery after compression in group II and group IV has turned out to be twice less and respectively, endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDVD has become 46.4 % and 47.7 % less than the one in healthy people. An inverse correlation of medium strength has been established between thyroid-stimulating hormone and EDVD levels as well as between EDVD and total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins in a joint group that involved patients with manifested hypothyroidism. The same inverse correlation of medium strength has been revealed in group I and group II; and weak, but positive inverse correlation between vasculoendothelial growth factor and glomerular filtration rate has been established in group III and group IV. Conclusions. Revealed correlations indicate mutually aggravating influence of thyroid hypofunction, obesity

  2. Lisinopril improves endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive NIDDM subjects with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Rossing, P; Gall, M A

    1997-01-01

    in these patients. Therefore the aim of our study was to evaluate whether inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (with lisinopril 10-20 mg day-1) could ameliorate endothelial dysfunction more than reducing blood pressure with conventional antihypertensive treatment (atenolol 50-100 mg day-1), usually...... escape rate of albumin (TERalb; i.e. initial disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin); serum concentrations of von Willebrand factor (vWF), using ELISA, and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE). Data are presented for 32 patients (16 lisinopril and 16 atenolol; age 60...

  3. Association between endothelial dysfunction, epicardial fat and subclinical atherosclerosis during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Navarro-Despaigne, Daisy; Staroushik-Morel, Liudmila; Díaz-Reyes, Karel; Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    Menopausal transition is critical for the development of early, subclinical vascular damage. Multiple factors, such as atherosclerosis, increased epicardial fat, and endothelial dysfunction can play a role. Hence, the objective of this study was the comparison of epicardial adipose tissue and carotid intima media thickness in order to establish the best predictor of carotid stiffness in middle-aged women with endothelial dysfunction. A total of 43 healthy women aged 40-59 years old with endothelial dysfunction previously demonstrated by flow mediated dilation were recruited to have anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and ultrasound determinations of carotid intima media thickness and epicardial fat thickness. Carotid arterial stiffness parameters (local pulse wave velocity [4.7±0.7 vs 4.8±0.5 vs 5.6±0.5m/s, respectively, p<0.001], pressure strain elastic modulus [55.2±13.4 vs 59.2±11.8 vs 81.9±15.6kPa, respectively, p<0.001], arterial stiffness index β [4.4±1.4 vs 5.0±1.1 vs 6.4±1.3, respectively, p<0.001]) and epicardial fat thickness (2.98±1.4 vs 3.28±1.9 vs 4.70±1.0mm, respectively, p=0.007) showed a significant and proportional increase in the group of late post-menopausal women when compared to early post-menopausal and pre-menopausal groups, respectively. Among body fat markers, epicardial fat was the strongest predictor of local pulse wave velocity, independent of age. In menopausal women with endothelial dysfunction, menopausal transition is associated with increased carotid arterial stiffness and epicardial fat thickness, independent of age. Ultrasound measured epicardial fat was a better independent predictor of arterial stiffness than carotid intima media thickness in these women. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression - The Maastricht Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Schram, Miranda T; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    E-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p=0.001 and 1.......40, p=0.006). Both sum scores remained significantly associated with depressive disorder after additional adjustment for lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. The sum score of inflammation was also independently associated with depressive symptoms, while the sum score...

  5. The phytoestrogen alpha-zearalenol reverses endothelial dysfunction induced by oophorectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, D; Saitta, A; Galeano, M; Squadrito, G; Marino, D; Minutoli, L; Calapai, G; Deodato, B; D'Anna, R; Corrado, F; Caputi, A P; Squadrito, F

    2001-02-01

    It has been shown recently that alpha-zearalenol, a resorcyclic acid lactone, prevents bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. We have therefore investigated the effects of this phytoestrogen on endothelial dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency in rats. Female mature Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a bilateral oophorectomy (OVX rats). Sham-operated animals (sham OVX rats) were used as controls. Three weeks after surgery, animals were randomized to the following treatments: alpha-zearalenol (1 mg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks), 17beta-estradiol (20 microg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks), or their vehicle (100 microl, i.m., of cottonseed oil). Two other groups of rats were treated with alpha-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol plus the pure estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), total plasma cholesterol, plasma estradiol, and plasma alpha-zearalenol were studied. We also investigated endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine, 10 nM to 10 microM) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside, 15 nM to 30 nM) relaxation of aortic rings, as well as N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA: 10 to 100 microM)-induced vasoconstriction and calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in homogenates of lungs taken from both sham OVX rats and OVX rats. Untreated OVX rats had, compared with sham OVX animals, unchanged body weight, MAP, HR, and plasma cholesterol. In contrast oophorectomy reduced plasma estradiol levels (OVX, 2 +/- 0.5 pg/ml; sham OVX, 35 +/- 6 pg/ml), impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation and blunted L-NMA-induced contraction (L-NMA 100 microM: sham OVX, 2.7 +/- 0.3 g/mg tissue; OVX, 1.3 +/- 0.1 g/mg tissue). Moreover OVX rats showed a reduced calcium-dependent NO synthase (cNOS) activity. Treatment with alpha-zearalenol or with 17beta-estradiol reverted the endothelial dysfunction and increased cNOS activity in lung homogenates. These effects were abolished by the

  6. Elevated biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction/activation at ICU admission are associated with sepsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Alice G; Mastora, Zafeiria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Jahaj, Edison; Maniatis, Nikolaos A; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2014-10-01

    Widespread endothelial activation and dysfunction often precede clinical sepsis. Several endothelium-related molecules have been investigated as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of sepsis, providing different results depending on study designs. Such factors include endothelial adhesion molecules like E- and P-selectin, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial cadherin, growth factors such as Angiopoietin-1 and -2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as von Willebrand factor antigen. We sought to investigate whether circulating biomarkers of endothelial activation/dysfunction measured at ICU admission are associated with subsequent sepsis development. Eighty-nine critically-ill patients admitted to a general ICU who met no sepsis criteria were studied. Plasma or serum levels of the above-mentioned endothelium-derived molecules were measured during the first 24h post ICU; acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, age, sex, diagnostic category, and circulating procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were additionally measured or recorded. Forty-five patients subsequently became septic and 44 did not. Soluble (s) E- and P-selectin levels, circulating PCT, SOFA score and diagnostic category were significantly different between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis associated elevated sE- and sP-selectin levels and SOFA with an increased risk of developing sepsis, while multiple Cox regression analysis identified sE- and sP-selectin levels as the only parameters related to sepsis appearance with time [RR=1.026, 95%CI=1.008-1.045, p=0.005; RR=1.005 (by 10 units), 95%CI=1.000-1.010, p=0.034, respectively]. When trauma patients were independently analyzed, multiple Cox regression analysis revealed sE-selectin to be the only molecule associated with sepsis development with time (RR=1.041, 95%CI: 1.019-1.065; p<0

  7. Endothelial dysfunction or dysfunctions? Identification of three different FMD responses in males with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Tschakovsky, Michael E; Carallo, Claudio; Cortese, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2008-10-01

    Endothelial function is widely evaluated by vasodilatation of the brachial artery induced by ischemia (flow-mediated vasodilatation, FMD). The function of the endothelium, in this setting, is to sense wall shear stress (WSS) increase and to release vasodilators. Following current guidelines FMD is measured 50-60s after ischemia. It is not known whether this lapse of time is sufficient to observe maximal vasodilatation, especially in diseased subjects. Sixty-six subjects with type 2 diabetes and 30 controls underwent FMD-test. Brachial artery WSS was measured at rest and during the first 15s after ischemia as index of peripheral resistances vessels reactivity, and FMD at 50, 120, 180, and 300s after ischemia as index of conduit vessel function. All controls exhibited increased WSS and peak FMD at 50s. Among subjects with diabetes three groups were identified based on the time at which peak FMD occurred. Twenty subjects with diabetes exhibited peak at 50s (Early FMD), 28 at 2 min (Late FMD), and 18 showed no FMD (Absent FMD). Peak FMD in Late FMD subgroup was comparable to peak in control subjects and significantly higher than peak in other subjects with diabetes. The "Absent FMD" group showed also impaired WSS. The present findings demonstrate that brachial artery response to ischemia is heterogeneous in type 2 diabetes, suggesting different mechanisms responsible for FMD alteration in this condition.

  8. Allopurinol protects human glomerular endothelial cells from high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species generation, p53 overexpression and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Pissas, Georgios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in capillary endothelial cells is a prerequisite for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase, another ROS generator, ameliorates experimental diabetic nephropathy. To test the hypothesis that the initial high glucose-induced ROS production by the mitochondria activates xanthine oxidase, which afterward remains as the major source of ROS, we cultured primary human glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) under normal or high-glucose conditions, with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. ROS generation and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were assessed by chemiluminescence or colorimetrically. Levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), p53 and phosphorylated p53 (p-p53) were assessed by western blotting. Allopurinol prevented high glucose-induced ROS generation indicating that xanthine oxidase is the major source of ROS. Allopurinol protected GEnC from endothelial dysfunction since it prevented the high glucose-induced decrease in NOS activity and increase in ICAM-1 expression. Allopurinol reduced p53 and p-p53 levels induced by high glucose suggesting an axis of xanthine oxidase-derived ROS, DNA damage, p53 stabilization and endothelial dysfunction that may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Allopurinol protects GEnC from high glucose-induced ROS generation, p53 overexpression and endothelial dysfunction. These data provide a pathogenetic mechanism that supports the results of experimental and clinical studies about the beneficial effect of xanthine oxidase inhibitors on the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  9. Magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles induce vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation by disturbing autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail: chaperones@163.com [College of Bioengineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, XueQin; Miao, YiMing; Chen, ZhiQiang; Qiang, PengFei; Cui, LiuQing; Jing, Hongjuan [College of Bioengineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Guo, YuQi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis in HUVECs within 24 h. • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs induced HUVEC dysfunction and inflammation. • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs induced enhanced autophagic activity and blockade of autophagy flux. • Suppression of autophagy dysfunction attenuated B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced HUVEC dysfunction. - Abstract: Despite the considerable use of magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs) worldwide, their safety is still an important topic of debate. In the present study, we detected the toxicity and biological behavior of bare-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs (B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results showed that B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs did not induce cell death within 24 h even at concentrations up to 400 μg/ml. The level of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) were decreased after exposure to B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs, whereas the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were elevated. Importantly, B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs increased the accumulation of autophagosomes and LC3-II in HUVECs through both autophagy induction and the blockade of autophagy flux. The levels of Beclin 1 and VPS34, but not phosphorylated mTOR, were increased in the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-treated HUVECs. Suppression of autophagy induction or stimulation of autophagy flux, at least partially, attenuated the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced HUVEC dysfunction. Additionally, enhanced autophagic activity might be linked to the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results demonstrated that B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs disturb the process of autophagy in HUVECs, and eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.

  10. Endothelial and non-endothelial coronary blood flow reserve and left ventricular dysfunction in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Marchi Rocha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impairment of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve after administration of intracoronary acetylcholine and adenosine, and its association with hypertensive cardiac disease. INTRODUCTION: Coronary blood flow reserve reduction has been proposed as a mechanism for the progression of compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Eighteen hypertensive patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries on angiography were divided into two groups according to left ventricular fractional shortening (FS. Group 1 (FS >0.25: n=8, FS=0.29 ± 0.03; Group 2 (FS <0.25: n=10, FS= 0.17 ± 0.03. RESULTS: Baseline coronary blood flow was similar in both groups (Group 1: 80.15 ± 26.41 mL/min, Group 2: 100.09 ± 21.51 mL/min, p=NS. In response to adenosine, coronary blood flow increased to 265.1 ± 100.2 mL/min in Group 1 and to 300.8 ± 113.6 mL/min (p <0.05 in Group 2. Endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in both groups (Group 1: 3.31 ± 0.68 and Group 2: 2.97 ± 0.80, p=NS. In response to acetylcholine, coronary blood flow increased to 156.08 ± 36.79 mL/min in Group 1 and to 177.8 ± 83.6 mL/min in Group 2 (p <0.05. Endothelium-dependent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in the two groups (Group 1: 2.08 ± 0.74 and group Group 2: 1.76 ± 0.61, p=NS. Peak acetylcholine/peak adenosine coronary blood flow response (Group 1: 0.65 ± 0.27 and Group 2: 0.60 ± 0.17 and minimal coronary vascular resistance (Group 1: 0.48 ± 0.21 mmHg/mL/min and Group 2: 0.34 ± 0.12 mmHg/mL/min were similar in both groups (p= NS. Casual diastolic blood pressure and end-systolic left ventricular stress were independently associated with FS. CONCLUSIONS: In our hypertensive patients, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve vasodilator administrations had similar effects in patients with either normal or decreased left

  11. Markers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation and tissue fibrosis independently predict venous thromboembolism in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Laura W; Sheikh, Virginia; Norton, Thomas D; Rupert, Adam; Porter, Brian O; Penzak, Scott R; Skinner, Jeff; Mican, JoAnn M; Hadigan, Colleen; Sereti, Irini

    2011-03-27

    HIV infection is associated with coagulation abnormalities and significantly increased risk of venous thrombosis. It has been shown that higher plasma levels of coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers predicted mortality in HIV. We investigated the relationship between venous thrombosis and HIV-related characteristics, traditional risk factors of hypercoagulability, and pre-event levels of biomarkers. A retrospective case-control study of 23 HIV-infected individuals who experienced an incident venous thromboembolic event while enrolled in National Institutes of Health studies from 1995 to 2010 and 69 age-matched and sex-matched HIV-infected individuals without known venous thromboembolism (VTE). Biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, tissue fibrosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation were assessed by ELISA-based assays and PCR using plasma obtained prior to the event. VTE events were related to nadir CD4 cell count, lifetime history of multiple opportunistic infections, CMV disease, CMV viremia, immunological AIDS, active infection, and provocation (i.e., recent hospitalization, surgery, or trauma). VTE events were independently associated with increased plasma levels of P-selectin (P = 0.002), D-dimer (P = 0.01), and hyaluronic acid (P = 0.009) in a multivariate analysis. No significant differences in antiretroviral or interleukin-2 exposures, plasma HIV viremia, or other traditional risk factors were observed. Severe immunodeficiency, active infection, and provocation are associated with venous thromboembolic disease in HIV. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation, and tissue fibrosis may help identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk of VTE.

  12. Heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes, endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, T P; Osmenda, G; Batko, B; Wilk, G; Krezelok, M; Skiba, D; Sliwa, T; Pryjma, J R; Guzik, T J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. SLE patients have increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis, although the mechanisms of this observation remain unclear. Considering the emerging role of monocytes in atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and the phenotype of peripheral blood monocytes in SLE patients. We characterized the phenotype of monocyte subsets defined by the expression of CD14 and CD16 in 42 patients with SLE and 42 non-SLE controls. Using ultrasonography, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NMD) were assessed. Patients with SLE had significantly, but only modestly, increased IMT when compared with non-SLE controls (median (25th/75th percentile) 0.65 (0.60/0.71) mm vs 0.60 (0.56/0.68) mm; p subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE, although the mechanism appears to be independent of endothelial dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC COR PULMONALE BY ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTORS ANTAGONISTS

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    V. S. Zadionchenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate intensity of endothelial dysfunction, processes of apoptosis, state of central and peripheral hemodynamics and to evaluate how these characteristics are influenced by angiotensin II receptors antagonists (ARA II – candesartan (Atacand and losartan (Cosaar in patients with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP at different stages of disease.Material and methods. 100 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, complicated by CCP were included into the study. Caspase activity as apoptosis induction marker, von Willebrand factor, production of nitric oxide in blood plasma and condensate of breathing out air were assessed. 70 patients received ARA II (50 patients – candesartan 4-8 mg daily, 20 patients – losartan 50-100 mg daily, 30 patients received neither ARA II nor angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI.Results. Significant increase in intensity of endothelial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis processes were registered according to growth of CCP severity. After 6 months of therapy von Willebrand factor decreased by 25,2% and 27,7% in candesartan and losartan groups respectively (p<0.01 for both groups. In the control group only 13.2% of von Willebrand factor reduction was seen.Conclusion. ARA II added to common therapy of COPD complicated by CCP improves functional state of endothelium restricting hyperproduction of nitric oxide and its toxic effects and slowing down apoptotic cell death.

  14. CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC COR PULMONALE BY ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTORS ANTAGONISTS

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    V. S. Zadionchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate intensity of endothelial dysfunction, processes of apoptosis, state of central and peripheral hemodynamics and to evaluate how these characteristics are influenced by angiotensin II receptors antagonists (ARA II – candesartan (Atacand and losartan (Cosaar in patients with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP at different stages of disease.Material and methods. 100 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, complicated by CCP were included into the study. Caspase activity as apoptosis induction marker, von Willebrand factor, production of nitric oxide in blood plasma and condensate of breathing out air were assessed. 70 patients received ARA II (50 patients – candesartan 4-8 mg daily, 20 patients – losartan 50-100 mg daily, 30 patients received neither ARA II nor angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI.Results. Significant increase in intensity of endothelial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis processes were registered according to growth of CCP severity. After 6 months of therapy von Willebrand factor decreased by 25,2% and 27,7% in candesartan and losartan groups respectively (p<0.01 for both groups. In the control group only 13.2% of von Willebrand factor reduction was seen.Conclusion. ARA II added to common therapy of COPD complicated by CCP improves functional state of endothelium restricting hyperproduction of nitric oxide and its toxic effects and slowing down apoptotic cell death.

  15. Lack of association between Chlamydia Pneumoniae serology and endothelial dysfunction of coronary arteries

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    Oehme Albrecht

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent publications brought up the hypothesis that an infection with Chlamydia Pneumoniae (CP might be a major cause of coronary artery disease (CAD. Therefore, we investigated whether endothelial dysfunction (ED as a precursor of atherosclerosis might be detectable in patients with previous infection with CP but without angiographic evidence of CAD. Methods We included 16 patients (6 male / 10 female of 52 consecutive patients with normal coronary angiography who had typical angina pectoris and pathologic findings in the stress test. Exclusion criteria were: active smoker, elevated cholesterol, hypertension, age > 65 years, diabetes mellitus, treatment with ACE-inhibitors, or known CAD. Blood sample analysis for serum titer against CP (aCP-IgG was performed after coronary angiography. We looked for endothelial dysfunction analyzing the diameter of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD before and after acetylcholine (ACh i. c. Quantitative analysis of luminal diameter (LD was performed in at least two planes during baseline conditions and after ACh for 2 minutes in dosages of 7.2 μg/min and 36 μg/min with an infusion speed of 2 ml/min. Using Doppler guide wire, the coronary flow velocity was measured continuously in the LAD. The coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR was measured after 20 μg adenosine i. c. Results 10 patients had an elevated aCP-IgG (> 1:8. 6 patients with negative titers (aCP-IgG ≤ 1:8 served as control (CTRL. Both groups were comparable in age, gender, angina class, results of non-invasive stress-test and the baseline values of LD and flow. In the CP positive group 3 patients (30% did not show an increase of LD after ACh as evidence of ED. In the CTRL group 4 patients (67 % had ED. There was no association between aCP-IgG and changes of coronary blood flow after ACh. All patients showed normal CFVR (3.0 ± 0.27 irrespective of their aCP-IgG values. Conclusion In patients with typical

  16. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  17. PTX3 as a potential endothelial dysfunction biomarker for severity of preeclampsia and IUGR.

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    Cozzi, V; Garlanda, C; Nebuloni, M; Maina, V; Martinelli, A; Calabrese, S; Cetin, I

    2012-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction typical of preeclampsia (PE) is the result of an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. We investigated PTX3 in maternal, fetal and placental compartments in complicated pregnancies. Maternal blood samples were collected during the third trimester in 53 PE, 43 IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and 50 normal pregnancies. Fetal samples were collected from the umbilical vein in 26 PE, 23 IUGR and 26 normal pregnancies at elective cesarean section. Pattern and site of expression of PTX3 were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on placenta, decidual bed and maternal peritoneum. PE and IUGR pregnancies had significantly higher maternal PTX3 levels compared to normal pregnancies, with IUGR significantly lower than PE. Maternal peritoneum expressed a significantly higher signal in the endothelium of pathological compared to normal pregnancies. The maternal increase of PTX3 correlated with the severity of disease with higher PTX3 concentrations in severe PE. Increased PTX3 levels in PE and IUGR mothers, together with IHC data represent the expression of altered endothelial function on the maternal side. IUGR fetuses had higher PTX3 values than controls and the increase was related to IUGR severity, likely reflecting the hypoxic environment. These data confirm the relevance of PTX3 in support the hypothesis that PE is a disease associated with altered maternal endothelial function. The PTX3 increase in IUGR fetuses deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

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    Yuko Inami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

  19. Citreoviridin Enhances Atherogenesis in Hypercholesterolemic ApoE-Deficient Mice via Upregulating Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    Hai-Feng Hou

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory response are early events during initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In vitro studies have described that CIT markedly upregulates expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of endothelial cells, which result from NF-κB activation induced by CIT. In order to determine whether it plays a role in atherogenesis in vivo, we conducted the study to investigate the effects of CIT on atherosclerotic plaque development and inflammatory response in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/- mice. Five-week-old apoE-/- mice were fed high-fat diets and treated with CIT for 15 weeks, followed by assay of atherosclerotic lesions. Nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were detected in serum. Levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, VEGF, and ET-1 in plaque areas of artery walls were examined. NF-κB p65 expression and NF-κB activation in aorta also were assessed. CIT treatment significantly augmented atherosclerotic plaques and increased expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, VEGF and ET-1 in aorta. Mechanistic studies showed that activation of NF-κB was significantly elevated by CIT treatment, indicating the effect of CIT on atherosclerosis may be regulated by activation of NF-κB.

  20. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate with endocrinal abnormalities in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    To study and critically analyze the published evidence on correlation of hormonal abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction (ED) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through a systematic review. The databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Up-To-Date, and Science Direct were searched using Medical subject handling terms and free text term keywords such as endocrine abnormalities in PCOS, ED assessment in PCOS, ED in combination with insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism (HA), increased free testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), gonadotrophin levels, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estrogen, adipocytokines to search trials, and observational studies published from January 1987 to September 2015. Authors of original studies were contacted for additional data when necessary. PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. ED, which is a reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk in general population, is seen in most (but not all) women with PCOS. IR, seen in 70% patients with PCOS, is associated with ED in these women, but patients can have normal endothelial function even in the presence of IR. Free testosterone and FAI are consistently associated with ED, but endothelial function can be normal despite HA. Estradiol (not estrone) appears to be protective against ED though estrone is the predominant estrogen produced in PCOS. Increased levels of adipocytokines (visfatin) are promising in predicting ED and cardiovascular risk. However, more studies are required focusing on direct correlation of levels of prolactin, LH, estrone, and visfatin with ED in PCOS. PMID:27843797

  1. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  2. The effects of stress at work and at home on inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non, Amy L; Rimm, Eric B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rewak, Marissa A; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406-433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhesion molecules, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1; n's range from 205-235) in a cohort of healthy US male health professionals. No associations were found between stress at work or at home and inflammation. Men with high or medium levels of stress at work had significantly higher levels of sVCAM-1 (13% increase) and marginally higher levels of sICAM-1 (9% increase), relative to those reporting low stress at work, independent of health behaviors. Men with high levels of stress at home had marginally higher levels of both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 than those with low stress at home. While lack of findings related to inflammation are somewhat surprising, if replicated in future studies, these findings may suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an important biological mechanism linking stress at work with cardiovascular health outcomes in men.

  3. Involvement of iron-evoked oxidative stress in smoking-related endothelial dysfunction in healthy young men.

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    Kei Fukami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and smoking contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Iron might also play a role in oxidative stress generation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the involvement of iron in smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers remains unclear. Therefore, we examined here whether (1 intravenous iron infusion impaired endothelial function evaluated by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD in non-smokers, and (2 deferoxamine, a potent iron chelator, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers. METHODS: Eight healthy young male non-smokers (23 ± 4 years old received intravenous injection of saccharated ferric oxide (0.7 mg/kg body weight, while 10 age-matched healthy male smokers received deferoxamine mesylate (8.3 mg/kg body weight. At baseline, 5 and 20 minutes after treatment with iron or deferoxamine, biochemical variables were measured, including serum iron and marondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid oxidation, and endothelial function was simultaneously evaluated by FMD. RESULTS: Compared with non-smokers, FMD was significantly lower in smokers. Iron and MDA levels were significantly increased, whereas FMD was impaired by iron infusion in non-smokers. Conversely, deferoxamine treatment significantly decreased iron and MDA levels and restored the decreased FMD in smokers. Baseline serum iron and MDA levels in all 18 subjects (non-smokers and smokers were correlated with each other. There was a significant inverse correlation between the changes in MDA values and FMD from baseline in 18 men. Endothelium-independent vasodilation by glyceryl trinitrate was unaltered by either treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our present study suggests that iron-evoked oxidative stress might play a role in endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers.

  4. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  5. Hypovitaminosis D is Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Coskun U; Akpinar, Yunus E; Amikishiyev, Shirkhan; Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Gurdol, Figen; Omer, Beyhan

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that hypovitaminosis D may increase the risk of hypertension, vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) is one of the key components of MetS which is associated with an imbalance between vasoactive substances such as Nitric Oxide (NO) and Endothelins (ET). In this study, we assessed the association of 25(OH) D3 level with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis in MetS patients. 105 MetS patients and 48 controls were included. 25(OH) D3 levels were measured using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). NOx (NO2 plus NO3) and Endothelin- 1(ET-1) concentrations were determined along with routine biochemical tests. Flow-Mediated Dilatation (FMD) and carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) were measured by ultrasonography. In MetS patients, vitamin D and NOx levels were significantly lower (p<0.001), while ET-1 levels were higher than controls (p<0.005). MetS patients with ED exhibited significantly lower vitamin D levels than their counterparts free of ED. Vitamin D levels were correlated positively with FMD and NOx, and negatively with systolic blood pressure and body mass index. Subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by the cIMT did not associate with low vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency seen in MetS patients is more prominent in the presence of ED. Hypovitaminosis D may affect endothelial cells, and participate in the development of hypertension. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Impairment of IKCa channels contributes to uteroplacental endothelial dysfunction in rat diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokina, Natalia I; Bonev, Adrian D; Phillips, Julie; Gokin, Alexander P; Veilleux, Kelsey; Oppenheimer, Karen; Goloman, Gabriela

    2015-08-15

    Diabetes in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired vasodilation of the maternal uteroplacental vasculature. In the present study, we explored the role of endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels of small conductance (SKCa channels) and intermediate conductance (IKCa channels) in diabetes-induced uterine vascular dysfunction. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin to second-day pregnant rats and confirmed by the development of maternal hyperglycemia. Control rats were injected with citrate buffer. Changes in smooth muscle cell intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, membrane potential, and vasodilation induced by SKCa/IKCa channel activators were studied in uteroplacental arteries of control and diabetic rats. The impact of diabetes on SKCa- and IKCa-mediated currents was explored in freshly dissociated ECs. NS309 evoked a potent vasodilation that was effectively inhibited by TRAM-34 but not by apamin. NS309-induced smooth muscle cell intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, membrane potential, and dilator responses were significantly diminished by diabetes; N-cyclohexyl-N-2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine (CyPPA)-evoked responses were not affected. Ca(2+)-activated ion currents in ECs were insensitive to paxilline, markedly inhibited by charybdotoxin (ChTX), and diminished by apamin. NS309-induced EC currents were generated mostly due to activation of ChTX-sensitive channels. Maternal diabetes resulted in a significant reduction in ChTX-sensitive currents with no effect on apamin-sensitive or CyPPA-induced currents. We concluded that IKCa channels play a prevalent role over SKCa channels in the generation of endothelial K(+) currents and vasodilation of uteroplacental arteries. Impaired function of IKCa channels importantly contributes to diabetes-induced uterine endothelial dysfunction. Therapeutic restoration of IKCa channel function may be a novel strategy for improvement of maternal uteroplacental blood flow in

  7. Aldolase B knockdown prevents high glucose-induced methylglyoxal overproduction and cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

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    Jianghai Liu

    Full Text Available We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs, oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM and MG (30, 100 µM increased the formation of N(ε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE, oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H(2O(2, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG, O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway, membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker. In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  8. Advanced glycation inhibition and protection against endothelial dysfunction induced by coumarins and procyanidins from Mammea neurophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bach Tai; Gény, Charlotte; Blanchard, Patricia; Rouger, Caroline; Tonnerre, Pierre; Charreau, Béatrice; Rakolomalala, Gilbertine; Randriamboavonjy, Joseph Iharinjaka; Loirand, Gervaise; Pacaud, Pierre; Litaudon, Marc; Richomme, Pascal; Séraphin, Denis; Derbré, Séverine

    2014-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with many pathogenic disorders such as pathogenesis of diabetes or endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular events. Therefore, the identification of new anti-AGE molecules or extracts aims at preventing such pathologies. Many Clusiaceae and Calophyllaceae species are used in traditional medicines to treat arterial hypertension as well as diabetes. Focusing on these plant families, an anti-AGE plant screening allowed us to select Mammea neurophylla for further phytochemical and biological studies. Indeed, both DCM and MeOH stem bark extracts demonstrated in vitro their ability to prevent inflammation in endothelial cells and to reduce vasoconstriction. A bioguided fractionation of these extracts allowed us to point out 4-phenyl- and 4-(1-acetoxypropyl)coumarins and procyanidins as potent inhibitors of AGE formation, potentially preventing endothelial dysfunction. The fractionation steps also led to the isolation of two new compounds, namely neurophyllols A and B from the DCM bark extract together with thirteen known mammea A and E coumarins (mammea A/AA, mammea A/AB, mammea A/BA, mammea A/BB, mammea A/AA cycloD, mammea A/AB cycloD, disparinol B, mammea A/AB cycloE, ochrocarpin A, mammea A/AA cycloF, mammea A/AB cycloF, mammea E/BA, mammea E/BB) as well as δ-tocotrienol, xanthones (1-hydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone, 2-hydroxyxanthone) and triterpenes (friedelin and betulinic acid). During this study, R,S-asperphenamate, previously described from fungal origin was also purified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptin promotes endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease through AKT/GSK3β and β-catenin signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nannan; Liu, Bing; Song, Jiaguang; Bao, Shougang; Zhen, Junhui; Lv, Zhimei; Wang, Rong

    2016-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a well-recognized instigator of cardiovascular diseases and develops in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with high rate. Recent studies have implicated that leptin is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between leptin and markers of ED in CKD patients and how leptin contributed to endothelial damage. 140 CKD patients and 140 healthy subjects were studied. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in CKD than in controls and displayed significantly positive association with the increase levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 but negative correlation with flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) reduction in patients. Our in vitro study demonstrated that leptin induced overexpression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, led to f-actin reorganization and vinculin assembly, increased endothelial monolayer permeability for FITC-dextran, and accelerated endothelial cell migration; these changes were markedly reversed when the cells were transfected with AKT or β-catenin shRNA vectors. Notably, high leptin resulted in hyper-phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β, along with nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In conclusion, serum leptin was elevated in CKD patients and it might contribute to endothelial dysfunction by disarrangement of f-actin cytoskeleton via a mechanism involving the AKT/GSK3β and β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Uma; Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Goyal, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) interrupts the integrity and function of endothelial lining through enhanced markers of oxidative stress and decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. The main aim of the present study has been designed to investigate the possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced VED. Sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 weeks) abrogated the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by depicting the decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, reduced glutathione level, and simultaneously enhance the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, superoxide level, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These elevated markers interrupt the integrity of endothelial lining of thoracic aorta which was assessed histologically. The study elicits dose dependent effect of linagliptin (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment, improved the endothelium-dependent independent relaxation, improve the integrity of endothelium lining which was assessed histologically by enhancing the serum nitrite/nitrate level, reduced glutathione level and simultaneously decreasing the TBARS level, superoxide anion level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level. L-NAME (25 mg/kg, i.p.), eNOS inhibitor, abrogated the ameliorative potential of linagliptin. However, the ameliorative potential of linagliptin has been enhanced by l-arginine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) which elicits that ameliorative potential of linagliptin was through eNOS signaling cascade and it may be concluded that linagliptin 3 mg/kg, i.p. has more significantly activated the eNOS and decreased the oxidative markers than linagliptin 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED.

  11. Circulating microparticles from Crohn's disease patients cause endothelial and vascular dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs are small vesicles released during cell activation or apoptosis. They are involved in coagulation, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in several diseases. We characterized circulating MPs from Crohn's Disease (CD patients and evaluated their effects on endothelial function and vascular reactivity after in vivo injection into mice. METHODS: Circulating MPs and their cellular origins were examined by flow cytometry from blood samples from healthy subjects (HS and inactive or active CD patients. MPs were intravenously injected into mice. After 24 hours, endothelial function and vascular reactivity were assessed. RESULTS: Circulating MP levels did not differ between HS and inactive CD patients except for an increase in leukocyte-derived MPs in CD. Active CD patients compared to HS displayed increased total circulating MPs, pro-coagulant MPs and those from platelets, endothelium, erythrocytes, leukocytes, activated leukocytes and activated platelets. A significant correlation was found between total levels of MPs, those from platelets and endothelial cells, and the Harvey-Bradshaw clinical activity index. MPs from CD, but not from HS, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in mice aorta and flow-induced dilation in mice small mesenteric arteries, MPs from inactive CD patients being more effective than those from active patients. CDMPs induced vascular hypo-reactivity in aorta that was prevented by a nitric oxide (NO-synthase inhibitor, and was associated with a subtle alteration of the balance between NO, reactive oxygen species and the release of COX metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that MPs from CD patients significantly alter endothelial and vascular function and therefore, may play a role in CD pathophysiology, at least by contributing to uncontrolled vascular-dependent intestinal damage.

  12. Angiostatic factors in the pulmonary endarterectomy material from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients cause endothelial dysfunction.

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    Diana Zabini

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare disease with persistent thrombotic occlusion or stenosis of the large pulmonary arteries resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Surgical removal of the neointimal layer of these vessels together with the non-resolved thrombus consisting of organized collagen-rich fibrotic areas with partly recanalized regions is the treatment of choice (pulmonary endarterectomy, PEA. The present study investigates endothelial cells isolated from such material as well as factors present in the surgical PEA material, which may contribute to impairment of recanalization and thrombus non-resolution. We observed muscularized vessels and non-muscularized vessels in the PEA material. The isolated endothelial cells from the PEA material showed significantly different calcium homeostasis as compared to pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs from normal controls. In the supernatant (ELISA as well as on the tissue level (histochemical staining of the PEA material, platelet factor 4 (PF4, collagen type I and interferon-gamma-inducible 10 kD protein (IP-10 were detected. CXCR3, the receptor for PF4 and IP-10, was particularly elevated in the distal parts of the PEA material as compared to human control lung (RT-PCR. PF4, collagen type I and IP-10 caused significant changes in calcium homeostasis and affected the cell proliferation, migration and vessel formation in hPAECs. The presence of angiostatic factors like PF4, collagen type I and IP-10, as recovered from the surgical PEA material from CTEPH patients, may lead to changes in calcium homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction.

  13. ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND THE RISK OF HYPERTENSION: THE MULTI-ETHNIC STUDY OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Mann, Devin; Viera, Anthony J.; Homma, Shunichi; Polak, Joseph F.; Barr, R. Graham; Herrington, David; Shea, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with impaired endothelial function in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal data exist on whether endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of hypertension. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between endothelial-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and hypertension prevalence and incidence in 3,500 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ethnically diverse, community-based cohort study. At baseline, the prevalence ratios (95% CI) of hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.12 – 1.40), 1.35 (1.21 – 1.52), and 1.68 (1.50 – 1.87) (linear trend P risk factors. Of the 1,869 participants without hypertension at baseline, 584 (31.3%) developed hypertension over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The unadjusted relative risks (95% CI) of incident hypertension from the highest to the lowest quartile of FMD were 1.00 (referent), 1.38 (1.14 – 1.67), 1.44 (1.19 – 1.74), and 1.64 (1.36 – 1.97) (linear trend P hypertension was attenuated and not statistically significant: 1.00 (referent), 1.26 (1.04 – 1.52), 1.19 (0.98 – 1.44), and 1.18 (0.97 – 1.44). The longitudinal results also did not appreciably change after adjustment for additional risk factors and baseline blood pressure levels. In this sample, reduced FMD was not an independent predictor of hypertension incidence, suggesting that impaired endothelial function does not play a major role in the development of hypertension. PMID:20308612

  14. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospectively gated MRI for in vivo assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and endothelial permeability in murine models of endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Anna; Skórka, Tomasz; Jasiński, Krzysztof; Sternak, Magdalena; Bartel, Żaneta; Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is linked to impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and permeability changes. Here, we quantify both of these phenomena associated with endothelial dysfunction by MRI in vivo in mice. Endothelial function was evaluated in the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) and left carotid artery (LCA) in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice as compared with control mice (C57BL/6J). The 3D IntraGate® FLASH sequence was used for evaluation of changes in vessels' cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume following acetylcholine (Ach) administration. Evaluation of endothelial permeability after administration of contrast agent (Galbumin, BioPAL) was based on the variable flip angle method for the assessment of parameters based on the relaxation time (T1 ) value. In order to confirm the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in response to Ach, L-NAME-treated mice were also analyzed. To confirm that endothelial permeability changes accompany the impairment of Ach-dependent vasodilatation, permeability changes were analyzed in isolated, perfused carotid artery. In C57BL/6J mice, Ach-induced vasodilatation led to an approximately 25% increase in CSA in both vessels, which was temporarily dissociated from the effect of Ach on heart rate. In ApoE/LDLR(-/-) or HFD-fed mice Ach induced a paradoxical vasoconstriction that amounted to approximately 30% and 50% decreases in CSA of BCA and LCA respectively. In ApoE/LDLR(-/-) and HFD-fed mice endothelial permeability in BCA was also increased (fall in T1 by about 25%). In L-NAME-treated mice Ach-induced vasodilatation in BCA was lost. In isolated, perfused artery from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice endothelial permeability was increased. MRI-based assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation induced by Ach and endothelial permeability using a retrospectively self-gated 3D gradient-echo sequence (IntraGate® FLASH) enables the reliable detection of systemic endothelial dysfunction in mice and provides an important tool

  16. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Induced Hypertrophy and Vascular Dysfunction Contribute to the Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Caveolin-1-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Annette; Kuerbis, Nadine; Brandt, Aljoscha; Zatschler, Birgit; Weinert, Sönke; Poitz, David M; Ebner, Bernd; Augstein, Antje; Wunderlich, Carsten; El-Armouche, Ali; Strasser, Ruth H

    2017-12-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1)-/- mice display impaired development of left ventricular pressure and increased left ventricular wall thickness but no dilated ventricle; these are typical findings in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HfpEF). Aiming to clarify if dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) influences cardiomyocyte contractility, cardiac conduction system, or afterload/vascular resistance, we studied Cav1-/-/eNOS-/- mice. Cardiac function was assessed in vivo by pressure-volume-catheterization of the left ventricle, echocardiography and electrocardiography. In addition, isolated tissue experiments were performed to evaluate cardiomyocyte contractility (atria) and vessel morphology and function (aorta). Histology, immunoblotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied to characterise radical formation and oxidative stress in the heart. Cardiac hypertrophy was completely reversed in Cav1-/-/eNOS-/- mice. The impaired pump function in Cav1-/- mice was significantly improved in Cav1-/-/eNOS-/- mice, but no complete alignment with eNOS-/- controls was achieved, indicating an additional eNOS-independent mechanism contributing to HFpEF in Cav1-/- mice. It is unlikely that frequently occurring arrhythmias contributed to HFpEF in Cav1-/- mice. In contrast, numerous eNOS-dependent and eNOS-independent vascular abnomalities could explain the cardiac phenotypes of Cav1-/- mice. Synergistic effects between eNOS-related cardiac hypertrophy and vascular hypercontractility appear to underlie the left ventricular dysfunction in Cav1-/-mice. These findings provide insights relevant to the poorly understood pathophysiology of HFpEF. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  18. Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a general population: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Holtfreter

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence underlines an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In contrast, data on its relation with endothelial dysfunction as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis is inconclusive and limited to patient-cohort studies. We therefore investigated the association between periodontal disease and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD as a measure of endothelial dysfunction in a general population, and also addressed a possible mediation via inflammation. The study population comprised 1,234 subjects (50.5% men aged 25-85 years from the 5-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania, a population-based cohort study. Clinical attachment loss (CAL and pocket probing depth (PPD as measures of periodontal disease were assessed half-mouth at four sites per tooth. Subjects were classified according to the periodontitis case definition proposed by Tonetti and Claffey (2005. Measurements of FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD were performed using standardized ultrasound techniques. High-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and leukocyte count were measured. Fully adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses revealed significant associations of the percentage of sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm with FMD (p(trend=0.048, with subjects within the highest category having a 0.74% higher FMD compared to subjects within the lowest category (p<0.05. Consistently, FMD values increased significantly across categories of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm (p(trend=0.01 and the periodontitis case definition (p(trend=0.006. Restrictions to subjects without antihypertensive or statin medication or current non-smokers confirmed previous results. Systemic inflammation did not seem to mediate the relation. Both PPD and CAL were not consistently associated with NMD. In contrast to previous studies, high levels of periodontal disease were significantly associated with high FMD values. This

  19. Circulating Plasma Extracellular Microvesicle MicroRNA Cargo and Endothelial Dysfunction in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Philby, Mona F; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Mohammadi, Meelad; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2016-11-01

    Obese children are at increased risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both of these conditions are associated with an increased risk for endothelial dysfunction (ED) in children, an early risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Although weight loss and treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy improve endothelial function, not every obese child or child with OSA develops ED. Exosomes are circulating extracellular vesicles containing functional mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) that can be delivered to other cells, such as endothelial cells. To investigate whether circulating exosomal miRNAs of children with OSA differentiate based on endothelial functional status. Obese children (body mass index z score >1.65) and nonobese children were recruited and underwent polysomnographic testing (PSG), and fasting endothelial function measurements and blood draws in the morning after PSG. Plasma exosomes were isolated from all subjects. Isolated exosomes were then incubated with confluent endothelial cell monolayer cultures. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing systems were used to determine the ability of exosomes to disrupt the intercellular barrier formed by confluent endothelial cells. In addition, immunofluorescent assessments of zonula occludens-1 tight junction protein cellular distribution were conducted to examine endothelial barrier dysfunction. miRNA and mRNA arrays were also applied to exosomes and endothelial cells, and miRNA inhibitors and mimics were transfected for mechanistic assays. Plasma exosomes isolated from either obese children or nonobese children with OSA were primarily derived from endothelial cell sources and recapitulated ED, or its absence, in naive human endothelial cells and also in vivo when injected into mice. Microarrays identified a restricted signature of exosomal miRNAs that readily distinguished ED from normal endothelial function. Among the miRNAs, expression of exosomal miRNA-630 was reduced in children

  20. Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijun; Yuan, Jiangzi; Qi, Chaojun; Shao, Xinghua; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. However, the pathogenesis of DKD remains unclear, and no effective treatments for the disease are available. Thus, there is an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of DKD and to develop more effective therapies for this disease. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured using different D-glucose concentrations to determine the effect of high glucose (HG) on the cells. Alternatively, HUVECs were incubated with 100 µmol/l calcium dobesilate (CaD) to detect its effects. The authors subsequently measured HUVEC proliferation via cell counting kit-8 assays. In addition, HUVEC angiogenesis was investigated via migration assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeability assays. The content or distribution of markers of endothelial dysfunction [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (R) and endocan) or inflammation [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and pentraxin-related protein (PTX3)] was evaluated via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. HG treatment induced increased in VEGF, VEGFR, endocan, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and PTX3 mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs. HG treatment for 24 to 48 h increased cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner, but the cell proliferation rate was decreased at 72 h of HG treatment. Conversely, CaD inhibited abnormal cell proliferation. HG treatment also significantly enhanced HVUEC migration compared to the control treatment. In contrast, CaD treatment partially inhibited HUVEC migration compared to HG exposure. HG-treated HUVECs exhibited increased FITC-BSA permeability compared to control cells cultured in medium alone; however, CaD application prevented the HG-induced increase in FITC-BSA permeability and suppressed HG-induced overexpression of endothelial markers (VEGF, VEGFR-2

  1. Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes‑induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijun; Yuan, Jiangzi; Qi, Chaojun; Shao, Xinghua; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading cause of end‑stage renal disease. However, the pathogenesis of DKD remains unclear, and no effective treatments for the disease are available. Thus, there is an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of DKD and to develop more effective therapies for this disease. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured using different D‑glucose concentrations to determine the effect of high glucose (HG) on the cells. Alternatively, HUVECs were incubated with 100 µmol/l calcium dobesilate (CaD) to detect its effects. The authors subsequently measured HUVEC proliferation via cell counting kit‑8 assays. In addition, HUVEC angiogenesis was investigated via migration assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)‑labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeability assays. The content or distribution of markers of endothelial dysfunction [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (R) and endocan) or inflammation [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)‑1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)‑1 and pentraxin‑related protein (PTX3)] was evaluated via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. HG treatment induced increased in VEGF, VEGFR, endocan, ICAM‑1, MCP‑1 and PTX3 mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs. HG treatment for 24 to 48 h increased cell proliferation in a time‑dependent manner, but the cell proliferation rate was decreased at 72 h of HG treatment. Conversely, CaD inhibited abnormal cell proliferation. HG treatment also significantly enhanced HVUEC migration compared to the control treatment. In contrast, CaD treatment partially inhibited HUVEC migration compared to HG exposure. HG‑treated HUVECs exhibited increased FITC‑BSA permeability compared to control cells cultured in medium alone; however, CaD application prevented the HG‑induced increase in FITC‑BSA permeability and suppressed HG‑induced overexpression of

  2. Early and intermediate Amadori glycosylation adducts, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Angulo, J; Vallejo, S; Peiró, C; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; Cercas, E; López-Dóriga, P; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2003-04-01

    In a model of streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats of 9 weeks duration, we analysed time associations between the development of hyperglycaemia, early and intermediate glycosylation Amadori adducts, or AGE compared with enhancement of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function was tested at several stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and after treatment with insulin, resulting in different concentrations of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (an Amadori adduct), and AGE. Other animals were studied antagonising the formation of AGE with aminoguanidine. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine (1 nmol/l to 10 micro mol/l) was tested in isolated segments from aorta or mesenteric microvessels. Impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations occurred after 2 weeks of untreated diabetes. Preincubation of vessels affected with 100 U/ml superoxide dismutase improved the relaxations to acetylcholine, along the time-course of the endothelial impairment. This indicates the participation of reactive oxygen species on diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations was recovered after 3 more weeks of insulin treatment. Aminoguanidine treatment did not modify this pattern of development. The time course of the rise and disappearance of endothelial dysfunction showed a higher correlation with glycosylated haemoglobin concentrations than with blood glucose or serum AGE. Enhancement of early and intermediate Amadori adducts of protein glycosylation was the factor showing a better relation with the development of endothelium impairment. These results are consistent with a role for these products in the development of diabetic vasculopathy.

  3. Protection against vascular endothelial dysfunction by polyphenols in sea buckthorn berries in rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Suo, Yourui; Chen, Dongli; Tong, Li

    2016-07-19

    Chronic hyperlipemia increases the incidence of vascular endothelial dysfunction and can even induce cardiovascular disease. Sea buckthorn contains a host of bioactives such as flavonoids and polyphenols that can prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. The current study isolated active ingredients, polyphenols, from sea buckthorn berries (SVP) and orally administered SVP at a dose of 7-28 mg/kg. This treatment significantly reduced serum lipids, it enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and it decreased the level of serum TNF-α and IL-6. SVP also alleviate vascular impairment by decreasing the expression of eNOS, ICAM-1, and LOX-1 mRNA and proteins in aortas of rats with hyperlipidemia. Based on these findings, SVP has antioxidant action and it protects endothelium.

  4. l-arginine and l-NMMA for assessing cerebral endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l...... attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic...... cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease....

  5. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

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    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  6. Role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vorobyeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the progressive vision reduction at diabetes mellitus (DM is diabetic retinopathy (DR. When type 2 diabetes combined with hypertension (Ht, it increases the risk of vision loss by 25 times. In the pathogenesis of DR is important to endothelial dysfunction and a variety of biochemical processes (an excess of intracellular sorbitol, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, oxidative stress. there is a decrease in generation vasodilating factors, nitric oxide, with a simultaneous increase of endothelin, which causes vasoconstriction. Key processes underlying the development of DR, such as increased vascular permeability, edema, neovasculariza- tion, inflammation and associated with the effects of kallikrein-kinin system. In the pathogenesis of DR can be involved independent intraocular renin-angiotensin system, which is an important mediator of angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability. Damage to the endothelium of retinal vessels leads to ischemia of the retina. there is growth and development of newly formed blood vessels, which may provoke recurrent bleeding.

  7. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S J; Keaney, J F; Holbrook, M; Gokce, N; Swerdloff, P L; Frei, B; Vita, J A

    2001-07-10

    Epidemiological studies suggest that tea consumption decreases cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms of benefit remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with coronary artery disease and increased oxidative stress. Some antioxidants have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction, and tea contains antioxidant flavonoids. Methods and Results-- To test the hypothesis that tea consumption will reverse endothelial dysfunction, we randomized 66 patients with proven coronary artery disease to consume black tea and water in a crossover design. Short-term effects were examined 2 hours after consumption of 450 mL tea or water. Long-term effects were examined after consumption of 900 mL tea or water daily for 4 weeks. Vasomotor function of the brachial artery was examined at baseline and after each intervention with vascular ultrasound. Fifty patients completed the protocol and had technically suitable ultrasound measurements. Both short- and long-term tea consumption improved endothelium- dependent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, whereas consumption of water had no effect (Pcaffeine (200 mg) had no short-term effect on flow-mediated dilation. Plasma flavonoids increased after short- and long-term tea consumption. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. This finding may partly explain the association between tea intake and decreased cardiovascular disease events.

  8. Markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in type 1 diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy followed for 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Anne Sofie; Tarnow, Lise; Pietraszek, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed...

  9. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G; Miyata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In diabetes, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the AGE precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and the development of microvascular complications. In this study we used a rat model of diabetes, in which rats transgenically overexpressed ...

  10. Structurally-functional features of left ventricular myocardium and endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis depending on presence of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Myasoedova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the structure and functional peculiarities of left-ventricular myocardium and endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA in connection with the course of disease, concomitant arterial hypertension (AH and cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Before the beginning of regular antihypertensive therapy we observed 55 pts with RA, 30 of them had mild or moderate AH developed in the course of RA and 36 pts with essential hypertension (EH without rheumatic diseases. Wfe evaluated anamnesis, blood pressure level (BPL, echocardiography data, endothelial vasodilation capacity and endothelial dysfunction index. All pts were purely comparable in age; RA with AH pts and EH pts — in BPL, anamnesis duration, SCORE-risk. No one of the observed persons had associated clinical states. 26 healthy subjects made control group. Results. RA with AH pts in comparison with EH had marked left-ventricular hypertrophy. Concentric hypertrophy prevailed in RA. 65,3% of RA-pts had diastolic dysfunction type 1. Endothelial dysfunction in RA-pts was found more often (in 57,9% individuals with RA and normal BPL and in 50% pts with RA and concomitant AH (p<0,05 than in EH-pts (20%. Thus, left-ventricular hypertrophy in RA optionally depended on AH presence but it is closely connected with metabolic (hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity and endocrine (menopause disorders in pts with chronic autoimmune inflammation.

  11. Hypercaloric Diet Establishes Erectile Dysfunction in Rat: Mechanisms Underlying the Endothelial Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Iara L. L.; Barros, Bárbara C.; de Oliveira, Giuliana A.; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Toscano, Lydiane T.; Silva, Alexandre S.; Silva, Patrícia M.; Interaminense, Leylliane F. L.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in body mass, leading to endothelial damage that may favor the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection long enough to have a sexual intercourse. In this context, different ED models were developed, however the high price of special animals or the long period to establish the disease has limited studies in this field. Therefore, this study proposed to establish and characterize a novel model of ED in rats associated to a hypercaloric diet consumption. Animals were randomly divided into control group (CG), which received a standard diet, and obese group (OG), fed with a hypercaloric diet during 8 weeks. Rat's erectile function was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Food and caloric intake of OG were reduced compared to CG, due to an increased diet energy efficiency. However, OG presented an increased body mass, inguinal, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues, as well as body adiposity index at the end of experimental protocol. In erectile function analysis, there was a decrease in the number and the latency of penile erections in OG. Additionally, the contractile reactivity of corpus cavernosum was increased in OG, favoring penile detumescence and related to a reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and an increased in contractile prostaglandins levels as a consequence of endothelial damage. Moreover, the endothelium-relaxation reactivity of corpus cavernosum was attenuated in OG associated to the oxidative stress. Thus, it was provided a model for advances in sexual dysfunction field and drug discovery for ED treatment. PMID:29085300

  12. Extracellular but not cytosolic superoxide dismutase protects against oxidant-mediated endothelial dysfunction

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    Erin L. Foresman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide (O2•− contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. Generation of O2•− occurs in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments. We hypothesized that the gene transfer of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD1 or extracellular SOD (SOD3 to blood vessels would differentially protect against O2•−-mediated endothelial-dependent dysfunction. Aortic ring segments from New Zealand rabbits were incubated with adenovirus (Ad containing the gene for Escherichia coli β-galactosidase, SOD1, or SOD3. Activity assays confirmed functional overexpression of both SOD3 and SOD1 isoforms in aorta 24 h following gene transfer. Histochemical staining for β-galactosidase showed gene transfer occurred in the endothelium and adventitia. Next, vessels were prepared for measurement of isometric tension in Kreb's buffer containing xanthine. After precontraction with phenylephrine, xanthine oxidase impaired relaxation to the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine (ACh, max relaxation 33±4% with XO vs. 64±3% without XO, p<0.05, whereas relaxation to the endothelium-independent dilator sodium nitroprusside was unaffected. In the presence of XO, maximal relaxation to ACh was improved in vessels incubated with AdSOD3 (55±2%, p<0.05 vs. control but not AdSOD1 (34±4%. We conclude that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of SOD3, but not SOD1, protects the aorta from xanthine/XO-mediated endothelial dysfunction. These data provide important insight into the location and enzymatic source of O2•− production in vascular disease.

  13. Effects of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-shan; Gao, Wei; Liang, Er-shun; Wang, Shu-li; Lin, Wei-wei; Zhang, Wei-dong; Jia, Qing; Guo, Rui-chen; Zhang, Ji-dong

    2013-08-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control rats (NC), the high-methionine-diet rats (Met), the high-methionine-diet rats treated with folic acid, vitaminB₆ and vitaminB₁₂ (Met+F), or with low-dose allicin (Met+L), or with high-dose allicin (Met+H). After 6 weeks, we collected blood samples of all groups to determine plasma endothelin (ET), serum homocysteine (Hcy), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the aorta. The Hcy and the expression of TGF-β in both the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met and Met+F groups. The ET, ET/NO ratio and the MDA levels of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met group. The SOD and NO levels and the expression of bFGF, TNF-α and ICAM-1 of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly higher than the Met group. Our data indicate that allicin inhibits lipid peroxidation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia and regulates the excretion and equilibrium of ET and NO, and suggest that allicin might be useful in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction caused by hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 protects from oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhard, Catherine; Staehli, Barbara E. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Shi, Yi; Camici, Giovanni G.; Akhmedov, Alexander; Hoegger, Lisa; Lohmann, Christine [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Matter, Christian M. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Hassa, Paul O.; Hottiger, Michael O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Malinski, Tadeusz [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Luescher, Thomas F. [Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear enzyme PARP-1 is a downstream effector of oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PARP-1 protects from oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated through inhibition of vasoconstrictor prostanoid production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, PARP-1 may play a protective role as antioxidant defense mechanism. -- Abstract: Background: Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key feature of vascular disease. Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a downstream effector of oxidative stress. Methods: PARP-1(-/-) and PARP-1(+/+) mice were injected with paraquat (PQ; 10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce intracellular oxidative stress. Aortic rings were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension recording to analyze vascular function. Results: PQ treatment markedly impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PARP-1(-/-), but not PARP-1(+/+) mice (p < 0.0001). Maximal relaxation was 45% in PQ treated PARP-1(-/-) mice compared to 79% in PARP-1(+/+) mice. In contrast, endothelium-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were not altered. After PQ treatment, L-NAME enhanced contractions to norepinephrine by 2.0-fold in PARP-1(-/-) mice, and those to acetylcholine by 3.3-fold, respectively, as compared to PARP-1(+/+) mice. PEG-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PEG-catalase prevented the effect of PQ on endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PARP-1(-/-) mice (p < 0.001 vs. PQ treated PARP-1(+/+) mice. Indomethacin restored endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in PQ treated PARP-1(-/-) mice (p < 0.05 vs. PQ treated PARP-1(+/+). Conclusion: PARP-1 protects from acute intracellular oxidative stress induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting ROS induced production of vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

  15. Nebivolol for improving endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right heart function in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Frédéric; Ranchoux, Benoît; Izikki, Mohamed; Bentebbal, Sana; Happé, Chris; Antigny, Fabrice; Jourdon, Philippe; Dorfmüller, Peter; Lecerf, Florence; Fadel, Elie; Simonneau, Gerald; Humbert, Marc; Bogaard, Harm Jan; Eddahibi, Saadia

    2015-02-24

    Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), promoting vasoconstriction, smooth muscle proliferation, and inflammation. This study sought to test the hypothesis that nebivolol, a β1-antagonist and β2,3-agonist, may improve PAH and reverse the PAH-related phenotype of pulmonary ECs (P-EC). We compared the effects of nebivolol with metoprolol, a first-generation β1-selective β-blocker, on human cultured PAH and control P-EC proliferation, vasoactive and proinflammatory factor production, and crosstalk with PA smooth muscle cells. We assessed the effects of both β-blockers in precontracted PA rings. We also compared the effects of both β-blockers in experimental PAH. PAH P-ECs overexpressed the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, fibroblast growth factor-2, and the potent vasoconstrictive agent endothelin-1 as compared with control cells. This pathological phenotype was corrected by nebivolol but not metoprolol in a dose-dependent fashion. We confirmed that PAH P-EC proliferate more than control cells and stimulate more PA smooth muscle cell mitosis, a growth abnormality that was normalized by nebivolol but not by metoprolol. Nebivolol but not metoprolol induced endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide-dependent relaxation of PA. Nebivolol was more potent than metoprolol in improving cardiac function, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and inflammation of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Nebivolol could be a promising option for the management of PAH, improving endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right heart function. Until clinical studies are undertaken, however, routine use of β-blockers in PAH cannot be recommended. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease

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    Murat Çiftel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess endothelial dysfunction and the risk for coronary atherosclerosis in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to congenital heart disease (CHD. Methods: The study included 18 cyanotic patients (the mean age was 12.28 ± 3.26 years who developed irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to cyanotic and acyanotic CHDs, and 18 control patients (the mean age was 11.78 ± 3.00 years. Study groups were compared for flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and atherosclerotic risk factors. Results: Compared to the control group, the mean FMD was significantly reduced in the cyanotic group (5.26 ± 2.42% and 9.48 ± 2.60%, respectively; P-value < 0.001. No significant difference was observed between the groups in CIMT (0.41 ± 0.08 mm and 0.39 ± 0.06 mm, respectively; P-value = 0.299. The levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were statistically significantly lower compared tothe control group (P-value = 0.001, 0.006 and 0.014, respectively, whereas no statistically significant difference was found in the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides (P-value = 0.113 and 0.975, respectively. Conclusions: Systemic endothelial dysfunction in children with irreversible pulmonary hypertension due to CHD was noted but there was no increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  17. Contribution of Oxidative stress to Endothelial Dysfunction in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

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    Mirjana eJerkic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress causes endothelial dysfunction and is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Our studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a crucial role in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT disease, a vascular dysplasia affecting 1 in 5,000-8,000 people. Mutations in endoglin (ENG and activin receptor-like kinase (ACVRL1 genes are responsible for HHT1 and HHT2 and are associated with arteriovenous malformations. Endoglin and ACVRL1 interact with endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and regulate its activation. Mice heterozygous for these genes (Eng+/− and Acvrl1+/- show reduced endoglin or ACVRL1 protein levels in endothelial cells causing eNOS uncoupling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS rather than nitric oxide (NO•, leading to impaired NO• mediated vasodilation. ROS production is increased in several organs of Eng+/− and Acvrl1+/− mice, including lungs, liver, and colon, affected in HHT. The major source of increased oxidative stress in these tissues is eNOS-derived ROS and not mitochondrial or NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS. Eng+/− and Acvrl1+/− mice also develop with age signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH attributable to eNOS-derived ROS, which was preventable by antioxidant treatment. To date, only one pilot study has been carried out in HHT patients, and it showed beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy on epistaxis. We suggest that more clinical studies are warranted to investigate whether antioxidants would prevent, delay or attenuate manifestations of disease in individuals with HHT, based on our experimental data in mouse models.

  18. Salt loading in canola oil fed SHRSP rats induces endothelial dysfunction.

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    Annateresa Papazzo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine if 50 days of canola oil intake in the absence or presence of salt loading affects: (1 antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, (2 aortic mRNA of NADPH oxidase (NOX subunits and superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and (3 endothelial function in SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats were fed a diet containing 10 wt/wt% soybean oil or 10 wt/wt% canola oil, and given tap water or water containing 1% NaCl for 50 days. Without salt, canola oil significantly increased RBC SOD, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, aortic p22 (phox , NOX2 and CuZn-SOD mRNA, and decreased RBC glutathione peroxidase activity. With salt, canola oil reduced RBC SOD and catalase activity, LDL-C, and p22 (phox mRNA compared with canola oil alone, whereas plasma malondialdehyde (MDA was reduced and RBC MDA and LDL-C were higher. With salt, the canola oil group had significantly reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilating responses to ACh and contractile responses to norepinephrine compared with the canola oil group without salt and to the WKY rats. These results indicate that ingestion of canola oil increases O2 (- generation, and that canola oil ingestion in combination with salt leads to endothelial dysfunction in the SHRSP model.

  19. ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN STABLE ANGINA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION COMBINED WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

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    M. A. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to determine the state of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study included 122 patients with CHD associated with COPD: 68 people of them are patients with stable angina without acute coronary events in history and 54 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Comparison group comprised 53 patients with stable angina and 51 patients after STEMI without concomitant COPD. Patients were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: male, age <60 years, verified forms of CHD (stable angina, STEMI, documented with COPD without exacerbation and forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 30% in the groups with CHD and COPD. Arterial endothelial function was tested with high-resolution ultrasonography: brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, after flow increase (which causes endothelium-dependent dilatation, and after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator.Results. We found that endothelial dysfunction in patients with acute and chronic forms of CHD in combination with COPD are more pronounced than in isolated CHD.Conclusion. Expressed depression functional vascular reserve in patients with CHD associated with COPD, should be taken into account when conducting individualized therapy of these patients.

  20. Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity Is Driven by Macrophage-Dependent Hydrogen Sulfide Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Joseph; Wang, Rui; White, Carl

    2017-05-01

    The function of perivascular adipose tissue as an anticontractile mediator in the microvasculature is lost during obesity. Obesity results in inflammation and recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages to the perivascular adipose tissue that is paralleled by depletion of the vasorelaxant signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the vessel. The current objective was to assess the role of macrophages in determining vascular [H2S] and defining how this impinged on vasodilation. Contractility and [H2S] were measured in mesenteric resistance arterioles from lean and obese mice by using pressure myography and confocal microscopy, respectively. Vasodilation was impaired and smooth muscle and endothelial [H2S] decreased in vessels from obese mice compared with those from lean controls. Coculturing vessels from lean mice with macrophages from obese mice, or macrophage-conditioned media, recapitulated obese phenotypes in vessels. These effects were mediated by low molecular weight species and dependent on macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. The inducible nitric oxide synthase activity of perivascular adipose tissue-resident proinflammatory macrophages promotes microvascular endothelial dysfunction by reducing the bioavailability of H2S in the vessel. These findings support a model in which vascular H2S depletion underpins the loss of perivascular adipose tissue anticontractile function in obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  2. Perindopril Induces TSP-1 Expression in Hypertensive Patients with Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Valentina; Andor, Minodora; Petrescu, Lucian; Cristescu, Carmen; Baibata, Dana Emilia; Voicu, Mirela; Munteanu, Melania; Citu, Ioana; Muntean, Calin; Cretu, Octavian; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2017-02-07

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of both physiological and pathological angiogenesis, widely studied as a target in drug development for treating cancer. Several studies performed in the cardiovascular field on TSP-1 are contradictory, the role of TSP-1 in the physiopathology of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) being, for the moment, incompletely understood and may be due to the presence of several domains in its structure which can stimulate many cellular receptors. It has been reported to inhibit NO-mediated signaling and to act on the angiogenesis, tissue perfusion, endothelial cell proliferation, and homeostasis, so we aimed to quantify the effect Perindopril has on TSP-1 plasma levels in hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction in comparison with other antihypertensive drugs, such as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics, in a chronic treatment. As a conclusion, patients under treatment with Perindopril had increased plasma levels of TSP-1 compared with other hypertensive patients and with the control group. The results of this study confirms the pleiotropic properties of Perindopril: anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, with effects showed by quantifying a single biomarker: TSP-1.

  3. Increased Rho-kinase expression and activity and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers with normal lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Quy, S; Dao, P; Hua-Huy, T; Guilluy, C; Pacaud, P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2011-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main consequences of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke on the vascular system. Increasing evidence suggests that the small G-protein RhoA and its downstream effectors, the Rho-kinases (ROCKs), are involved in systemic endothelial dysfunction induced by cigarette smoke. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the RhoA/ROCKs pathway in pulmonary artery endothelial function in current smokers with normal lung function. Lung tissues were obtained from nonsmokers and smokers who underwent lobectomy for lung carcinoma. Arterial relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed in isolated pulmonary arterial rings. Protein expressions and activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), ROCKs and the myosin phosphatase subunit 1 (MYPT-1) were sought. Relaxation in response to ACh was significantly lower in smokers as compared with nonsmokers (n = 8 in each group), consistent with reduced eNOS activity in the former compared with the latter. eNOS protein expression remained, however, the same in both groups. Expression of ROCKs, guanosine triphosphate-RhoA and phosphorylated MYPT-1 were significantly increased in smokers compared with controls. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction is present in smokers whose lung function has not yet been impaired. Reduced activity of eNOS accounts at least in part for this endothelial dysfunction. Increased expression and activity of ROCKs accounts for another part through direct or indirect inhibition of the Rho-A/ROCKs pathway on nitric oxide synthesis and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction through inhibition of myosin phosphatase.

  4. Deletion of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B Enhances Endothelial Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression and Protects Mice from Type 1 Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

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    David J Herren

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B dephosphorylates receptors tyrosine kinase and acts as a molecular brake on insulin signaling pathway. Conditions of metabolic dysfunction increase PTP1B, when deletion of PTP1B protects against metabolic disorders by increasing insulin signaling. Although vascular insulin signaling contributes to the control of glucose disposal, little is known regarding the direct role of PTP1B in the control of endothelial function. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunctions increase PTP1B expression in endothelial cells and that PTP1B deletion prevents endothelial dysfunction in situation of diminished insulin secretion. Type I diabetes (T1DM was induced in wild-type (WT and PTP1B-deficient mice (KO with streptozotocin (STZ injection. After 28 days of T1DM, KO mice exhibited a similar reduction in body weight and plasma insulin levels and a comparable increase in glycemia (WT: 384 ± 20 vs. Ko: 432 ± 29 mg/dL, cholesterol and triglycerides, as WT mice. T1DM increased PTP1B expression and impaired endothelial NO-dependent relaxation, in mouse aorta. PTP1B deletion did not affect baseline endothelial function, but preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation, in T1DM mice. NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME abolished endothelial relaxation in control and T1DM WT mice, whereas L-NAME and the cyclooxygenases inhibitor indomethacin were required to abolish endothelium relaxation in T1DM KO mice. PTP1B deletion increased COX-2 expression and PGI2 levels, in mouse aorta and plasma respectively, in T1DM mice. In parallel, simulation of diabetic conditions increased PTP1B expression and knockdown of PTP1B increased COX-2 but not COX-1 expression, in primary human aortic endothelial cells. Taken together these data indicate that deletion of PTP1B protected endothelial function by compensating the reduction in NO bioavailability by increasing COX-2-mediated release of the vasodilator prostanoid PGI2, in T1DM mice.

  5. Recombinant human activated protein C improves endotoxemia-induced endothelial dysfunction: a blood-free model in isolated mouse arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennoun, Nacira; Baron-Menguy, Celine; Burban, Mélanie; Lecompte, Thomas; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Henrion, Daniel; Mercat, Alain; Asfar, Pierre; Levy, Bruno; Meziani, Ferhat

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) is one of the treatment panels for improving vascular dysfunction in septic patients. In a previous study, we reported that rhAPC treatment in rat endotoxemia improved vascular reactivity, although the mechanisms involved are still under debate. In the present study, we hypothesized that rhAPC may improve arterial dysfunction through its nonanticoagulant properties. Ten hours after injection of LPS in mice (50 mg/kg ip), aortic rings and mesenteric arteries were isolated and incubated with or without rhAPC for 12 h. Aortic rings were mounted in a myograph, after which arterial contractility and endothelium-dependent relaxation were measured in the presence or absence of nitric oxide synthase or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Flow (shear stress)-mediated dilation with or without the above inhibitors was also measured in mesenteric resistance arteries. Protein expression was assessed by Western blotting. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced aortic contractility to KCl and phenylephrine as well as dilation to acetylcholine. LPS also reduced flow-mediated dilation in mesenteric arteries. In rhAPC-treated aorta and mesenteric arteries, contractility and endothelial responsiveness to vasodilator drug and shear stress were improved. rhAPC treatment also improved LPS-induced endothelial dysfunction; this effect was associated with an increase in the phosphorylated form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protein kinase B as well as cyclooxygenase vasodilatory pathways, thus suggesting that these pathways, together with the decrease in nuclear factor-kappaB activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the vascular wall, are implicated in the endothelial effect of rhAPC. In conclusion, ex vivo application of rhAPC improves arterial contractility and endothelial dysfunction resulting from endotoxemia in mice. This finding provides important insights into the mechanism underlying rhAPC-induced improvements on arterial

  6. Endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia in Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Antwi, Daniel Ansong; Gyan, Ben; Obed, Samuel Amenyi

    2017-03-29

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) remains a disease of theories despite extensive research into its etiology. Alteration in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, is associated with pre-eclampsia although conflicting reports have been reported. The aim of the study was to determine and compare maternal serum levels of VEGF among pre-eclamptics, normotensive non pregnant and pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study involving 100 women with pre-eclampsia, 102 women with normotensive pregnancy and 75 normotensives who were not pregnant. The study was carried out at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) from April to June in 2011. Basic socio-demographic and obstetric data were obtained by means of structured questionnaire. Following venesection, about 5mls of blood was sampled from the participants for the various tests. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to determine the maternal serum levels of free VEGF. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Significant reduction in median serum levels of free VEGF was seen in both, normal pregnant [84.06 pg/ml (IQR: 78.90-99.67)] and pre-eclamptic women [4.71 pg/ml, (IQR: 3.41-7.93)] compared to the non-pregnant (395.85 pg/ml, IQR 234.93-625) with p pre-eclamptic group compared to that of normotensive pregnant group (p pre-eclampsia had significantly more severe reduction in free VEGF levels (3.89, IQR: 2.60-5.67 pg/ml) compared to that of late onset PE (5.23, IQR: 3.78-16.97 pg/ml) with ppre-eclampsia as demonstrated by profound decrease in maternal serum VEGF levels in PE compared to normotensive pregnancy and non-pregnancy state. The pathophysiology of early-onset pre-eclampsia may be partly explained by marked reduction in free serum VEGF levels with resultant severe endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Kalirin and CHD7: novel endothelial dysfunction indicators in circulating extracellular vesicles from hypertensive patients with albuminuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cuesta, Fernando; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Sastre-Oliva, Tamara; López, Juan A.; Vázquez, Jesús; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Segura, Julian; Vivanco, Fernando; Ruilope, Luis M.; Barderas, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the great advances in anti-hypertensive therapies, many patients under Renin-Angiotensin- System (RAS) suppression develop albuminuria, which is a clear indicator of therapeutic inefficiency. Hence, indicators of vascular function are needed to assess patients’ condition and help deciding future therapies. Proteomic analysis of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) showed two proteins, kalirin and chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7), increased in albuminuric patients. A positive correlation of both with the expression of the endothelial activation marker E-selectin was found in EVs. In vitro analysis using TNFα-treated adult human endothelial cells proved their involvement in endothelial cell activation. Hence, we propose protein levels of kalirin and CHD7 in circulating EVs as novel endothelial dysfunction markers to monitor vascular condition in hypertensive patients with albuminuria. PMID:28152519

  8. Increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction are associated with endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait - FT), and to determine the association between LV mass and determinants of LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent (NO-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotonics with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and LV diastolic function was measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). LV diastolic filling properties were assessed and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) on TDI. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (flow-mediated dilation--FMD) were measured. In subjects with FT, the LV mass index was higher than in controls (92.14+/-24.02 vs 70.08+/-20.58); p<0.001). Offspring of hypertensive families had worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E/A ratio, lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p<0.001). In subjects with FT, FMD was decreased compared with the controls (6.11+/-3.28% vs 10.20+/-2.07%; p<0.001). LV mass index and E(m)/A(m) ratio were associated with FMD (p<0.001). In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional changes were found. We demonstrated that an increase in LV mass and alterations in LV diastolic function are related to endothelial dysfunction.

  9. N-Acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, reverts vascular dysfunction and endothelial epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restricted guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Francisca; Figueroa, Esteban; Villanueva, Cristian; Hernández, Cherie; Alegría, René; Arroyo-Jousse, Viviana; Peñaloza, Estefania; Farías, Marcelo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial epigenetic programming of the umbilical vessels. There is no evidence that this epigenetic programming is occurring on systemic fetal arteries. In IUGR guinea pigs we studied the functional and epigenetic programming of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Nos3 gene) in umbilical and systemic fetal arteries, addressing the role of oxidative stress in this process by maternal treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the second half of gestation. The present study suggests that IUGR endothelial cells have common molecular markers of programming in umbilical and systemic arteries. Notably, maternal treatment with NAC restores fetal growth by increasing placental efficiency and reverting the functional and epigenetic programming of eNOS in arterial endothelium in IUGR guinea pigs. In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, half of the sows receiving NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term). Fetal biometry and placental vascular resistance were followed by ultrasound throughout gestation. At term, umbilical arteries and fetal aortae were isolated to assess endothelial function by wire-myography. Primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) from fetal aorta, femoral and umbilical arteries were used to determine eNOS mRNA levels by quantitative PCR and analyse DNA methylation in the Nos3 promoter by pyrosequencing. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed that NAC reduced placental vascular resistance

  10. Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase by tryptophan-derived 3-hydroxykynurenine accelerates endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongxin; Zhang, Miao; Ding, Ye; Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Wencheng; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-31

    The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway is the major route for tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in mammals. The Trp-Kyn pathway is reported to regulate several fundamental biological processes, including cell death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the contributions and molecular mechanism of Trp-Kyn pathway to endothelial cell death. Endogenous reactive oxygen species, endothelial cell apoptosis, and endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation were measured in aortas of wild-type mice or mice deficient for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase subunits (p47(phox) or gp91(phox)) or indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase 1 with or without angiotensin (Ang) II infusion. As expected, AngII increased plasma levels of Kyn- and 3-hydroxykynurenine-modified proteins in endothelial cells in vivo. Consistent with this, AngII markedly increased the expression of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase in parallel with increased expression of interferon-γ. Furthermore, in wild-type mice, AngII significantly increased oxidative stress, endothelial cell apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. These effects of AngII infusion were significantly suppressed in mice deficient for p47(phox), gp91(phox), or indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase 1, suggesting that AngII-induced enhancement of Kynurenines via NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidants causes endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction in vivo. Furthermore, interferon-γ neutralization eliminates AngII-increased superoxide products and endothelial apoptosis by inhibiting AngII-induced Kynurenines generation, suggesting that AngII-activated Kyn pathway is interferon-γ-dependent. Mechanistically, we found that AngII-enhanced 3-hydroxykynurenine promoted the generation of NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated superoxide anions by increasing the translocation and membrane assembly of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits in endothelial cells, resulting in accelerated apoptosis and consequent endothelial dysfunction. Kyn pathway

  11. Persistent high fever for more than 10 days during acute phase is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in children with a history of Kawasaki disease.

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    Mori, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kanta; Ozaki, Noriyasu; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has previously been reported in children with a history of Kawasaki disease, but the determinants of endothelial function in Kawasaki disease patients are still unknown. In this study, we investigated endothelial function in Kawasaki disease patients and attempted to identify risk factors for persistent endothelial dysfunction. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we measured the percent flow-mediated dilatation, an arterial response to reactive hyperemia, to evaluate endothelial function in 67 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease and 28 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We divided the Kawasaki disease patients into a group with impaired endothelial function (the percent flow-mediated dilatation below -2 standard deviations of the control group) and a group with normal endothelial function (the percent flow-mediated dilatation more than -2 standard deviations of control). Logistic multiple regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of impaired endothelial function. In Kawasaki disease patients, the percent flow-mediated dilatation was significantly lower than in the control subjects (9.8±3.6%, compared with 13.1±3.4%, pKawasaki disease patients (3 patients with coronary artery lesions and 10 patients without coronary artery lesions), the percent flow-mediated dilatation was below -2 standard deviations of control. Logistic multiple regression analysis showed that a febrile period of longer than 10 days during the acute phase was the significant risk factor for endothelial dysfunction (odds ratio: 8.562; 95% confidence interval: 1.366-53.68). Presence of coronary artery lesions was not a determinant of endothelial dysfunction. Systemic endothelial dysfunction exists in children with a history of Kawasaki disease, and a febrile period of longer than 10 days during the acute phase is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction irrespective of coronary artery involvement. Copyright © 2015 Japanese

  12. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates the Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Rat Aortic Rings via Activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Fu, Baocai; Xu, Bo; Mi, Xiangquan; Li, Gang; Ma, Chengjun; Xie, Jianxin; Li, Ji; Wang, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is the key player in the development and progression of vascular events. Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial injury. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural polyphenol with antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the protective effect of RA on endothelial dysfunction induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Compared with endothelium-denuded aortic rings, the endothelium significantly alleviated the decrease of vasoconstrictive reactivity to PE and KCl induced by H2O2. H2O2 pretreatment significantly injured the vasodilative reactivity to ACh in endothelium-intact aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. RA individual pretreatment had no obvious effect on the vasoconstrictive reaction to PE and KCl, while its cotreatment obviously mitigated the endothelium-dependent relaxation impairments and the oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The RA cotreatment reversed the downregulation of AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation induced by H2O2 in HAEC cells. The pretreatment with the inhibitors of AMPK (compound C) and eNOS (L-NAME) wiped off RA's beneficial effects. All these results demonstrated that RA attenuated the endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress by activating the AMPK/eNOS pathway.

  13. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24 hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=−0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ≥200 mg/dl (r=−0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=−0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  14. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates the Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Rat Aortic Rings via Activation of AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is the key player in the development and progression of vascular events. Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial injury. Rosmarinic acid (RA is a natural polyphenol with antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the protective effect of RA on endothelial dysfunction induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Compared with endothelium-denuded aortic rings, the endothelium significantly alleviated the decrease of vasoconstrictive reactivity to PE and KCl induced by H2O2. H2O2 pretreatment significantly injured the vasodilative reactivity to ACh in endothelium-intact aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. RA individual pretreatment had no obvious effect on the vasoconstrictive reaction to PE and KCl, while its cotreatment obviously mitigated the endothelium-dependent relaxation impairments and the oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The RA cotreatment reversed the downregulation of AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation induced by H2O2 in HAEC cells. The pretreatment with the inhibitors of AMPK (compound C and eNOS (L-NAME wiped off RA’s beneficial effects. All these results demonstrated that RA attenuated the endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress by activating the AMPK/eNOS pathway.

  15. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of tissue renin angiotensin aldosterone system in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness

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    Annayya R Aroor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies support the notion that arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events contributing significantly to systolic hypertension, impaired ventricular-arterial coupling and diastolic dysfunction, impairment in myocardial oxygen supply and demand, and progression of kidney disease. Although arterial stiffness is associated with aging, it is accelerated in the presence of obesity and diabetes. The prevalence of arterial stiffness parallels the increase of obesity that is occurring in epidemic proportions and is partly driven by a sedentary life style and consumption of a high fructose, high salt and high fat western diet. Although the underlying mechanisms and mediators of arterial stiffness are not well understood, accumulating evidence supports the role of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. The local tissue renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS in the vascular tissue and immune cells and perivascular adipose tissue is recognized as an important element involved in endothelial dysfunction which contributes significantly to arterial stiffness. Activation of vascular RAAS is seen in humans and animal models of obesity and diabetes, and associated with enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation in the vascular tissue. The cross talk between angiotensin and aldosterone underscores the importance of mineralocorticoid receptors in modulation of insulin resistance, decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. In addition, both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in this local tissue activation of RAAS. In this review we will attempt to present a unifying mechanism of how environmental and immunological factors are involved in this local tissue RAAS activation, and the role of this process in the development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness and targeting tissue RAAS activation.

  17. Impairment of brain endothelial glucose transporter by methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier dysfunction

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    Murrin L Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH, an addictive psycho-stimulant drug with euphoric effect is known to cause neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress, dopamine accumulation and glial cell activation. Here we hypothesized that METH-induced interference of glucose uptake and transport at the endothelium can disrupt the energy requirement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB function and integrity. We undertake this study because there is no report of METH effects on glucose uptake and transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB to date. Results In this study, we demonstrate that METH-induced disruption of glucose uptake by endothelium lead to BBB dysfunction. Our data indicate that a low concentration of METH (20 μM increased the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 in primary human brain endothelial cell (hBEC, main component of BBB without affecting the glucose uptake. A high concentration of 200 μM of METH decreased both the glucose uptake and GLUT1 protein levels in hBEC culture. Transcription process appeared to regulate the changes in METH-induced GLUT1 expression. METH-induced decrease in GLUT1 protein level was associated with reduction in BBB tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens-1. Functional assessment of the trans-endothelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers and permeability of dye tracers in animal model validated the pharmacokinetics and molecular findings that inhibition of glucose uptake by GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B (CB aggravated the METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Application of acetyl-L-carnitine suppressed the effects of METH on glucose uptake and BBB function. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impairment of GLUT1 at the brain endothelium by METH may contribute to energy-associated disruption of tight junction assembly and loss of BBB integrity.

  18. NOTCH4 signaling controls EFNB2-induced endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Luo, Qingqing; Zheng, Yanfang; Liu, Xiaoping; Hu, Ying; Liu, Weifang; Luo, Minglian; Zhao, Yin; Zou, Li

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy and is closely related to endothelial dysfunction, which can be repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 (ephrinB2) cascade may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by inhibiting the biological activity of EPCs. In addition, both NOTCH1 and NOTCH4, which are specific receptors for DLL4/NOTCH, play critical roles in the various steps of angiogenesis. However, it has not been determined which receptor (NOTCH1, NOTCH4, or both) is specific for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Accordingly, we performed a series of investigations to evaluate it. EFNB2 expression was examined when NOTCH4 or NOTCH1 was downregulated, with or without DLL4 treatment. Then, the effects of NOTCH4 on EPC function were detected. Additionally, we analyzed NOTCH4 and EFNB2 expression in the EPCs from preeclampsia and normal pregnancies. Results showed that NOTCH4 downregulation led to decreased expression of EFNB2, which maintained the same level in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. By contrast, NOTCH1 silencing resulted in a moderate increase in EFNB2 expression, which further increased in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. The downregulation of NOTCH4 resulted in an increase of EPC biological activity, which was similar to EFNB2 silencing. NOTCH4 expression, consistent with the EFNB2 level, increased notably in preeclampsia EPCs compared with the controls. These findings suggest that NOTCH4, not NOTCH1, is the specific receptor for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Blockade of this cascade may enhance the angiogenic property of EPCs, and act as a potential target to promote angiogenesis in patients with preeclampsia. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. Nitric Oxide Plasma Level as a Barometer of Endothelial Dysfunction in Factory Workers.

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    Miyata, Seiko; Noda, Akiko; Hara, Yuki; Ueyama, Jun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Koike, Yasuo

    2017-11-01

    Objective Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and is known as one of the key markers of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between NO and risk factors of lifestyle-related disease in factory workers. Methods Our study included 877 factory workers presenting hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Oxidated forms of NO, NO2-/NO3- (NOx) plasma concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Results NOx plasma levels in patients with lifestyle-related disease were significantly lower than those in the controls. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured in those patients was significantly greater than that of the controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LDL cholesterol was an independent risk factor for reducing NOx plasma concentrations. Interestingly, individuals with low NOx plasma concentrations were more likely to present type 2 diabetes compared to those with the highest plasma levels of NOx (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval; CI]=3.65 [1.61-8.28], P=0.002, 2.67 [1.15-6.20], P=0.022, and 3.27 [1.43-7.48], P=0.005). Subjects with the lowest levels of plasma NOx were more likely to present dyslipidemia (OR [95% CI]=1.69 [1.13-2.53], P=0.01). Conclusion Endothelial function evaluated with plasma NOx may be indicative of lifestyle-related diseases independently from the vascular function assessed using baPWV. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dejam, Andrè; Perré, Sandra; Schroeter, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Kelm, Malte

    2005-10-04

    This study was designed to assess the effect of flavanol-rich food on the circulating pool of bioactive nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction in smokers. Studies suggest that smoking-related vascular disease is caused by impaired NO synthesis and that diets rich in flavanols can increase bioactive NO in plasma. In smokers (n = 11), the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on circulating NO species in plasma (RXNO) measured by reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence and endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were characterized in a dose-finding study orally administering cocoa containing 88 to 370 mg flavanols and in a randomized double-blind crossover study using 100 ml cocoa drink with high (176 to 185 mg) or low (flavanol content on two separate days. In addition to cocoa drink, ascorbic acid and NO-synthase inhibitor L-NMMA (n = 4) were applied. There were significant increases in RXNO (21 +/- 3 nmol/l to 29 +/- 5 nmol/l) and FMD (4.5 +/- 0.8% to 6.9 +/- 0.9%, each p flavanols, a dose potentially exerting maximal effects. These changes correlated with increases in flavanol metabolites. Cocoa-associated increases in RXNO and FMD were reversed by L-NMMA. Ascorbic acid had no effect. The circulating pool of bioactive NO and endothelium-dependent vasodilation is acutely increased in smokers following the oral ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink. The increase in circulating NO pool may contribute to beneficial vascular health effects of flavanol-rich food.

  1. Neurovascular dysfunction, inflammation and endothelial activation: Implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

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    Grammas Paula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-related disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and dementia. Alzheimer's disease is an increasingly prevalent disease with 5.3 million people in the United States currently affected. This number is a 10 percent increase from previous estimates and is projected to sharply increase to 8 million by 2030; it is the sixth-leading cause of death. In the United States the direct and indirect costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias to Medicare, Medicaid and businesses amount to more than $172 billion each year. Despite intense research efforts, effective disease-modifying therapies for this devastating disease remain elusive. At present, the few agents that are FDA-approved for the treatment of AD have demonstrated only modest effects in modifying clinical symptoms for relatively short periods and none has shown a clear effect on disease progression. New therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Although the idea that vascular defects are present in AD and may be important in disease pathogenesis was suggested over 25 years ago, little work has focused on an active role for cerebrovascular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of AD. Nevertheless, increasing literature supports a vascular-neuronal axis in AD as shared risk factors for both AD and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease implicate vascular mechanisms in the development and/or progression of AD. Also, chronic inflammation is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, as well as a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases of aging including AD. In this review we summarize data regarding, cardiovascular risk factors and vascular abnormalities, neuro- and vascular-inflammation, and brain endothelial dysfunction in AD. We conclude that the endothelial interface, a highly synthetic bioreactor that produces a large number of soluble factors, is functionally altered in AD and contributes to a noxious CNS milieu by releasing

  2. Cerebral endothelial dysfunction in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate cerebral endothelial dysfunction in patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). We prospectively recruited patients with RCVS, age-matched controls with episodic migraine, and age-matched healthy controls at Samsung Medical Center from Apr 2015 to Jul 2016. All participants underwent transcranial Doppler evaluation, with a breath-holding maneuver, for the evaluation of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), and the basilar artery (BA). The breath-holding index (BHI) was used to measure cerebral endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Follow-up BHIs were recorded in selected patients with RCVS after 3 months. A total of 84 subjects were recruited for this study (n = 28 in each group of RCVS, episodic migraine, and healthy control; mean age, 49.8 years). The RCVS group showed lower BHIs in all basal arteries, in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.001, 0.009 for bilateral MCAs, p < 0.001 and 0.028 for bilateral PCAs, and p = 0.060 for the BA). Compared to migraineurs, RCVS patients had lower BHIs only in the anterior circulation (p = 0.002 and 0.038 for bilateral MCAs; p = 0.069 and 0.247 for bilateral PCAs; p = 0.120 for the BA). Of the 10 patients who had follow-up BHIs at 3 months, 7 showed complete normalization, while three did not. Cerebral endothelial function is impaired in a widespread distribution in RCVS. Its role in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of RCVS should be determined in further studies.

  3. Biomarkers of microvascular endothelial dysfunction predict incident dementia: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, H; Nägga, K; Nilsson, E D; Ricci, F; Melander, O; Hansson, O; Bachus, E; Magnusson, M; Fedorowski, A

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral endothelial dysfunction occurs in a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. Whether biomarkers of microvascular endothelial dysfunction can predict dementia is largely unknown. We explored the longitudinal association of midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), C-terminal endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with dementia and subtypes amongst community-dwelling older adults. A population-based cohort of 5347 individuals (men, 70%; age, 69 ± 6 years) without prevalent dementia provided plasma for determination of MR-proANP, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM. Three-hundred-and-seventy-three patients (7%) were diagnosed with dementia (120 Alzheimer's disease, 83 vascular, 102 mixed, and 68 other aetiology) over a period of 4.6 ± 1.3 years. Relations between baseline biomarker plasma concentrations and incident dementia were assessed using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Higher levels of MR-proANP were significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause and vascular dementia (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD: 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002, and 1.52; 1.21-1.89; P dementia increased across the quartiles of MR-proANP (p for linear trend = 0.004; Q4, 145-1681 pmol L -1 vs. Q1, 22-77 pmol L -1 : HR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.23-2.71) and was most pronounced for vascular type (p for linear trend = 0.005: HR: 2.71; 95%CI: 1.14-6.46). Moreover, the two highest quartiles of CT-proET-1 predicted vascular dementia with a cut-off value at 68 pmol L -1 (Q3-Q4, 68-432 pmol L -1 vs. Q1-Q2,4-68 pmol L -1 ; HR: 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36). Elevated levels of MR-proADM indicated no increased risk of developing dementia after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Elevated plasma concentration of MR-proANP is an independent predictor of all-cause and vascular dementia. Pronounced increase in CT-proET-1 indicates higher risk of vascular dementia. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the

  4. Endothelial dysfunction inhibits the ability of haptoglobin to prevent hemoglobin-induced hypertension.

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    Graw, Jan A; Yu, Binglan; Rezoagli, Emanuele; Warren, H Shaw; Buys, Emmanuel S; Bloch, Donald B; Zapol, Warren M

    2017-06-01

    Intravascular hemolysis produces injury in a variety of human diseases including hemoglobinopathies, malaria, and sepsis. The adverse effects of increased plasma hemoglobin are partly mediated by depletion of nitric oxide (NO) and result in vasoconstriction. Circulating plasma proteins haptoglobin and hemopexin scavenge extracellular hemoglobin and cell-free heme, respectively. The ability of human haptoglobin or hemopexin to inhibit the adverse effects of NO scavenging by circulating murine hemoglobin was tested in C57Bl/6 mice. In healthy awake mice, the systemic hemodynamic effects of intravenous coinfusion of cell-free hemoglobin and exogenous haptoglobin or of cell-free hemoglobin and hemopexin were compared with the hemodynamic effects of infusion of cell-free hemoglobin or control protein (albumin) alone. We also studied the hemodynamic effects of infusing hemoglobin and haptoglobin as well as injecting either hemoglobin or albumin alone in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and in diabetic (db/db) mice. Coinfusion of a 1:1 weight ratio of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin prevented hemoglobin-induced systemic hypertension in healthy awake mice. In mice fed a HFD and in diabetic mice, coinfusion of haptoglobin mixed with an equal mass of cell-free hemoglobin did not reverse hemoglobin-induced hypertension. Haptoglobin retained cell-free hemoglobin in plasma, but neither haptoglobin nor hemopexin affected the ability of hemoglobin to scavenge NO ex vivo. In conclusion, in healthy C57Bl/6 mice with normal endothelium, coadministration of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin prevents acute hemoglobin-induced systemic hypertension by compartmentalizing cell-free hemoglobin in plasma. In murine diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, haptoglobin therapy appears to be insufficient to prevent hemoglobin-induced vasoconstriction.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Coadministraton of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin

  5. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-02-04

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.

  6. The effect of candesartan on pentraxin-3 plasma levels as marker of endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, V; Andor, M; Cristescu, C; Voicu, M; Cochera, F; Tuduce, P; Petrescu, L; Tomescu, M C

    2017-08-01

    In the last decades, the studies performed on the field of endothelial dysfunction confirmed the fact that the starting point of this pathology is the inflammation. Several inflammatory biomarkers had been discovered and studied, ones showing systemic inflammation, and others being more specific biomarkers and showing the local inflammation. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a new inflammatory biomarker, from the same family as high-selectivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), but it is a more specific biomarker, due to its local production: the endothelial cells and not the liver like in the case of hs-CRP. Several antihypertensive classes of drugs seem to have a positive impact on reducing the local endothelial inflammation, beyond their effect of lowering the blood pressure, so this study aims to analyze the effect of candesartan on the two inflammatory biomarkers: PTX3 and CRP, compared with other antihypertensive drugs, in hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction. A total of 365 patients were included in the study: 127 hypertensive patients were under treatment with candesartan, 134 patients were under treatment with other hypotensive medication (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics), both groups with controlled values of blood pressure, and 104 were normotensive persons. Classical methods of assessing the endothelial function were correlated with these biochemical markers. The patients treated with candesartan had a significant lower value of PTX3 and hs-CRP, compared with those under treatment with other antihypertensive medication as follows: PTX3: 0.61 ± 0.49 vs 0.95 ± 1.04 ng/ml, P = 0.006 and hs-CRP: 0.19 ± 0.20 vs 0.20 ± 0.22 mg/dl, P = 0.54. Candesartan decreases PTX3 and hs-CRP plasma levels more powerful than other classes of antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics), so we may assume that candesartan has a more potent action in reversing endothelial dysfunction and that it offers a

  7. Derangements in endothelial cell-to-cell junctions involved in the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Kan; Zhang, Lu Wei; Jin, Hai-Rong; Piao, Shuguang; Choi, Min Ji; Tuvshintur, Buyankhuu; Tumurbaatar, Munkhbayar; Shin, Sun Hwa; Han, Jee-Young; Kim, Woo Jean; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2009-07-01

    Endothelial cell-to-cell junctions are crucial for vascular formation, networking, and remodeling of blood vessels as well as for inducing and integrating intracellular signals. We investigated the differential expression and distribution of endothelial cell-to-cell junction proteins in the penis of mice with hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction. Two-month-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid, and age-matched control animals were fed a normal diet, for 3 months. We performed dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) to screen the differential gene expression of 21 endothelial cell-to-cell junctions. At 5 months, erectile function was measured by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve, and the penis was harvested and stained with antibody to claudin-5, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 (N = 8 per group). Cavernous specimens from a separate group of animals were used for claudin-5, VE-cadherin, and PECAM-1 reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot analysis. Erectile function was significantly lower in hypercholesterolemic mice than in controls. DPO-based multiplex PCR revealed a profound decrease in the gene expression of endothelium-specific cell-to-cell junction proteins, including claudin-5, VE-cadherin, and PECAM-1, in hypercholesterolemic mice compared with that in controls. The expression of claudin-5, VE-cadherin, and PECAM-1 protein evaluated by Western blot or immunohistochemistry was significantly lower in hypercholesterolemic mice than in controls. These endothelial cell-to-cell junction proteins were more sparsely distributed in the endothelium of cavernous sinusoids than in the endothelium of cavernous artery and dorsal blood vessels. Down-regulation of the endothelial cell-to-cell junctions and decreased endothelial content in the corpus cavernosum might play a major

  8. Preservation of vascular DDAH activity contributes to the protection of captopril against endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Feng, Mei; Lu, Chang-Wu; Lei, Yan-Ping; He, Zhi-Min; Xiong, Yan

    2017-03-05

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been recognized as an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction and the biomarker of atherosclerosis. This study was to investigate whether endogenous ADMA and its metabolic enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) were involved in mechanisms of captopril protection against endothelial dysfunction in high fat diet feeding rabbits. Half of model rabbits were treated with captopril (10mg/kg/d, i.g.) for 12w. Vascular morphology and serum lipid profiles were detected. Serum ADMA concentration were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Recombinant DDAH2 gene adenoviruses were ex vivo transferred to thoracic aortas of high fat diet feeding rabbits. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortas response to acetylcholine and DDAH activity were measured. Atherosclerosis was confirmed in high fat diet feeding rabbits by increased serum lipid profiles and morphologic changes of vascular wall. Serum ADMA levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic rabbits accompanied with impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and inhibition of DDAH activity in thoracic aortas. Captopril treatment not only decreased vascular intima thickening and serum ADMA concentration but also preserved vascular DDAH activity and endothelium-dependent relaxation in hyperlipidemic rabbits without influence on serum lipid profiles. Similar beneficial effects on endothelial function and DDAH activity could be achieved by DDAH2 gene transfection. These results indicated that captopril could protect against injuries of vascular morphology and endothelial function in hyperlipidemic rabbits, the mechanisms may be related to the preservation of DDAH activity and decrease of ADMA accumulation in vascular endothelium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Pathogenesis of endothelial cell dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: a retrospective and what the future may hold

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    Michael S. Goligorsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications dominate the landscape of chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD is a well-known culprit of cardiovascular morbidity and it develops in CKD with remarkable frequency. This brief overview of ECD in CKD scans two decades of studies performed in my laboratory, from genetic analyses to proteomic and metabolomics screens. I provide a detailed description of findings related to the premature senescence of endothelial cells, cell transition from the endothelial to mesenchymal phenotype, and stages of development of ECD. Clinical utility of some of these findings is illustrated with data on laser-Doppler flowmetry and imaging in patients with CKD. Some currently available and emerging therapeutic options for the management of ECD are briefly presented.

  10. Effect of CPAP on New Endothelial Dysfunction Marker, Endocan, in People With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Nejat; Mutlu, Levent Cem; Akkoyun, Dursun Cayan; Aydin, Murat; Bilir, Bulent; Yilmaz, Ahsen; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Endocan is a surrogate endothelial dysfunction marker that may be associated with CV risk factors. In this study, we tested whether serum endocan is a biomarker for OSA. Serum endocan levels were measured at baseline in 40 patients with OSA and 40 healthy controls and after 3 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in the patients with OSA. All participants were evaluated by full polysomnography. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured in all participants. Endocan levels were significantly higher in patients with OSA than in healthy controls. After adjusting confounders, endocan was a good predictor of OSA. Endocan levels correlated with OSA severity (measured by the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]). After 3 months of CPAP treatment, endocan levels significantly decreased. Endocan levels were significantly and independently correlated with cIMT and FMD after multiple adjustments. The cIMT and FMD also had significant and independent correlation with AHI. Endocan might be a useful marker for the predisposition of patients with OSA to premature vascular disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Possible Contribution of a Defective Vascular Niche to Myelodysplasia

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    Luciana Teofili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We set a model to replicate the vascular bone marrow niche by using endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs, and we used it to explore the vascular niche function in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Overall, we investigated 56 patients and we observed higher levels of ECFCs in MDS than in healthy controls; moreover, MDS ECFCs were found variably hypermethylated for p15INK4b DAPK1, CDH1, or SOCS1. MDS ECFCs exhibited a marked adhesive capacity to normal mononuclear cells. When normal CD34+ cells were co-cultured with MDS ECFCs, they generated significant lower amounts of CD11b+ and CD41+ cells than in co-culture with normal ECFCs. At gene expression profile, several genes involved in cell adhesion were upregulated in MDS ECFCs, while several members of the Wingless and int (Wnt pathways were underexpressed. Furthermore, at miRNA expression profile, MDS ECFCs hypo-expressed various miRNAs involved in Wnt pathway regulation. The addition of Wnt3A reduced the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on MDS ECFCs and restored the defective expression of markers of differentiation. Overall, our data demonstrate that in low-risk MDS, ECFCs exhibit various primary abnormalities, including putative MDS signatures, and suggest the possible contribution of the vascular niche dysfunction to myelodysplasia.

  12. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  13. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

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    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  14. Inactivation of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser-1177) by O-GlcNAc in diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Musicki, Biljana; Kramer, Melissa F.; Becker, Robyn E.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    Impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function is associated with erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus, but the exact molecular basis for the eNOS defect in the diabetic penis remains unclear. We investigated whether hyperglycemia increases O-GlcNAc modification of eNOS in the penis, preventing phosphorylation at the primary positive regulatory site on the enzyme and hampering mechanisms of the erectile response. Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by alloxan (1...

  15. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion: a proposed marker for inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M.S.; Iversen, K.; Larsen, Carsten Toftager

    2008-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. Results. Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pCRP) (p

  16. Proteome analysis suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction in stressed endothelial cells is reversed by a soy extract and isolated isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Dagmar; Dirscherl, Barbara; Schroot, Joyce H; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. A soy extract or a combination of the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein inhibited apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL in endothelial cells. Proteome analysis revealed that the LDL-induced alterations of numerous proteins were reversed by the extract and the genistein/daidzein mixture but only three protein entities, all functionally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, were regulated in common by both treatments.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction assessment by flow-mediated dilation in a high-altitude population

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    Calderón-Gerstein WS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walter S Calderón-Gerstein,1,2 Antonio López-Peña,3 Raúl Macha-Ramírez,3 Astrid Bruno-Huamán,2 Roxana Espejo-Ramos,2 Stephany Vílchez-Bravo,2 María Ramírez-Breña,2 Milagros Damián-Mucha,2 Adriana Matos-Mucha2 1Department of Medicine, National Hospital Ramiro Prialé Prialé, Essalud Junín, Huancayo, Junín, Peru; 2Faculty of Medicine, Continental University, Huancayo, Junín, Peru; 3Department of Radiology, National Hospital Ramiro Prialé Prialé, Essalud Junín, Huancayo, Junín, Peru Introduction: Endothelial function at high altitude has been measured only in populations that are genetically adapted to chronic hypoxia. The objective of this study was to evaluate endothelial dysfunction (ED in a nongenetically adapted high-altitude population of the Andes mountains, in Huancayo, Peru (3,250 meters above sea level.Methods: Participants included 61 patients: 28 cases and 33 controls. The cases were subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or a history of stroke or coronary artery disease. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD of the brachial artery was measured in the supine position, at noon, after 5 minutes of resting. The brachial artery was identified above the elbow. Its basal diameter was measured during diastole, and FMD was tested after 5 minutes of forearm ischemia. Intima–media complex in the right carotid artery was also determined. An increase in the artery’s baseline diameter <10% indicated a positive test. Endothelium-independent vasodilation was evaluated with sublingual nitrate administration. The intima–media complex in the right carotid artery was also measured.Results: 100% of diabetics had ED; ED was also found in 68.8% of obese individuals, 55% of hypertensive patients, and 46.5% of controls. Age, height, body mass index, and waist diameter were higher in the cases as compared with the controls. A total of 57.9% (n=11 of the cases and 45.2% (n=19 of the controls presented ED. Patients without ED

  18. A possible link between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K

    2000-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether insulin resistance and time to steady state during isoglycemic clamp were associated with endothelial dysfunction, peripheral vascular remodeling and forearm blood flow (FBF) in patients with longstanding hypertension....

  19. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation predict development of diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Hovind, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for progression from persistent microalbuminuria to diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study, including biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, chronic low-grade inflammation, growth factors and ...

  20. Serum from Diesel Exhaust-Exposed Rats with Cardiac Dysfunction Alters Aortic Endothelial Cell Function In Vitro: Circulating Mediators as Causative Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although circulating inflammatory mediators are strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes triggered by inhaled air pollution, direct cause-effect linkage has not been established. Given that endothelial toxicity often precedes and precipitates cardiac dysfunction, ...

  1. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction in subjects with new-onset type 2 diabetes: an acarbose and nateglinide comparative study

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    Kato Toru

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is believed to affect vascular endothelial function. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of acarbose and nateglinide on postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Methods We recruited a total of 30 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (19 men and 11 women, age 67.8 ± 7.3 years. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving either 300 mg/day acarbose, 270 mg/day nateglinide, or no medication. A cookie test (consisting of 75 g carbohydrate, 25 g butter fat, and 7 g protein for a total of 553 kcal was performed as dietary tolerance testing. During the cookie test, glucose and insulin levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after load. In addition, endothelial function was assessed by % flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery at 0 and 120 min after cookie load. Results Postprandial glucose and insulin levels were similar in the 3 groups. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction was similar in the 3 groups before treatment. After 12 weeks of intervention, postprandial FMD was significantly improved in the acarbose group compared with the control group (6.8 ± 1.3% vs 5.2 ± 1.1%, p = 0.0022. Area under the curve (AUC for insulin response was significantly increased in the nateglinide and control groups; however, no significant change was observed in the acarbose group. Conclusions Our results suggest that acarbose improves postprandial endothelial function by improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia, independent of postprandial hyperinsulinemia. Acarbose may thus have more beneficial effects on postprandial endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes than nateglinide.

  2. Effect of repaglinide on endothelial dysfunction during a glucose tolerance test in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

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    Wascher Thomas C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking post-challenge hyperglycemia to accelerated atherosclerosis, however remain to be elucidated. Methods A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery with high-resolution ultrasound. Results Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p Conclusion In subjects with IGT, the endothelial dysfunction observed after a glucose challenge is related to the extent of hyperglycemia. Reduction of hyperglycemia by repaglinide reduces endothelial dysfunction in a glucose dependent manner.

  3. [Biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with hypertensive disease or coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmineeva, A Kh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the vascular endothelium in patients with cardiopulmonary disease, by studying the levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Examinations were conducted in 212 dwellers of the Astrakhan Region, including 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) concurrent with hypertensive disease (HD), 40 patients with COPD concurrent with coronary heart disease (CHD), 27 somatically healthy individuals, 35 patients with Stage II HD, 35 patients with Functional Classes II and III CHD, and 35 patients with moderate and severe COPD. The patients with COPD concurrent with HD and CHD were found to have endothelial dysfunction manifesting itself in the overproduction of ET-1 and CNP. The level of CNP was statistically significantly higher in the COPD + HD group than in the HD and COPD groups whereas in the COPD + HD group the level of ET-1 remained comparable to that in the COPD and HD groups. This indicates that CNP is a more sensitive indirect marker of endothelial dysfunction and that nitric oxide deficiency is aggravated in the concurrence of COPD and HD as compared to a mononosological entity (HD, COPD). The concurrence of COPD and CHD is more unfavorable for the development and severity of endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to mutual aggravation syndrome, the rapider progression of the diseases, and the increased frequency of complications.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Red wine polyphenols prevent angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rats: role of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mamadou; Chataigneau, Marta; Martins, Sandrine; Schott, Christa; El Bedoui, Jasser; Oak, Min-Ho; Muller, Bernard; Chataigneau, Thierry; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2006-09-01

    Chronic administration of moderate amounts of red wine has been associated with a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. This study examined whether red wine polyphenols prevent the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rats, and, if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Hypertensive rats were obtained by a 14-day infusion of Ang II. Red wine polyphenols were administered in the drinking water one week before and during the Ang II infusion. Arterial pressure was measured in conscious rats. Ex vivo vascular relaxation was assessed in organ chambers, vascular superoxide anion production by dihydroethidine and vascular NADPH oxidase expression by immunohistochemistry. Ang II-induced hypertension was associated with decreased relaxation to acetylcholine but not to red wine polyphenols. The Ang II treatment also increased vascular superoxide anion production and expression of nox1 and p22phox NADPH oxidase subunits. Intake of red wine polyphenols prevented the Ang II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction and normalized vascular superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase subunit expression. Red wine polyphenol treatment alone did not affect blood pressure. Intake of red wine polyphenols prevents Ang II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Prevention of vascular NADPH oxidase induction and preservation of arterial nitric oxide availability during Ang II administration likely contribute to this effect.

  6. Screening test for preeclampsia through assessment of uteroplacental blood flow and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón; Barja, Pilar; Bosco, Cleofina; Fernández, Virginia; Muñoz, Hernán; Soto-Chacón, Emiliano

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether screening through a uterine artery (UtA) Doppler and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction predict preeclampsia. UtA Doppler was performed at 11 to 14 and 22 to 25 weeks on 1447 asymptomatic pregnant women. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and antiangiogenic state were assessed in women who later developed preeclampsia and normotensive controls. There was a significantly increased of UtA pulsatility index (PI), plasma levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio, and F-2 isoprostane in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with control pregnancies. Multivariate logistic regression showed that increased UtA PI performed at 23 weeks was the best predictor for preeclampsia. This study demonstrates early changes in markers of impaired placentation, antiangiogenic state, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction suggesting that these derangements may play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Our data point to UtA as the best test to predict preeclampsia at 23 weeks of gestation.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction correlates with exaggerated exercise pressor response during whole body maximal exercise in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Ryan M; Liao, Peizhou; Millson, Erin C; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Sher, Salman; Park, Jeanie

    2017-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve responses to handgrip exercise are exaggerated in CKD. These patients also have decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, which could potentially lead to an impaired ability to vasodilate during exercise. We hypothesized that CKD patients have exaggerated BP responses during maximal whole body exercise and that endothelial dysfunction correlates with greater exercise pressor responses in these patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed before maximal treadmill exercise in 56 participants: 38 CKD (56.7 ± 1.2 yr old, 38 men) and 21 controls (52.8 ± 1.8 yr old, 20 men). During maximal treadmill exercise, the slope-of-rise in systolic BP (+10.32 vs. +7.75 mmHg/stage, P exercise in CKD, as well as poorer exercise capacity measured as peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak; 19.47 ± 1.47 vs. 24.57 ± 1.51 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), P exercise and lower V̇o2peak, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction may contribute to exaggerated exercise pressor responses and poor exercise capacity in CKD patients.

  8. TMEM16A Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction by Facilitating Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Ming; Gao, Min; Guo, Kai-Min; Wang, Mi; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zeng, Xue-Lin; Sun, Lu; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Du, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guan-Lei; Zhou, Jia-Guo; Guan, Yong-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, the role of TMEM16A in vascular endothelial dysfunction during hypertension is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific involvement of TMEM16A in regulating endothelial function and blood pressure and the underlying mechanism. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and TMEM16A endothelial-specific transgenic and knockout mice were used. We found that TMEM16A was expressed abundantly and functioned as a Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channel in endothelial cells. Angiotensin II induced endothelial dysfunction with an increase in TMEM16A expression. The knockout of endothelial-specific TMEM16A significantly lowered the blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas the overexpression of endothelial-specific TMEM16A resulted in the opposite effects. These results were related to the increased reactive oxygen species production, Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase activation, and Nox2 and p22phox protein expression that were facilitated by TMEM16A on angiotensin II-induced hypertensive challenge. Moreover, TMEM16A directly bound with Nox2 and reduced the degradation of Nox2 through the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Therefore, TMEM16A is a positive regulator of endothelial reactive oxygen species generation via Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, which induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Modification of TMEM16A may be a novel therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-associated diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Endodontic infection and endothelial dysfunction are associated with different mechanisms in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Zedda, Angela; Deidda, Martino; Piras, Alessandra; Flore, Giovanna; Ideo, Francesca; Madeddu, Clelia; Pau, Valentina Maria; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the potential link between apical periodontitis (AP) and cardiovascular (CV) function, inflammation markers, endothelial flow reserve (EFR), and levels of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), were measured in young adults with AP aged 20-40 years of both sexes. Forty men and 41 women (31 ± 5.71 years) free from periodontal disease, CV disease, and traditional CV risk factors were enrolled in the study. Twenty men and 21 women had AP; 40 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and physical characteristics were also recruited as controls. All subjects underwent dental and complete physical examination, electrocardiography, conventional and tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography, and measurement of EFR. Interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ADMA were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Student t test, the Pearson t test (or the Spearman t test for nonparametric variables), and multivariate linear regression analysis. Echocardiography excluded any morphologic and functional cardiac alteration in all the subjects studied. Patients with AP of both sexes showed a significant reduction in EFR (P < .05) and a significant increase in IL-2 (men: P < .01, women: P < .05), whereas ROS were increased significantly only in women (P < .05). ADMA levels were unchanged in women with AP, but they were significantly increased in men (P < .05). A significant direct correlation between ADMA and IL-2 (r = 0.67, P < .001) and an inverse correlation between ADMA and EFR (r = -0.42, P < .05) in men and a significant inverse correlation between ROS and EFR (r = -0.71, P < .01) in female patients were observed. The presence of chronic inflammation in young adults with AP may cause early endothelial dysfunction documented by the reduced EFR. AP in men may influence the metabolism of NOS, whereas in women it appears to implicate a more direct detrimental

  10. Combination therapy with losartan and L-carnitine protects against endothelial dysfunction of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleem, Mostafa; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Mangoura, Safwat A

    2014-12-05

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of diabetic cardiovascular complications and angiotensin II appears to play a pivotal role in this setting. The present study aimed to investigate whether the combination therapy with losartan and the nutritional supplement, L-carnitine can provide an additional protection against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) underlying this effect. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in rat. Effects of losartan (20 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, oxidative stress parameters, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS), and vascular function were evaluated. Our results showed a marked increase in aortic superoxide anion (O2(-)) production and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level alongside attenuating antioxidant enzyme capacities in diabetic rats. This was associated with a significant increase in anigiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression and TNF-α serum level of diabetic rats alongside reducing aortic eNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The single or combined administration of losartan and L-carnitine significantly inhibited these changes. Additionally, the vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation with acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic diabetic rat was significantly ameliorated by the single and combined administration of losartan or L-carnitine. Noteworthy, the combination therapy exhibited a more profound response over the monotherapy. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the combined therapy of losartan and L-carnitine affords additive beneficial effects against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, possibly via normalizing the dysregulated eNOS and reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation and Feasibility Assessment of a New Vehicle for Cell-Based Therapy for Treating Corneal Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Okumura

    Full Text Available The corneal endothelium maintains corneal transparency by its pump and barrier functions; consequently, its decompensation due to any pathological reason causes severe vision loss due to corneal haziness. Corneal transplantation is the only therapeutic choice for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, but associated problems, such as a shortages of donor corneas, the difficulty of the surgical procedure, and graft failure, still need to be resolved. Regenerative medicine is attractive to researchers as a means of providing innovative therapies for corneal endothelial dysfunction, as it now does for other diseases. We previously demonstrated the successful regeneration of corneal endothelium in animal models by injecting cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs in combination with a Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the vehicle for clinical use in cell-based therapy. Our screening of cell culture media revealed that RELAR medium promoted CEC adhesion. We then modified RELAR medium by removing hormones, growth factors, and potentially toxic materials to generate a cell therapy vehicle (CTV composed of amino acid, salts, glucose, and vitamins. Injection of CECs in CTV enabled efficient engraftment and regeneration of the corneal endothelium in the rabbit corneal endothelial dysfunction model, with restoration of a transparent cornea. The CECs retained >85% viability after a 24 hour preservation as a cell suspension in CTV at 4°C and maintained their potency to regenerate the corneal endothelium in vivo. The vehicle developed here is clinically applicable for cell-based therapy aimed at treating the corneal endothelium. Our strategy involves the generation of vehicle from a culture medium appropriate for a given cell type by removing materials that are not favorable for clinical use.

  12. Endothelial dysfunction in hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome is not explained by either obesity or ectopic fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Aziz, Nabil F; Daousi, Christina; Kemp, Graham J; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is associated with IR (insulin resistance), increased visceral fat and NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) all of which may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of CVD (cardiovascular disease) risk. Our objective was to examine the relationships between endothelial dysfunction in PCOS, the volume of AT (adipose tissue) compartments and the size of intracellular TAG (triacylglycerol) pools in liver and skeletal muscle. A total of 19 women with PCOS (means±S.D.; 26±6 years, 36±5 kg/m2) and 16 control women (31±8 years, 30±6 kg/m2) were recruited. Endothelial function was assessed in the brachial artery using FMD (flow-mediated dilation). VAT (visceral AT) and abdominal SAT (subcutaneous AT) volume were determined by whole body MRI, and liver and skeletal muscle TAG by 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Cardiorespiratory fitness and HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of IR) were also determined. Differences between groups were analysed using independent Student's t tests and ANCOVA (analysis of co-variance). FMD was impaired in PCOS by 4.6% [95% CI (confidence interval), 3.0-7.7; P<0.001], and this difference decreased only slightly to 4.2% (95% CI, 2.4-6.1; P<0.001) when FMD was adjusted for individual differences in visceral and SAT and HOMA-IR. This magnitude of impairment was also similar in lean and obese PCOS women. The results suggest that endothelial dysfunction in PCOS is not explained by body fat distribution or volume. FMD might be a useful independent prognostic tool to assess CVD risk in this population.

  13. The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Pregnant Women with Chorion Detachment, Included in the Program of Auxiliary Reproductive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Lytvyn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An urgent medical and social problem is the restoration of reproductive function of womenwho suffer from infertility, which became possible due to auxiliary reproductive technologies. Women with induced pregnancy make thegroup of a high-risk on miscarriage, due to interrelated processes –immunological disorders and endothelial dysfunction that occur in the body of pregnant women after the use of extracorporal fertilization programs, and can lead to the chorion detachment and the formation of subchorionic hematomas. The purpose of the study is to determine the role of endothelial dysfunction as one of the leading factors that determine the development of a local non-progressive chorion detachment in infertile patients included in the program of auxiliary reproductive technologies. Materials and methods. We have examined 130 pregnant women, who were divided into groups: the control group included 30 women, whose pregnancy occurred in the natural cycle and with uncomplicated gestational course; the main group – 50 patients with induced pregnancy and risk factors of the occurrence of chorion detachment, who wereperformed the proposed pre-gravidapreparation; the comparative group – 50 pregnant women who received a standard scheme of pregnancy management before and after in-vitro fertilization. A general clinical examination, ultrasound examination, homocysteine level determination, endothelin-1 and nitrogen oxide metabolites were performed. Results. In women included into the program of auxiliary reproductive technologies with local chorion detachment were recorded changes of vascular endothelial function with a possible increase in endothelin-1 production and a decrease of the nitric oxidesynthesis. During the induced pregnancy with the presence of subchorionic hematoma, an increase of the level of endothelium-damaging factor of homocysteine was noted. Conclusions.This study identifies the parameters that reflect the main links of endothelial

  14. Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheakh, Ahmed R; Ghoneim, Hamdy A; Suddek, Ghada M; Ammar, El Sayed M

    2015-08-14

    Allicin, the active substance of garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic applications. The present study was designed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of allicin against oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Male New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Rabbits randomly received 1 of the following treatments: normal chow diet for 4 weeks, 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD), HCD plus allicin (10 mg/kg/day), or HCD plus atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected at the end of experimental diets for measurement of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the aorta was removed for measurement of vascular reactivity, histopathological changes, intima/media (I/M) ratio, and immunohistochemical staining of both tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. HCD induced significant increases in serum TC, TGs, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), CRP, and MDA. Moreover, HCD caused significant decrease in serum GSH and SOD. In addition, aortic relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired. Immunohistochemical staining of aortic specimens from HCD-fed rabbits revealed high expression levels of both TNF-α and the oxidant-induced transcription factor, NF-κB. Allicin supplementation significantly decreased serum MDA and CRP, increased serum HDL-C, GSH, and SOD levels while nonsignificantly affecting HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C. Additionally, allicin significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh and elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by histopathological examination of the aorta. Moreover, allicin has substantially

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipemia and associated endothelial dysfunction in healthy individuals - a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Noda, Yoko; Ohno, Yuko; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Oe, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kohno, Kunihisa; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Postprandial elevation of triglycerides impairs endothelial function and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial endothelial function and lipid profiles. Healthy volunteers [10] were given supplementation at 4g/day omega-3 fatty acids (or were not treated) for 4 weeks in a randomised crossover study. Postprandial levels of various lipids were monitored and endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation during fasting and after a standard cookie test. Omega-3 fatty acids reduced postprandial endothelial dysfunction compared with the control diet (flow-mediated dilation at 4h=-0.5±1.2 vs. -2.0±1.6%, P=0.03). Postprandial levels of triglycerides, apolipoprotein B-48, and remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol increased in untreated subjects, peaked at 2-4h, and returned to baseline at 8h, whereas low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels did not change. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly suppressed postprandial elevation of triglycerides (incremental area under the curve=220±209 vs. 374±216mg/h/dL, P=0.04) and remnant lipoprotein-cholesterol (incremental area under the curve=21.7±13.8 vs. 13.3±12.9mg/h/dL, P=0.04). Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids significantly suppressed the increase in triglyceride content in chylomicrons as well as in very-low-density lipoproteins from baseline to 4h after the cookie test. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased postprandial triglyceride elevation and postprandial endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have vascular protective effects in postprandial state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  17. Microvascular coronary artery spasm presents distinctive clinical features with endothelial dysfunction as nonobstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    distinctive clinical features and endothelial dysfunction that are important to recognize as nonobstructive coronary artery disease so that optimal care with calcium channel blockers can be provided. URL: www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN000003839.

  18. Contribution of oxidative stress and prostanoids in endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplicio, Janaina A; Resstel, Leonardo B; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment were investigated on blood pressure and on vascular reactivity in the isolated rat aorta. Male Wistar rats were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) for 21 days. Fluoxetine increased systolic blood pressure. Chronic, but not acute, fluoxetine treatment increased the contractile response induced by phenylephrine, serotonin (5-HT) and KCl in endothelium-intact rat aortas. L-NAME and ODQ did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine and 5-HT in aortic rings from fluoxetine-treated rats. Tiron, SC-560 and AH6809 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine and 5-HT in aortas from fluoxetine-treated rats. Fluoxetine treatment increased superoxide anion generation (O2(-)) and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in the rat aorta. Reduced expression of nNOS, but not eNOS or iNOS was observed in animals treated with fluoxetine. Fluoxetine treatment increased prostaglandin (PG)F2α levels but did not affect thromboxane (TX)B2 levels in the rat aorta. Reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and increased catalase (CAT) activity were observed after treatment. The major new finding of our study is that chronic fluoxetine treatment induces endothelial dysfunction, which alters vascular responsiveness by a mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of a COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoid (PGF2α). Moreover, our results evidenced a relation between the period of treatment with fluoxetine and the magnitude in the increment of blood pressure. Finally, our findings raise the possibility that fluoxetine treatment increases the risk for vascular injury, a response that could predisposes to cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Omeprazole impairs vascular redox biology and causes xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Portella, Rafael L; Guimarães, Danielle A; de Angelis, Celio D; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2016-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used drugs that may increase the cardiovascular risk by mechanisms not entirely known. While PPIs increase asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and inhibit nitric oxide production, it is unknown whether impaired vascular redox biology resulting of increased xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity mediates PPIs-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED). We examined whether increased XOR activity impairs vascular redox biology and causes ED in rats treated with omeprazole. We also examined whether omeprazole aggravates the ED found in hypertension. Treatment with omeprazole reduced endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine without causing hypertension. However, omeprazole did not aggravate two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension, nor hypertension-induced ED. Omeprazole and 2K1C increased vascular oxidative stress as assessed with dihydroethidium (DHE), which reacts with superoxide, and by the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. The selective XOR inhibitor febuxostat blunted both effects induced by omeprazole. Treatment with omeprazole increased plasma ADMA concentrations, XOR activity and systemic markers of oxidative stress. Incubation of aortic rings with ADMA increased XOR activity, DHE fluorescence and lucigenin chemiluminescence signals, and febuxostat blunted these effects. Providing functional evidence that omeprazole causes ED by XOR-mediated mechanisms, we found that febuxostat blunted the ED caused by omeprazole treatment. This study shows that treatment with omeprazole impairs the vascular redox biology by XOR-mediated mechanisms leading to ED. While omeprazole did not further impair hypertension-induced ED, further studies in less severe animal models are warranted. Our findings may have major relevance, particularly to patients with cardiovascular diseases taking PPIs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  1. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV(+) donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV(-) donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in normal and prediabetic rats with metabolic syndrome exposed by oral gavage to carbon black nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkmann, Janne Kjærsgaard; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine; Sheykhzade, Majid; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to nanosized particles may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by endothelial dysfunction, particularly in susceptible subjects with metabolic syndrome. We investigated vasomotor dysfunction in aorta from obese and lean Zucker rats after oral exposure to nanosized carbon black (CB). Rats were exposed to 1 or 10 weekly doses of 0, 0.064, 0.64 or 6.4 mg/kg bodyweight and sacrificed 24 h or 13 weeks later. The exposure to 10 doses of 0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg reduced the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in the lean and obese rats. The half maximal effect concentration values increased by twofold (95% CI: 1.1-3.5-fold) and fourfold (95% CI: 2.3-6.9-fold) in the rats exposed to 0.064 and 0.64 mg/kg compared with the controls, respectively. The rats exposed to 10 doses of 0.64 mg/kg had also 20% (95% CI: 10-29%) lower maximal effect value compared with the controls. However, the nitroglycerin-induced vasorelaxation and phenylephrine-induced vasocontraction was not affected in rats exposed to CB. The endothelial dysfunction was not observed in rats sacrificed 13 weeks after the last CB exposure. There was unaltered expression of Chrm3, Nos3, Nos2, Ccl2, and Hmox1 in aorta tissue of CB-exposed rats. In conclusion, repeated oral exposure to CB was associated with endothelial dysfunction in rats, further aggravating the effect of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Improvement of endothelial dysfunction in experimental heart failure by chronic RAAS-blockade : ACE-inhibition or AT(1)-receptor blockade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buikema, H; Pinto, YM; van Gilst, WH

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is believed to be important in the deterioration of endodiehal dysfunction in CHF through stimulation of oxidative stress. Whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme

  4. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Provoked Endothelial Dysfunction in Isolated Rat Aortic Rings: Implications for Antioxidant Therapy of Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Oxidative stress can initiate endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. This study evaluated whether tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, the predominant active ingredient in Rhizoma Ligustici Wallichii (chuanxiong, prevents endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of oxidative stress. Methods. Isolated rat aortic rings were pretreated with various drugs before the induction of endothelial dysfunction by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Changes in isometric tension were then measured in acetylcholine- (ACh- relaxed rings. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression was evaluated in the rings by Western blotting, and superoxide anion (O2∙- content was assessed in primary rat aortic endothelial cells by dihydroethidium- (DHE- mediated fluorescence microscopy. Results. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR was disrupted by H2O2 in endothelium-intact aortic rings. H2O2-impaired relaxation was ameliorated by acute pretreatment with low concentrations of TMP, as well as by pretreatment with catalase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI. TMP, apocynin, and DPI also reduced O2∙- accumulation in endothelial cells,but TMP failed to alter eNOS expression in aortic rings incubated with H2O2. Conclusions. TMP safeguards against oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that the agent might find therapeutic utility in the management of vascular diseases. However, TMP’s role in inhibiting NADPH oxidase and its vascular-protective mechanism of action requires further investigation.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-derived hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Grazielle C; Silva, Josiane F; Diniz, Thiago F; Lemos, Virginia S; Cortes, Steyner F

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common problem associated with hypertension and is considered a precursor to the development of micro- and macro-vascular complications. The present study investigated the involvement of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) in the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the mesenteric arteries of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt-hypertensive mice. Myograph studies were used to investigate the endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of ACh (acetylcholine). The expression and phosphorylation of nNOS and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) were studied by Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the localization of nNOS and eNOS in the endothelial layer of the mesenteric artery. The vasodilator effect of ACh is strongly impaired in mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Non-selective inhibition of NOS sharply reduced the effect of ACh in both DOCA-salt-hypertensive and sham mice. Selective inhibition of nNOS and catalase led to a higher reduction in the effect of ACh in sham than in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Production of H2O2 induced by ACh was significantly reduced in vessels from DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, and it was blunted after nNOS inhibition. The expression of both eNOS and nNOS was considerably lower in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, whereas phosphorylation of their inhibitory sites was increased. The presence of nNOS was confirmed in the endothelial layer of mesenteric arteries from both sham and DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. These results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice is associated with reduced expression and functioning of nNOS and impaired production of nNOS-derived H2O2 Such findings offer a new perspective for the understanding of endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Lidocaine Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction of the Systemic Artery in Rats With Intermittent Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takumi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Feng, Guo-Gang; Kazaoka, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery. However, it is unknown whether the use of local anesthetics during painful dental procedures alleviates periodontal inflammation and systemic endothelial function. This study was designed to examine whether the gingival or systemic injection of lidocaine prevents oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction of the systemic artery in rats with intermittent periodontal inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Some rats received 1500 µg LPS injections to the gingiva during a week interval from the age of 8 to 11 weeks (LPS group). Lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), LPS + lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg), and LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg, IP) groups simultaneously received gingival 1.5 or 3 mg/kg or IP 3 mg/kg injection of lidocaine on the same schedule as the gingival LPS. Isolated aortas or mandibles were subjected to the evaluation of histopathologic change, isometric force recording, reactive oxygen species, and Western immunoblotting. Mean blood pressure and heart rate did not differ among the control, LPS, LPS + lidocaine (3 mg/kg), and lidocaine (3 mg/kg) groups. LPS application reduced acetylcholine (ACh, 10 to 10 mol/L)-induced relaxation (29% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P = .01), which was restored by catalase. Gingival lidocaine (1.5 and 3 mg/kg) dose dependently prevented the endothelial dysfunction caused by LPS application (24.5%-31.1% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P = .006 or .001, respectively). Similar to the gingival application, the IP injection of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) restored the ACh-induced dilation of isolated aortas from rats with the LPS application (27.5% difference at ACh 3 × 10 mol/L, P lidocaine (3 mg/kg), or the combination. The LPS induced a 4-fold increase in the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the periodontal tissue (P lidocaine (3 mg/kg) coadministration partly reduced the levels. Lidocaine application also decreased

  7. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated brain microvascular endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-Long; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate the role of sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to oxLDL. The results indicated that treatment of MBMECs with oxLDL decreased the cell viability, and oxidative stress was involved in oxLDL-induce MBMECs dysfunction with increasing intracellular ROS and MDA formation as well as decreasing NO release and eNOS mRNA expression. In addition, SHH signaling components, such as SHH, Smo and Gli1, mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased after incubation with increasing concentrations of oxLDL. Treatment with oxLDL alone or SHH loss-of-function significantly increased the permeability of MBMECs, and overexpression of SHH attenuated oxLDL-induced elevation of permeability in MBMECs. Furthermore, SHH gain-of-function could reverse oxLDL-induced apoptosis through inhibition caspase3 and caspase8 levels in MBMECs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the suppression of SHH in MBMECs might contribute to the oxLDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. However, the overexpression of SHH could reverse oxLDL-induced endothelial cells dysfunction in vitro.

  8. Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome are not explained by either obesity or insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Elisabeth A; Teede, Helena; Sari, Carolina Ika; Jona, Eveline; Shorakae, Soulmaz; Woodington, Kiri; Hemmes, Robyn; Eikelis, Nina; Straznicky, Nora E; De Courten, Barbora; Dixon, John B; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition underpinned by insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Previous data suggest autonomic imbalance [elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and decreased heart rate variability (HRV)] as well as endothelial dysfunction in PCOS. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are driven by obesity and metabolic disturbance or whether they are independently related to PCOS. We examined multiunit and single-unit muscle SNS activity (by microneurography), HRV (time and frequency domain analysis) and endothelial function [ischaemic reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) using the EndoPAT device] in 19 overweight/obese women with PCOS (BMI: 31·3 ± 1·5 kg/m(2), age: 31·3 ± 1·6 years) and compared them with 21 control overweight/obese women (BMI: 33·0 ± 1·4 kg/m(2), age: 28·2 ± 1·6 years) presenting a similar metabolic profile (fasting total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure). Women with PCOS had elevated multiunit muscle SNS activity (41 ± 2 vs 33 ± 3 bursts per 100 heartbeats, P obesity and metabolic disturbances. Sympathetic activation and endothelial dysfunction may confer greater cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity and the effect of weight loss interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S M P; Livingstone, M B E; McCrorie, T A; Wallace, J M W

    2011-11-01

    Endothelial damage is central to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, while in addition vascular endothelial cells secrete several anti-atherogenic substances including the potent vasodilator nitric oxide. Increased adhesion molecule expression, in response to pathophysiological stimuli is perhaps the earliest indicator of compromised endothelial integrity. Obesity and adiposity are associated with an increased risk of CVD, influencing disease progression via a number of mechanisms, including enhanced endothelial activation. This review discusses possible mechanisms linking adiposity and more specifically regional fat depots with endothelial function and evaluates studies investigating the effect of weight loss on endothelial function, assessed by biochemical and physiological measurements. Overall, the research to date suggests that visceral adiposity is a stronger predictor of endothelial activation than overall adiposity, possibly mediated via the action of NEFA in circulation. While in general there is a suggestion that weight loss is associated with significant improvements in endothelial function, this is not apparent in all interventions and published literature to date provides less than convincing evidence for the effects of weight loss on endothelial activation.

  10. Camk2b protects neurons from homocysteine-induced apoptosis with the involvement of HIF-1α signal pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Min; Feng, Chao; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Liu, Xue-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study using iTRAQ technique we found that the level of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2b (Camk2b) was lower in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. We presumed that Camk2b might be involved in homocysteine-induced apoptosis and tried to explore its role in this study through the transfection with Camk2b gene. Results showed that neurons of HHcy group had lower activity measured by MTT, higher percentage of apoptotic neurons, lower expression levels of Camk2b mRNA and protein t...

  11. [Endothelial dysfunction: role in the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia and long-term consequences for the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicchio, R; Buffat, C; Vaiman, D; Miralles, F

    2013-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder being a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. It is a complex multisystem disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. In preeclampsia the placenta releases factors into the maternal circulation which cause a systemic endothelial dysfunction. Here, we review data demonstrating the central role played by the endothelium in the development of the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia. We present also original data showing how circulating factors present in the plasma of preeclamptic women can alter the transcriptome of endothelial cells. The expression of genes involved in essential functions such as vasoregulation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation show differential expression when endothelial cells are exposed to preeclamptic or normal pregnancy plasma. We conclude by discussing the growing evidences that the alterations of the endothelium during preeclampsia are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases latter on life. Therefore, a better understanding of the modifications undergone by the endothelial cells during preeclampsia is essential to develop new therapeutic approaches to both, manage preeclampsia and to prevent the long-term sequelae of the disease on women cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and DNA methyltransferase 1 axis mediates vascular endothelial dysfunction in response to disturbed flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Peng; Huang, Yi-Tao; Huang, Tse-Shun; Pang, Wei; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Yue-Feng; Tang, Run-Ze; Zhao, Chuan-Rong; Yao, Wei-Juan; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chien, Shu; Zhou, Jing

    2017-11-08

    The earliest atherosclerotic lesions preferentially develop in arterial regions experienced disturbed blood flow, which induces endothelial expression of pro-atherogenic genes and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction. Our previous study has demonstrated an up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and a global hypermethylation in vascular endothelium subjected to disturbed flow. Here, we determined that DNMT1-specific inhibition in arterial wall ameliorates the disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis through, at least in part, targeting cell cycle regulator cyclin A and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). We identified the signaling pathways mediating the flow-induction of DNMT1. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) suppressed the DNMT1 up-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results demonstrate that disturbed flow influences endothelial function and induces atherosclerosis in an mTOR/DNMT1-dependent manner. The conclusions obtained from this study might facilitate further evaluation of the epigenetic regulation of endothelial function during the pathological development of atherosclerosis and offer novel prevention and therapeutic targets of this disease.

  13. Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves endothelial dysfunction in Goto-Kakizaki rats exhibiting repetitive blood glucose fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kosuke; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Iesaki, Takafumi; Otsuka, Aiko; Tanaka, Atsuko; Mita, Tomoya; Hirose, Takahisa; Tanaka, Yasushi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2006-06-30

    Several epidemiological studies have revealed that subjects with postprandial hyperglycemia are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of postprandial hyperglycemia and its treatment on endothelial function has not been clarified yet. In this study, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type 2 diabetes model, fed twice daily were used as a model of repetitive postprandial glucose spikes. We investigated the endothelial function in these rats treated or untreated with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Administration of acarbose for 12 weeks markedly improved postprandial hyperglycemia, postprandial insulin level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid level in GK rats. Furthermore, acarbose efficiently reduced the number of monocytes adherent to aortic endothelial layer, improved acetylcholine-dependent vasodilatation, and reduced intimal thickening of the aorta. While it is generally regarded that repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with the onset of cardiovascular diseases, our data demonstrated that acarbose treatment efficiently ameliorated endothelial dysfunction and reduced intimal thickening, thus adding support to the protective effect of acarbose against the onset of cardiovascular disease.

  14. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  15. Red wine polyphenols prevent endothelial dysfunction induced by endothelin-1 in rat aorta: role of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepúlveda, Rocío; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Zarzuelo, Maria José; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Quintela, Ana María; Galindo, Pilar; O'Valle, Francisco; Tamargo, Juan; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Jiménez, Rosario

    2011-04-01

    RWPs (red wine polyphenols) exert antihypertensive effects and improve endothelial function by reducing the plasma levels of ET-1 (endothelin-1) and the subsequent vascular production of O(2)(•-) (superoxide anion). Our present study was designed to evaluate whether RWPs act directly in the vascular wall improving endothelial dysfunction and O(2)(•-) production induced by ET-1 and to analyse the compounds responsible for these protective effects. We incubated rat isolated aortic rings in the presence or absence of ET-1 (10 nM) and RWPs (10(-4) to 10(-2) g/l) or catechin (0.2 μM), epicatechin (10 μM) and resveratrol (0.1 μM). ET-1 reduced the relaxant responses to acetylcholine, increased intracellular O(2)(•-) production, NADPH oxidase activity and protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. All these changes were prevented by RWPs. The preventive effects of RWPs were unaffected by co-incubation with either ICI-182780, an ER (oestrogen receptor) antagonist, or GW9662, a PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) antagonist. RWPs inhibited the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), a key regulator of p47phox expression in response to ET-1. When the isolated polyphenols were tested, at the concentrations found in 10(-2) g/l RWPs, only epicatechin prevented endothelial dysfunction and all biochemical changes induced by ET-1 in the vascular wall. Taken together, these results indicate that RWPs prevent ET-1-induced vascular O(2)(•-) production by reducing overexpression of p47phox and the subsequent increased NADPH oxidase activity, leading to improvement in endothelial function. The effects of RWPs appear to be independent of ER and PPARγ activation and are related to ERK1/2 inhibition.

  16. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH GOUT ASSOCIATED WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kushnarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the endothelium status and determine the correlation between endothelial dysfunction and glucose metabolism in men with gout associated with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients (n=175, all are males with gout were enrolled into the study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in all patients. Endothelial function was studied in tests with reactive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent reaction and nitroglycerin (endothelium independent reaction in brachial artery by ultrasonic Doppler examination. The level of nitrite-nitrate and endothelin-1 in blood serum was determined by ELISA technique. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as well as fasting insulin blood level was determined by immunoenzyme method. Insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR was calculated. Patients with HOMA- IR>2.77 were considered as insulin-resistant.Results. Patients with gout demonstrated endothelial deterioration associated with activation of nitroxid producing function, elevation in endothelin-1 serum level (1.36 fmol/ml [0.91; 2.32 fmol/ml] vs 0.19 fmol/ml [0.16; 0.27 fmol/ml] in controls, p<0.05 and impairments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (6.4% [3.3; 7.3%] vs 17.8% [12.7; 23.9%] in controls, p<0.05. The revealed changes were the most marked in patients with gout associated with HT. The correlation between some endothelial dysfunction in- dices and glucose metabolism was observed.Conclusion. ABPM, brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and glucose metabolism status should be studied in patients with gout. Complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases in patients with gout should include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, angiotensin receptor antagonists should be used for antihypertensive therapy.

  17. Mechanisms for food polyphenols to ameliorate insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: therapeutic implications for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kashif M; Chandrasekaran, Sruti; Gao, Feng; Quon, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    The rising epidemic of diabetes is a pressing issue in clinical medicine worldwide from both healthcare and economic perspectives. This is fueled by overwhelming increases in the incidence and prevalence of obesity. Obesity and diabetes are characterized by both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction that lead to substantial increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction tightly link metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes with their cardiovascular complications. Therefore, therapeutic approaches that target either insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction alone are likely to simultaneously improve both metabolic and cardiovascular pathophysiology and disease outcomes. Moreover, combination therapies with agents targeting distinct mechanisms are likely to have additive or synergistic benefits. Conventional therapies for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications that are both safe and effective are insufficient to meet rising demand. Large, robust, epidemiologic studies demonstrate beneficial metabolic and cardiovascular health effects for many functional foods containing various polyphenols. However, precise molecular mechanisms of action for food polyphenols are largely unknown. Moreover, translation of these insights into effective clinical therapies has not been fully realized. Nevertheless, some functional foods are likely sources for safe and effective therapies and preventative strategies for metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications. In this review, we emphasize recent progress in elucidating molecular, cellular, and physiological actions of polyphenols from green tea (EGCG), cocoa (ECG), and citrus fruits (hesperedin) that are related to improving metabolic and cardiovascular pathophysiology. We also discuss a rigorous comprehensive approach to studying functional foods that is essential for developing novel, effective, and safe

  18. CD36 and Fyn kinase mediate malaria-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

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    Ifeanyi U Anidi

    Full Text Available Severe malaria can trigger acute lung injury characterized by pulmonary edema resulting from increased endothelial permeability. However, the mechanism through which lung fluid conductance is altered during malaria remains unclear. To define the role that the scavenger receptor CD36 may play in mediating this response, C57BL/6J (WT and CD36-/- mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA and monitored for changes in pulmonary endothelial barrier function employing an isolated perfused lung system. WT lungs demonstrated a >10-fold increase in two measures of paracellular fluid conductance and a decrease in the albumin reflection coefficient (σalb compared to control lungs indicating a loss of barrier function. In contrast, malaria-infected CD36-/- mice had near normal fluid conductance but a similar reduction in σalb. In WT mice, lung sequestered iRBCs demonstrated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To determine whether knockout of CD36 could protect against ROS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, mouse lung microvascular endothelial monolayers (MLMVEC from WT and CD36-/- mice were exposed to H2O2. Unlike WT monolayers, which showed dose-dependent decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER from H2O2 indicating loss of barrier function, CD36-/- MLMVEC demonstrated dose-dependent increases in TER. The differences between responses in WT and CD36-/- endothelial cells correlated with important differences in the intracellular compartmentalization of the CD36-associated Fyn kinase. Malaria infection increased total lung Fyn levels in CD36-/- lungs compared to WT, but this increase was due to elevated production of the inactive form of Fyn further suggesting a dysregulation of Fyn-mediated signaling. The importance of Fyn in CD36-dependent endothelial signaling was confirmed using in vitro Fyn knockdown as well as Fyn-/- mice, which were also protected from H2O2- and malaria-induced lung endothelial leak, respectively. Our

  19. Endothelial Dysfunction After ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Long-term Outcome: A Study With Reactive Hyperemia Peripheral Artery Tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhai-Ragunath, Jasveen J; Doggen, Carine J M; Jørstad, Harald T; Doelman, Cees; de Wagenaar, Bjorn; IJzerman, Maarten J; Peters, Ron J G; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2016-07-01

    Long-term data on the relationship between endothelial dysfunction after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and future adverse clinical events are scarce. The aim of this study was to noninvasively assess whether endothelial dysfunction 4 weeks to 6 weeks after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction predicts future clinical events. This prospective cohort study was performed in 70 patients of the RESPONSE randomized trial, who underwent noninvasive assessment of endothelial function 4 weeks to 6 weeks after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Endothelial function was measured by the reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry method; an index<1.67 identified endothelial dysfunction. The reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry index measured on average 1.90±0.58. A total of 35 (50%) patients had endothelial dysfunction and 35 (50%) patients had normal endothelial function. Periprocedural "complications" (eg, cardiogenic shock, total atrioventricular block) were more common in patients with endothelial dysfunction than in those without (25.7% vs 2.9%; P<.01). During 4.0±1.7 years of follow-up, 20 (28.6%) patients had major adverse cardiovascular events: events occurred in 9 (25.7%) patients with endothelial dysfunction and in 11 (31.5%) patients with normal endothelial function (P=.52). There was an association between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus at baseline and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up (univariate analysis: hazard ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-7.8; P<.05), and even in multivariate analyses the risk appeared to be increased, although not significantly (multivariate analysis: hazard ratio=2.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-7.5). In this series of patients who survived an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry 4 weeks to 6 weeks

  20. Glycemic control with ipragliflozin, a novel selective SGLT2 inhibitor, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse

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    Hotimah Masdan Salim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice.Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus. At three days of injection, ipragliflozin (3 mg/kg/day was administered via gavage for 3 weeks. Vascular function was assessed by isometric tension recording. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC were used for in vitro experiments. RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urine 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG level.Results: Ipragliflozin administration significantly reduced blood glucose level (P<0.01 and attenuated the impairment of endothelial function in diabetic mice, as determined by acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation (P<0.001. Ipragliflozin did not alter metabolic parameters such as body weight and food intake. Ipragliflozin administration ameliorated impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 in the abdominal aorta and reduced reactive oxygen species generation as determined by urinary excretion of 8-OHdG in diabetic mice. Furthermore, qPCR analyses demonstrated that ipragliflozin decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules (e.g.; MCP-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the abdominal aorta (P<0.05, respectively. In in vitro studies, incubation with methylglyoxal, one of the advanced glycation end products, significantly impaired phosphorylation of Akt and eNOSSer1177 (P<0.01, respectively and increased the expression of MCP-1

  1. Efficacy of bosentan, a dual ETA and ETB endothelin receptor antagonist, in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Sharma, Bhupesh; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of bosentan a dual endothelin (ETA and ETB) receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of a single dose (50mg/kg, i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ). Drug treatment was started after 1 month of STZ administration and treatment was continued until the end of the study. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed for testing spatial learning and memory. Endothelial function was measured on isolated aortic rings using student physiograph. Serum glucose, body weight, serum nitrite/nitrate, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and brain acetylcholinesterase activity were also tested. STZ treatment resulted in significant development of cognitive and vascular endothelial deficits, manifested in the terms of endothelial dysfunction, impairment of learning and memory, reduction in body weight and serum nitrite/nitrate levels along with increase in serum glucose, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, TBARS, and decreased GSH levels. Treatment of bosentan attenuated diabetes induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that bosentan has shown efficacy in STZ induced cognitive and vascular endothelial deficits. Thus, endothelin receptors can be considered as a potential pharmacological target for the management of experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  3. Implantation of healthy matrix-embedded endothelial cells rescues dysfunctional endothelium and ischaemic tissue in liver engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Balcells, Mercedes; Edelman, Elazer R

    2017-07-01

    Liver transplantation is limited by ischaemic injury which promotes endothelial cell and hepatocyte dysfunction and eventually organ failure. We sought to understand how endothelial state determines liver recovery after hepatectomy and engraftment. Matrix-embedded endothelial cells (MEECs) with retained healthy phenotype or control acellular matrices were implanted in direct contact with the remaining median lobe of donor mice undergoing partial hepatectomy (70%), or in the interface between the remaining median lobe and an autograft or isograft from the left lobe in hepatectomised recipient mice. Hepatic vascular architecture, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in the median lobe and grafts, serum markers of liver damage and phenotype of macrophage and lymphocyte subsets in the liver after engraftment were analysed 7 days post-op. Healthy MEECs create a functional vascular splice in donor and recipient liver after 70% hepatectomy in mouse protecting these livers from ischaemic injury, hepatic congestion and inflammation. Macrophages recruited adjacent to the vascular nodes into the implants switched to an anti-inflammatory and regenerative profile M2. MEECs improved liver function and the rate of liver regeneration and prevented apoptosis in donor liver lobes, autologous grafts and syngeneic engraftment. Implants with healthy endothelial cells rescue liver donor and recipient endothelium and parenchyma from ischaemic injury after major hepatectomy and engraftment. This study highlights endothelial-hepatocyte crosstalk in hepatic repair and provides a promising new approach to improve regenerative medicine outcomes and liver transplantation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Myocardial Production of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 is Associated with Coronary Endothelial and Ventricular Dysfunction after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takuya; Uematsu, Manabu; Yoshizaki, Toru; Obata, Jun-Ei; Nakamura, Takamitsu; Fujioka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka

    2016-05-02

    Although plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is abundantly expressed in infarcted myocardium, the pathogenic role of myocardial PAI-1 remains unknown. This study examined whether PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion contributes to coronary endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Plasma levels of PAI-1 activity and tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen were measured 2 weeks and 6 months after MI by ELISA in plasma obtained from the aortic root (AO) and anterior interventricular vein (AIV) in 28 patients with a first AMI due to occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Coronary blood flow responses in LAD to intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and left ventriculography were measured at the same time points: 2 weeks and 6 months after MI. The trans-myocardial gradient of PAI-1 from AO to AIV, reflecting production/release of PAI-1 in the infarcted lesion, was inversely correlated with the coronary blood flow response to ACh 6 months after MI (r=-0.43, p=0.02) and with the percentage change in LV regional motion in the LAD territory from 2 weeks to 6 months after MI (r=-0.38, p=0.04). The trans-myocardial gradient of tPA level showed no significant correlations. PAI-1 produced in the infarcted myocardium and released into the coronary circulation is associated with endothelial dysfunction in resistance vessels of the infarct-related coronary arteries and with progressive dysfunction of the infarcted region of the left ventricle in AMI survivors.

  5. Additive Effect of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients

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    Maria Perticone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by an increased risk of incident diabetes and cardiovascular (CV events, identifying insulin resistance (IR and endothelial dysfunction as key elements. Moreover, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is bidirectionally linked with MS as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities. We addressed the question if the evolution in NAFLD might worsen endothelium-dependent vasodilating response in MS hypertensives. We recruited 272 Caucasian newly-diagnosed never-treated hypertensive outpatients divided into three groups according to the presence/absence of MS alone or in combination with NAFLD. MS and NAFLD were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and non-invasive fatty liver index, respectively. We determined IR by using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index. Vascular function, as forearm blood flow (FBF, was determined through strain-gauge plethysmography after intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside. MS+NAFLD+ group showed worse metabolic, inflammatory and vascular profiles compared with MS−NAFLD− and MS+NAFLD−. HOMA resulted in being the strongest predictor of FBF both in the MS+NAFLD− and in the MS+NAFLD+ groups, accounting for 20.5% and 33.2% of its variation, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MS+NAFLD+ hypertensives show a worse endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared with MS+NAFLD−, allowing for consideration of NAFLD as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensives.

  6. Curcumin supplementation could improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction associated with decreased vascular superoxide production and PKC inhibition

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    Ruangvejvorachai Preecha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin, an Asian spice and food-coloring agent, is known for its anti-oxidant properties. We propose that curcumin can improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction through superoxide reduction. Methods Diabetes (DM was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ. Daily curcumin oral feeding was started six weeks after the STZ injection. Twelve weeks after STZ injection, mesenteric arteriolar responses were recorded in real time using intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy. Superoxide and vascular protein kinase C (PKC-βII were examined by hydroethidine and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results The dilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh significantly decreased in DM arterioles as compared to control arterioles. There was no difference among groups when sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used. ACh responses were significantly improved by both low and high doses (30 and 300 mg/kg, respectively of curcumin supplementation. An oxygen radical-sensitive fluorescent probe, hydroethidine, was used to detect intracellular superoxide anion (O2●- production. O2●- production was markedly increased in DM arterioles, but it was significantly reduced by supplementation of either low or high doses of curcumin. In addition, with a high dose of curcumin, diabetes-induced vascular PKC-βII expression was diminished. Conclusion Therefore, it is suggested that curcumin supplementation could improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction significantly in relation to its potential to decrease superoxide production and PKC inhibition.

  7. GTP cyclohydrolase I gene polymorphisms are associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Pawel P; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Wladyslaw; Osmenda, Grzegorz; Wilk, Grzegorz; Bujak-Gizycka, Beata; Ignacak, Adam; Kanitkar, Mihir; Walus-Miarka, Malgorzata; Harrison, David G; Korbut, Ryszard; Malecki, Maciej T; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2014-01-01

    The genetic background of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex and poorly understood. Studying genetic components of intermediate phenotypes, such as endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, may aid in identifying novel genetic components for atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. Five polymorphisms forming two haplotype blocks within the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 gene, encoding a rate limiting enzyme in tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis, were studied in the context of flow and nitroglycerin mediated dilation (FMD and NMD), intima-media thickness (IMT), and plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Rs841 was associated with FMD (p = 0.01), while polymorphisms Rs10483639, Rs841, Rs3783641 (which form a single haplotype) were associated with both MDA (p = 0.012, p = 0.0015 and p = 0.003, respectively) and vWF concentrations (p = 0.016, p = 0.03 and p = 0.045, respectively). In addition, polymorphism Rs8007267 was also associated with MDA (p = 0.006). Haplotype analysis confirmed the association of both haplotypes with studied variables. Genetic variation of the GCH1 gene is associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.

  8. GTP cyclohydrolase I gene polymorphisms are associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel P Wolkow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic background of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is complex and poorly understood. Studying genetic components of intermediate phenotypes, such as endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, may aid in identifying novel genetic components for atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. METHODS: Five polymorphisms forming two haplotype blocks within the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 gene, encoding a rate limiting enzyme in tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis, were studied in the context of flow and nitroglycerin mediated dilation (FMD and NMD, intima-media thickness (IMT, and plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor (vWF and malondialdehyde (MDA. RESULTS: Rs841 was associated with FMD (p = 0.01, while polymorphisms Rs10483639, Rs841, Rs3783641 (which form a single haplotype were associated with both MDA (p = 0.012, p = 0.0015 and p = 0.003, respectively and vWF concentrations (p = 0.016, p = 0.03 and p = 0.045, respectively. In addition, polymorphism Rs8007267 was also associated with MDA (p = 0.006. Haplotype analysis confirmed the association of both haplotypes with studied variables. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation of the GCH1 gene is associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in T2DM patients.

  9. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  10. FTY720 Supplementation Partially Improves Erectile Dysfunction in Rats With Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Through Inhibition of Endothelial Dysfunction and Corporal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Ruan, Yajun; Wang, Tao; Rao, Ke; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong

    2017-03-01

    ratio of smooth muscle to collagen, decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, and inhibited activity of the Smad and non-Smad pathways. FTY720 supplementation inhibited endothelial dysfunction and corporal fibrosis, ultimately leading to partial improvement of DMED in rats. This finding provides evidence for a potential treatment method for DMED. Cui K, Ruan Y, Wang T, et al. FTY720 Supplementation Partially Improves Erectile Dysfunction in Rats With Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Through Inhibition of Endothelial Dysfunction and Corporal Fibrosis. J Sex Med 2017;14:323-335. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Apelin as Potential Markers of Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Di Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Impaired endothelial function represents the early stage of atherosclerosis, which is typically associated with systemic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA. As modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, asymmetric-dimethylarginine (ADMA and apelin might be measured in the blood of RA patients to detect early atherosclerotic changes. We conducted a prospective, case-control study to investigate serum ADMA and apelin profiles of patients with early-stage RA (ERA before and after disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD therapy. Methods. We enrolled 20 consecutively diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with ERA and 20 matched healthy controls. Serum ADMA and apelin levels and the 28-joint disease activity scores (DAS28 were assessed before and after 12 months of DMARDs treatment. All patients underwent ultrasonographic assessment for intima-media tickness (IMT evaluation. Results. In the ERA group, ADMA serum levels were significantly higher than controls at baseline (P=0.007 and significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.012 versus controls. Baseline serum apelin levels were significantly decreased in this group (P=0.0001 versus controls, but they were not significantly altered by treatment. IMT did not show significant changes. Conclusions. ERA is associated with alterations of serum ADMA and apelin levels, which might be used as biomarkers to detect early endothelial dysfunction in these patients.

  12. Effects of cyclic intermittent hypoxia on ET-1 responsiveness and endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and in some cases is complication of pulmonary hypertension. We simulated OSA by exposing rats to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH to investigate its effect on pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley Rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1 min, repeated every 2 min for 8 h/day, 7 days/wk for 3 wk, and the pulmonary arteries of normoxia and CIH treated rats were analyzed for expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and ET receptors by histological, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR and Western Blot analyses, as well as for contractility in response to ET-1. In the pulmonary arteries, ET-1 expression was increased, and ET-1 more potently elicited constriction of the pulmonary artery in CIH rats than in normoxic rats. Exposure to CIH induced marked endothelial cell damage associated with a functional decrease of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the pulmonary artery. Compared with normoxic rats, ETA receptor expression was increased in smooth muscle cells of the CIH rats, while the expression of ETB receptors was decreased in endothelial cells. These results demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and the vasoconstrictor responsiveness increased by CIH. The increased responsiveness to ET-1 induced by intermittent hypoxia in pulmonary arteries of rats was due to increased expression of ETA receptors predominantly, meanwhile, decreased expression of ETB receptors in the endothelium may also participate in it.

  13. Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Tian Mi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be the initiation step of atherosclerosis (AS, and flavonoids may play an important role in AS prevention and therapy. Twenty-three flavonoids categorized into flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones, all with 4-oxo-pyronenucleus, were examined for what structural characteristics are required for the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL. Human vascular endothelial cells EA.hy926 were pretreated with different 4-oxo-flavonoids for 2 hs, and then exposed to oxLDL for another 24 hs. Cell viability and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 were measured, respectively. Then, correlation analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the structure–activity relationships. Significant correlations were observed between the number of –OH moieties in total or in B-ring and the inhibitory effectson endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl on B-ring, 3-hydroxyl on C-ring and 2,3-double bondwere correlated closely to the inhibitory effects of flavonolson cell viability decrease and lipid peroxidation. 5,7-meta-dihydroxyl group on A-ring was crucial for the anti-inflammatory effects of flavones and isoflavones in endothelial cells. Moreover, the substituted position of B-ring on C3 rather than C2 was important for NO release. Additionally, hydroxylation at C6 position significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of 4-oxo-flavonoids on endothelial dysfunction. Our findings indicated that the effective agents in inhibiting endothelial dysfunction include myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. Our work might provide some evidence for AS prevention and a strategy for the design of novel AS preventive agents.

  14. Chemical structures of 4-oxo-flavonoids in relation to inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Long; Jin, Xin; Chen, Chun-Ye; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ting; Chang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Jun-Dong; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be the initiation step of atherosclerosis (AS), and flavonoids may play an important role in AS prevention and therapy. Twenty-three flavonoids categorized into flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones, all with 4-oxo-pyronenucleus, were examined for what structural characteristics are required for the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Human vascular endothelial cells EA.hy926 were pretreated with different 4-oxo-flavonoids for 2 hs, and then exposed to oxLDL for another 24 hs. Cell viability and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured, respectively. Then, correlation analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the structure-activity relationships. Significant correlations were observed between the number of -OH moieties in total or in B-ring and the inhibitory effectson endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl on B-ring, 3-hydroxyl on C-ring and 2,3-double bondwere correlated closely to the inhibitory effects of flavonolson cell viability decrease and lipid peroxidation. 5,7-meta-dihydroxyl group on A-ring was crucial for the anti-inflammatory effects of flavones and isoflavones in endothelial cells. Moreover, the substituted position of B-ring on C3 rather than C2 was important for NO release. Additionally, hydroxylation at C6 position significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of 4-oxo-flavonoids on endothelial dysfunction. Our findings indicated that the effective agents in inhibiting endothelial dysfunction include myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. Our work might provide some evidence for AS prevention and a strategy for the design of novel AS preventive agents.

  15. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffness in women with previous pregnancy complicated by early or late pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabona, R; Sciatti, E; Vizzardi, E; Bonadei, I; Valcamonico, A; Metra, M; Frusca, T

    2017-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk later in life. The persistence of endothelial dysfunction after delivery may represent the link between PE and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate endothelial function and arterial stiffness after delivery of pregnancy complicated by early-onset (EO) or late-onset (LO) PE and their correlation with gestational age and mean uterine artery pulsatility index at PE diagnosis and birth-weight percentile. The study included 30 women with previous EO-PE, 30 with previous LO-PE and 30 controls with no previous PE. Participants were examined at between 6 months and 4 years after delivery. All included women were free from cardiovascular risk factors and drugs. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics during pregnancy were collected retrospectively from obstetrical charts. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness were assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry and pulse-wave analysis. All vascular parameters were significantly different, indicating circulatory impairment, in women with previous EO-PE. Women with previous LO-PE had higher vascular rigidity than did controls and all had normal values of reactive hyperemia index, although they were significantly lower when compared with those of controls. On multivariate analysis, gestational age and mean uterine artery pulsatility index at the time of PE diagnosis, and birth-weight percentile were all statistically related to the vascular indices studied, after correcting for confounding parameters. Women with previous pregnancy complicated by PE, in particular those with early-onset disease, showed persistent microcirculatory dysfunction, as suggested by a significant reduction in reactive hyperemia index value, and increased arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High-intensity interval exercise attenuates but does not eliminate endothelial dysfunction after a fast food meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 1 min of active recovery (HIIE 16 × 1), and 3) sedentary control. HIIE was performed in the afternoon, ~18 h before the morning fast food meal (1,250 kcal, 63g of fat). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before HIIE ( baseline 1), during fasting before meal ingestion ( baseline 2), and 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h postprandial. Capillary glucose and triglycerides were assessed at fasting, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h (triglycerides only). Both HIIE protocols increased fasting FMD compared with control (HIIE 4 × 4: 6.1 ± 0.4%, HIIE 16 × 1: 6.3 ± 0.5%, and control: 5.1 ± 0.4%, P fast food meal can attenuate but not entirely eliminate postprandial decreases in FMD. This effect is not dependent on reductions in postprandial lipemia or glycemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two similar high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols performed ∼18 h before ingestion of a high-energy fast food meal attenuated but did not entirely eliminate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young men largely by improving fasting endothelial function. Both HIIE protocols produced essentially identical results, suggesting high reproducibility of HIIE effects.

  17. Combining metformin and esomeprazole is additive in reducing sFlt-1 secretion and decreasing endothelial dysfunction - implications for treating preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino

    Full Text Available The discovery of new treatments that prevent or treat preeclampsia would be a major advance. Antiangiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin (sENG are secreted in excess from the placenta, causing hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and multiorgan injury. We recently identified metformin and esomeprazole as potential treatments for preeclampsia. Both reduce placental and endothelial secretion of sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin, and reduce endothelial dysfunction.We set out to assess whether combining metformin and esomeprazole would additively reduce sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin secretion and reduce endothelial dysfunction (verses drug alone. Metformin and esomeprazole were added to primary placental cells and tissues, and endothelial cells and their effects on sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin secretion were assessed in vitro. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was added to endothelial cells to induce dysfunction in vitro. We examined the ability of metformin + esomeprazole to rescue TNF-α induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and Endothelin-1 (ET-1 expression, leukocyte adhesion (markers of endothelial dysfunction.Combining metformin and esomeprazole was additive at reducing sFlt-1 secretion and expression of sFlt-1 e15a mRNA isoform in primary cytotrophoblast, placental explants and endothelial cells. In contrast, no additive reduction in sENG was observed with combined metformin and esomeprazole. The low-dose combination of metformin + esomeprazole additively reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 mRNA, but not VCAM-1 protein expression. There was no additive reduction when combining metformin and esomeprazole on TNF-α induced PBMC adhesion to endothelial cells. However, combining metformin and esomeprazole additively reduced ET-1 mRNA expression.In conclusion combining metformin and esomeprazole additively reduced secretion of sFlt-1, and markers of endothelial dysfunction. The combination of metformin and

  18. AB088. FTY720 supplementation partially improves erectile dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes through inhibition of endothelial dysfunction and corporal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Ruan, Yajun; Tang, Zhe; Rao, Ke; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shaogang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate whether FTY720, approved in 2010 for the treatment of patients with the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis, could ameliorate erectile dysfunction induced by diabetes mellitus (DMED). Methods Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were induced type I DM and the other eight rats formed the control (n=8). Eight weeks later, 17 rats with DMED tested with an apomorphine test were divided in two groups: DMED (n=8) and DMED + FTY720 (1 mg/kg/d; n=9). Treatment of FTY720 lasted for 4 weeks. Results Impaired erectile function, inhibited S1P3/Akt/NO/cGMP activity, serious corporal fibrosis and over-activated pathways (the Smad and non-Smad) were found in the DMED group compared with the control, while FTY720 partly but significantly improved these pathological changes induced by DM. Conclusions FTY720 supplementation inhibited endothelial dysfunction and corporal fibrosis, ultimately leading to partial improvement of DMED in rats. This finding provides evidence for a potential treatment method for DMED.

  19. Carbon black nanoparticles and vascular dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells and artery segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Mikkelsen, Lone; Folkmann, Janne K

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to small size particulates is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated effects of exposure to nanosized carbon black (CB) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and segments of arteries from rodents. The CB exposure was associated with increased...

  20. Habitual Coffee Consumption Does Not Correlate with Blood Pressure, Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction but Partially Correlates with Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Sugiono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world and has been known to have effects on cardiovascular system. Many researchers have examined the effects of coffee consumption on blood pressure (BP and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, but their results were inconsistent and still remain a subject of controversy. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction have been known as risk factors of hypertension and CVD. Those factors are also known to be affected by coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the effects of habitual coffee consumption on BP and to examine the role of oxidative stress (F2 isoprostane, inflammation (high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 47 healthy, non-smoking men aged 30-60 years with varying coffee-drinking habits were enrolled. BP and blood/urine analysis of biomarkers were measured in the morning before activity. Coffee consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. The differences among variables were analyzed using ANOVA and the correlations between variables were analyzed using Kendall’s Tau correlation analysis. RESULTS: Habitual coffee consumption did not correlate with systolic/diastolic BP (r=-0.02; p=0.856 and r=0.15; p=0.230, respectively. Concentrations of ADMA and hsCRP were also not correlated with coffee consumption (r=0.03; p=0.764 and r=0.04; p=0.701, respectively. Coffee consumption only showed significant correlation with F2 isoprostane (r=0.34; p=0.004. CONCLUSIONS: BP was not affected by coffee consumption although coffee consumption has a significant correlation with F2 isoprostane. These findings suggest that correlation between coffee consumption and BP might be explained by other factors that were not included in this study. KEYWORDS: coffee, caffeine, cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, oxidative

  1. Sanguis draconis, a Dragon’s Blood Resin, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Yi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD, a kind of dragon’s blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under high-glucose (HG stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0–50 μg/mL assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10–50 μg/mL significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO and lipid peroxidation (MDA production and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2, nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.

  2. Sanguis draconis, a dragon's blood resin, attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Huang, Yung-Kai; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0-50 μg/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10-50 μg/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.

  3. ACS6, a Hydrogen sulfide-donating derivative of sildenafil, inhibits homocysteine-induced apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao-Qing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hydrogen sulfide-releasing sildenafil, ACS6, has been demonstrated to inhibit superoxide formation through donating hydrogen sulfide (H2S. We have found that H2S antagonizes homocysteine-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to explore the protection of ACS6 against homocysteine-triggered cytotoxicity and apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying in PC12 cells. Methods Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was observed using the chromatin dye Hoechst 33258 and analyzed by Flow Cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using the fluorescent dye Rh123. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined by oxidative conversion of cell permeable 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate to fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 and bcl-2 and the accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c were analyzed by Western blot. Results We show that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by homocysteine and blocks homocysteine-triggered cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. ACS6 treatment results in not only prevention of homocysteine-caused mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ loss and reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction but also reversal of Bcl-2 down-expression. Conclusions These results indicate that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against homocysteine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial function though inhibiting both loss of Δψ and accumulation of ROS as well as modulating the expression of Bcl-2. Our study provides evidence both for a neuroprotective effect of ACS6 and for further evaluation of ACS6 as novel neuroprotectants for Alzheimer's disease associated with homocysteine.

  4. L-arginine and L-NMMA for Assessing Cerebral Endothelial Dysfunction in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William Kristian; Sørensen, Caspar Godthaab; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l...... attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic...... cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease....

  5. Metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction in a population born small for gestational age relationship to growth and Gh therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Antonio; Domínguez, Mercedes; Labarta, José I; Domínguez, Manuel; Puga, Beatriz; Mayayo, Esteban; Longás, Angel Ferrández

    2013-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) and a rapid increase in weight during early childhood and infancy have been strongly linked to metabolic syndrome. A transversal study was conducted on 167 pre-pubertal and 102 pubertal subjects; auxological parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, laboratory data, and carotid-wall thickness (CA-IMT) were measured. Patients born SGA with spontaneous catch-up growth have higher values of BMI, blood pressure, HOMA index, and CA-IMT than those treated with GH and the appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) group. In conclusion, subjects born SGA are at high risk of developing chronic diseases, including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistant, and endothelial dysfunction, at an early age, mainly those with good catch-up growth compared with the receiving GH because of negative catch-up growth. Our data is compared with published results.

  6. Homocysteine induces mitochondrial dysfunction involving the crosstalk between oxidative stress and mitochondrial pSTAT3 in rat ischemic brain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuang; Dong, Zhiping; Zhao, Yaqian; Sai, Na; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Huan; Huang, Guowei; Zhang, Xumei

    2017-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) has been shown to have a neurotoxic effect on ischemic brain cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined whether Hcy treatment influences mitochondria injury, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial STAT3 (mitoStat3) expression in rat ischemic brain. Our results demonstrated that Hcy treatment aggravated the damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the brain cortex and the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus after focal cereb...

  7. Body mass index is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with treated metabolic risk factors and suspected coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Van Der Heijden (Dirk J.); M.A.H. van Leeuwen (Maarten); G.N. Janssens (Gladys N.); M.J. Lenzen (Mattie); P.M. van de Ven (Peter); E.C. Eringa (Etto ); N. van Royen (Niels)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground--Obesity is key feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, a determinant of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Here, we compared the

  8. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression: Is there a role for inflammation or endothelial dysfunction? - The Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Sep, Simone J S; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Henry, Ronald M A; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Schram, Miranda T; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associated with inflammation or endothelial dysfunction, and (3) these biomarkers alter the possible association between Type D and depression. In the Maastricht Study, 712 subjects underwent assessment of NA, SI and Type D personality (DS14), depressive disorder (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, E-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays or ELISA and combined into standardized sumscores. Regarding personality, 49% of the study population was low in NA and SI, 22% had SI only, 12% NA only and 17% had Type D. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were significantly more prevalent in Type D versus the other three personality subgroups. Multivariable regression analyses showed that Type D was associated with inflammation (β=0.228, p=0.014) and endothelial dysfunction (β=0.216, p=0.022). After adjustment for these biomarkers, Type D remained independently associated with increased vulnerability to depressive disorder (OR=13.20, pinflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Future research should examine possible underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known coronary...

  10. Endovascular treatment of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis modifies circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Mariasanta; Bruno, Aldo; Mastrangelo, Diego; De Vizia, Marcella; Bernardo, Benedetto; Rosa, Buonagura; De Lucia, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    We performed a monocentric observational prospective study to evaluate coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis undergoing endovascular treatment for cerebro-spinal-venous insufficiency. Between February 2011 and July 2012, 144 endovascular procedures in 110 patients with multiple sclerosis and chronical cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency were performed and they were prospectively analyzed. Each patient was included in the study according to previously published criteria, assessed by the investigators before enrollment. Endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation parameters were determined before the procedure and during follow-up at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months after treatment, respectively. After the endovascular procedure, patients were treated with standard therapies, with the addition of mesoglycan. Fifty-five percent of patients experienced a favorable outcome of multiple sclerosis within 1 month after treatment, 25% regressed in the following 3 months, 24.9% did not experience any benefit. In only 0.1% patients, acute recurrence was observed and it was treated with high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. No major complications were observed. Coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction parameters were shown to be reduced at 1 month and stable up to 12-month follow-up, and they were furthermore associated with a good clinical outcome. Endovascular procedures performed by a qualified staff are well tolerated; they can be associated with other currently adopted treatments. Correlations between inflammation, coagulation activation and neurodegenerative disorders are here supported by the observed variations in plasma levels of markers of coagulation activation and endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Cytosolic triglycerides and oxidative stress in central obesity : the missing link between excessive atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and beta-cell failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; IJzerman, RG; Teerlink, T; Westerhoff, HV; Gans, ROB; Heine, RJ

    Central obesity is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we present a hypothesis that may explain the excess atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and progressive beta-cell failure. Central obesity is associated with increased cytosolic

  12. A healthy diet is associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation over a 7-year period in adults at risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, R.M.A.; Ferreira, I.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bussel, van B.C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A healthy diet rich in fish, fruit, and vegetables, but moderate in alcohol and low in dairy products and meat, has been associated with a lower rate of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade

  13. A Healthy Diet Is Associated with Less Endothelial Dysfunction and Less Low-Grade Inflammation over a 7-Year Period in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bussel, B.C.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Ferreira, I.; van Greevenbroek, M.M.J.; van der Kallen, C.J.H.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A healthy diet rich in fish, fruit, and vegetables, but moderate in alcohol and low in dairy products and meat, has been associated with a lower rate of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade

  14. Alcohol and red wine consumption, but not fruit, vegetables, fish or dairy products, are associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussel, van B.C.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation are key phenomena in the pathobiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their dietary modification might explain the observed reduction in CVD that has been associated with a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables and fish, low in dairy

  15. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  16. Leptin resistance extends to the coronary vasculature in prediabetic dogs and provides a protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Jarrod D; Dincer, U Deniz; Dick, Gregory M; Shibata, Haruki; Akahane, Rie; Saito, Masayuki; Tune, Johnathan D

    2005-09-01

    Hyperleptinemia, associated with prediabetes, is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease and a mediator of coronary endothelial dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that acutely raising the leptin concentration to levels comparable with those observed in human obesity significantly attenuates coronary dilation/relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) both in vivo in anesthetized dogs and in vitro in isolated canine coronary rings. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation was to extend these studies to a model of prediabetes with chronic hyperleptinemia. In the present investigation, experiments were conducted on control and high-fat-fed dogs. High-fat feeding caused a significant increase (131%) in plasma leptin concentration. Furthermore, in high-fat-fed dogs, exogenous leptin did not significantly alter vascular responses to ACh in vivo or in vitro. Coronary vasodilator responses to ACh (0.3-30.0 microg/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0-100.0 microg/min) were not significantly different from those observed in control dogs. Also, high-fat feeding did not induce a switch to an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor as a major mediator of muscarinic coronary vasodilation, because dilation to ACh was abolished by combined pretreatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (150 microg/min ic) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Quantitative, real-time PCR revealed no significant difference in coronary artery leptin receptor gene expression between control and high-fat-fed dogs. In conclusion, high-fat feeding induces resistance to the coronary vascular effects of leptin, and this represents an early protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction. The resistance is not due to altered endothelium-dependent or -independent coronary dilation, increased endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, or changes in coronary leptin receptor mRNA levels.

  17. Ticagrelor mitigates ischaemia-reperfusion induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy young males - a randomized, single-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Stefan; Litschauer, Brigitte; Eipeldauer, Matthias; Hobl, Eva Luise; Wolzt, Michael

    2017-07-17

    Animal data suggest that ticagrelor but not clopidogrel protects against tissue injury. It is unclear if this effect of ticagrelor is also detectable in humans. We studied the effect of ticagrelor and clopidogrel at standard clinical doses on endothelial dysfunction in an experimental model of forearm vascular ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In a randomized, single-blinded trial, 24 subjects underwent forearm blood flow (FBF) measurements in response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) and to glyceryltrinitrate (GTN; endothelium-independent) before and after a 20 min forearm ischaemia. FBF reactivity was assessed after an oral loading dose of ticagrelor or clopidogrel and after 14 days of regular intake of maintenance doses of the study medicines. In addition, the effect on platelet inhibition was evaluated using multiple electrode aggregometry. ACh-induced vasodilation was impaired during reperfusion and not completely normalized by acute or chronic treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel (post- vs. pre-ischaemia). However, ticagrelor mitigated endothelial dysfunction compared to clopidogrel after loading (FBF AChAUC ratio post- vs. pre-ischaemia: 0.83 [0.70; 0.96] vs. 0.64 [0.56; 0.72]; P = 0.024) and after chronic administration (FBF AChAUC ratio: 0.86 [0.71; 1.00] vs. 0.66 [0.55; 0.77]; P = 0.027). As expected, GTN-induced vasodilation was not affected by ischaemia. Ticagrelor or clopidogrel treatment inhibited platelet activation to a similar degree. Our data indicate that ticagrelor treatment exerts a greater vascular salutary effect than clopidogrel during reperfusion after an acute vascular occlusion. IR-induced vascular injury cannot be prevented completely by administration of these antiplatelet agents at standard clinical doses. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  19. C-peptide inhibits leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the microcirculation during acute endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, R; Coyle, K M; Levine, B J; Booth, G; Lefer, A M

    2000-11-01

    C-peptide is a cleavage product that comes from processing proinsulin to insulin that induces nitric oxide (NO) -mediated vasodilation. NO modulates leukocyte-endothelium interaction. We hypothesized that C-peptide might inhibit leukocyte-endothelium interaction via increased release of endothelial NO. Using intravital microscopy of the rat mesentery, we measured leukocyte-endothelium interactions after administration of C-peptide to the rat. Superfusion of the rat mesentery with either thrombin or L-NAME consistently and significantly increased the number of rolling, adhering, and transmigrated leukocytes. C-peptide significantly attenuated either thrombin- or L-NAME-induced leukocyte-endothelium interactions in rat mesenteric venules. A control scrambled sequence of C-peptide characterized by the same amino acid composition in a randomized sequence failed to inhibit leukocyte-endothelium interactions. These effects of C-peptide were associated with decreased surface expression of the cell adhesion molecules P-selectin and ICAM-1 on the microvascular endothelium. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA levels were increased in rats injected with C-peptide. This enhanced eNOS expression was associated with a marked increase in basal NO release from the aorta of C-peptide-treated rats. We conclude that C-peptide is a potent inhibitor of leukocyte-endothelium interaction and that this effect is specifically related to inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via maintenance of NO release from the vascular endothelium.

  20. Cell-Based Screening Identifies Paroxetine as an Inhibitor of Diabetic Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerö, Domokos; Szoleczky, Petra; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Módis, Katalin; Oláh, Gabor; Coletta, Ciro; Szabo, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted a phenotypic screening in endothelial cells exposed to elevated extracellular glucose (an in vitro model of hyperglycemia) to identify compounds that prevent hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation without adversely affecting cell viability. From a focused library of >6,000 clinically used drug-like and pharmacologically active compounds, several classes of active compounds emerged, with a confirmed hit rate of paroxetine, a clinically used antidepressant compound that has not been previously implicated in the context of hyperglycemia or diabetes. Paroxetine reduced hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial ROS formation, mitochondrial protein oxidation, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage, without interfering with mitochondrial electron transport or cellular bioenergetics. The ability of paroxetine to improve hyperglycemic endothelial cell injury was unique among serotonin reuptake blockers and can be attributed to its antioxidant effect, which primarily resides within its sesamol moiety. Paroxetine maintained the ability of vascular rings to respond to the endothelium-dependent relaxant acetylcholine, both during in vitro hyperglycemia and ex vivo, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Thus, the current work identifies a novel pharmacological action of paroxetine as a protector of endothelial cells against hyperglycemic injury and raises the potential of repurposing of this drug for the experimental therapy of diabetic cardiovascular complications. PMID:23223176

  1. Lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus induces lung endothelial cell barrier dysfunction: role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Barton Pai

    Full Text Available Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs are used for dialysis access in 82% of new hemodialysis patients and are rapidly colonized with Gram-positive organism (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm, a source of recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a cell wall ribitol polymer from Gram-positive organisms, mediates inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. The effect of LTA on lung endothelial permeability is not known. We tested the hypothesis that LTA from Staphylococcus aureus induces alterations in the permeability of pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PMEM that result from activation of TLR2 and are mediated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. The permeability of PMEM was assessed by the clearance rate of Evans blue-labeled albumin, the activation of the TLR2 pathway was assessed by Western blot, and the generation of RONS was measured by the fluorescence of oxidized dihydroethidium and a dichlorofluorescein derivative. Treatment with LTA or the TLR2 agonist Pam((3CSK((4 induced significant increases in albumin permeability, IκBα phosphorylation, IRAK1 degradation, RONS generation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activation (as measured by the p-eNOS(ser1177:p-eNOS(thr495 ratio. The effects on permeability and RONS were effectively prevented by co-administration of the superoxide scavenger Tiron, the peroxynitrite scavenger Urate, or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME and these effects as well as eNOS activation were reduced or prevented by pretreatment with an IRAK1/4 inhibitor. The results indicate that the activation of TLR2 and the generation of ROS/RNS mediates LTA-induced barrier dysfunction in PMEM.

  2. Components of the interleukin-6 transsignalling system are associated with the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas W; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an increasing epidemiologic challenge and cardiovascular risk factor. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that exerts its biological function via a complex orchestration of soluble and membrane bound receptors. We have investigated associations between IL-6 and its soluble receptors, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r) and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sGP130) and the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, we have investigated possible associations with endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness. A total of 563 subjects were included in this study. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program were used for the definition of MetS. We used commercially available ELISA to analyse circulating levels of the markers. Pulse wave propagation time (PWP) was determined to assess arterial stiffness. The criteria for having MetS were filled by 221 subjects. sGP130, sIL-6r and IL-6 levels were elevated in subjects with MetS (p<0.05 for all markers), and are associated with increasing components of MetS. Particularly hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) seem to carry this association. sGP130 (p<0.01), IL-6 (p<0.05) and partially sIL-6r (p<0.05) correlated with markers of endothelial function (E-selectin, I-CAM-1, V-CAM-1) and inversely with PWP after adjustment for relevant covariates. sGP130, sIL-6r and IL-6 were significantly elevated in subjects with MetS. In addition, sGP130, IL-6 and partially sIL-6r were associated with markers of endothelial function and arterial stiffness. This finding sheds new light on the role of these inflammatory cytokines in subjects with MetS and the development and progression of clinically silent atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of impaired endothelial glycocalyx with arterial stiffness, coronary microcirculatory dysfunction, and abnormal myocardial deformation in untreated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Voumvourakis, Astrinos; Makavos, George; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Katogiannis, Konstantinos; Benas, Dimitris; Vlastos, Dimitris; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Varoudi, Maria; Parissis, John; Iliodromitis, Efstathios; Lekakis, John

    2018-03-02

    We investigated the association of endothelial glycocalyx damage with arterial stiffness, impairment of coronary microcirculatory function, and LV myocardial deformation in 320 untreated hypertensives and 160 controls. We measured perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual microvessels, a marker inversely related with glycocalyx thickness, coronary flow reserve (CFR), and Global Longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central systolic blood pressure (cSBP). Hypertensives had higher PBR, PWV cSBP, and lower CFR and GLS than controls (P < .05). In hypertensives, increased PBR was associated with increased cSBP, PWV, and decreased CFR and GLS after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking LV mass, heart rate, hyperlipidemia, and office SBP (P < .05). PBR had an additive value to PWV, CFR, and office SBP for the prediction of abnormal GLS (x 2  = 2.4-3.8, P for change = .03). Endothelial glycocalyx is impaired in untreated hypertensives and is related to arterial stiffness, coronary, and myocardial dysfunction. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Indoxyl Sulfate Impairs Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Might Contribute to Vascular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Cheng-Jui Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Indoxyl sulfate (IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin that accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We explored the effect of IS on human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and analyzed the correlation between serum IS levels and parameters of vascular function, including endothelial function in a CKD-based cohort. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 128 stable CKD patients was conducted. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV, ankle brachial index, serum IS and other biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed. In parallel, the activity of early EPCs was also evaluated after exposure to IS. Results: In human EPCs, a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of IS on chemotactic motility and colony formation was observed. Additionally, serum IS levels were significantly correlated with CKD stages. The total IS (T-IS and free IS (F-IS were strongly associated with age, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, PWV, blood urea nitrogen, creatine and phosphate but negatively correlated with FMD, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and calcium. A multivariate linear regression analysis also showed that FMD was significantly associated with IS after adjusting for other confounding factors. Conclusions: In humans, IS impairs early EPCs and was strongly correlated with vascular dysfunction. Thus, we speculate that this adverse effect of IS may partly result from the inhibition of early EPCs.

  5. [Influence of exam stress on the development of endothelial dysfunction and the formation of platelet-leukocyte coagregates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefelova, E V; Tereshkov, P P; Plotnikova, O K; Stafeev, A N; Semenov, A V; Svistunova, N M; Ivanov, M O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the qualitative and quantitative composition of circulating endotheliocytes, P-selectin-associated leukocyte and platelet of coogregation blood levels of endothelin, interleukin-6 students on the background of exam stress. The research was made on the group conditionally healthy volunteers aged MT 18.3 ± 1 years that before participating in the study had a medical examination (n = 15). Blood sampling was made three times: 1--three months before the session (in a normal school day, two hours after training sessions), 2--for 25 ± 10 min before the exam, 3 - 15 ± 10 min after the exam. Approved the development of endothelial dysfunction in the background of exam stress, manifested by increased levels of circulating endothelial cells and endothelin. The total number of leukocyte and platelet of coogregation during the semester, before and after the exam has not changed, while there was an increase outlets, due to the expression of P-selectin on red blood cells before the exam and precipitous decline after the exam.

  6. Effect of Lower Extremity Bypass Surgery on Inflammatory Reaction and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsuan Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The abnormalities in nutrient metabolism and elevated inflammatory mediators resulting from DM lead to impairment of wound healing and vulnerability to infection and foot ulcers. Diabetic lower limb ischemia often leads to limb necrosis. Lower extremity bypass surgery (LEBS is indicated to prevent limb loss in patients with critical leg ischemia. This study investigated the alteration of inflammatory and endothelium dysfunction markers before and after LEBS in DM patients. Twenty one type 2 DM patients with LEBS were included. Blood was drawn before and at 1 day and 7 days after surgery in the patients. Plasma soluble cellular adhesion molecule levels and blood leukocyte integrin expressions were measured. Also, plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide were analyzed to evaluate the vascular endothelial function. The results showed that there were no significant differences in plasma cellular adhesion molecules, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide levels, nor did any differences in leukocyte integrin expressions before and after the operation. These results suggest that the efficacy of LEBS on alleviating inflammatory reaction and improving endothelial function in DM patients was not obvious.

  7. Irisin Alleviates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction via Inhibiting ROS-NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xian; Huang, Wei; Peng, Juan; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Xiang-Yu; Yang, Hui; Xiong, Jian-Feng; He, Hu-Qiang; Xu, You-Hua; He, Yan-Zheng

    2018-02-01

    The activation of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis. Recent research showed that irisin, a newly discovered adipomiokine, alleviates endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes partially via reducing oxidative/nitrative stresses, suggesting that irisin may be a promising candidate for the treatment of vascular complications of diabetes. However, the association between irisin and NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In the present study, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) medium; exogenous irisin (0.01, 0.1, 1 μg/ml) were used as an intervention reagent. siRNA and adenoviral vector were constructed to realize silencing and over-expression of NLRP3 gene. Our data showed that irisin significantly reversed AGEs-induced oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling activation (p NLRP3 facilitated the irisin-mediated anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects (p NLRP3 (p NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, suggest a likely mechanism for irisin-induced therapeutic effect in vascular complications of diabetes.

  8. Preeclampsia Is Associated with Increased Central Aortic Pressure, Elastic Arteries Stiffness and Wave Reflections, and Resting and Recruitable Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Torrado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered endothelial function (EF could be associated with preeclampsia (PE. However, more specific and complementary analyses are required to confirm this topic. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD, low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC, and hyperemic-related changes in carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr offer complementary information about “recruitability” of EF. Objectives. To evaluate, in healthy and hypertensive pregnant women (with and without PE, central arterial parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF. Methods. Nonhypertensive (HP and hypertensive pregnant women (gestational hypertension, GH; preeclampsia, PE were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP, wave reflection parameters (AIx@75, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVcf and PWVcr, and brachial and common carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness were measured. Brachial FMD and L-FMC and hyperemic-related change in PWVcr were measured. Results. Aortic BP and AIx@75 were elevated in PE. PE showed stiffer elastic but not muscular arteries. After cuff deflation, PWVcr decreased in HP, while GH showed a blunted PWVcr response and PE showed a tendency to increase. Maximal FMD and L-FMC were observed in HP followed by GH; PE did not reach significant arterial constriction. Conclusion. Aortic BP and wave reflections as well as elastic arteries stiffness are increased in PE. PE showed both “resting and recruitable” endothelial dysfunctions.

  9. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with retinopathy: the Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecke, van M.V.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Moll, A.C.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Polak, B.C.P.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The exact pathogenesis of retinopathy in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals is incompletely understood, but may involve chronic low-grade inflammation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of inflammation and

  10. Myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: role of endothelial progenitor cells and oxidative stress

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    Zhao Chun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are responsible for angiogenesis and maintenance of microvascular integrity, the number of EPCs is correlated with oxidative stress. Their relation to myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is nonetheless unknown. Methods Eighty-seven patients with T2DM and no history of coronary artery disease were recruited. Transthoracic echocardiography and detailed evaluation of left ventricular (LV systolic function by 2-dimensional (2D speckle tracking derived strain analysis in 3 orthogonal directions was performed. Four subpopulations of EPCs, including CD34+, CD133+, CD34+/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR + and CD133+/KDR + EPCs, were measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD. Results The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 9 years and 39.6% were male. Those with an impaired longitudinal strain had a lower number of CD34+ EPCs (2.82 ± 1.87% vs. 3.74 ± 2.12%, P  Conclusions LV global circumferential strain was independently associated with number of CD34+ EPCs and SOD. These findings suggest that myocardial dysfunction in patients with T2DM is related to depletion of EPCs and increased oxidative stress.

  11. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  12. Aromatherapy alleviates endothelial dysfunction of medical staff after night-shift work: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Maeda, Kumiko; Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Kono, Yasushi; Jissho, Satoshi; Taguchi, Haruyuki; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    Night-shift work causes mental stress and lifestyle changes, and is recognized as a risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with impaired endothelial function. Aromatherapy is becoming popular as a complementary therapy that is beneficial for mental relaxation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on the endothelial function of medical staff after night-shift work. This study consisted of 19 healthy medical personnel (19 men, mean age 32 ± 7 years), including 11 physicians and 8 technicians. Aromatherapy was performed for 30 min by inhalation of the essential oil of lavender. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured three times in each subject: on a regular workday, and after night-shift work before and immediately after aromatherapy. A control study was performed to assess the effect of a 30-min rest without aromatherapy. The mean value of sleep time during night-shift work was 3.3 ± 1.3 h. FMD after night-shift work was lower than on a regular workday (10.4 ± 1.8 vs. 12.5 ± 1.7%, Paromatherapy (11.8 ± 2.5%, P=0.02 vs. before aromatherapy). FMD was stable in the control study (10.1 ± 1.9 vs. 10.1 ± 2.2%, P=0.9). This study demonstrated that night-shift work impaired endothelial function in medical staff, an effect that was alleviated by short-term aromatherapy.

  13. miR-143 is involved in endothelial cell dysfunction through suppression of glycolysis and correlated with atherosclerotic plaques formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R-H; Liu, B; Wu, J-D; Yan, Y-Y; Wang, J-N

    2016-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease leading to hardening of the vessel wall and narrowing of arteries. Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit highly active glycolysis, the dysfunction of which leads to accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. qRT-PCR was performed to compare the deregulated miR-143 between atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel tissues. The direct target of miR-143 was verified by Western blot and luciferase assay. The metabolic enzymes in atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel tissues were measured. HUVECs were transfected with miR-143 precursor or control microRNAs, and glucose uptake, lactate production, intracellular ATP, and oxygen consumption were measured. In this study, we report a correlation between up-regulated miR-143, EC dysfunction, and atherosclerotic plaque formation. The glycolysis rate was significantly elevated in ECs, which show relatively low levels of miR-143. Importantly, miR-143 was upregulated in clinical atherosclerotic plaque samples compared with healthy arteries, suggesting that miR-143 might play important roles in the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, mRNA levels of key enzymes of glycolysis, such as HK2, LDHA, and PKM2 are significantly down-regulated in the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Overexpression of miR-143 in HUVECs suppresses glycolysis through direct targeting of HK2, leading to EC dysfunction. Restoration of HK2 expression rescues glycolysis in miR-143-overexpressing HUVECs. This study provides further insight into the metabolic mechanisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation due to microRNAs.

  14. Menadione-Induced DNA Damage Leads to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Fragmentation During Rosette Formation in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilovic, Adna; Schmedt, Thore; Benischke, Anne-Sophie; Hamill, Cecily; Chen, Yuming; Santos, Janine Hertzog; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2016-06-20

    Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), a leading cause of age-related corneal edema requiring transplantation, is characterized by rosette formation of corneal endothelium with ensuing apoptosis. We sought to determine whether excess of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species leads to chronic accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, instigating cell death. We modeled the pathognomonic rosette formation of postmitotic corneal cells by increasing endogenous cellular oxidative stress with menadione (MN) and performed a temporal analysis of its effect in normal (HCEnC, HCECi) and FECD (FECDi) cells and ex vivo specimens. FECDi and FECD ex vivo specimens exhibited extensive mtDNA and nDNA damage as detected by quantitative PCR. Exposure to MN triggered an increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels and led to mtDNA and nDNA damage, while DNA amplification was restored with NAC pretreatment. Furthermore, MN exposure led to a decrease in ΔΨm and adenosine triphosphate levels in normal cells, while FECDi exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction at baseline. Mitochondrial fragmentation and cytochrome c release were detected in FECD tissue and after MN treatment of HCEnCs. Furthermore, cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3 followed MN-induced cytochrome c release in HCEnCs. This study provides the first line of evidence that accumulation of oxidative DNA damage leads to rosette formation, loss of functionally intact mitochondria via fragmentation, and subsequent cell death during postmitotic cell degeneration of ocular tissue. MN induced rosette formation, along with mtDNA and nDNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fragmentation, leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis via caspase cleavage and cytochrome c release. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1072-1083.

  15. Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia: Complete protection afforded by high intensity aerobic interval exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyldum, Gjertrud Aunet; Schjerve, Inga Ekeberg; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Stølen, Tomas O.; Richardson, Russell S.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of exercise and a high fat meal (HFM) on endothelial function. Background Postprandial lipemia and exercise oppose each other in terms of cardiovascular risk, however the mechanism of their interaction is not well understood. Methods Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), in eight healthy men before and after a HFM preceded (16–18 hrs) by rest, a single bout of continuous moderate intensity exercise (CME), and high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Results Before the HFM, initial brachial artery diameters were similar in all trials (0.43±0.04 cm), but after the HFM basal diameter decreased only in the control (0.39±0.03) and CME (0.38±0.04) trials. Prior to the HFM, FMD/shear was improved by a single bout of CME (+20%, plipemia. Although, there were no correlations between vascular function and food-induced markers of cardiovascular risk, antioxidant status was strongly correlated with FMD (r=0.9, p<0.001). Conclusion These findings reveal a clinically relevant protective effect of acute exercise upon the vasculature that is clearly exercise intensity dependent and tightly related to exercise-induced antioxidant capacity. PMID:19130989

  16. Mitochondrial abnormalities related to the dysfunction of circulating endothelial colony-forming cells in moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Moon, Youn Joo; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Phi, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Ah; Chong, Sangjoon; Byun, Jayoung; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2017-12-08

    OBJECTIVE Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the progressive occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), previously termed "endothelial progenitor cells," play an important role in the pathogenesis of MMD. In this study, the authors performed morphological and functional studies of the mitochondria of ECFCs from patients with MMD to present new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS The morphology of ECFCs from 5 MMD patients and 5 healthy controls was examined under both a transmission electron microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope. The oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMPs), intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, mitochondrial enzyme activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured. Functional activity of the ECFCs was evaluated using a capillary tube formation assay. RESULTS The ECFCs from the MMD patients displayed a disrupted mitochondrial morphology, including a shorter and more circular shape. The ECFC mitochondria from the MMD patients exhibited functional abnormalities, which were assessed as a decreased OCR and an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Moreover, the ECFCs from MMD patients showed increased ROS levels. Interestingly, treatment with an ROS scavenger not only reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities but also restored the angiogenic activity of the ECFCs from the MMD patients. CONCLUSIONS The mitochondria of ECFCs from MMD patients, as compared with those from healthy patients, exhibited morphological and functional abnormalities. This finding suggests that the mitochondrial abnormalities may have a role in the pathogenesis of MMD.

  17. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) elevation and arginase up-regulation contribute to endothelial dysfunction related to insulin resistance in rats and morbidly obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Assar, Mariam; Angulo, Javier; Santos-Ruiz, Marta; Ruiz de Adana, Juan Carlos; Pindado, María Luz; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alberto; Hernández, Alberto; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-06-01

    The presence of insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction associated with obesity. Although recent studies have implicated the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation in the defective nitric oxide (NO)-mediated responses and subsequent endothelial dysfunction in IR, other mechanisms could compromise this pathway. In the present study, we assessed the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. We show that both increased ADMA and up-regulated arginase are determinant factors in the alteration of the l-arginine/NO pathway associated with IR in both models and also that acute treatment of arteries with arginase inhibitor or with l-arginine significantly alleviate endothelial dysfunction. These results help to expand our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction that are related to obesity and IR and establish potential therapeutic targets for intervention. Insulin resistance (IR) is determinant for endothelial dysfunction in human obesity. Although we have previously reported the involvement of mitochondrial superoxide and inflammation, other mechanisms could compromise NO-mediated responses in IR. We evaluated the role of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and arginase with respect to IR-induced impairment of l-arginine/NO-mediated vasodilatation in human morbid obesity and in a non-obese rat model of IR. Bradykinin-induced vasodilatation was evaluated in microarteries derived from insulin-resistant morbidly obese (IR-MO) and non-insulin-resistant MO (NIR-MO) subjects. Defective endothelial vasodilatation in IR-MO was improved by l-arginine supplementation. Increased levels of ADMA were detected in serum and adipose tissue from IR-MO. Serum ADMA positively correlated with IR score and negatively with pD2 for bradykinin. Gene

  18. Effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Ju; Ridgeway, Simone D; Kim, Jeong-A

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance, a hallmark of metabolic disorders, is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Impairment of insulin responsiveness in vascular endothelium contributes to insulin resistance. The reciprocal relationship between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction augments the pathophysiology of metabolism and cardiovascular functions. The most abundant green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have vasodilator action in vessels by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, it is not known whether EGCG has a beneficial effect in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NCD) or HFD with or without EGCG supplement (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. Mice fed a HFD with EGCG supplement gained less body weight and showed improved insulin sensitivity. In vehicle-treated HFD mice, endothelial function was impaired in response to insulin but not to acetylcholine, whereas the EGCG-treated HFD group showed improved insulin-stimulated vasodilation. Interestingly, EGCG intake reduced macrophage infiltration into aortic tissues in HFD mice. Treatment with EGCG restored the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and protein kinase B (Akt), which was inhibited by palmitate (200 μM, 5 h) in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells. From these results, we conclude that supplementation of EGCG improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The results suggest that EGCG may have beneficial health effects in glucose metabolism and endothelial function through modulating HFD-induced inflammatory response.

  19. Metformin as a prevention and treatment for preeclampsia: effects on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfoot, Fiona C; Hastie, Roxanne; Hannan, Natalie J; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; Parry, Laura J; Senadheera, Sevvandi; Illanes, Sebastian E; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Tong, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with placental ischemia/hypoxia and secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin into the maternal circulation. This causes widespread endothelial dysfunction that manifests clinically as hypertension and multisystem organ injury. Recently, small molecule inhibitors of hypoxic inducible factor 1α have been found to reduce soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion. However, their safety profile in pregnancy is unknown. Metformin is safe in pregnancy and is also reported to inhibit hypoxic inducible factor 1α by reducing mitochondrial electron transport chain activity. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) the effects of metformin on placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion, (2) to investigate whether the effects of metformin on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion are regulated through the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and (3) to examine its effects on endothelial dysfunction, maternal blood vessel vasodilation, and angiogenesis. We performed functional (in vitro and ex vivo) experiments using primary human tissues to examine the effects of metformin on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion from placenta, endothelial cells, and placental villous explants. We used succinate, mitochondrial complex II substrate, to examine whether the effects of metformin on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin secretion were mediated through the mitochondria. We also isolated mitochondria from preterm preeclamptic placentas and gestationally matched control subjects and measured mitochondrial electron transport chain activity using kinetic spectrophotometric assays. Endothelial cells or whole maternal vessels were incubated with metformin to determine whether it rescued endothelial dysfunction induced by either tumor necrosis factor-α (to endothelial cells) or placenta villous

  20. Growth hormone replacement normalizes impaired fibrinolysis: new insights into endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljic, D; Miljic, P; Doknic, M; Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Cvijovic, G; Micic, D; Popovic, V

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypopituitarism is increased. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors leading to endothelial dysfunction and impaired fibrinolysis has also been reported and may account for progression to overt vascular changes in these patients. However, effect of long lasting GH replacement therapy on fibrinolytic capacity in GH deficient patients has not been investigated so far. To investigate fibrinolysis before and after challenge with venous occlusion in GHD patients with hypopituitarism before and during one year of growth hormone replacement. Hospital based, interventional, prospective study. Twenty one patient with GHD and fourteen healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric, metabolic and fibrinolytic parameters were measured at the start and after three, six and twelve months of treatment with human recombinant GH. At baseline GHD patients had significantly impaired fibrinolysis compared to healthy persons. During treatment with GH, significant changes were observed in insulin like growth factor 1(IGF-1) [from baseline 6.9(2.4-13.5) to 22.0(9.0-33.0) nmol/l after one month of treatment; pfibrinolysis. Improvement in fibrinolysis was mostly attributed to improvement of stimulated endothelial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in response to venous occlusion [from baseline 1.1(0.4-2.6) to 1.9(0.5-8.8) after one year of treatment; p<0.01]. Growth hormone replacement therapy has favorable effects on t-PA release from endothelium and net fibrinolytic capacity in GHD adults, which may contribute to decrease their risk of vascular complications. © 2013.

  1. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  2. Plasma markers of endothelial damage/dysfunction, inflammation and thrombogenesis in relation to TIMI risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaeng W; Blann, Andrew D; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2005-11-01

    Risk stratification at presentation with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) on the basis of the TIMI risk score for unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UAP/NSTEMI) identifies patients at high risk of recurrent cardiac events and those who benefit from more aggressive treatment strategy. We hypothesised the following: (a) that a high TIMI risk score brings a greater degree of acute changes in endothelial damage/dysfunction (circulating endothelial cells [CECs], von Willebrand factor [vWf]), inflammation (interleukin-6, IL-6) and blood thrombogenicity (plasma tissue factor, TF); and (b) that these indices are higher in those with high TIMI risk score who experienced recurrent cardiac event at day 14 and day 30. TIMI risk scores were determined at admission and 48 hours later in 88 ACS patients (60 male, age 67+/-12 yrs) with UAP or NSTEMI. CECs, IL-6 and TF levels were measured at both time points and the acute change (delta) calculated. Patients were split into high (score > or =4) or low (TIMI score groups. The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularisation following 14 and 30 days' follow-up was ascertained. Fifty-eight patients with high TIMI risk score (mean 4.7) had significantly higher baseline and 48 h CEC, vWf, IL-6,TF and deltaTF levels, compared to low TIMI risk score (mean 2.4) patients (all pTIMI risk score expressed as either continuous or categorical variable identified baseline CECs and deltavWf levels (both pTIMI risk score for UA/NSTEMI identifies those patients with more profound vascular insult, inflammation and thrombogenicity that, in the 'high risk' patient group, predicts short-term outcomes, although vascular damage was the more sensitive predictor. These indices may further refine global risk stratification for short-term adverse cardiac events in these patients.

  3. Gugulipid causes hypercholesterolemia leading to endothelial dysfunction, increased atherosclerosis, and premature death by ischemic heart disease in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leiva

    Full Text Available For proper cholesterol metabolism, normal expression and function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL receptor, is required. Among the factors that regulate overall cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, the nuclear farnesoid X receptor plays an important role. Guggulsterone, a bioactive compound present in the natural product gugulipid, is an antagonist of this receptor. This natural product is widely used globally as a natural lipid-lowering agent, although its anti-atherogenic cardiovascular benefit in animal models or humans is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gugulipid on cholesterol homeostasis and development of mild and severe atherosclerosis in male mice. For this purpose, we evaluated the impact of gugulipid treatment on liver histology, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol, endothelial function, and development of atherosclerosis and/or ischemic heart disease in wild-type mice; apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis without ischemic complications; and SR-B1 knockout and atherogenic-diet-fed apolipoprotein E hypomorphic (SR-BI KO/ApoER61h/h mice, a model of lethal ischemic heart disease due to severe atherosclerosis. Gugulipid administration was associated with histological abnormalities in liver, increased alanine aminotransferase levels, lower hepatic SR-BI content, hypercholesterolemia due to increased HDL cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, enhanced atherosclerosis, and accelerated death in animals with severe ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, our data show important adverse effects of gugulipid intake on HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis in male mice, suggesting potential and unknown deleterious effects on cardiovascular health in humans. In addition, these findings reemphasize the need for rigorous preclinical and clinical studies to provide guidance on the consumption of natural products and regulation of their use in the

  4. Effect of particulate air pollution and passive smoking on surrogate biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemi, Mohammad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Mansourian, Marjan; Afshani, Mohammadreza; Poursafa, Parinaz; Sadeghian, Babak; Fakhri, Maryam

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) on surrogate markers of endothelial function and inflammation in healthy children with or without exposure to second-hand smoke. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second largest and second most air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 pre-pubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke at home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Mean (SD) NO concentration was 7·87 (2·18) and 7·75 (2·04) μmol/L for participants not exposed and exposed to passive smoking, respectively, which is not statistically significant. The corresponding figures for CRP concentrations were 1·69 (0·89) and 2·13 (1·19) μg/ml (P = 0·04). Mean (SD) CRP concentration was significantly higher in children living in the highly polluted area than in those in the area of low pollution [2·11 (1·91) vs 1·60 (1·43) μg/ml, respectively, P = 0·02]. This difference was not significant for NO concentration. The regression analysis that examined the association between PM concentration (as independent variable) and CRP and NO levels (as dependent variables) in children not exposed to passive smoking demonstrated that increased PM was associated with a decrease in NO and an increase in CRP concentration. This finding shows that, regardless of passive smoking, PM10 concentration has a significant independent association with serum CRP and is inversely associated with NO levels. The findings suggest that in healthy children PM concentration has a significant independent association with biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.

  5. Long-term dietary nitrite and nitrate deficiency causes the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kina-Tanada, Mika; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kaname, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Taro; Nakasone, Junko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Ishida, Masayoshi; Kubota, Haruaki; Taira, Yuji; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kina, Shin-Ichiro; Sunakawa, Hajime; Omura, Junichi; Satoh, Kimio; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shiro; Ohya, Yusuke; Matsushita, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Arasaki, Akira; Tsutsui, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water. Nitrite and nitrate were undetectable in both the chow and the water. Three months of the LND did not affect food or water intake in wild-type C57BL/6J mice compared with a regular diet (RD). However, in comparison with the RD, 3 months of the LND significantly elicited visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance. Eighteen months of the LND significantly provoked increased body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine, while 22 months of the LND significantly led to death mainly due to cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction. These abnormalities were reversed by simultaneous treatment with sodium nitrate, and were significantly associated with endothelial NOS downregulation, adiponectin insufficiency and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. These results provide the first evidence that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency gives rise to the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic role of the exogenous NO production system in the metabolic syndrome and its vascular complications.

  6. Extracellular overhydration linked with endothelial dysfunction in the context of inflammation in haemodialysis dependent chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsides, Nicos; Cornelis, Tom; Broers, Natascha J H; Diederen, Nanda M P; Brenchley, Paul; van der Sande, Frank M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kooman, Jeroen P; Mitra, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) patients are predisposed to dysregulated fluid balance leading to extracellular water (ECW) expansion. Fluid overload has been closely linked with outcome in these patients. This has mainly been attributed to cardiac volume overload, but the relation between abnormalities in fluid status with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction has not been studied in detail. We studied the interaction of macro- and microvascular factors in states of normal and over- hydration in HD-dependent CKD. Fluid compartments [total body water (TBW) and ECW] and overhydration index (OH) were measured with Multifrequency bio-impedance (BCM). Overhydration was defined as OH/ECW>7%. Overhydration was also assessed using the ECW/TBW ratio. Macrocirculation was assessed by pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements while microcirculation through sublingual capillaroscopy assessment of the Perfused Boundary Region of the endothelial glycocalyx (PBR 5-25mcg). A panel of pro-inflammatory and vascular serum biomarkers and growth factors was analysed. Of 72 HD participants, 30 were in normohydration (N) range and 42 overhydrated according to the OH/ECW ratio. Average ECW/TBW was 0.48±0.03. Overhydrated patients had higher MAP (122.9±22.5 v 111.7±22.2mmHg, p = 0.04) and comorbidities (median Davies score 1.5 v 1.0, p = 0.03). PWV (p = 0.25) and PBR 5-25mcg (p = 0.97) did not differ between the 2 groups. However, Vascular Adhesion Molecule (VCAM)-1, Interleukin-6 and Thrombomodulin, and reduced Leptin were observed in the overhydrated group. Elevation in VCAM-1 levels (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.06; p = 0.02) showed a strong independent association with OH/ECW>7% in an adjusted logistic regression analysis and exhibited a strong linear relationship with ECW/TBW (Bata = 0.210, p = 0.03) in an also adjusted model. Extracellular fluid overload is significantly linked to microinflammation and markers of endothelial dysfunction. The study provides novel insight

  7. Association of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and diabetes in adults from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Tanika N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the association of biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in persons from Inner Mongolia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,536 people aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained to measure plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, sE-selectin, angiotensin II, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained staff. MetS was defined according to the modified ATP III definition for Asians. Elevated level of the biomarker was defined as values in the upper tertile of the distribution. Participants were categorized into one of four groups based on the presence or absence of metabolic and glycemic abnormalities: 1 free of prediabetes, diabetes and MetS (reference group, 2 prediabetes or diabetes only, 3 MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and 4 MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes. The multivariable models are adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, family history of hypertension, and body mass index. Results Among study participants, 18.5% had prediabetes, 3.6% had diabetes, and 27.4% of the entire study population had 3 or more components of the MetS. Elevated hsCRP was associated with an increased odds of prediabetes or diabetes only, MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals of 2.3 (1.7-3.1, 3.0 (2.4-3.8, and 5.8 (4.5-7.5, respectively. Elevated sICAM-1 was associated with increased odds (95% CI of prediabetes or diabetes only (2.1, 1.6-2.9 and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes (4.2, 3.2-5.3 but was not associated with MetS alone. Elevated sE-selectin was associated with a modestly increased risk of MetS (OR 1.7, 95

  8. Ethinylestradiol30μg-drospirenone and metformin: could this combination improve endothelial dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Ioana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are hereby investigating for the first time the effect of the association ethinylestradiol30μg-drospirenone 3mg (DRP/EE30μg plus metformin and weight loss on endothelial status and C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods 25 young women with PCOS (mean age 22.76 ± 0.83 years, body mass index (BMI: 28.44 ± 6.23 who completed the study were prospectively evaluated. The oral contraceptive- DRP/EE30μg (21 days/month and metformin (1700 mg daily were administered for 6 months to the PCOS group. Additionally, the 15 overweight and obese patients (BMI > 25 kg/m2 were instructed in a diet of no more than 1500 cal daily. Primary outcome measures were surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and included endothelial function, i.e. flow-mediated dilatation (FMD on the brachial artery and endothelin-1 levels, as well as hsCRP concentrations, body composition (measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry and insulin resistance. Variables were assessed at baseline, as well as after our medical intervention. Results The combination between DRP/EE30μg plus metformin combined with weight loss triggered a significant improvement in the FMD values (FMD-PCOSbasal 3.48 ± 1.00 vs FMD-PCOS6 months7.43 ± 1.04, p = 0.033, as well as body composition and insulin insensitivity (p 6months – PCOSbasal difference. Conclusion A 6-month course of metformin- DRP/EE30μg (associated with weight loss improves the endothelial dysfunction in PCOS and shows neutral effects on hsCRP concentrations as an inflammation marker. These data demand for reevaluation of the medical therapy in PCOS, particularly in women with additional metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01459445.

  9. Near infra-red light attenuates corneal endothelial cell dysfunction in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Osborne, Neville N

    2017-08-01

    In the present study mechanical damage to the corneal endothelium was induced by elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP, 140 mmHg, 60 min) to one eye of rats, delivered either in complete darkness or in the presence of red light (16.5 W/m2, 3000 lx, 625-635 nm). IOP raised in the dark revealed the endothelium to be damaged as staining for the gap junction protein ZO-1 was irregular in appearance with some cells displaced in position or lost to leave gaps or holes. This damage was clearly attenuated when red light was focused through the pupil during the insult of raised IOP. Moreover, staining of endothelium with JC-1 dye showed mitochondria to be activated by both elevated IOP and red light but the activation of mitochondria persisted longer for red light. We interpret this finding to suggest that raised IOP causes apoptosis of endothelial cells and that their mitochondria are activated in the initial stages of the process. In contrast, red light activates mitochondria to induce a protective mechanism to counteract the negative influence of raised IOP on endothelial cells. Evidence is provided to support this notion by the finding that red light stimulates mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase IV (COX IV). Moreover, mitochondria in corneal endothelial cell cultures are activated by red light, revealed by staining with JC-1, that results in an increased rate of proliferation and are also able to counteract toxic insults (sodium azide or cobalt chloride) to the cultures. The present studies therefore show that a non-toxic level of red light attenuates damage to the corneal endothelium both in situ and in vitro through action on COX IV located in mitochondria that results in an enhancement of a cell's survival mechanisms. The study provides proof of principle for the non-invasive use of red-light therapy to attenuate any dysfunctions associated with the corneal endothelium and so preserve maximum visual acuity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Features of endothelial dysfunction changes at patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on a background of various therapy// Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebrov А.Р.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigated endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, depending on different activity, duration of disease and different type of therapy. Methods. We examined 77 patients with SLE during 1 year. We administered puls therapy with high dose glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide in the 33 patients. 44 patients were given low dose steroids orally or hydroxychloroquine. We investigated the number of circulating endothelial cells in peripheral blood. Vasoactive function was assessed in reactive hyperemia test, antitrombogenic function with short-lived ischemia was examined. Results. Patients with SLE demonstrated endothelial damage, its antitrombogenic and vasodilatation function was reduced especially in high activity of disease. Pulse therapy improved endothelial function after 12-month treatment periods. The activity of the SLE decreased what was associated with reduced endothelial damage. Also vasodilatation function improved, but anticoagulant activity was without changes. Conclusion. It is necessary to administer pulse therapy according to the right indication despite potential danger of steroids and cyclophosphamide on endothelial function. Probably pulse therapy should be used with vasoprotective drugs in order to improve anticoagulant function

  11. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sola, Srikanth; Mir, Muhammad Q S; Cheema, Faiz A; Khan-Merchant, Nadya; Menon, Rekha G; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Khan, Bobby V

    2005-01-01

    .... We evaluated the ability of irbesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, and lipoic acid, an antioxidant, to affect endothelial function and inflammation in patients with the metabolic syndrome...

  12. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with a greater depressive symptom score in a general elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Sloten, T T; Schram, Miranda T; Adriaanse, M C

    2014-01-01

    ), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble thrombomodulin and soluble endothelial selectin], LGI [C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, serum amyloid A, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and sICAM-1] and OxS (oxidized low density lipoprotein and MPO). Depressive symptoms......, in a population-based cohort study, the association between ED, LGI and OxS on the one hand and depressive symptoms on the other. METHOD: We used data from the Hoorn Study and determined biomarkers of ED [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1...... status, one standard deviation increase in the ED Z score was associated with a 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-3.1] higher CES-D score. Additional adjustments did not materially change this result. LGI and OxS were not associated with the CES-D score. CONCLUSIONS: ED, as quantified by an array...

  13. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  14. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Tomoji, E-mail: t-maeda@nichiyaku.ac.jp [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan); Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan); Nakajima, Toshihiro [Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjyuku, Shinjyuku, Tokyo, Tokyo, 160-8402 (Japan); Komano, Hiroto, E-mail: hkomano@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Yahaba-Cho, Shiwagun, Iwate, 028-3603 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. -- Highlights: •Herp interacts with NQO1. •NQO1 regulates Herp degradation.

  15. Endothelial and Perivascular Adipose Tissue Abnormalities in Obesity-Related Vascular Dysfunction: Novel Targets for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine

    2017-06-01

    The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT is in intimate contact with the vessel wall, hence affecting vascular function and structure. In lean individuals, PVAT exerts anticontractile and anti-inflammatory activities to protect the vasculature. In obesity, instead, these beneficial properties are lost and PVAT releases inflammatory mediators, promotes oxidative stress, and contributes to vascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms elicited by these outside-in signals include resistance to the vasodilator actions of insulin and activation of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. A number of adipokines and gut hormones, which are important modulators of food intake, energy balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, have also positive vascular actions. This feature makes them promising tools for targeting both the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity, a view supported by recent large-scale clinical trials indicating that novel drugs for type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular potential may translate into clinically significant benefits. There is, therefore, real hope that unleashing the power of fat- and gut-derived substances might provide effective dual-action therapies for obesity and its complications.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation predict development of diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F.; Rossing, P.; Hovind, P.

    2008-01-01

    molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and AGE peptides. Mean standard deviation scores (Z-scores) were used to combine biomarker information. RESULTS: In a Cox enter model with combined Z-scores for biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (vWf, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, s......E-selectin) and for biomarkers of inflammation (hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen), endothelial dysfunction (hazard ratio for a 28 % increase ( = 1 SD) in Z-score) 3.20 (1.56 to 6.56), p = 0.001) and UAER (HR for a 75 % increase ( = 1 SD) in UAER) 2.61 (1.30 to 5.23), p = 0.007) were found as independent predictors. Independently, IL-6...

  17. Tissue-specific up-regulation of arginase I and II induced by p38 MAPK mediates endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernow, J; Kiss, A; Tratsiakovich, Y; Climent, B

    2015-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a selective up-regulation of arginase I in diabetes causing coronary artery disease; however, the mechanisms behind this up-regulation are still unknown. Activated p38 MAPK has been reported to increase arginase II in various cardiovascular diseases. We therefore tested the role of p38 MAPK in the regulation of arginase I and II expression and its effect on endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Endothelial function was determined in septal coronary (SCA), left anterior descending coronary (LAD) and mesenteric (MA) arteries from healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats by wire myographs. Arginase activity and protein levels of arginase I, II, phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-endothelial NOS (eNOS) (Ser(1177) ) were determined in these arteries from diabetic and healthy rats treated with a p38 MAPK inhibitor in vivo. Diabetic SCA and MA displayed impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by arginase and p38 MAPK inhibition while LAD relaxation was not affected. Arginase I, phospho-p38 MAPK and eNOS protein expression was increased in diabetic coronary arteries. In diabetic MA, however, increased expression of arginase II and phospho-p38 MAPK, increased arginase activity and decreased expression of eNOS were observed. All these effects were reversed by p38 MAPK inhibition. Diabetes-induced activation of p38 MAPK causes endothelial dysfunction via selective up-regulation of arginase I expression in coronary arteries and arginase II expression in MA. Therefore, regional differences appear to exist in the arginase isoforms contributing to endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: role of endothelial progenitor cells and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun Ting; Wang, Mei; Siu, Chung Wah; Hou, Ying Long; Wang, Tian; Tse, Hung Fat; Yiu, Kai Hang

    2012-12-05

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are responsible for angiogenesis and maintenance of microvascular integrity, the number of EPCs is correlated with oxidative stress. Their relation to myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is nonetheless unknown. Eighty-seven patients with T2DM and no history of coronary artery disease were recruited. Transthoracic echocardiography and detailed evaluation of left ventricular (LV) systolic function by 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking derived strain analysis in 3 orthogonal directions was performed. Four subpopulations of EPCs, including CD34+, CD133+, CD34+/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) + and CD133+/KDR + EPCs, were measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). The mean age of the patients was 62 ± 9 years and 39.6% were male. Those with an impaired longitudinal strain had a lower number of CD34+ EPCs (2.82 ± 1.87% vs. 3.74 ± 2.12%, P oxidative stress.

  19. Endothelial dysfunction in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis: Participation of nitric oxide and cycloxygenase-2-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Paula; Herrera, Bruno Schneider; de Jesus, Flavia Neto; Napolitano, Mauro; Teixeira, Simone Aparecida; Maia-Dantas, Aline; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Akamine, Eliana Hiromi; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; Costa, Soraia Katia Pereira; Muscara, Marcelo Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Considering the evident relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases in humans, we aimed to study the in vitro vascular reactivity of aorta rings prepared from rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. Seven days after the induction of unilateral periodontitis, the animals were euthanised; rings were prepared from the descending abdominal aortas and mounted in tissue baths for the in vitro measurement of the isometric force responses to norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh), as well as in the presence of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cycloxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. Aortic COX and NOS gene expressions were analysed by RT-PCR, as well as protein COX-2 expression by Western blot. Periodontitis resulted in significant alveolar bone loss and did not affect arterial pressure. However, both NE-induced contraction and ACh-induced relaxation were significantly decreased and related to the presence of endothelium. Diminished eNOS and augmented COX-2 and iNOS expressions were found in the aortas from rats with periodontitis, and the pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 or iNOS improved the observed vasomotor deficiencies. We can thus conclude that periodontitis induces significant endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta which is characterized by decreased eNOS expression and mediated by upregulated iNOS and COX-2 products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Levels of NT-proBNP, markers of low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction during spironolactone treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine; Schjoedt, Katrine J; Rossing, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    AND METHODS: The studies were double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies in 46 type 1 and 23 type 2 diabetic patients with micro- or macroalbuminuria treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and randomised to additional treatment...... significant.Discussions:Our results indicate that the renoprotective effect of spironolactone when added to RAAS blockade is not mediated through anti-inflammatory pathways since markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are not affected during treatment....

  1. Protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer against oxyhemoglobin-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, D; Weiler, D; Alam, J; Nath, K; Katusic, Z S

    2001-10-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of recombinant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression on endothelial function in cerebral arteries. Isolated canine basilar arteries were exposed ex vivo (30 minutes at 37 degrees C) to an adenoviral vector (10(10) PFU/mL, total volume 300 microL) encoding either the HO-1 gene (AdCMVHO-1) or the beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene (AdCMVbeta-Gal). Twenty-four hours after transduction, arterial rings were suspended in organ chamber for isometric force recording. Endothelium-dependent relaxations were obtained in response to bradykinin (10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L) during contraction to uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP; 3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-5) mol/L). Certain rings were incubated with oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb; 10(-5) mol/L) overnight (16 to 18 hours of 24 hours). Expression and localization of recombinant protein were shown by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin and endothelium-independent relaxation to forskolin (10(-9) to 10(-5) mol/L) and DEA-NONOate (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/L) were identical in beta-Gal- and HO-1-transduced arteries. Exposure to OxyHb caused impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation to bradykinin (P arteries expressing recombinant HO-1 ( P > 0.05). This protective effect of HO-1 was reversed by coincubation with tin protoporphyrin (SnPP9; 10(-5) mol/L), a selective inhibitor of HO-1 (P arteries, and that expression of recombinant HO-1 in cerebral arteries protects vasomotor function against OxyHb-induced injury.

  2. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 Mediates NOX1-Dependent eNOS Uncoupling, Endothelial Dysfunction, and COX2 Induction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji-Youn; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Hua

    2015-08-01

    We have recently shown that angiotensin II-mediated uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it has remained unclear whether and how eNOS uncoupling occurs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the consequences of such in regulating vascular function. Here we investigated a role of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4 in mediating eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in db/db mice. Circulating levels of BMP4 were markedly elevated in db/db mice but not in mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in which angiotensin II levels were significantly increased. Infusion of BMP4 antagonist noggin into db/db mice (15 μg/kg/day, 4 weeks) abolished eNOS uncoupling activity while restoring tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) bioavailability. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in db/db aortas was significantly improved by noggin infusion. Exposure of aortic endothelial cells to BMP4 (50 ng/mL, 24 hours) resulted in eNOS uncoupling, which was attenuated by H(4)B precursor sepiapterin or small interfering RNA silencing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase isoform 1 (NOX1). Interestingly, BMP4-dependent NOX1 up-regulation was abrogated by sepiapterin, implicating a NOX1-uncoupled eNOS-NOX1 feed-forward loop. BMP4 induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 was found in db/db mice. Consistently, COX2 was up-regulated by BMP4 in endothelial cells, which was attenuated by sepiapterin, implicating an upstream role of eNOS uncoupling in COX2-mediated inflammatory activation. Taken together, our data for the first time reveal a novel role of BMP4 in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling in T2DM, which may promote development of novel therapeutics restoring endothelial function in T2DM.

  3. Chronic intake of red wine polyphenols by young rats prevents aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance: role of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ros, Stéphanie; Zoll, Joffrey; Lang, Anne-Laure; Auger, Cyril; Keller, Nathalie; Bronner, Christian; Geny, Bernard; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-01-14

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance, which promote cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether chronic intake of red wine polyphenols (RWPs), a rich source of natural antioxidants, prevents aging-related impairment of vascular function and physical exercise capacity. Vascular reactivity from 12, 20 and 40 week-old rats was assessed in organ chambers. Rats received from week 16 to 40 either solvent, RWPs or the antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Aging was associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations, oxidative stress (dihydroethidine staining), and an upregulation of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase p22phox and nox1 subunits, and AT1 and AT2 receptors (assessed by immunohistochemistry) in the mesenteric artery. RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved aging-related decline in physical exercise. Thus, intake of RWPs protects against aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance. These effects likely involve the ability of RWPs to normalize oxidative stress and the expression of proteins involved in the formation of NO and the angiotensin II pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology, Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, and Synaptic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kyles, Philip; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-05-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) level is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). During transsulfuration pathways, Hcy is metabolized into hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a synaptic modulator, as well as a neuro-protective agent. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide, as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation, in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and synaptic dysfunction, leading to AD pathology is not clear. Therefore, we hypothesized that the inhibition of neuronal NMDA-R by H2S and MK801 mitigate the Hcy-induced BBB disruption and synapse dysfunction, in part by decreasing neuronal matrix degradation. Hcy intracerebral (IC) treatment significantly impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral circulation and memory function. Hcy treatment also decreases the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in the brain along with increased expression of NMDA-R (NR1) and synaptosomal Ca(2+) indicating excitotoxicity. Additionally, we found that Hcy treatment increased protein and mRNA expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 and also increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the brain. The increased expression of ICAM-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the decreased expression of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and claudin-5 indicates BBB disruption and vascular inflammation. Moreover, we also found decreased expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP-97), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), synaptophysin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) showing synapse dysfunction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NaHS and MK801 treatment ameliorates BBB disruption, CBF, and synapse functions in the mice brain. These results demonstrate a neuro-protective effect of H2S over Hcy

  5. Role of NAD(PH oxidase in superoxide generation and endothelial dysfunction in Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats as a model of nonobese NIDDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in diabetics, and it has a complex etiology that operates on several levels. Endothelial dysfunction and increased generation of reactive oxygen species are believed to be an underlying cause of vascular dysfunction and coronary artery disease in diabetes. This impairment is likely the result of decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO within the vasculature. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia per se stimulates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation in vascular tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study focused on whether NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide is elevated in vasculature tissue evoking endothelial/smooth muscle dysfunction in the hyperglycemic (169+/-4 mg% Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat. By dihydroethidine fluorescence staining, we determined that aorta superoxide levels were significantly elevated in 9 month-old GK compared with age matched Wistar (GK; 195+/-6%, Wistar; 100+/-3.5%. Consistent with these findings, 10(-6 mol/L acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the carotid artery was significantly reduced in GK rats compared with age matched Wistar (GK; 41+/-7%, Wistar; 100+/-5% and measurements in the aorta showed a similar trend (p = .08. In contrast, relaxation to the NO donor SNAP was unaltered in GK compared to Wistar. Endothelial dysfunction was reversed by lowering of superoxide with apocynin, a specific Nox inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The major findings from this study are that chronic hyperglycemia induces significant vascular dysfunction in both the aorta and small arteries. Hyperglycemic induced increases in NAD(PH oxidase activity that did not come from an increase in the expression of the NAD(PH oxidase subunits, but more likely as a result of chronic activation via intracellular signaling pathways.

  6. Association of the five gene related endothelial cell dysfunction polymorphisms with Buerger's disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudian, Mitra; Fazeli, Bahare; Sharebiani, Hiva; Rajabnejad, Atta'ollah; Ravari, Hassan; Akbarin, Mohammad M; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the polymorphisms of four genes related to vascular endothelium dysfunction on the development and outcome of Buerger's disease (BD). The genes studied were eNOS-786 T>C, eNOS894 G>T, ET-1 8000 T>C, PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE I/D. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment analysis were used to detect eNOS-786 T>C, eNOS894 G>T, ET-1 8000 T>C, PAI-1(4G/5G) and ACE(I/D) polymorphisms in 36 BD patients and 36 healthy individuals matched for race, age and gender. A decision tree for predicting BD was drawn using Rapidminer 5.3 software. The frequency of eNOS-T786C alleles was significantly different between the BD group and the healthy controls (PC (P=0.1). In logistic regression analysis, the C allele for eNOS-786 and 4G/4G for PAI-1 were significant for predicting BD. According to the decision tree, the proportion of the current gene-polymorphisms likely to develop BD was calculated as maximum 27.7%. It seems that eNOS-T786C, PAI-1(4G/5G) are important polymorphisms in developing BD. However, the decision tree might give confidence to the families of BD patients that if they maintain a healthy lifestyle, they may not develop BD.

  7. Aerobic exercise training protects against endothelial dysfunction by increasing nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizoni, Daniele M; Dorighello, Gabriel G; Oliveira, Helena C F; Delbin, Maria A; Krieger, Marta H; Davel, Ana P

    2016-07-19

    Endothelial dysfunction associated with hypercholesterolemia is an early event in atherosclerosis characterized by redox imbalance associated with high superoxide production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been demonstrated to ameliorate atherosclerotic lesions and oxidative stress in advanced atherosclerosis. However, whether AET protects against the early mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in familial hypercholesterolemia remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of AET on endothelial dysfunction and vascular redox status in the aortas of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr(-/-)), a genetic model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Twelve-week-old C57BL/6J (WT) and LDLr(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercised (AET on a treadmill 1 h/5 × per week) groups for 4 weeks. Changes in lipid profiles, endothelial function, and aortic NO, H2O2 and superoxide production were examined. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in sedentary and exercised LDLr(-/-) mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was impaired in aortas of sedentary LDLr(-/-) mice but not in the exercised group. Inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) activity or H2O2 decomposition by catalase abolished the differences in the acetylcholine response between the animals. No changes were noted in the relaxation response induced by NO donor sodium nitroprusside or H2O2. Neuronal NOS expression and endothelial NOS phosphorylation (Ser1177), as well as NO and H2O2 production, were reduced in aortas of sedentary LDLr(-/-) mice and restored by AET. Incubation with apocynin increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in sedentary, but not exercised LDLr(-/-) mice, suggesting a minor participation of NADPH oxidase in the endothelium-dependent relaxation after AET. Consistent with these findings, Nox2 expression and superoxide production were reduced in the aortas of exercised compared to

  8. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyc